Lines of Battle: Albuera 1811

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1 Lines of Battle: Albuera 1811 Version Copyright David Kershaw 1. Introduction Lines of Battle is a map-based wargame system to simulate Napoleonic-era battles. The game consists of: These rules A map Some counters You will also need two regular six-sided dice (referred to as D6 ) The Map The map is divided into Areas. Each Area can usually contain any number of units (of one side only), although Terrain can restrict the ability of units to enter an Area, their fighting ability, or even the number of units in the Area. Text in this part of the rules will be examples and alternative wordings to help grasp some rule concepts, including why they are there! The game may call for the use of a D3 - this is simply a random number between 1 and 3 generated by rolling a D6 and dividing the result by 2, rounding up: 1 or 2 gives 1; 3 or 4 gives 2; 5 or 6 gives 3. In this example, Albuera is a village and is close terrain. It is occupied by a British Infantry with a strength of 2. Another British Infantry is in Area 15, which is open terrain. Note the Approach between Areas 15 and 23, and also 16 and 24. There is no Approach between close terrain (Albuera) and open (Area 16). An Area can either be open, which represents open countryside, or close which represents woods/orchards or built-up areas. Borders between open Areas are marked with a thin rectangle, called the Approach. While any number of units can occupy the Area, only 1 Infantry unit of one side may occupy an Approach. The scenario will detail any terrain effects. The map will have a Turn track. This will indicate the maximum length of the game. There is also a Morale track. This is used to keep track of the two players morale points. Morale is gained or lost through combat or special scenario conditions. Morale above or below a threshold can end the game, as specified in the scenario. A French strength 3 Infantry is deployed in Area 16 on the Approach between Areas 15 and 16. Also in Area 16 is a Cavalry, with a strength of 4.

2 1.2. Units Sample Infantry: Each side has their own units. There are 3 basic types: Infantry : The mainstay of armies. When occupying the Approach they gain an advantage in combat. They may also form squares, which is advantageous against Cavalry (a special square counter is placed on the unit to indicate this). Cavalry : Mounted soldiers, they are more maneuverable than Infantry. There are 3 types of Cavalry: Heavy, Light, and Lancer. Heavy Cavalry are at an advantage in combat against other Cavalry. Light Cavalry are at a disadvantage attacking Infantry, while Heavy Cavalry and Lancers are not. Cavalry only have one formation, and Cavalry cannot occupy an Approach. Artillery : Represents cannons and howitzers. They are vulnerable to Infantry or Cavalry if undefended. Artillery are either Deployed (able to fire) or Limbered (have just moved, and cannot fire). Artillery cannot occupy an Approach. These 3 Infantry have the Rating on the left, so the first one has a rating of 2, and the others a rating of 3. The designations at the top are unit designations for historical interest, to aid scenario set-up/reinforcements, and (depending on optional rules) to determine which Leaders can be used with the unit. Sample Cavalry: All 3 types (Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery) can be placed in the Area, and there is no limit to the number allowed in an Area (although all must belong to the same side). However, an Approach can only ever be occupied by one Infantry. Infantry and Cavalry both have a Rating : This represents their staying power in combat. Most veteran/experienced units are 3, freshly raised/inexperienced are 2, while the worst are 1; the best veterans and most Guards are 4 or even 5. A unit s rating is reduced through Hits taken in combat and Artillery fire. Hits are indicated by placing a hit counter on the affected unit. A units Rating minus the Hits it has taken is called the unit s Strength. For example, a unit with a Rating of 3 that has taken 2 hits has a Strength of 1 (rating 3 minus hits of 2 = 1 strength). A unit with a Strength of zero (i.e. the number of hits on the unit is equal to its Rating) cannot initiate an attack. A unit that takes more hits than its Rating (i.e. strength is below zero) is eliminated ( routed ). Hits can be removed through Rallying - see section 4.1. Artillery do not have a rating - a single hit will eliminate Artillery. As can be seen, Cavalry are smaller than Infantry. Again, the Rating is on the left. The letters next to the rating show the type of Cavalry: H = Heavy Cavalry (top image) [none] = Lancers (middle image) L = Light Cavalry (lower image) Sample Artillery: Artillery are the smallest counter. Note Artillery do not have a rating.

3 2. A Turn Sample Counters: Each player performs the following phases, in order determined by the scenario. First, player 1 performs all 3 phases, then player 2 performs all 3 phases. Then it is a new Turn and the game turn marker is advanced one space. Admin Phase : Roll for number of Command Points (CPs), switch any Artillery from limbered to deployed (or vice versa), place reinforcements (if applicable). Command Phase : Spend CPs, one at a time to (in any order): Activate units in an Area (involving moving them, firing Artillery, combat) or Rally a single unit. Victory Phase : Check to see if the player has won (or lost). The above 3 images show some counters used. The one on the left is used to show Artillery that is limbered. The middle one is used to show the number of hits on a unit (in this case, two hits). The one on the right is used to indicate an Infantry unit has gone into Square formation. 3. Admin Phase The player may change any of their own Artillery from Limbered to Deployed, or from Deployed to Limbered. Any markers or other devices used to indicate which of the player s units moved/rallied/etc last turn should be removed. If the scenario specifies reinforcements or other events, this is done now. Finally, the player rolls a D3 to generate the number of Command Points (CPs). The roll may be modified by the scenario being played (see scenario for details). You may wish, by prior agreement, to skip Artillery limbering/deploying and incorporate it into the Activation portion of the Command phase. Note that deployed Artillery can still be moved (but become limbered). Command Points are a key method by which command & control is simulated. Essentially, they simulate the fact that in a Napoleonic army, not every unit moved all the time. Indeed, in most battles, some units never moved at all! 4. Command Phase The two actions a player may spend CPs on are detailed below: Rally. Activate. The key things to remember are that in a single turn, a single unit cannot be activated more than once, not can a single unit be both rallied and activated. Note the following: Actions may be performed in any order. The same unit (Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery) cannot perform more than one Action per turn.

