Large Battles. Divisional Level Napoleonic Wargaming Rules Written by Sergio Laliscia

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1 Drums and Shakos Large Battles Divisional Level Napoleonic Wargaming Rules Written by Sergio Laliscia Based on the Song of Blades and Heroes engine written by Andrea Sfiligoi First Edition, Copyright Sergio Laliscia/Ganesha Games, 2012 Layout by Andrea Sfiligoi Photographs by Giuseppe Maio Editing by Patrick Connor Models from the author s collection, painted by Sergio Laliscia and Stonewall Miniatures. Special thanks to our main playtester Diego Chisena Playtest and useful suggestions: Andrea Sfiligoi, Marco Coccia, Antonio Termini, Narciso Battellocchi, Luca Ceriola, Massimo Moscarelli, Luciano Bassotti, Paolo Pierini, Stefano Giombini, Carlo Bandini, Marco Gasbarri, Alessandro Salini, Federico Bertelli

2 asssssss Table of Contents 2 Introduction 3 Glossary and key elements 3 Basing 3 Suggested basing 3 Dice 3 Measuring Sticks 4 Unit Anatomy 4 Disorder level (DIS) 4 Recovering Disorder levels (Rally) 4 Infantry Formations 5 Cavalry Formations 5 Artillery 5 Generals 6 Leaders 6 The Commander in Chief (CinC) 6 Skirmishers 6 Actions & Reactions 6 Double failure 6 Reactions 7 Who can react 7 Reaction restrictions 7 When to react 7 How to React 7 Reacting Cavalry 7 Generals and their Actions 8 Activation Bonus 8 Group Orders 8 Leader bonus in combat 8 Leaders attached to eliminated units 8 Leader contacted or threatened 8 Leaderless brigades 9 CinC actions 9 The Reserve 9 Assigning Reserve Units 9 Re-roll 9 Sequence of Play 9 Movement 10 Movement Cost Table 10 Manoeuvres and Movement Reduction 10 Oblique Movement 10 Manoeuvre: lateral movement 11 Manoeuvre: backwards movement 11 Manoeuvre: wheeling forward 11 Wheeling backwards 11 About face 11 Rotation without moving 11 Moving unlimbered artillery 11 Double reduction 11 Moving through linear obstacles 11 Table of Contents Attacking across an obstacle 11 Formation Changes 11 Limbering and Unlimbering 11 Infantry Squares 12 Proximity Rule 12 Fast Units 12 Fast Units on Roads 12 Free Facing 12 Passing through friendly units 12 Combat 13 Combat Dice (CD) 13 Unused Dice 13 How many Dice you roll 13 Artillery Bombardment 13 Line of Sight (LoS) 14 Targets, LoS and cover 14 Reloading Guns 14 Firing Procedure (Bombardment) 14 Approach and Contact 15 Approach 15 Special Case during Cavalry Approach 15 Units in Woods 16 Frontal Arc 16 Passive Targets 16 Approach Procedure 16 Approach Outcomes 17 Elimination during Approach 18 Contact 18 Retreats 19 Cavalry Breakthrough and Recall 19 Built-up Areas 19 Movement 20 Combat in built-up areas 20 Bombarding built-up areas 20 Winning the Battle 21 Before the Battle 21 Losses inflicted 21 Penetration into enemy territory 21 Victory and Defeat 21 Table set-up for pick-up games 22 Terrain type and sizes 22 Determine Attacker and Defender 22 Placing Terrain 22 Deployment in pick-up games 22 Optional Rules 23 Forming a Grand Battery 23 Worn Units 23 Special Rules 24 Special Rules for Leaders 25 Special Rules for the Cinc 25 Scenarios, Historical Battles and Pick-up Games 26 Ready Made Scenarios 26 Historical Battles 26 Pick-up Games 26 Scenarios 27 Modelling Historical and Conjectural Battles 34 Assigning Q and C scores 34 Appendix Playing with Armies 39 Scale and Units basing 39 Rules 39 Generals 39 Movement 39 Historical Scenarios at Corps and Army level 39 Representing Q and C: Army level tables 39 Skirmishers 39 FAQ and Clarifications 40 Order of Battle Sheet 42 Available Rulebooks 43 QRS 44 assssssss

3 Introduction Introduction Drums & Shakos Large Battles is a system of rules for Divisional level battles of the Napoleonic Period ( ) where each player controls 2-3 Brigades and a small reserve. In multiplayer games each player may control a Division, effectively playing at Corps level. In the Napoleonic Period battles involving from 5000 to 10,000 men per side (roughly a Division) were uncommon: an incomplete list could include the battles of Steyer (Austria, 4/11/1805), Maida (Italy, 4/7/1806), Soldau (Eastern Prussia, 25/12/1806), Braunsberg (Eastern Prussia, 26/2/1807), Roleia (Spain, 17/8/1808), Venzone and Pordenone (Italy, 11-15/4/1809), Arnhofen (Bavaria, 19/4/1809), Margalef (Spain, 23/4/1810), Villa Garcia (Spain, 11/8/1810), Rio Gebora (Spain, 19/2/1811), Eckau (Russia, 19/7/1812), Golovchitzy (Russia, 2/8/1812), Retschow (Germany, 28/8/1813), San Michele (Italy, 19/11/1813), Hoogstraaten (Belgium, 11/1/1814), Garris (France, 15/2/1814), Ponte di Monzambano (Italy, 10/3/1814), Modena (Italy, 4/4/1815) and Surburg - Selz (France, 26/6/1815).* Given the unprecedented scale of many battles of the beginning of the 19th Century, quite often in our battles we represent just a part of a bigger battle, but the pay off is the chance to manoeuvre on the battlefield every battalion, with its uniform and National features. In the Appendix you ll find some rules and conversions allowing you to zoom out your view of the battlefield and play up to Army level (using multiple Corps). * *For a complete list of all the battles of the period see: Digby Smith - The Napoleonic Wars Data Book, London Glossary and key elements The base infantry unit is a Battalion. For cavalry it is a Regiment (usually of 4 Squadrons) and artillery is divided into Batteries. Each unit represents: An infantry Battalion on 4 bases A cavalry Regiment on 2 bases An artillery battery on 2 bases (or 1 base with double frontage). Several battalions/regiments with or without attached Artillery make a Brigade led by a General (we ll call him the Leader from now on) who, in turn, is commanded by a Commander in Chief (CinC) i.e., the Divisional Commanding Officer. A Division is made up of two or more brigades (usually two). Basing There is no casualty removal in Drums & Shakos Large Battles, nor a fixed figure ratio. For this reason, basing and the number of figures on each stand are irrelevant, providing that: The frontage of the infantry base is greater than the depth (a ratio of 1.5:1 to 2:1 works best); Infantry and cavalry bases have the same frontage; All players adopt the same basing. Suggested basing Our suggested system for 15mm figures is commonly used in Napoleonic miniature games (sizes are frontage x depth): infantry 3 x 1.5cm with 3 figures cavalry 3 x 3cm with 2 mounted figures (3 for heavy cavalry if you like) foot artillery: using 2 bases per battery 3 x 4cm with 1 gun and 3 crew (4 if heavy); using a single base 6 x 4cm with 2 guns and 4 crew (5 if heavy). Horse artillery: using 2 bases per battery 3 x 4cm with 1 gun and 2 crew; using a single base 6 x 4cm with 2 guns and 4 crew. Generals: 1.5 x 3cm with a single mounted figure (Brigade Commander/Leader), 3 x 3cm and 2 or 3 mounted figures for the CinC. Skirmishers: single round (diameter 1.5cm) or square (1.5cm side) base with 1 figure Markers The game uses a few markers to record particular situations on the battlefield, such as: the Disorder level of a unit (from 0 to 4) a battery that has fired a violation of the proximity rule the successful reaction of a unit. Table If you play with 15mm figures, we suggest you use a 120x180cm table. For bigger or smaller scales, modify the above sizes keeping a ratio of 1:1.5. Dice All dice used in Drums & Shakos Large Battles are normal six-sided dice (abbreviated as d6). Roll 3d6 means roll three six-sided dice.

4 Measuring Sticks In Drums & Shakos Large Battles we use four measurement sticks of fixed length: Very Short (VS), Short (S), Medium (M) and Long (L). Pre-measuring is always allowed at any time. Sticks size according to scale used 6-10mm 15mm 20-28mm Very Short 3 cm Very Short 5 cm Very Short 8 cm Short 5 cm Short 8cm Short 12 cm Medium 8cm Medium 12 cm Medium 18 cm Long 12 cm Long 18 cm Long 28 cm A 3xLong and a 2xMedium sticks will also come in handy to measure artillery bombardment and the Command radius of Leaders. We use thin wood dowels painted in different colours so they can be easily told apart; we use red for Long, orange for Medium, yellow for Short and white for Very Short. Unit Anatomy All infantry and cavalry units have a Quality and a Combat score. Artillery uses only the Quality value. Combat Dice (CD) is the number of d6 that a unit rolls during Approach and Contact. They represent several factors: type, formation, drill, and number. Players can buy dice during Approach and Contact by spending one action for each additional CD. Example: an infantry unit in line formation gets 3 actions. It can move to Approach distance (1 action) and then use the 2 actions left to buy 2 more Combat dice. Special Rules: These define a unit s character on the battlefield. Disorder level (DIS) At the start of the game, all units are fresh with a DIS 0. During the battle, units can accumulate disorder and eventually become useless and are removed from play. All infantry, cavalry and artillery units have five levels of Disorder (DIS 0 to 4). Units reaching DIS 4 are eliminated. Your unit s Disorder level affects the number of CD your opponent rolls. Units with a DIS level of 3 cannot Approach the enemy and they do not count for purposes of penetration through enemy lines (see Approach and Victory conditions, further on). Recovering Disorder levels (Rally) Recovering 1 DIS requires 1 action (see Actions chapter). The unit must be in command and more than 1L from or out of sight of the nearest enemy. Quality (Q): reflects the unit s determination, initiative, drill and morale. When you try to activate a unit, you have to roll the Q number or higher on a d6 to achieve a success. Therefore, lower Q values are better. Combat (C): quantifies the unit s ability in combat and the number of men in it. Higher values are better. Pictured above all necessary markers: measuring sticks; wad of cotton wool to mark discharged artillery; two different systems to record the status of units (counters with the number of Disorder points, or green, yellow, and red markers); an arrow used to mark violations of the proximity rule.