4 4.1. Rally Select a single unit with one or more hits on it and remove one hit from the unit. Units on an Approach cannot be rallied. Units that have been eliminated cannot be rallied. Note that Infantry in square may be rallied. A unit that has been rallied cannot perform any other actions this turn. Rallying is an expensive use of CPs. It reflects the considerable difficulty and time taken to reorganise a unit which has been in combat: replacing blown/injured horses; replenishing ammunition; replacing fowled/blocked/damaged muskets; re-appointing leaders to replace injured; gathering troops into correct units and formation; etc. etc. One exception is that a Cavalry which rallied can still potentially be involved in a Cavalry charge Activate Select a single Area containing one or more of your own units. Activation is the localised initiative of the commander (you!) to get the units in an Area to do something. All the units in this Area are now Activated, excepting the following: Units which have rallied that turn. Units which have moved into the Area (either through movement or retreat). Activated units may move together as a Group or individually. Artillery may fire or move. If units enter an Area with enemy units, Combat will happen. All of this can be in any order desired, but no unit can be moved more than once this turn One exception is that a Cavalry which moved can still potentially be involved in a Cavalry charge Firing Artillery Valid Artillery is all Deployed Artillery in an Area that have been Activated through an expenditure of a CP. Each valid Artillery can fire once at a single valid target. Different Artillery may fire at different targets. Targets may be fired at once at a time (i.e. to see effect, between Artillery shots). A valid target is any single unit of Infantry, Cavalry or Artillery in an adjacent Area, including any infantry in the Area which are on the Approach. Units do not block line of sight, but terrain might (see scenario details). Only deployed Artillery may fire. Once it has fired, it cannot then be moved. It may still fire defensively if attacked in the other player s go. Activated Artillery could be moved instead of firing. An Area 2 Areas away (i.e. next to the Adjacent Area) can only be targeted if the Artillery is on a vantage point (usually a hill - see scenario for details). A target further away can never be targeted.

5 For each Artillery unit firing, roll a single D6, applying the following modifiers: +1 if the target is in Square formation. -1 if the target is Infantry on the Approach. -1 if the target is deployed Artillery. On a modified roll of 3 or less, there is no effect. On a modified roll of 4 or 5, the target must take 1 hit or retreat. On a modified roll of 6 or greater, the target must take 1 hit and then either take a second hit or else retreat. Retreat is to any adjacent Area free of enemy units into which the unit could normally move. In addition a retreating Artillery must now be Limbered. If the retreating unit was Infantry on the Approach, it can only retreat to the Area the Approach belongs to. If Artillery fire eliminates a unit, then the owning player loses morale as per combat. There is no morale loss for retreating as a result of Artillery fire Move Any or all of the Activated units in an Area can be moved. They can be moved individually or as a Group of more than one unit (still called a Group for brevity). This can be done in any order, until all units have moved. Note that it is not mandatory to move any/all units in an Activated Area. Groups can move to different or the same Areas, as desired. Units on an Approach can only be part of a Group if the first move of the Group is to the Area which the Approach faces. If a Group attempts to enter an enemy Area, combat is triggered. Combat must be fully resolved before the next Group is moved. Different units have different movement allowances : Cavalry = 4 movement points Infantry = 3 movement points Artillery = 3 movement points For all units, a movement from one area to another costs 1 movement point. Terrain may affect movement - check the scenario for details. Squares were denser and therefore an attractive target. Lines, the opposite. Artillery s power comes not just in causing damage, but also in forcing the enemy to retreat from its fire. Artillery can therefore force a unit on the Approach to either retire to its Area or suffer hits. If firing further than the adjacent Area (see scenario to see if possible), the unit cannot retreat to an Area closer to the Artillery. For example: An Area A contains 2 Cavalry and a limbered Artillery. There is an Infantry x on an Approach facing Area B, and an Infantry y on an Approach facing Area C. The following Groups are possible: For a Move to Area B: Any combination of the Cavalry, Artillery, and Infantry x For a move to Area C: Any combination of the Cavalry, Artillery, and Infantry y Also, the Infantry on their own can be can be designated as a single unit group for the purpose of moving them off the Approach to Area A. NB: The above examples are just the initial moves of each Group. Movement points permitting, each group could move further. Example of movement:

6 For Infantry, a move to or from an Approach to the same Area costs 1 movement point. A movement from the Approach of one Area to the adjacent Area also costs 1 movement point. Infantry may also form Square (a formation against Cavalry). It costs 1 movement point to move into or out of Square. Infantry on the Approach cannot form square. Only Infantry in Open terrain may form square. A square costs +1 movement point to move (squares can attack). A square that moves (or is forced to move) to close terrain, or onto the Approach is no longer in square. During movement, units can be dropped off, but other units cannot be picked up - this means that a group of units containing Infantry, Cavalry and Artillery can move two Areas, drop off the Artillery, move a third Area, drop off the Infantry, and then finally the Cavalry move to a fourth Area. It costs 1 additional movement point to attempt to enter an Area occupied by enemy units - this triggers Combat (see below) with the Group as the Attackers. Only units with a strength of 1 or greater can be in a Group that Attacks. Artillery that moves is assumed to be limbered. However, you may spend one movement point to deploy it. Artillery which uses a movement point to deploy cannot fire in the owning player s go, but could potentially fire defensively if attacked in the next player s go. Area A contains 3 Infantry, 1 Cavalry and 1 Artillery. There are two adjacent areas: Area B contains enemy units, Area C does not. The player declares all units are a single Group. There are several options now: All units could move to Area C - the Artillery would then be limbered.. One or more Infantry could form square, and then be either left in the Area A while the rest move to Area C, or else all units move to Area C. This would use all 3 movement points of any Infantry forming square, so if the Group continued to move beyond Area C, the Infantry in square would have to be dropped off. Announce that Area B is to be attacked, triggering Combat. For example, an Artillery could move 1 or 2 Areas and then deploy, or else move 3 Areas and remain limbered. This allows Artillery to be moved up ready to defend against a potential attack. 5. Combat Combat is where a Group (or individual unit) is ordered to move into an Area that is occupied by the enemy. Note that only Infantry and Cavalry can do this, and all units must have a strength of 1 or greater. Remember that a move into Combat costs 1 extra movement point (which means that Infantry can only move to attack a maximum of 2 Areas away, while for Cavalry it is 3). Combat will end the movement of all units in the Group this turn. Overview of combat: Pre-combat (happens once): Attacker nominates a Lead unit. Defender nominates a Lead unit. Defender may retreat before combat, but may take losses. This ends combat. Very simply: nominate, retreat before combat, Artillery, feint, combat roll, retreat. If it s all over, check for a Cavalry charge or it s back to combat roll.

7 Defensive Artillery fire. Attacker may declare a Feint. This ends combat. Combat round (may happen one or more times in a single combat): Combat roll: Each player rolls one D6 and applies their modifiers. Apply hits based on the roll. Voluntary retreats of any/all units: First the Attacker, then the Defender. Defender may replace Lead unit with a Cavalry unit. If both sides still have units left, return to Combat roll and repeat until one side is entirely eliminated and/or retreats. Post-combat (happens once): Apply morale changes. Winner may launch Cavalry Charge Pre-Combat Pre-combat sets up the forces for the combat, and may even result in the end of the Combat process Declare Lead Units First Attacker, and then the Defender declare a Lead unit. The Lead unit is the one whose strength will be used in the combat roll. There are restrictions on which unit may be chosen as the Lead unit: For the Attacker, the Lead unit must be the one on the Approach facing the Defender. If there is no such unit (or it is not in the Group) then any unit may be chosen. For the Defender, the order of priority to pick a Lead unit is as follows: 1. The unit on the Approach facing the Attacker. 2. Any Infantry not in square, or any Cavalry in the Area. 3. Any Infantry in square. 4. Any Infantry on an Approach not facing the Attacker (this unit must be placed in the Area, and immediately takes 1 hit ). These restrictions are important as they emphasise the importance of the Approach. Squares are low down in the priority for Defenders to nominate to prevent a Defender having one unit in square and nominating it against any cavalry attack in preference to other units - an absurdity since the attacking cavalry would attack any other target in preference to the square! IMPORTANT : Throughout the entire combat process there must always be a nominated Lead unit. If either side loses its Lead unit for whatever reason (retreat or eliminated) then a new one must be immediately nominated. If this happens simultaneously to both the Attacker and Defender, the Attacker nominates first.

8 If there is only Artillery in the Area being attacked, then it cannot be nominated, and it fire (unless limbered) and then retreat (assuming its fire doesn t stop the attacker) Retreat Before Combat The Defender may retreat all their units before combat. Units may retreat to any Area free of enemy units, excepting the one that the Attacker is coming from. They need not all retreat to the same Area. Retreating Infantry in square remains in square, unless it retreats to close terrain. All units on any Approach not facing the Attacker take 1 hit when retreating. Any Cavalry retreating to Close terrain take 1 hit. The Lead unit retreating takes 1 hit, which may be increased and/or decreased as follows: +1 hit if the Lead Attacker is Cavalry. -1 hit if the Lead Defender is Cavalry. Each Artillery rolls a D6, modified as follows: +2 if Limbered. -2 if Lead Attacker is Cavalry. -2 if retreating to Close terrain. Retreat before combat is harder if you are being attacked by cavalry. Conversely, a Defender with cavalry assigned as their Lead unit can have their retreat casualties reduced. Units caught on the wrong Approach are effectively outflanked, which is why they suffer a hit. Examples: Defender s Lead unit is Infantry, Attacker s Lead unit is Cavalry - the Defender s Lead unit takes 2 hits. Defender s Lead unit is Cavalry, Attacker s Lead unit is Infantry- the Defender s Lead unit takes no hits. Artillery forced to retreat is at some risk - increased if being forced to retreat by cavalry, but reduced if it is limbered (i.e. it is ready to move out)! On a modified roll of 3 or less, the Artillery is eliminated. On a modified roll of 4 or more, the Artillery retreats to the chosen Area and if deployed is changed to limbered. The Attackers must all occupy the Defender s Area. The Lead Attacker takes 1 hit (exception: if there were only Artillery units in the Defender s Area then the Lead Attacker does not take this hit). Retreat before combat ends the Combat process Defensive Artillery Deployed Artillery in the Defender s Area may fire at the Attackers, as per (Firing Artillery). Defensive Artillery may target any of the Attacking units. The Lead Attacker taking a hit represents the disruption the unit takes in driving off the enemy. Obviously the defender can only retreat if there is somewhere to retreat to! Accounts of Napoleonic battles often mention attacks being broken up by Artillery fire. Reminder: of Artillery fire: +1 if the target is in Square formation -1 if the target is in Line formation (i.e. Infantry on the Approach)