5 Infantry Formations Infantry units (battalions) may be in line, march column, attack column or square formations. Cavalry Formations Cavalry units may be deployed in line or in column formation. Changing formation requires 1 action. Artillery Artillery may be limbered (to move) or unlimbered (to fire): limbering and unlimbering are formation changes and each requires 1 action. Front Front, flanks, and rear of a unit We define front as the forward projection of the unit s front. Flank Rear Flank For the purposes of combat a unit must start its activation and end its Approach movement entirely out with the target s front arc in order to be considered on the enemy flank/rear. A unit that is to the front of an enemy is not allowed to move around that enemy to attack it from the flank.

6 Units can recover ONLY 1 DIS per activation. Units with DIS 1 cannot recover. Artillery can never recover DIS. Cavalry may only recover one level, from DIS3 to DIS2. No unit may recover from DIS1 to DIS 0. Generals A Leader commands a Brigade and the Commander in Chief (CinC) is a Divisional Commander. Leaders Leader have a single Quality value which represents their courage, determination, charisma and tactical ability. Quality ranges from 2 to 5. They may have one or more Special Rules representing their character. All Leaders have a Command Span of 2M. A Leader s Command Span is not affected by LoS. The Command Span is the Leader s effective range, allowing him to command his troops, giving them a +1 bonus during their activation, allowing them to rally, or issuing a group order. The Commander in Chief (CinC) The CinC has a Quality value ranging from 2 to 5 and a Command Span of 1L. If a Leader is within the Command Span of the CinC, he may re-roll 1 failed activation dice. Skirmishers Infantry units have an intrinsic Skirmish (SK) factor, from 0 to 3, which is used during the Approach step. The SK factor is not used during Contact. In game terms, it is only important to know if your unit s SK factor is higher or lower than the SK factor of the Approached enemy. Your unit s SK factor is also important when a battery within 1M fires against your unit s front: in that case, the battery subtracts 1 CD from its roll. Skirmishers are represented in the game by single models mounted on individual bases. Skirmishers must always be positioned within 1 VS of the parent unit s front line. Skirmishers are not units, they move only when their parent unit moves and retreat with it. They have no Quality or Combat values and cannot be the target of enemy attacks. They are just markers and their number shows the parent unit s SK factor. Skirmishers retreat behind their parent unit when a Contact is made and automatically return to their position to the unit s front when the parent unit s front is free of enemies. Skirmishers are eliminated in the following cases: a)when their parent unit is eliminated b) when a cavalry unit - with its first action gets to Approach distance of their parent unit. In this case all Skirmishers are removed and from that moment on the unit is considered to have SK=0. Actions & Reactions Moving, changing facing or formation and all other activities performed by a unit require the expenditure of Actions. Actions are generated by rolling one, two or three dice (player s choice) and comparing the results to the unit s (or General s) Quality. Each modified die that beats or equals the Q value is a success. Each die that is lower than the Q value is a failure. A result of 1 is always a failure and a 6 is always a success, no matter what modifier. Each success allows your unit or Leader to perform one action. You can activate the units of your brigade one by one or if circumstances allow perform group activations (see below). Every failure allows your opponent to try a Reaction. Double failure When you roll 2 or 3 failures trying to activate a unit or group, activation ends for that brigade and no other units within the brigade can be chosen for activation. Y o u must select another brigade (if available) to activate. If it is your last brigade, initiative passes immediately to your opponent. This is called a turnover. Note that if you roll 3 dice and get 2 failures, you still are entitled to perform the single action for the unit or group resulting from your single success and your opponent gets his attempt at a two-dice reaction. Important: for purposes of brigade activation, the CinC activation (and therefore his Reserve s activation) counts as one brigade. wwwwwy

7 Reactions All your failures (even those that do not cause a turnover) generate a reaction attempt by your opponent. For each failure you roll, your opponent is entitled to perform a 1d6 reaction attempt with ONE unit. Activation in reaction is NOT automatic. The reacting player must roll a number of d6 equal to the failures scored by the opponent, and act according to the number of successes/actions obtained. Reaction is the only activity that may be performed by a player without initiative. Example: a player rolls 3 dice to activate a unit. He gets 2 successes and 1 failure: the opponent can therefore try to react with ONE of his units, rolling 1d6 against the unit s Q in that moment. How to React Select a unit which is going to react and roll a number of d6 equal to your opponent s failures against the current Q score of the reacting unit (applying the Leader bonus if within its Command Span). For every success you roll, you have 1 action to spend to perform the reaction. Reacting Cavalry A cavalry unit activated in a reaction may Approach an enemy, but it must satisfy all the requirements for doing so (see Approach below) and must be in line formation. Follow the rules for Approaching and Contacting an enemy. Who can react Any enemy unit or General on the table, providing that it/he has not reacted successfully in this initiative phase. Reaction restrictions In reaction, you may not: Approach the enemy with your infantry Give group orders with your Leader. Generals may move normally Do anything if your unit or General has already reacted successfully this initiative. In other words you may TRY to react as many times as you want, but a unit can t react twice. Apart from the restrictions above, you may perform any other action during a reaction. Players can keep track of reactions using a colour coded marker, or anything they see fit. Remove all reaction markers when initiative passes to the other player. When to react Reaction attempts can be made at the reacting player s discretion: before opponent starts to act using the generated actions in-between opponent s single actions (you cannot interrupt an action in the middle) after all opponent actions have been performed. Exception: when the Reaction is caused by failures from a Leader (or CinC) activation, the reaction attempt must be performed immediately. When one or more failures occur, the initiative player asks his opponent if he wants to react before he acts. If the answer is no, then the initiative player performs his first action, and he continues to act until the opponent stops him, or he has no more actions available. Example of the PICTURE: player A decides to activate a unit in attack column to try an Approach against an enemy unit, which is also in attack column and standing just in front of the Approaching unit. An artillery battery is beside the target unit, but it is facing in another direction. Player A s unit could reach Approach distance with a single move (1M): he rolls 3 dice anyway and gets 1 success and 2 failures. Player B can therefore attempt a reaction attempt on 2 dice, and chooses to do so with the artillery. Player B s intent assuming he scores 2 successes is to rotate the battery (1 action) and then fire on the Approaching enemy (1 action) before it starts its movement. As an alternative, player B could try to react with his infantry (the target of player A s Approach), changing its formation into a line to gain an advantage in combat. Play proceeds with player B s reaction, then with player A s unit movement, and the ensuing combat. After resolving the combat (Approach and Contact), player A must begin activating another brigade, as he rolled 2 failures in an activation attempt. If it was his last brigade, a turnover occurs. Note: in the example above, player B could have reacted with ANY other unit on the table, not only with those potentially involved in the ensuing combat.

8 Generals and their Actions A General must be activated like any unit, rolling 1, 2 or 3 dice against his Quality. Generals may also react. Each success generates an action, but 2 or more failures DO NOT CAUSE A TURNOVER if it is the last brigade. They do generate an enemy reaction as normal. With their actions, Leaders may: move (2L for each action) issue Group Orders. Activation Bonus Leaders grant a +1 bonus for activation to all units in their Brigade who are within their Command Span. Out of Command units may move and attack, but they do not enjoy the bonus, nor they may recover Disorder levels (rally). Group Orders Your activated Leader may issue a Group Order to any number of friendly units within his Command Span. To give a group order, the Leader must spend one action (providing he has been activated and has actions available). Then you roll 1, 2 or 3 dice against the Leader s Q: the number of successes is the number of actions that ALL the units in the group may perform. After all the actions have been performed, the Leader may use any remaining actions, unless initiative is lost by that brigade by rolling 2 or 3 failures during the group activation. A Leader may issue multiple group orders in the same initiative phase. However, he cannot issue orders more than once to the same group. If during his activation your Leader rolls some failures, the enemy reaction attempt must be performed immediately (i.e.,, before you begin acting with your units). For a Group Order to be issued, the following conditions must be met: all units must be in command; no unit may Approach the enemy, nor fire (if artillery); you must declare all units which are part of the group before rolling dice. A group may comprise any combination of infantry, cavalry and artillery. In general, your Leader will issue Group Orders when his Brigade is far from the enemy. When your units are near the enemy, you ll have to activate them one by one, if you want to attack. Leader bonus in combat The Leader can use a move action to attach himself to a unit in his brigade and give it a bonus in combat. An attached Leader must use a move action to leave a unit. Move your Leader in contact with the chosen unit: that unit enjoys a bonus in combat (both in attack and defence) while the Leader remains in contact. Note that the unit to which the Leader has just been attached MAY be activated afterwards and move with the attached Leader (in this case, the Leader moves for free). When counting Combat Dice for Contact (not for the Approach), your Leader can add from zero to three dice (your choice of how many). After the combat is over, regardless of its result, roll the same number of dice you just added: if one or more of them scores a 1, the Leader is a casualty and is removed from play. With any other result, he stays with the unit, and he will be able to act and move again in the next initiative phase, when that brigade is active. An attached Leader may not issue group orders. Leaders attached to eliminated units A Leader attached to a unit which is eliminated must make a Survival Test. Roll 3d6: if one or more of them scores a 1, the Leader is a casualty and is removed from play. With any other result, he must immediately be repositioned within command span of at least one of his units. Leader contacted or threatened If a Leader is contacted by any enemy unit during movement, you must make a Capture Test. Roll 2d6: if one or both of them roll a 1, the Leader is captured (he is eliminated in game terms). With any other result. he must immediately be repositioned within command span of at least one of his units. If your Leader happens to find himself: in front of all your units (with respect to the enemy) for example due to the retreat of one or more units nearer to an enemy than to a friend. he must immediately be repositioned within command span of at least one of his units. A Leader or CinC can never be the target of artillery fire or enemy attacks. Generals are considered invisible to the enemy. It is not therefore possible to move in a way to attack a Leader, unless that movement would bring the unit to legally Approach a unit.