9 If the hit Attacking unit chooses to, or has to retreat then it is placed back in the Area it came from (if this is an Attacking unit moving from the Approach, it is no longer on the Approach but in the Area). It is possible that Defensive Artillery may result in all Attackers being either eliminated or retreating back to the Area they came from. This will end the Combat process. If there are only Artillery in the Defender s Area, and there are still Attackers left, then these Artillery must now retreat as per Above (note that the Lead Attacker does not take a hit when the Attackers occupy the Defender s Area). On a modified roll of 3 or less, there is no effect. On a modified roll of 4 or 5, the target must take 1 hit or retreat. On a modified roll of 6 or greater, the target must take 1 hit and then must either take a second hit or retreat. It may be the case that not all defensive Artillery get to fire because all Attackers have retreated Feint If the Lead Defender is Infantry then the Attacker may declare that the Attack was just a feint. In this case, all Attackers are placed in the Area they came from (i.e. if any Attacking unit was moving from the Approach, it is no longer on the Approach but in the Area). If the Lead Attacker was Infantry then the Lead Defender must be placed on the approach facing the Area the Attackers came from (if there is one, otherwise it is placed in the Area). If the Lead Attacker was Cavalry then the Lead Defender must either occupy the Approach facing the Area the Attackers came from or else form square. The feint is an important tactic. Effectively it can be used to pull the enemy Infantry out of formation for an attack from another direction. It is especially brutal when used to force a unit from Approach to Approach, each time taking a hit. A feint will end the Combat process Combat Round This is the actual combat where the Lead units fight each other, which may result in units being eliminated and one side or the other may retreat. This is where the fighting happens. It could result in a quick decision, or else it could be a marathon slaughter as neither side wants to (or dares to) back down. Numerous combat rounds may be fought until one side or the other has no units left The Combat Roll Each side rolls a D6 modified as follows (using only the Lead unit when determining modifiers): a. Add the Lead unit s strength. Light cavalry are not intended for combat (unless at a major advantage), hence their penalty.

10 b. Infantry get +1 against Light Cavalry. c. Heavy Cavalry get +1 against Lancers or Light Cavalry. d. Infantry get +1 if they are in the Approach (first roll only for the Attacker, every roll for the Defender). e. Infantry in square get +4 against Cavalry. f. Infantry not in square get +1 against Infantry in square. g. Defending against an Attacker coming from close terrain (whether to open or close terrain) +1 (first roll only). h. Infantry against Cavalry in close terrain get +2. The winner is the player with the highest modified roll. In the case of a draw, the winner is the Defender. If the winning Lead unit is Cavalry then make a note of the difference between the modified rolls. Units then take hits as follows: Infantry versus Infantry: Loser takes 1 hit. Winner takes no hits. Cavalry versus Infantry: If the Cavalry win then the Infantry take the difference between the modified rolls in hits (minimum of 1 hit) and the Cavalry takes 1 hit. If the Infantry win then the Cavalry takes 2 hits and the Infantry takes 1 hit. Cavalry versus Cavalry: The loser take the difference between the modified rolls in hits (minimum of 1 hit) and the winner takes 1 hit. NB - in the above, treat Cavalry as Infantry for determining hits if the Area being Attacked is Close Terrain Note that Heavy cavalry and Lancers do not have the penalty against Infantry, and also that Heavy cavalry get a bonus against both Light cavalry and Lancers The main advantage is for an Attacker/Defender on the Approach, since this indicates that they are prepared and in the correct formation for the combat. Defender wins a draw. Cavalry have the potential to inflict ruinous casualties on the loser, as befits their historical impact. On the other hand, they will always suffer a hit, even if victorious, which represents their fragility as a weapon. On the other other hand whether Cavalry win or lose, they will inflict a hit, which could very much help a following unit Attacker Retreats The Attacker may optionally retreat the Lead unit and any other units they desire. Infantry must retreat back the the Area the Attack came from (the Lead unit is no longer on the Approach, if it started there). Cavalry may retreat to any Area free of enemy units adjacent to the Defender s Area, but take 1 hit if this is Close terrain. If all Attackers retreat then, as in a Feint, if the Lead Defender was an Infantry unit, then this unit is placed on the Approach facing the Area the Attackers came from (if there is one). Exception: If the Lead Attacker was Cavalry, the Lead Defender may optionally form Square instead. This represents the Attacker breaking off the attack. Either entirely, or just to replace an exhausted Lead unit with a fresh unit. While Infantry go back from whence they came, Cavalry have the option to retreat in any direction, which represents their ability to burst though an enemy (such as at Eylau) Defender Retreats The Defender retreating is more risky, and carries the same penalties as

11 The Defender may optionally retreat the Lead unit and any other units they desire. mentioned earlier in retreat before combat. This process is exactly the same as (Retreat before combat) with the important exception that the Attacker will not occupy the Area if not all units retreat. Note that if there are only Artillery left in the Defender s Area then these must retreat and the Lead Attacker does not take a hit when the Attackers occupy the Defender s Area. If all Defenders retreat (or are all eliminated) then all surviving Attackers are placed in the Defender s Area. If there is no valid retreat, then Artillery is simply eliminated. Capturing an Area in combat is important as it will increase morale Defender Replaces Lead Unit The Defender may optionally replace the Lead unit with any Cavalry unit in the Area with a strength of 1 or greater. The replaced unit is not retreated. If the replaced unit is the infantry on the Approach, place it in the Area - it is no longer on the Approach This gives the Defender the chance to throw in some Cavalry to disrupt the Attacker - remembering that Cavalry will always inflict a hit, even if they lose Check to see if there is another Combat Round If both sides still have Infantry and/or Cavalry in the Area (including on any Approach) then return to and repeat the steps to again. This means that combat rounds continue until one side or the other has won control of the Area. If one side or the other has retreated and/or been eliminated then the side in control of the Area is the winner and proceed to the Post-combat stage Post-Combat Each side gains/loses morale points as follows: For each eliminated unit, lose morale points equal to the unit s rating. Eliminated Artillery = 1 morale point. If the Attacker now occupies the Defender s Area then they gain 1 morale point unless the Defender was purely cavalry that retreated before combat. If the combat proceeded past the Pre-Combat stage and the Winner has any Cavalry units with a strength of 1 or more, these may launch a Cavalry Charge. This is entirely optional. For example, an infantry unit with a rating of 3 is eliminated (suffers 4 hits). The owning player loses 3 morale. Cavalry were intended to retreat before combat, so this action does not have a morale penalty Note that only the winner in a combat that proceeded to dice rolls may Cavalry Charge

12 Cavalry Charge This is where the winner (i.e. combat proceeded past the Pre-Combat stage) may launch any Cavalry at the enemy. Note that this is only done by the winner of the Combat, which could be either the Defender or the Attacker from the Combat. A Cavalry Charge is an opportunistic attack - a breakthrough for the Attacker, or a counter-attack for the Defender. As such, the target area has no time to react: There is no chance to retreat before combat. There is no Artillery fire. There is no feint. It is straight to the action! Any Cavalry units with a strength of 1 or more in the Area where the combat took place may be used. The player may select any number of these. The Cavalry must attack as a Group against any single adjacent enemy Area. This is treated as a standard combat, excepting that there is no pre-combat round, excepting nomination of Lead units. It may result in another Cavalry charge by either the same units or the opponent! Since Cavalry always suffer a hit in combat, there is a finite limit to the number of Cavalry charges! After each Cavalry Charge, morale points may be gained or lost as per standard Post combat. If the player whose Command Phase it is has units attacked by a Cavalry Charge that have not yet been activated, those units cannot be activated this turn. This is an important strategy - a Cavalry charge can be used to mess up the opponents preparations. 6. Victory Phase Each side checks to see if either has won. The scenario being played will specify this, but it will usually be the reaching of a morale threshold and/or capture of specific terrain. If it is the end of a specific turn, then that may also trigger the end of the game. If neither side has won then play switches to the other player. If this is back to the first player then it is also a new turn. 7. Optional Rules Any of these may be used either individually or in any combination required.

13 7.1. Leaders Leaders are an optional counter type. They are used as the focal point where CPs are spent. Leaders will usually only be able to use CPs on certain units, which may or may not be all the units in an Area. In the Command Phase, CPs can only be spent in an Area which contains a Leader. Instead of all the units in the Area being activated, only the Leader and those units the Leader is allowed to command are activated. The Leader s movement allowance is 4. Leader s movements are restricted as follows: A Leader may not enter an enemy occupied Area, unless that Area is only occupied by a lone enemy Leader. A Leader always uses the lowest terrain penalty when moving. A Leader may be included in an Attack. It does not count as a Combat unit and cannot be allocated as a Lead unit, simply retreating if it is the only unit left. Leaders may join a Cavalry charge. Leaders that are alone in an Area do not restrict enemy movements, whether retreats or deliberate movement. If an enemy unit enters an area with a Lone leader, that Leader is moved to any free Area - if there is no such Area then the Leader is removed from the game as captured. Leaders may take a Leader Loss Roll in the following situations: The Leader is involved in combat that proceeds beyond the pre-combat phase (either as Attacker or Defender). A Leader is in an Area where a unit suffers a hit from Artillery fire. A Leader is alone in an Area that is entered by an enemy unit for whatever reason Leader Loss Roll Roll a D6, if the roll is a 1, roll again and check the result below:

14 1 = Leader is killed - remove from the game. 2 = Leader is badly wounded - remove from the game (if you want to know the Leader s fate then roll again, on a 1 or 2 = Leader dies, 3 or 4 = Leader invalided home, 5 or 6 = Leader recovers some days/weeks later). 3 = Leader slightly wounded, move Leader 1 Area away (if this is not possible due to enemy units, the Leader is captured - remove from the game). 4-6 = No effect Leader Attributes This is also optional, and is purely to give Leaders a bit more colour. A Leader may be assigned none, one, or more than one of the following attributes, as fits their historical behaviour: Fat : Reduce Leader s movement to 3. Obese : Reduce Leader s movement to 2. Fine Rider : Leader may command their own Area or any adjacent Area with open terrain. Wanderer : In each of the Leader s player s Admin phase roll a D6. On a roll of 1 remove the Leader from the game, on a roll of 2 your opponent moves the Leader 1 Area of their choice, on a roll of 3 or more, no effect. Imbecile : Costs 2 CP to Activate. Inspiring : Gives +1 to the player s first combat roll. Demoralising : Gives +1 to the opposing player s first combat roll. Foaming : May not Feint or Retreat either before or during combat. Foolhardy : Is affected by a Leader Loss Roll on a 1 or 2. Fearful : Will always retreat after the first round of combat with at least 1 other unit. Artilleryman : One Artillery gets a +1 when firing. Marcher : Units get +1 movement. Disorganised : Units get -1 movement. Feel free to design your own! Light Cavalry By prior agreement, Light Cavalry may be activated without the need for a Leader.