9 Leaderless brigades If your Leader is eliminated/captured, the Brigade is leaderless until: the CinC spends 1 action to nominate a replacement officer your opponent gets 2 failures. In this case, do not roll for Reactions, just place a replacement Leader within command span of at least one of his units. The replacement Leader has a Quality 1 point higher (worse) than the original, up to a maximum of 5. Example: if your Q3 Leader is captured, the replacement officer will have Q4. CinC actions The Commander in Chief is in command of the Reserve. As for Leaders, the CinC must be activated in order to act, and may try reaction attempts. Each success generates an action, but 2 or more failures DO NOT CAUSE A TURNOVER for the Reserve. They can generate an enemy reaction as normal. With his actions, the CinC may: move (2L for each action) nominate a replacement Leader (1 action) assign one unit from the Reserve to a Brigade (1 action). The Reserve Your Reserve is determined by the scenario, or is clearly specified when playing historical battles. In pick-up games, the Order of Battle (see further on) tells you how the Reserve is composed. Generally, the Reserve comprises cavalry units and reserve artillery, or elite infantry units. The Reserve does not act as a Brigade. Units belonging to the Reserve don t move unless the CinC assigns them to a Brigade. If the unit needs more actions to reach its new Leader, you may activate it further, rolling 1 or 2 dice. Re-roll If a Leader is within the Command Span of his CinC, he benefits from 1 re-roll per initiative phase. The reroll can be used only for dice rolled for the Leader s own activation. Just pick up a die which rolled a failure, and roll it again. The new result stands. Sequence of Play There is no set sequence in Drums & Shakos Large Battles. One player has the initiative, and the opponent can only react. At the beginning of play, after deployment, both players roll 3d6 and add the scores to determine who has the first initiative. The winning player nominates one of his Brigades (or the Reserve) and then starts to activate units (one by one or in groups). You always choose how many dice to roll (1, 2 or 3) against the unit s Q (or against the Leader s Q if you are issuing a group order) and then immediately act according to the number of actions thus generated. You repeat this procedure (roll to activate, act) until all units of the brigade that you want to activate have been activated, or you roll 2 or 3 failures in a single roll of the dice. In this case, you have to stop activating units of that brigade, and move to another. If it is the last brigade, it is a turnover, and initiative passes to your opponent. To recap, initiative passes to your opponent when: you get 2 or 3 failures with the last brigade; you have already activated all your brigades (and the Reserve); you decide to pass. Assigning Reserve Units Spending 1 action, the CinC may assign one unit of the Reserve to a Brigade. The chosen unit which must be in the CinC s Command Span immediately gets 1 free movement to reach the Leader of the Brigade to which it has been assigned. It cannot fire (if artillery) nor attack an enemy while doing so.

10 Movement All units and Generals need to spend actions in order to move. The only free movements are those of retreat (involuntary), cavalry recall, and those of attached Leaders. A unit chosen from the Reserve to assign to a brigade also gets a free movement. A single movement requires 1 action, so units may move up to 3 times if they have 3 successes and do nothing else. Movement allowance is determined by different factors: troop type (infantry, cavalry, artillery), formation, and terrain. A movement beginning, ending, or crossing difficult terrain (woods, swamps, steep hills, rocky ground) receives a reduction. All units moving within 1Short of any enemy must stop immediately and proceed to the Approach phase (described below). Movement Cost Table Type and formation Single movement Notes Infantry in line 1 Short may be subject to reduction Infantry in attack column Infantry in march column 1 Medium may be subject to reduction 1 Medium Free facing Infantry in square 1 Very Short Requires 1 action Manoeuvres and Movement Reduction The movement rates apply when a unit moves straight ahead (exception: see Fast Units, below) or obliquely up to 45. Any other movement is considered a manoeuvre. All manoeuvres reduce a unit s movement allowance, as follows: 1L becomes 1M, 1M becomes 1S and 1S becomes 1VS. A single movement action may not be split in two: you may not move half a Medium stick advancing and then move obliquely 45 for another half stick. A unit is always allowed to move less than a full measuring stick. Oblique Movement Is a movement that allows the unit to advance obliquely up to a 45 angle without changing its facing or its formation. This movement is without penalty. If you want to angle more than 45, you must perform a manoeuvre (see below). Cavalry in line 1 Long may be subject to reduction Cavalry in column 1 Long Free facing Limbered Foot Artillery 1 Medium Free facing Unlimbered Artillery Limbered Horse Artillery 1 Very Short Requires 1 action 1 Long Free facing Up to 45 Leaders and CinC 2 Long Free facing 10 10

11 Manoeuvre: lateral movement The unit moves laterally, without changing its facing. Movement is reduced. Manoeuvre: backwards movement (front to enemy) The unit withdraws, front to the enemy, without changing its facing. Movement is reduced. Manoeuvre: wheeling forward (up to 90 ) The unit wheels, keeping one of its forward angles still (pivot) and rotating the other. Movement is reduced. You may wheel more than once, but you must use an action for each wheel you perform. Rotation without moving The units rotates up to 90 on its own axis. This costs one action. Moving unlimbered artillery Unlimbered artillery can only move hand-pushing the guns. This limited movement is called prolong. Spending one action, the battery can move up to 1 VS in any direction. Wheeling (forward and backwards) and rotation on the battery s axis are allowed. Double reduction Any movement touching difficult ground causes a reduction (with the exception of Light Infantry). As a consequence, sometimes a unit may receive a double reduction (for example, if you want to manoeuvre in difficult ground). Infantry in line or unlimbered artillery prolonging that cannot suffer a double reduction as there is nothing less than a Very Short move cannot manoeuvre in difficult ground. Light Infantry is undoubtedly your best choice of troops to manoeuvre in difficult terrain. Moving through linear obstacles Hedges, fences, low walls, ditches, and the like are called linear obstacles. Crossing a linear obstacle causes a movement reduction. The whole unit must be able to clear the obstacle in a single movement. If this is not possible, it must reach the obstacle (1 action) and then clear it (another action). Attacking across an obstacle Sometimes if the enemy is near to, but not in contact with, a linear obstacle it may happen that your unit cannot clear the obstacle without overlapping the enemy. In this case, the target of the attack must move backwards a bit, making just enough room for the attacking unit. Formation Changes Changing formation (for infantry and cavalry) and/or limbering/unlimbering (for artillery) costs 1 action. Wheeling backwards Wheeling backwards is not allowed. About face The units rotates 180 without moving. About-face costs 1 action. Limbering and Unlimbering Artillery batteries are either limbered (may move but not fire) or unlimbered (may fire but not move). Horse artillery may fire even if it moved in the same activation. Foot artillery may not. When limbered, artillery moves as a Fast unit (see Fast Units below).when a battery unlimbers, it may be oriented as you wish

12 Infantry Squares Squares have no flanks or rear, and convert a retreat resulting from an artillery bombardment into the loss of 1 DIS. A square may move 1VS in any direction, spending 1 action. Proximity Rule Units moved rigidly in the Napoleonic period and, generally speaking, one near the other. However, all battalion commanders appreciated the importance of maintaining some room for manoeuvre in dangerous circumstances (such as forming squares to receive cavalry charges). To simulate this, we use the Proximity rule. No moving unit may voluntarily end its actions (moving or changing formation) nearer than 1VS to any friend, unless it is Approaching an enemy. During a Brigade activation, an acting unit cannot end its movement (or formation change) within 1VS from a friendly unit unless: the 2 units are separated by a linear obstacle (such as a low wall) one unit is artillery the unit after moving Approaches an enemy. Important: the Proximity rule takes effect AT THE END of all movement for the unit or - if a Group - at the end of all movement of all units of the Group. Units may ignore the proximity rule while moving. All of the above refers to voluntary movement. However, there are cases where violation of the Proximity rule is generated by involuntary movement, such as retreats.when there is a violation of the Proximity rule, you are limited in your choice of reactions: at the first opportunity you must correct the violation using a Reaction. You don t need to roll the dice to attempt the reaction. Just move one unit backwards or laterally in order to remove the violation by placing the unit more than 1VS from the friendly unit. If there is more than one violation on the table, you must remove all violations before performing any other type of reactions. Remember: removing one violation of the proximity rule burns one reaction regardless of how many dice you had to roll for reaction. Fast Units Infantry in march column, cavalry in column, and limbered artillery (both Horse and Foot) are considered Fast and have certain advantages. Fast Units on Roads Fast units moving entirely on a road may follow the contour of the road itself. No wheeling is required. This is the only case when the measuring stick can bend to conform to the road, without using an action for each wheel. Free Facing Fast units have free facing. This means that you just put the measuring stick touching the front of the leading base of the unit, then angle as you wish, and move up to the end of the stick, facing in that direction. Finally, the unit can be turned to face any direction. Passing through friendly units (Interpenetration) Two cases of interpenetration are possible in the game. Voluntary Interpenetration All units may pass through friends at any time, providing that they can clear it completely. Involuntary Interpenetration Units forced to pass through friends due to retreats behave differently and cause 1 Disorder to the unit passed through, unless the unit being passed through is unlimbered artillery. wwwwwy 12 12