15 7.2. Artillery Types Horse Artillery Horse Artillery receives a +1 to any retreat rolls. If they retreat before combat with a purely Cavalry force, or on their own, then the Attacker does not get a morale point for taking the Area. It is able to move 1 movement point AND fire. A roll of 6+ in firing is treated the same as a roll of 4 or 5 - i.e. target takes 1 hit OR retreats. At a range of greater than 1 Area, there is a -1 modifier to hit Heavy Artillery Heavy Artillery receives a -1 to any retreat rolls. A roll of 5+ in firing is treated the same as a roll of 6 - i.e. target takes 1 hit AND must either take a further hit or retreat Rockets Rockets only hit on a modified roll of 5 or greater. A hit by rockets and target must take 2 hits OR retreat. The main rules cater for the standard foot Artillery. These rules cater for other types of Artillery. Mobile horse Artillery lacked the punch of heavier Artillery, if not the accuracy - excepting at longer ranges. This represents the 12 pounders - such as Napoleon s Beautiful daughters. Not very accurate, but terrifying to the target. This is why failing to retreat inflicts 2 hits instead of the usual one.

16 Lines of Battle - Quickplay sheet TURN ORDER : First Player 1 and then Player 2 does all below: 1. Admin Phase: Artillery are limbered/deployed. Roll D3 for Command points (CPs) 2. Command Phase: use command points to: a. Rally a single unit (unit can only be rallied once per turn & not on Approach) = removes 1 hit. b. Activate units in Area to move/artillery fire. 3. Victory Phase: Check for Victory! Movement : Only active units can be moved. Units starting in same Area can be moved together, including unit on Approach if it faces Area the move is to. Moving into an enemy Area initiates Combat. Instead of moving, deployed Artillery may fire. Movement rates : Infantry & Artillery = 3; Cavalry = 4. Costs +1 to move into an Area occupied by enemy. Costs 1 to form/unform square. Costs 1 to move from Area to Approach or vice versa. Costs 1 to deploy Artillery Artillery Fire Roll D6 +1 to roll if targeting a square. -1 if targeting Infantry on Approach or Deployed Artillery. 3 or less = miss 4/5 = target takes a hit or retreats 6+ = target takes a hit. The target then takes a 2nd hit or retreats Retreats in Combat: Lead Attacker takes 1 hit. Lead Defender takes 1 hit: +1 hit if Lead Attacker = Cavalry -1 hit if Lead Defender = Cavalry Lone Artillery. Roll D6: +2 if limbered, -2 if Lead Attacker is Cavalry, -2 if to close terrain. Survives on roll of 4+ (now limbered); otherwise eliminated. All Cavalry retreating to close terrain take 1 hit. Retreating Artillery is now limbered. COMBAT PROCESS : Attackers declared: Must all be strength 1 or more. First Attacker, then the Defender declare Lead unit. This must be the unit on the Approach attack is across (if any). Defender order of priority is then: Infantry or Cavalry in Area not in square Infantry in Area in square Infantry on different approach (is placed in Area and takes 1 hit) Defender retreat before combat: will cause hit(s). Defensive deployed Artillery fires. Attacker may declare feint if Lead Defender is Infantry: Infantry forced onto Approach, unless Lead Attacker was Cavalry in which case can form square instead. If only Artillery in Area, these must retreat. Both sides roll D6 modified as follows: + Unit Strength (rating minus hits) +1 if on Approach (first roll only for Attacker) +1 Heavy Cavalry versus Light/Lancers +1 Infantry versus Light Cavalry +1 Infantry versus Infantry in square +4 Infantry in square versus Cavalry +1 versus Attacker coming from close terrain (first roll only) +2 Infantry versus Cavalry in close terrain Winner is highest roll (Defender in a draw): Inf vs. Inf: Loser takes 1 hit. Winner no hits. Inf vs. Cav: If Cav win, Inf takes difference in dice rolls hits, while Cav take 1 hit. If Inf win then Cav take 2 hits and Inf take 1. Cav vs. Cav: Winner takes 1 hit. Loser takes the difference between the dice rolls (at least 1) hits. Cavalry count as Infantry in Close Terrain. First Attacker, then the Defender decides whether to retreat units (must include Lead unit). Defender may replace Lead unit with Cavalry. If units on both sides left - return to D6 rolls. If Combat over, winner s Cavalry may launch Cavalry Charge (strength 1+ only): Any single adjacent Area. No Artillery. No Feint. No Retreat before combat. Morale: +1 if capture an Area in combat (not if there was Retreat before combat) -Rating if unit is eliminated (routed). Artillery = 1.

17 Albuera 1811 Setup The Allied forces set up first, as detailed below. Then the French set up. Note that Leaders are optional. The French move first in each turn. Both sides start with 10 morale points. 1. Allied Forces Leader: Beresford - Can command any British or Portuguese unit Leader: Blake - Can command any Spanish unit Army reserve: British KGL Brigade (Alten) = Strength 2 Infantry (Albuera) 2nd Portuguese Brigade (Collins) = Strength 2 Infantry (Area 4) 5th Army, 1st Spanish Division (de Espana) = Strength 1 Infantry (Area 3) 5th Army, Spanish Cavalry Division (Penne-Villemur) = Strength 1 Light Cavalry (Area 28) 2nd British Division Leader: Stewart - Can command any unit of 2nd British Division 1st British Brigade (Colborne) = Strength 3 Infantry (Area 10) 2nd British Brigade (Abercrombie) = Strength 3 Infantry (Area 10) 3rd British Brigade (Houghton) = Strength 3 Infantry (Area 10) British Artillery (Area 10) 4th British Division Leader: Cole - Can command any unit of 4th British Division 2nd British Fusilier Brigade (Myers) = Strength 3 Infantry (Area 3) 9th Portuguese Brigade (Harvey) = Strength 3 Infantry (Area 3) Portuguese Division Leader: Hamilton - Can command any unit of the Portuguese Division 2nd Portuguese Brigade (Fonseca) = Strength 2 Infantry (Area 4) 4th Portuguese Brigade (Campbell) = Strength 2 Infantry (Area 4) Portuguese Artillery (Area 4) British Cavalry Division Leader: Lumley- Can command any unit of the Cavalry Division British Heavy Brigade (de Grey) = Strength 3 Heavy Cavalry (Area 15) Portuguese Brigade (Otway) = Strength 2 Light Cavalry (Area 6) British 13th Light Dragoons (Head) = Strength 1 Light Cavalry (Area 32)