13 Combat Combat Dice (CD) Drums & Shakos Large Battles uses a system of opposed dice rolls to determine combat outcomes. Results are determined by comparing Combat Dice (CD) rolled by players. First of all, in every combat (Approach and Contact) both players roll their CDs, regardless of who is the attacker and who is the defender. The number of dice rolled depends on several factors (type, formation, and Combat value of the unit). Results are generated by comparing the 3 best scoring dice, arranged from highest to lowest. Keep the other dice (form the fourth on) handy until the end of the combat, as they are used as tie breakers. Example: player A rolls 4d6, player B rolls 3d6. A gets 5, 5, 1 and 1; B gets 6, 2 and 1. Both players position their dice from highest to lowest, then they compare the results of the three highest dice. A B A loses the first die (5 to 6), but wins the second (5 to 2). The third die is a draw (1 to 1). If one side cannot roll at least 3 dice, all missing dice are considered to have scored a 1. Winning, losing or drawing a die can have different effects in Approach or Contact and can also add or cancel actions to one or both sides. Unused Dice These are the dice from the fourth on. In all situations in which a draw has NO EFFECT, players must add 1 unused die (starting from the highest) to their score. Example: during an Approach, A rolls 5 dice and B rolls 4. A gets 6, 5, 3, 2, 1, B gets 5, 4, 3, 1. The dice are compared as follows: A B For example, drawing the first die in an Approach situation HAS a result (both units taking 1 Disorder). Remember also that players may not choose which unused die to add, you must always add the highest unused die available. You add just one die, not two. If there is still a draw after adding the unused die, then there is no effect. How many Dice you roll Base CD both during Approach and Contact and when defending from artillery fire are as follows: in Line 4 in Attack column 3 Infantry in Square and March Column 2 Light Cavalry in line 4 Dragoons in line 5 Heavy Cavalry in line 6 All Cavalry not in line 3 Cavalry Artillery Bombardment: according to calibre; light 3, medium 4, heavy 5. In Approach or Contact: if unloaded 2, if loaded as for bombardment Artillery Bombardment Artillery fires through its front arc and has three ranges: Short, Medium and Long. short range +1d6 medium range long range -1d6 1L 2L 3L Short range is up to 1L, medium range up to 2L and long range up to 3L. 13 A wins the first two dice, but the third being a draw would not give a result (No Effect). Therefore A adds his first unused die (a 2) and B does the same (a 1). A gets a total of 5 (3+2) while B gets only a four (3+1). A wins the third die. Important: unused dice are added only in situations with a No Effect result. Bounce-through: draw a straight line from the centre of the battery base to the target unit: if the line touches another unit (behind the target), this unit could be hit by the bounce-through, up to maximum range. 13

14 14 14 Artillery has a number of CD related to calibre: light artillery has 3CD, medium 4CD, heavy 5CD. Once a battery has fired, put a smoke marker in front of it. To fire again the battery must be reloaded. Add 1 die at short range and subtract 1 die if at long range. Bombarding costs 1 action. Artillery can fire (if loaded) or reload (if unloaded) in reaction. Line of Sight (LoS) Artillery needs a clear LoS to fire at a target. LoS is checked tracing an imaginary line (or using a stick as we do) from the centre of the firing battery to any point of the target. LoS is blocked if it crosses: a wood a building or a village a hill crest friendly units (more than 1L from the artillery). Generals and friendly units within 1L do not block LoS. Friendly Units within 1L do not block LoS. Friendly Units that are more than 1L, and even partially within the arc of fire, block the LoS. Targets, LoS and cover Area terrain features (such as buildings) must cover half or more of a unit to prevent firing. Linear obstacles like low walls do not block LoS but they provide cover for the target. Woods are a special case: units entirely within a wood cannot see outside nor be seen from the outside. Units on the edge of the wood (touching the internal edge of it) are a valid target, but are considered in cover. Stone or brick walls and buildings offer hard cover, any other feature offers only soft cover. Reloading Guns A firing battery is marked by a puff of smoke.it must be reloaded before it can fire again. Firing costs 1 action and reloading costs 1 action. It is allowed to reload and fire (or fire and reload) in the same activation, but you cannot fire twice, even if you have 3 actions available. Limbering and unlimbering cost 1 action each. A foot battery may not move and fire in the same activation. A horse battery may move, unlimber and fire in the same activation. Firing Procedure (Bombardment) In order to fire, you must first verify that the target is in your front arc, in LoS and in range. Then calculate the number of CD to be rolled according to calibre, apply the modifiers, and roll your dice. The target rolls dice according to their type and formation. Note that being Disordered (DIS) adds dice to your opponent s CD total. Modifiers and outcomes are different according to the target. You are not allowed to bombard units inside a built-up area, such as a village: in that case, you fire against the built-up area. The d6 with the highest result is called the First die, and all the others in descending order (second and third). If Target is infantry or cavalry Modifiers (add or subtract the number of dice indicated) In cover (soft/hard): +1/+2 For each DIS: +1 to enemy For each action added (excluding the one needed to fire): +1 Target s skirmishers in arc of fire within 1M: -1 Target at short range: +1 Target at long range: -1 Bonus/penalties from Special Rules, where applicable Outcome First die: if the battery wins, target suffer 1 DIS. If target wins, it s a miss. If there is a draw, add one unused die. Second die: if the battery wins, target retreats 1 VS front to enemy, straight backwards. If target wins, there are no consequences. If there is a draw, add one unused die. A square, if beaten, suffers 1 DIS. Third die (bounce-through): if the battery wins, and it won the first die also, the first unit behind the target and within maximum range takes 1 DIS. If target wins, there are no consequences. If there is a draw, add one unused die. If Target is Artillery Important: a battery is considered a passive target and does not discharge its guns. It rolls a number of dice according to calibre (light 3, medium 4, heavy 5).

15 Modifiers Target in cover (soft/hard): +1/+2 For each DIS: +1 to enemy For each action added (excluding the one needed to fire): +1 Target at short range: +1 Target at long range: -1 Bonus/penalties from Special Rules, where applicable Outcome First die: if firing battery wins, target suffer 1 DIS. If target wins, it s a miss. If there is a draw, add one unused die. Second die: if firing battery wins, target limbers immediately (if already limbered takes 1 DIS). If target wins, there are no consequences. If there is a draw, add one unused die. Third die: if firing battery wins, and the target is still unlimbered, it takes 1 DIS. If target is limbered, it moves backwards a full move. If target wins, there are no consequences. If there is a draw, add one unused die. If Target is a built-up area The built-up area always rolls 3 dice. Modifiers Do not apply modifiers for opponent s DIS. For each action added (excluding the one needed to fire): +1 Target at short range: +1 Target at long range: -1 First, second and third die: if battery wins, built-up area gets 1 DIS. If target wins or there is draw, there are no consequences (do not add unused dice). Units within the bombarded Built-Up Area Such units suffer no adverse consequences until the level of disorder of the area is 4 or more. The instant DIS reaches 5, the unit suffers 1 DIS. The instant DIS reaches 6, the unit suffers 1 DIS and must immediately withdraw 1M towards the friendly baseline. When the level of DIS is at 7 or more, the built-up area is destroyed and it is considered impassable terrain. Approach and Contact Combat is represented by two consecutive steps: Approach and Contact. Each unit must conclude its combat before proceeding to the next unit activation in the same active brigade. Every time a unit moves within 1S from an enemy, its movement stops and players proceed to resolving the Approach. Artillery may never move to Approach distance. Infantry may Approach cavalry, but cannot close to Contact. Cavalry may Approach any target. Approach represents the attacking unit moving towards the enemy, trying to reach short range to place a volley. Contact represents cavalry melees, a series of of close range volleys or quite rarely a bayonet charge, forcing one of the contenders to retreat or rout. Approach An Approach begins when a unit moves at 1S distance from an enemy. Take a mental note of that unit s remaining actions (a small die placed near to the unit can help). Approach Movement To be legal, the last movement to Approach an enemy must be straight ahead. You may not move into Approach by changing formation, moving laterally, or obliquely. Units with Dis 3 may not Approach. Special Case during Cavalry Approach If a cavalry unit with its first action (movement) and moving straight ahead - reaches Approach distance from an enemy infantry unit, all skirmishers of the target unit are removed from the game. If this is not the case, then all the skirmishers withdraw behind the parent unit. Cavalry may Approach a square only if the latter is at DIS