18 Spanish 4th Expeditionary Army Corps Vanguard (Lardizabel) = Strength 2 Infantry (Area 23) 3rd Division - 1st Spanish Brigade = Strength 1 Infantry (Area 23) 3rd Division - 2nd Spanish Brigade = Strength 1 Infantry (Area 23) 4th Army Spanish Cavalry Division (Loy) = Strength 1 Light Cavalry (Area 28) 4th Spanish Division Leader: Zayas - Can command any unit of the 4th Spanish Division 1st Spanish Brigade (Murgeon) = Strength 3 Infantry (Area 14) 2nd Spanish Brigade (Polo) = Strength 2 Infantry (Area 14) 2. French Forces Leader: Soult - Can command any unit. Leader: Gazan - Can command any Infantry or Artillery unit. Army reserve Grenadiers (Vare) = Strength 2 Infantry (Area 72) Artillery (Area 72) V Corps Leader: Girard - Can command any unit of V Corps 1st Division (Leader is Girard who was also V Corps commander) 1st Brigade (Brayer) = Strength 3 Infantry (Area 75) 2nd Brigade (Veilande) = Strength 3 Infantry (Area 75) Artillery (Area 75) 2nd Division Leader: Pepin, can command any unit of 2nd Division 1st Brigade (Pepin) = Strength 2 Infantry (Area 75) 2nd Brigade (Maransin) = Strength 3 Infantry (Area 75) Artillery (Area 75) Independent Force Leader: Werle - can command any unit in the Independent Force Leader: Godinot - can command any unit in the Independent Force 12th Light (Dulong) = Strength 3 Infantry (Area 72) 16th Light (Dellard) = Strength 3 Infantry (Area 25) 55th Line (Schwitter - includes 51st) = Strength 3 Infantry (Area 25) 58th Line (Legrand) = Strength 2 Infantry (Area 72) Cavalry Leader: Latour-Maubourg - Can command any Cavalry unit Light Brigade (Briche) = Strength 3 Light Cavalry (Area 17) 1st Dragoon Brigade (Bron) = Strength 3 Heavy Cavalry (Area 25) 2nd Dragoon Brigade (Eclat) = Strength 3 Heavy Cavalry (Area 25)

19 Units: Vistula Lancers (Konopka) = Strength 4 Lancer Cavalry (Area 19) 27th Chausseurs (Arenberg) = Strength 2 Light Cavalry (Area 17)

20 Scenario Play The French move first in each turn. On the first turn they get 4 CPs, on subsequent turns they get D3+1 CPs. On the first turn the Allies get 1 CP. On the second turn they get D3 CPs. On the third and subsequent turns they get D3+1 CPs. The first turn is 8am, and play proceeds until the end of the 25th turn (8.30pm - twilight) unless one or other side has lost: A side loses if in either player s Victory phase their morale is zero or less (the actual battle was over by 2pm). If both players are zero or less then it is a draw. The Allies immediately lose if the French manage to place an Infantry unit with a strength of 1 or more in any one of Areas 1, 2 or 8. If neither side has had their morale reduced to zero at the end of the last turn then the side which controls both Albuera and hill Area number 28 is the winner. If these areas are shared then the side with the highest morale is the winner. If morale is the same, then whichever side last had a unit in Albuera is the winner. Terrain

21 The above image shows all the terrain in the game. Areas 11, 15, 16, 17, 19 and 24 are clear terrain. Areas 10 and 23 are hills. Both hills and clear are Open terrain. Albuera is a town. There is a road (brown line) going through Albuera from Areas 10 to 19. Areas 65 and 67 are wood (note that the area number is square and coloured differently to make this clear) Both woods and town are Close terrain. Note that the approaches are shown with thin rectangular lines, as Infantry may be placed there. Between close terrain there is a green dashed line as there is no approach for close terrain areas. Between Areas 16 and 19, and also between 17 and Albuera is a river. Note the bridges near the Area numbers 16 and 17. The thinner blue lines going around areas 65 and 67 are streams. Clear terrain has no effect on the standard game rules. The other terrain features have special rules: 1. Hills