16 Infantry may Approach cavalry, but they cannot close to Contact. In any case, voluntarily moving within 1S of a cavalry unit is not a wise choice, unless the cavalry has a high level of disorder or is attacked from the flank, as cavalry could gain actions during the Approach and counter charge the attacking infantry. Infantry could Approach cavalry, inflict a disorder (First die) and then use the action gained to retreat or to form a square. Remember that the Approach itself does not require the expenditure of actions in addition to the one used to move towards the enemy. You may spend further actions to add dice to your Approach dice roll. Units in Woods If one or both units are in a woods area, the defender has a bonus of +1 CD unless the attacker is light infantry. Frontal Arc A unit s frontal arc extends straight ahead from the unit s frontage. Passive Targets In situations where only the Approaching unit has the target in its own frontal arc (for example, when you attack an enemy in the flank or rear), or if Approaching an unloaded battery, the target unit rolls dice normally, but no damage (DIS) will be inflicted on the attacking unit. A B Frontal arc of a battalion in line formation Frontal arc of a battalion in attack column formation In the diagram above, A approaches B. B doesn t have the enemy in its front arc, and is said to be Passive. B rolls dice for the Approach, but this is purely defensive: B may NOT cause any DIS to A. Approach Procedure Approach procedure is as follows: calculate the number of CDs of the attacking and defending units (active and passive) modify this number according to any applicable modifiers remember that the attacker may use remaining actions to buy dice or to keep them to close to Contact roll all dice, then read the three best dice from highest to lowest, comparing them with those of the opponent. Keep unused dice at hand. If one side rolled less than three dice, all missing dice are considered to have scored a one for each opposed pair of dice (first, second and third pairings) there will be a winner (if one die is higher than the other) or a draw (if the score is the same) verify the outcome of the Approach in the following

17 tables; do not apply any DIS to the attacker of a passive target. Approach Modifiers All modifiers add dice (+). For each extra action spent: +1 For each DIS: +1 to enemy Approaching from Flank/rear: +2 Square (with DIS3) Approached by cavalry: +3 Better C value: +1 Better SK value: +1 (not if Cavalry Approaches infantry) Better position: +1/+2 (elevation, obstacle, difficult terrain, woods) Bonus/penalties from Special Rules Approach Outcomes We call first die the pair of d6s with the highest results, and all the others in descending order (second and third). First die: The winner inflicts 1 DIS to the loser. If a draw occurs, both units get 1 DIS. Ignore DIS caused by passive units. Second and third die: The winner gains 1 action. If a draw occurs, use the first (highest) unused die. Example: A rolls 4 dice and B rolls 3. Both are infantry units and both are in the enemy arc of fire. First die ends in a draw (1 DIS each). A wins the second die (gaining an action), B wins the third (gaining an action). If A would have won both the second and third dice, it would have gained 2 actions, to be spent immediately for closing the Contact, retreating or changing formation. Actions generated by the Approach The Approach generates two actions (second and third dice) that may be won by the same player (2-0) or one each (1-1). Attacker 2-0 Possible uses are: move into Contact and use the second action to buy 1 dice in the ensuing combat change formation then move into Contact change formation then retreat the unit s movement allowance retreat then change formation or retreat twice Defender 2-0 Possible uses are: move into Contact and use the second action to buy 1 dice in the ensuing combat* change formation then move into Contact* change formation then retreat the unit s movement allowance retreat then change formation or retreat twice rotate on the spot (if attacked from the flank/ rear) without moving into Contact Draw 1-1 In this case the defender has priority in using his action and he may: cancel 1 action of the attacker retreat the unit s movement allowance change formation rotate on the spot (if attacked from the flank/ rear) * moving into Contact is not allowed if the attack was from flank/rear Example: A rolls 6 dice and B Approached in the flank rolls just 3. First die is a draw (that would mean 1 DIS each, but B is passive having been Approached from the flank, so it takes 1 DIS but does not inflict any DIS to A). A wins the second die (gains 1 action) and also the third die (another action). Therefore, A has gained 2 actions and B suffered 1 DIS. It s time to charge! Example: A rolls 5 dice and B rolls 4. It is a frontal Approach. A gets 6, 5, 3, 1 and 1. B gets 5, 5, 2 and 1. A wins the first die (1 DIS to B). The second die is a draw (5 to 5), therefore A adds his first unused die (1) for a total of 6. B also adds his first unused die (a 1), re establishing the draw (no effect). A wins the third die (3 to 2) and gains 1 action

18 In the case of cavalry Approach, the use of actions won by the defender is limited: Infantry may form a square (1 action) or rotate on the spot Cavalry may counter-charge (1 action) or evade 1L per action moving straight back Artillery has just one option: use the gained actions to cancel actions of the enemy. If infantry forms a square, cavalry must move back 1L. If the target was cavalry that evaded, the attacker may remain where it is or move back 1L per action. In all other cases, proceed to the Contact step described below. When all actions gained have been spent by both players, if no Contact is made, the attacker must withdraw 1M (if infantry) or 1L (if cavalry) unless the defender chose to retreat. If the defender retreated, the attacker remains stationary. Elimination during Approach Units with DIS 3 that suffer 1 DIS during the Approach (first die) are eliminated, and the winner may use gained actions only for carrying the position and/or change formation or facing (rotating the unit). Cavalry may withdraw 1L (a sort of recall). There is no Contact step. Contact Contact can be a consequence of the Approach, if the attacking unit is able to move into Contact with the action(s) gained, or if the defending unit, having gained one or more actions, decides to set up a counter attack. Movement into Contact is straight ahead, and any kind of Contact is valid. There is no shifting to conform on either side. Contact Modifiers All modifiers add dice (+). For each extra action spent: +1 Attached Leader: +1/+3 Better C: +1 Attack on flank/rear, or cavalry Vs. Infantry not in square: +2 Defender in Better position: +1/+2 (elevation, obstacle, difficult terrain, wood) Bonus/penalties from Special Rules DIS: +1 per DIS of enemy The first die determines the winner of combat In case of a draw, the unit with less DIS wins. If DIS are tied, determine the winner with the first unused die. If there is still a tie, the unit with the better C wins. If the tie still persist, read the first die: with an even result the attacker wins, with an odd result the defender wins. From this point on, the results detailed below refer to the winner or the loser as determined by the first die. The following units are ELIMINATED if defeated (i.e.,, have lost the first die): Artillery Infantry in square defeated by infantry Infantry in march column Infantry not in square defeated by cavalry. The second die determines losses (DIS) from the Contact Whoever wins: opponent suffers 1 DIS (2 DIS if doubled by the winner) Draw: both suffer 1 DIS At this point the defeated unit retreats 1M (infantry) or 1L (cavalry) straight back front to enemy, and then changes formation (into attack column if infantry, into line if cavalry)

19 The third die determines losses (DIS) from pursuit Winner wins: the defeated unit suffers 1 more DIS.* If there is a draw or the loser wins, there are no further consequences. * Artillery and squares do not pursue and therefore they do not inflict further losses (DIS). After applying the second die DIS, perform the retreat movement, and only THEN assess losses caused by pursuit. If the defeated unit has been eliminated thanks to the losses from the second die, the winner may carry the position, and there is no pursuit. Pursuit represents the disruption of the unit during the retreat. The DIS from pursuit is applied only after the retreat movement because units to the rear of the defeated one could be interpenetrated and therefore suffer 1 DIS. The winning unit may only carry the position, unless it is cavalry. Cavalry may perform a breakthrough as explained below. Retreats Retreat movements (1M for infantry and 1L for cavalry) ignore terrain and formation, and must be performed straight back, using all of the unit s movement allowance. Friendly units along the path are interpenetrated and suffer 1 DIS (unless they are artillery or units already at DIS3). If the retreat movement is not enough to clear the friendly unit, go on retreating until you can position your unit without overlaps. This will surely cause a violation of the proximity rule. At the end of the retreat movement, the unit is deployed front to enemy, in attack column if infantry and in line if cavalry. Cavalry Breakthrough and Recall If your cavalry eliminates an enemy after a Contact, you have the option of performing a breakthrough or a recall. Breakthrough is possible only if there is a target straight ahead from the cavalry unit s front and within 1L. If Contact is made (reaching Approach distance is not enough) proceed directly to Contact (skip the Approach step), automatically eliminating all of the target s skirmishers, if any. DIS3 units may not perform a breakthrough. Recall is a free 1L move straight back, keeping one s front to the enemy. After resolving the breakthrough, cavalry must be recalled. Cavalry may not perform two breakthroughs in a row. Important: during a breakthrough, if the only unit eligible as a target is a square, the cavalry must perform a recall. Built-up Areas Built-up areas are represented by one or more square sectors 1M per side, each with 3-4 buildings. Generally they are crossed by one or more roads. The scenario determines how many sectors constitute a built-up area. If there is more than one, all must be positioned with one or more sides in common. Single buildings are simply treated as impassable terrain. Cavalry ending a Contact without suffering DIS gets 1 DIS anyway (even if victorious). Bear in mind that cavalry can only recover DIS from DIS3 to DIS2. 19 Only one infantry unit may occupy a built-up area sector. Movement and combat in built-up areas are regulated as follows. 19

20 Movement To enter an unoccupied built-up area sector, the unit needs 1 action in addition to that used to bring its front in contact with the sector. The unit must be in any column formation. Once inside, position the four bases so that the front of one base is facing outwards from each of the four sides. To exit a built-up area sector, you need 1 action, that allows you to place the unit outside, in attack column and with the rear side in rear contact with the side of the Built-up area it just exited. If the unit has more actions available, it may be moved normally. Infantry in march column, cavalry in column, and limbered artillery may only cross an unoccupied built-up area sector by using a road. No other unit may enter a built-up area sector until it is completely cleared by the preceding unit. The proximity rule is also in effect for built-up area sections. Units outside the BUA must adhere to the proximity rule and remain more than 1VS from the BUA. Moving from one sector of a built-up area to another sector requires 1 action. Combat in built-up areas A unit may enter an enemy-occupied built-up area sector only by attacking it. A single infantry unit may attack only one single sector and only in attack column. Approach and Contact procedures are standard and the Approach distance is 1S (from the attacking unit front to the side attacked). The defender always benefits from its position (+2 for hard cover), always rolls 3CD, but may use actions gained during the Approach only to cancel the attacker s actions. If the attacker succeed in closing the Contact, proceed as per standard rules. If the defender is defeated, the unit must retreat 1M from the side opposite to the one being attacked, in attack column and with its back to the side it exits from.the defeated unit is eliminated if it contacts any enemy. An attacker winning the combat (by eliminating the defender or forcing it into a retreat) immediately enters the sector. In built-up areas made of multiple sectors, you can attack a sector from any adjacent one. Combat is performed skipping the Approach phase and moving directly to Contact, with the defender getting a +2 bonus. Combat outcomes are as described above. A defeated unit may retreat to an adjacent sector if: a) it is opposite from the side the attack came from or b) the adjacent sector is unoccupied. If the sector is occupied by friendly units, the retreat continues in the same direction.if the sector is occupied by an enemy, the retreating unit is eliminated. Bombarding built-up areas Each sector of a built-up area has 7 DIS levels (from 0 to 6). Keep track of the DIS level with a d6. Depending on the current DIS level, a sector is considered: 1-4 damaged but safe; 5-6 badly damaged (unit inside suffer DIS and must retreat); 7+ destroyed (becomes impassable terrain due to fire and rubble). It is not allowed to bombard the unit which is inside the sector. Artillery engages the BUA and not the unit inside, as per the Artillery rules. wwwwwy Pictured here: Napoleon receives captured enemy flags at Austerlitz

21 Winning the Battle Drums & Shakos Large Battles uses two basic criteria to determine victory: losses and penetration into enemy territory. The objective is to bring the enemy to his break point, through the accumulation of points. Before the Battle 1) Count the number of infantry, cavalry and artillery present and divide by 2, rounding down: that is the Divisional Break Point. Example: your Division is made of 21 units. When you reach 10 points, you lose the Battle (21 divided by 2 = 10.5 rounded down to 10). 2) Take note of the number of units in each brigade: when the sum of all the units DIS exceeds that number, the brigade is Shaken. Example: a Russian brigade has 6 units. When the sum of all the DIS levels reaches 7, the brigade is Shaken. 3) Mark the table, dividing it in two along the short side, then divide each half in three equal parts. On a 6x4 (120x180cm) table, you will have a central line at 2 (60cm), and each half divided in 8 (20cm) increments. We call these zones (starting from the central line towards your side) zone 1, zone 2 and zone 3. The border of zone 3 coincides with your friendly baseline. Player A baseline Player A s Zone 3 Player A s Zone 2 Player A s Zone 1 Player B s Zone 1 Player B s Zone 2 Player B s Zone 3 Player B baseline Finally, to deploy your troops, identify two lateral bands of the same width as the zones. Troops may not be deployed into these areas at the beginning of play. In the example of a 120x180cm(6x4 ) table, the bands would be 20cm (8 ) each. Guard and Elite Cavalry units: +3 Elite Infantry, Artillery, Leaders, Heavy Cavalry: +2 Any other unit: +1 Shaken Brigade: +1 This total never decreases. Note that Shaken brigades may return to normal status through rally, but the point is lost anyway. A rallied brigade which becomes Shaken again has no effect on points. Penetration into enemy territory You must keep track of the maximum enemy penetration into your half of the battlefield. This means you have to keep track of the position of the single enemy unit nearest to your baseline. Only the most advanced unit counts, providing that: it has another friendly unit in sight within 1L; it is in command; it has less than DIS 3. If the most advanced unit does not qualify, look for the next one, and so on. The type and position of this unit determines the point you add to your Divisional Break Point: Cavalry in zone 2: +1 Cavalry in zone 3: +2 Infantry in zone 1: +1 Infantry in zone 2: +2 Infantry in zone 3: +3 This value which must be added to the one caused by losses - is temporary, because it is always possible to push back or eliminate the enemy unit that has entered your territory. Victory and Defeat If the accumulated break points reach or exceed your Divisional Break Point at the end of your initiative phase, you lose the battle. In other words, if the opponent brings you to break point during his initiative, you still have the possibility during yours to reverse the situation. In the (rare) case when both players reach break point in the same phase, victory goes to the player who advanced more into enemy territory (zone 1, 2 or 3). If both players have made equal advances into enemy territory, then the player losing the next unit is defeated (this counts as a minor victory for the opponent). 21 Losses inflicted For each unit eliminated, the Divisional Break Point increases as follows: 21

22 Table set-up for pick-up games Terrain type and sizes There are two main categories of terrain: area (rough ground, woods, steep hills, built-up areas) and linear (low walls, fences, hedges, streams and rivers) elements. All area elements with the exception of the already mentioned built-up areas must be roughly square or rectangular, with 1M or 1L sizes. An area element will always be MxM, MxL or LxL. You may give your terrain element a more realistic shape by rounding off the angles. Only one built-up area sector is allowed in pick-up games. Linear elements are all 1M long, with the exception of rivers and streams. Major rivers are not allowed in pick-up games. Shallow rivers or streams must enter and exit the table from two adjacent sides, and may be crossed only at fords and bridges. Their maximum length is 5L, and only one stream is allowed on the table. Streams may be crossed by bridges (each bridge width should accommodate 1 base) A unit must be in march column to cross a bridge. Determine Attacker and Defender Players roll 1d6 each, adding 1 for each unit with the Scout Special Rule in their Division. The winner chooses his role (whether he will be the attacker or the defender). Re-roll ties. Placing Terrain Terrain is placed by both players defender first. Each player places terrain elements in his own half of the table. Each element must be positioned within a specific zone (1, 2 or 3). It cannot be placed halfway between two different zones. There must be a space of at least 1M between two area elements. After having divided the table as prescribed in the previous chapter (Before the battle): 1. The defender places 2 area elements and 2 linear elements in one of his zones. 2. The Attacker does the same. 3. The defender places 2 area elements and 2 linear elements in a different zone. 4. The Attacker does the same. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until there are terrain elements in all six zones. Deployment in pick-up games We strongly recommend the use of hidden deployment. Place a dividing board on the middle line of the battlefield, so that the deployment of your opponent s troops is not visible, then start deploying units using the deployment rules. Alternatively, players can take turns deploying a brigade each, starting with the defender. Rules of Deployment No unit may be deployed in the lateral bands. All units must be in command of their respective Leaders, and may be deployed in zones 2 and 3, with the following exceptions: The Reserve and the Heavy Cavalry must be deployed in zone 3. Light Cavalry and units with the Scout Special Rule may be deployed in zone 1 (providing that they are in command). Units may be in any formation; Artillery may be limbered or unlimbered. wwwwwy 22 22

23 Optional Rules Forming a Grand Battery Reserve artillery batteries can be assigned to a brigade by the CinC. If your brigade already has a battery, you may operate them independently, or form a Grand Battery. Only batteries of the same type (foot or horse) and calibre (light, medium, heavy) may form a Grand Battery. Move a battery in contact with the other. From now on, the 2 units are stuck together, and the newly formed unit has the greater number of DIS and the worst Q score of the two. The Grand Battery is considered loaded, but it may not fire in the phase it is created. Once formed, a Grand Battery may not be broken and if eliminated it s worth 4 points for purposes of Divisional Breakpoint calculations. A Grand Battery fires and fights (Approach and Contact) adding the CD of the batteries that compose it. Worn Units An infantry unit that at the end of a combat did not suffer any DIS during Approach, nor during Contact, is said to be worn. This status is represented by turning one base 180 (backwards). Worn units that suffer another worn result take 1 DIS. In other words, the worn status is a sort of half disorder. The worn status is not applied to cavalry (which always suffer 1 DIS after any combat even if unscathed). The Worn status may not be recovered by rallying. This rule can be used by players desiring more granularity in the way attrition is measured in the game. wwwwwy The battle of Somosierra (1808) in a painting by Horace Vernet 23 23

24 24 24 Special Rules Special Rules define the character of a unit, its drill, tactical doctrine, and equipment. Conscript A unit with this Special Rule needs 2 actions to change formation. Cuirass If the unit with this Special Rule draws the first die in Contact, it wins even if its DIS is higher than the enemy. Determined A unit with this Special Rule has one re-roll during Approach (only). Drilled A unit with this Special Rule may recover 1 DIS even if within 1L from any enemy. Elan A unit with this Special Rule if activated individually - has one automatic success if fresh (DIS 0). Elite A unit with this Special Rule getting a double (or triple) six for activation, gets an additional action. This action may not be used for: Moving more than 3 times; Fire twice (artillery); Recover more than 1DIS. Expendable The loss of this units is only worth ½ point for the Divisional Breakpoint if infantry, 1 point if cavalry. Green A unit with this Special Rule suffer 1DIS every time a friendly units is eliminated within 1L and in sight. Guard A unit with this Special Rule getting 2 or 3 successes in a single activation with a double (or triple) six or five, gets an additional action. This action cannot be used for: Moving more than 3 times; Fire twice (artillery); Recover more than 1DIS. Impetuous Cavalry with this Special Rule must always perform a breakthrough if a valid target exists (1L straight ahead). The unit is forced to do it even if it is at DIS3 (self destroying), but it will not contact a square (unless the square is at DIS3 itself). Lance A unit with this Special Rule has +1 CD if it is fresh (with DIS 0). Note: fresh cavalry units suffer their automatic DIS at the end of a combat (if unscathed). Light A unit with this Special Rule ignores terrain effects for movement purposes. It does not suffer penalties in combat for difficult terrain. Cavalry with this Special Rule operates normally in woods. Militia A unit with this Special Rule needs two actions to change formation and cannot rally (recover DIS) if at DIS3. Opportunistic Cavalry units with this Special Rule have 1 automatic success in reactions. This means that they roll one less die than the opponent s failures. With 1 failure are automatically activated, with 2 failures roll 1 die and with 3 failures roll 2. Scout A unit with this Special Rule may be deployed in your own zone 3. Each Scout unit gives you a +1 modifier for the determination of the Attacker/Defender in pick-up games.