22 Hills are open terrain. These allow Artillery to fire up to 2 Areas away, provided the intervening Area is not close terrain or another Hill. Artillery not on Hills can only fire 1 Area away. 2. Albuera town Albuera is close terrain. Artillery firing into Albuera suffers a -2 penalty. Infantry defending Albuera get +2 to their combat roll (in every round of cambat). Artillery in Albuera cannot fire and must remain limbered. 3. Woods Woods are close terrain. Artillery cannot fire into Woods. Artillery in Woods cannot fire and must remain limbered. Woods cost +1 movement points for Cavalry or Artillery to enter. 6. River The river costs all of a unit s movement points to cross (therefore units cannot attack across a river, unless at a Bridge or Ford). Retreat across a river causes a hit for all Infantry and Cavalry. It subtracts 4 from Artillery s retreat roll. Units defending against an attack from across a river get +2 to their roll (this can only happen at a Bridge or a Ford) for the first combat roll only. 7. Stream A Stream costs +1 movement point for Infantry or Cavalry to cross and +2 for Artillery to cross. Retreat across a stream subtracts 4 from Artillery s retreat roll. Units defending against an attack from across a stream get +1 to their roll for the first combat roll only. 8. Bridge or Ford

23 At a Bridge or Ford, the movement costs to cross are negated for Infantry and are now only +1 movement point for Cavalry or Artillery. Retreat across a bridge or ford subtracts 2 from Artillery s retreat roll. Units retreating across a bridge or ford do not suffer an extra hit. Units defending still get +2 across the river and +1 across a stream as detailed above. 9. Road Woods no longer cost +1 movement points for Cavalry or Artillery to enter. Optional Scenario Rules Use any or these alone or in combination as desired 1. Bid for victory Players roll a D6, and the highest roller may bid first. The player bids a number of morale points in order to play a certain side. The next player either agrees, or bids a higher number of morale points. The eventual winner gets to play the side of their choice, but must immediately reduce that side s morale by the number they bid. 2. Kemmis Stranded Brigade This Brigade was stranded on the wrong side of the river at Badajoz and so didn t reach the battlefield until the next day. With this optional rule, Kemmis Brigade starts as part of 4th British Division: 1st British Brigade (Kemmis) = Strength 3 Infantry 3. Madden s Missing Cavalry This Brigade of Portuguese cavalry heard a rumour that the Beresford was retreating to Portugal and so, without bothering to check, retreated instead of concentrating with the rest of the army at Albuera. With this optional rule, Madden s Brigade starts alongside Otway:

24 2nd Portuguese Brigade (Madden) = Strength 2 Light Cavalry 4. Spanish No-show Soult was counting on a Spanish no-show to improve his chances. Remove all units of the Spanish 4th Expeditionary Army Corps If using Leaders, remove Blake and Zayas. Beresford may command the two Spanish 5th Army units remaining. 5. Rain Squalls At the start of each player s go, roll 1D6. On a roll of 6 that player s go is a rain squall, with the following effects: All Cavalry get +1 in combat rolls against Infantry. Artillery may not fire. Infantry and Artillery movement rate is reduced to Optional set-up Either the French, or Allies, or both may be given the freedom to set up as they wish, within the below parameters, with the Allies setting up first. Allied Player: At least 1 unit must be placed in each of the Set-up locations specified, but it may be any unit desired. All other units may be placed in any Area West of the River and both Streams. French Player: Units may be placed in any Area East of the River and both Streams.

25 History of the Battle of Albuera The battle of Albuera on the 16 th of May 1811 formed part of the Napoleonic wars. The French Marshal Soult attempted to destroy an Allied (British-Portuguese-Spanish) army under British Marshal Beresford. Soult failed, but the slaughter was so great that the Allied army was in no condition to continue. It holds the dubious distinction as the single Napoleonic battle in Iberia with the highest proportion of casualties to combatants. The battle was Soult s attempt to use his numerically stronger army to defeat Beresford s small British-Portuguese army and raise the siege of Badajoz. Soult had to move quickly before Blake s Spanish army could reinforce Beresford. This rush meant that Soult s army was top-heavy in cavalry, since it was easier to gather cavalry than infantry. The cavalry was good too, and included some of the best horsemen in Europe, the feared Polish Vistula Lancers. Unfortunately for Soult, Blake arrived before him to join Beresford in position at Albuera (a position chosen some weeks earlier by Wellington as a good defensive spot to protect an attack towards Badajoz). For some unknown reason, even though he was no longer at an advantage, Soult decided to attack anyway. The reason for this is uncertain. It is unlikely that he was unaware of the Spanish forces, since they were in plain sight. It is more likely that hubris took over: The French had had a largely unbroken series of victories against Spanish armies, and held them in low regard. Soult s battle plan emphasises this arrogance a small force was to distract and pin the British-Portuguese at Albuera, while the majority of the army would sweep around the Southern flank and attack the Spanish. The assumption was likely that the Spanish would roll over, exposing the British-Portuguese who would have to flee or be caught in a pincer and eliminated. Soult was present at Austerlitz in 1805 and led the famous attack on the Pratzen heights that trapped the bulk of the Austro-Russian army against the frozen marshes to the South where they were crushed. Maybe Soult was trying to pull off his own Austerlitz at Albuera? Unfortunately for Soult, his key assumption that the Spanish would be easy to beat was wrong. The Spanish flank was held by Zayas division which had probably the best Spanish soldiers in the entire country, and they were not going to be easy to beat. Soult had divided his infantry into two groups: Werle and Godinot demonstrated in front of Albuera, to keep the Allies distracted. Girard and Gazan made a flank march to attack the Spanish from the South. In this era of gaudy uniforms, surprise was difficult to achieve. The French flank march was spotted and the Spanish realigned Zayas to face the threat. The French attacked in columns, likely expecting minimal resistance. Instead they faced skillful skirmishing followed by disciplined volleys. The columns were ordered to deploy to line, but this was difficult to do under fire. Meanwhile Stewart s British 2nd division was moving South to assist the Spanish, they aligned behind the Spanish, but also a brigade (Colbourne s) was able to enfilade the French flank to the West. The British fire on

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