25 Strong A unit with this Special Rule has 1 re-roll during Contact (only). Undrilled A unit with this Special Rule may recover 1 DIS only if they are over 2M from any enemy. Unpredictable A unit with this Special Rule has no set Quality value (this is indicated on the profile as Q =?). Every time it has to roll for individual activation, together with the regular 6 sided dice, the player rolls also an Average die. The result of the Average die is their Q for that roll, and includes the Leader bonus if the unit is in command. The Average die is a six sided die that has no 1 nor 6. It has two 3, two 4, a single 5, and a single 2. Wavering A unit with this Special Rule gives 1 re-roll to opponent during Approach (only). Weak A unit with this Special Rule gives 1 re-roll to opponent during Contact (only). Special Rules for Leaders Active The Leader has 1 re-roll for group orders. Charismatic The Leader may confer a +1 CD bonus during Contact to all units of his brigade that are in command. You have to roll 1d6 each time you use this bonus: with a result of 1 the Leader is eliminated. Cautious The Leader may give group orders to a maximum of 3 units. Inefficient The Leader has Command Span of 1L. Methodic The Leader may give only 1 group order per initiative phase. Organiser The Leader has Command Span of 2L. Second Line The Leader may never be attached to a unit. Special Rules for the CinC Inefficient The CinC has a command span of 1M. Organiser The CinC has a command span of 2M. Timid The Divisional Breakpoint is reduced by 1 point. Stubborn When calculating the Divisional Breakpoint, round up instead of rounding down

26 Scenarios, Historical Battles and Pick-up Games In about 25 years of Napoleonic wargaming, I have seen and tried many ways of playing, but all of them can be summarised in the following categories: Ready-made scenarios; Re-fights of historical battles; Pick-up games, i.e., a quick, friendly game, balanced by a point system or the like. Scenarios are ready-made battles that are usually included in rulebooks. The author chooses some historical or fictional battles, does the necessary research (map, deployment, orders of battle) and gives players all the information needed for the game. Players just prepare their armies according to OOB, set up the terrain, and meet to fight the battle. Re-fighting a historical battle is basically the same, but all the pre-game research is done by the player (or club) hosting the event. Both the above mentioned play styles can be based on historical data, or loosely inspired by a period or campaign. For pick-up games the rules usually include a point system where each unit has a cost and players agree on a points total to be used. Each player prepares his army and brings it to battle. The rules include a semi-random system of terrain generation. Players arrange the table and play. This style of gaming is no doubt the most suitable to tournament or campaigns. There s always a lively debate among gamers all around the world on which is the best system to play battles. In my opinion, the way we play is largely determined by two external factors: time and organisation. If during a week (or a month) you have only 3-4 hours to spend on the hobby, you will generally choose pick-up games. Once a point total is agreed with your fellow gamers and a venue and time agreed upon, all you need is to go there and play a battle or a tournament. With organisation, I mean all other aspects required to play: venue (your home or club), the number of players you can count on, historical research. Quite often, a single gamer does all the preparation work, sometimes designing special scenario rules to simulate historical events that are not covered by the rules. Not everybody can count on such a level of organisation but where it exists, most probably you ll see many historical games, and pick-up games will be rare. Drums & Shakos Large Battles aims to give you all the tools needed to play, no matter how much time or organisation you can count on. Ready Made Scenarios In the following chapter, you ll find 4 ready-to-play scenarios. Three are fictional (even if located in a historical context) and one is historical. They are an ideal way to start playing immediately and try the basic mechanics of the game. More scenarios will be available in a scenario booklet. Historical Battles You ll find all the necessary tools to create an Order of Battle and to stress strengths and weaknesses of the troops involved. With the same tools, you ll be able to design your own, non-historical scenarios: a natural step after you have played the scenarios in this book. Pick-up Games If you prefer pick-up games, Drums & Shakos Large Battles gives you very easy guidelines to form your brigades. Take the basic organisation of the different Armies of the period and decide upon some minor variables for your Division. Although there is no point system, the brigade composition has been slightly altered to provide a level of play balance which in reality was very rare, to be honest. wwwwwy

27 Scenarios Scenario 1 : Peninsular Clash (Conjectural) A simple introductory scenario, set in Spain around This scenario uses some of the most common Special Rules and the troops involved are as standard as possible. So it s perfectly suitable for first battle. Map and Deployment French player baseline One level hill Woods Difficult ground Two-level hills Road Farm English player baseline Hidden deployment is recommended. FRANCE: Reserve anywhere in zone 3. All other units anywhere in zone 2. BRITAIN: Reserve anywhere in zone 3. British units in zone 2 within 1L from the farm. Portuguese units in zone 2 anywhere over 3L from the farm. Special Scenario rules The French player goes first

28 Order of Battle - France CinC Divisional Commander Q3 1st Brigade Leader 1 Q3 Active Line Infantry 4 Battalions Q4 C4 Sk1 - Light Infantry 2 Battalions Q4 C4 Sk2 Light, Elan Foot Artillery Medium Q4 Shaken at 8 DIS 2nd Brigade Leader 2 Q3 Active Line Infantry 4 Battalions Q4 C4 Sk1 - Light Infantry 2 Battalions Q4 C4 Sk2 Light, Elan Foot Artillery Medium Q4 Shaken at 8 DIS Reserve (CinC) Dragoons 1 Regiment Q3 C5 Elan Hussars 1 Regiment Q3 C4 Determined Light Horse Artillery Q3 Divisional Breakpoint 8 Order of Battle - Britain CinC Divisional Commander Q3 1st Brigade (English) Leader 1 Q3 Organiser Line Infantry 4 Battalions Q4 C4 Sk1 Rifle Company 1 Company Add 3 Sk to infantry battalions Medium Foot Artillery Q4 Shaken at 6 DIS 2nd Brigade (Portuguese) Leader2 Q3 Line Infantry 2 Battalions Q4 C4 Sk1 Cacadores 2 Battalions Q4 C4 Sk1 Light Medium Foot Artillery Q4 Shaken at 6 DIS Reserve (CinC) British Guards 2 Battalions Q3 C5 Sk1 Guard Light Dragoons 1 Regiment Q3 C4 Light Horse artillery Q3 Divisional Breakpoint

29 Scenario 2 : To Vienna! (Conjectural) Another introductory scenario to get you acquainted with the rules for table set-up and deployment in pick-up games. For map and deployment, use the rules: How to create your table for pick-up games and Deployment for pick-up games. No special scenario rules. Order of Battle- France CinC Divisional Commander Q3 1st Brigade Leader1 Q3 Active Veteran Line Infantry 3 Battalions Q3 C4 Sk1 Line Infantry 1 Battalion Q4 C4 Sk1 Light Infantry 2 Battalions Q4 C4 Sk2 Light, Elan Chasseur a cheval 1 Regiment Q4 C4 Opportunistic Medium Foot Artillery Q4 Shaken at 9 DIS 2nd Brigade Leader2 Q3 Organiser Line Infantry 3 Battalions Q4 C4 Sk1 Determined Elite Light Infantry 1 Battalion Q4 C4 Sk3 Light, Elan, Elite Light Infantry 1 Battalion Q4 C4 Sk2 Light, Elan Medium Foot Artillery Q4 Shaken at 7 DIS Reserve (CinC) Dragoons 1 Regiment Q3 C5 Elan Cuirassiers 1 Regiment Q3 C6 Cuirass Medium Foot Artillery Q4 Divisional Breakpoint 8 Order of Battle - Austria CinC Divisional Commander Q4 Timid Avant-garde Leader1 Q3 Jaeger 2 Battalions Q4 C4 Sk2 Light, Elan Grenzer 2 Battalions Q4 C4 Sk2 Light Hussars 2 Regiments Q3 C4 Elite Medium Foot Artillery Q4 Shaken at 8 DIS 1st Brigade Leader2 Q3 Charismatic Line Infantry 3 Battalions Q4 C5 Sk1 Grenadiers 2 Battalions Q4 C4 Sk1 Strong Medium Foot Artillery Q4 Shaken at 7 DIS Reserve (CinC) Cuirassiers 1 Regiment Q3 C6 Cuirass Uhlans 1 Regiment Q4 C4 Lance, Elan Chevau-Legere 1 Regiment Q4 C4 Elan Light Horse artillery Q3 Divisional Breakpoint

30 Scenario 3 : Spanish Pride (Conjectural) While conjectural, this scenario is inspired by the historical forces which fought in the Peninsula. Map and deployment Hidden deployment is recommended. FRANCE: Reserve in zone 3 within 1L from the church. All other units anywhere in zone 2. SPAIN: Reserve in zone 3 within 1L from the road. All other units anywhere in zone 2. Scenario rules The French player goes first. Cuesta may not be activated in the first Spanish initiative phase. Woods French player s baseline Church Difficult Ground Spanish player s baseline Road Large, Two Level hill 30 30

31 Order of Battle - Spain CinC Cuesta Q4 Inefficient 1st Brigade Lardizabal Q3 Cautious Line Infantry 1 Battalion Q4 C4 Sk1 Green Walloon Guards 2 Battalions Q4 C4 Sk1 Elite Hibernia Regiment 1 Battalion Q4 C4 Sk1 Elite, Determined Medium Foot Artillery Q4 Shaken at 5 DIS 2nd Brigade Zayas Q3 Charismatic Line Infantry 3 Battalions Q4 C4 Sk1 Green Voluntarios 1 Battalion Q? C4 Sk0 Green, Unpredictable Medium Foot Artillery Q4 Shaken at 5 DIS Reserve (Cuesta) Dragoons 2 Regiments Q5 C5 Chasseur a cheval 1 Regiment Q? C4 Unpredictable Militia Cavalry 1 Regiment Q? C3 Unpredictable, Lance, Light Peasant Militia 3 Battalions Q? C4 Sk0 Unpredictable, Weak, Militia Divisional Breakpoint 8 Order of Battle - France CinC Barbou Q3 1st Brigade Chabert Q3 Organiser Veteran Line Infantry 3 Battalions Q3 C4 Sk1 Light Infantry 1 Battalion Q4 C4 Sk2 Light, Elan Swiss Line Infantry 1 Battalion Q? C4 Sk1 Unpredictable Medium Foot Artillery Q4 Shaken at 7 DIS 2nd Brigade Schramm Q3 Organiser Line Infantry 3 Battalions Q4 C4 Sk1 Determined Light Infantry 2 Battalions Q4 C4 Sk2 Light, Elan Medium Foot Artillery Q4 Shaken at 7 DIS 31 Reserve (Barbou) Dragoons 2 Regiments Q3 C5 Elan Medium Foot Artillery Q4 Divisional Breakpoint 7 31

32 Scenario 4 : The Battle of Retschow (Historical) August 28th, 1813 A minor engagement that I chose to include for a couple of reasons: the presence of troops of many nationalities (Mecklemburg, Prussia, Sweden and Denmark) and the nature of the French Division, which is without a Reserve. Sources are quite varied on this engagement, and the OOB is somewhat uncertain: I made some decisions towards playability. Map and deployment French player s baseline 2nd Brigade 1st Brigade Mecklemburg Swedish Brigade Reserve Deployment as per map. General Gardanne s brigade is all in march column, with limbered artillery. Scenario rules The Allied player goes first. Allied player s baseline Historical Notes According to some sources, this was a little more than a (failed) cavalry charge and a prolonged artillery duel. Therefore - in a way you could call this a conjectural scenario, something like what would have happened if the entire French Division accepted battle, but this did not happen. I have purposely ignored the two cavalry squadrons (one French and one Polish) that hurriedly retreated at the beginning of the clash. The source for the OOB is Digby Smith The Napoleonic Wars Data Book, London

33 Order of Battle - France CinC Loison Q3 Inefficient 1st Brigade L Allemand Q3 Charismatic 15th Light Infantry 3 Battalions Q4 C4 Sk2 Light, Elan 44th Line Infantry 4 Battalions Q4 C4 Sk1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4 Shaken at 9 DIS 2nd Brigade Gardanne Q3 48th French Line 3 Battalions Q4 C4 Sk1 Danish Regiment 3 Battalions Q4 C4 Sk1 Wavering Danish Foot Artillery, Light Q4 Shaken at 8 DIS Divisional Breakpoint 7 Order of Battle - Allied Forces CinC von Vegesack Q4 Timid Mecklemburg Brigade Von Fallois Q3 Cautious Line Infantry 2 Battalions Q5 C4 Sk1 Volunteer Jaeger 1 Battalion Q4 C4 Sk2 Light Guard Grenadiers 1 Battalion Q4 C4 Sk1 Strong, Elite MountedJaeger Volunteers 1 Regiment Q4 C4 Scout Medium Foot Artillery Q4 Shaken at 7 DIS Swedish Brigade von Bergenstrohla Q3 Active Line Infantry 4 Battalions Q? C4 Sk1 Unpredictable Leib Regimente 1 Battalion Q3 C4 Sk1 Elite Medium Foot Artillery Q4 Shaken at 7 DIS Reserve (Von Vegesack) Prussian Hussars 2 Regiments Q4 C4 Elan, Scout Swedish Carabiniers 1 Regiment Q4 C6 Cuirass Medium Foot Artillery Q4 Divisional Breakpoint

34 Modelling Historical and Conjectural Battles Two components are needed to model a historical battle: a map and an order of battle. Sources are numerous, and even players who are new to the period can find a lot on the Internet. Armed with the necessary information, try to reproduce the battlefield on your gaming table. Ignore minor terrain features, unless they were really important for the outcome of the battle. Main hills, rivers and streams, woods and villages are the only features you ll want to represent on your table. Next determine the Order of Battle. In the standard game (one Division per side, plus a small Reserve), you ll need to know brigade composition (battalions) and number of men per battalion. Sometimes the latter is just an estimate, but this should not be seen as a problem. Assigning Q and C scores Follow this procedure for every battalion to give units their Quality and Combat values. Use your knowledge of the battle, or the guidelines in How to build a Division in pick-up games to assign a Q value to units: Second Rate Infantry = 5 Line and Light Infantry = 4 Veteran Infantry = 3 Light Cavalry = 4 Dragoons and Heavy Cavalry = 3 Artillery = 4 Elite Artillery = 3 Leaders = 3 Don t worry about the apparent uniformity of the units (an engagement between all Line Infantry units would have all equal battalions), the Special Rules is a powerful tool to add variation. Special Rules may be positive (+) or negative (-) and each positive has a negative counterpart (Determined and Wavering is a good example). Assigning each battalion a Quality value and one or more Special Rules will give you hundreds of possible combinations. Now, determine the Combat value, starting from the following base values: Second Rate Infantry = 3 Line and Light Infantry = 4 Veteran Infantry = 5 Light Cavalry = 4 Dragoons = 5 Heavy Cavalry = 6 Artillery and Leaders have no Combat value. Then, add to the base value a modifier for the number of soldiers in each infantry battalion: <450 = = = = +1 >901= +2 Do the same with cavalry regiments: <200 = = = = +1 >500 = +2 Take note of everything on a paper (your Order of Battle) and you are ready to begin. To identify each unit we suggest using a visible ID (for example, a number on the base).you may adopt a more visual way to identify units by their pose, painting style or uniform (in this case having units with greatcoats, or in fatigue caps, will be very helpful). Finally, if you feel the need, you can colour code units by painting a colour dot on their bases according to their brigade (for example: red for the first brigade, yellow for the second, and so on). wwwwwy A standard Line Infantry battalion has Q4 and no Special Rule. By simply adding the Green Special Rule, we ll have a fragile battalion, maybe in its first battle.

35 Forming your Division in pick-up Games If you prefer to play this way, or you don t have the time (or the sources) to create an Order of Battle in the way described in the previous chapter, here are some standard Divisions for the Major Nations involved in the Napoleonic wars from 1805 to Leader and CinC Quality is determined before deployment by rolling 1d6. If your general has a + beside his Quality, he may have a Special Rule. France Division of 2 Brigades and 1 Reserve. You may choose your Brigades from the following (the number in brackets is how many of that brigade type you may have): Period from 1805 to 1812 (and 1815) Mixed Brigade (1-2) 2 Btn Light Infantry Q4 C4 Sk2 Light, Elan 3 Btn Veteran Line Infantry Q3 C5 Sk1 Determined 1 Btn Line Infantry Q4 C4 Sk1 1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4 1 Rgt Light Cavalry (Hussars, Chasseur a Cheval, or Lancers, see below) Line Infantry Brigade (1-2) 5 Btn Veteran Line Infantry Q3 C5 Sk1 Determined 2 Btn Line Infantry Q4 C4 Sk1 1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4 Period from 1813 to 1814 Line Brigade (1-2) 4 Btn Conscript Infantry Q? C4 Sk0 Unpredictable 2 Btn Line Infantry Q4 C4 Sk1 1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4 Elite Brigade (max. 1) 5 Btn Elite Infantry Q3 C5 Sk2 Elan, Elite Determined 1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4 Light Cavalry Brigade (max.1) 2 Rgt Light Cavalry (see below) 1 Light Horse Artillery Q3 All periods Reserve (1) 1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4 3 Rgt Dragoons Q3 C5 - Or 2 Rgt Cuirassiers/Carabiniers Q3 C6 Cuirass Or 2 Btn Elite Infantry Q3 C5 Sk2 Elan Elite Determined Leader 1 Roll 1d6: 1=Q4 2,3 =Q3 4,5=Q3+ 6=Q2 Leader 2 Roll 1d6: 1=Q4 2,3 =Q3 4,6=Q3+ CinC Roll 1d6: 1=Q4 2,3 =Q3 4, 5=Q3+ Hussars Q4 C4 Chasseur a cheval Q4 C4 Lancers Q4 C4 Lance Opportunistic Light Cavalry Brigade (max.1) 2 Rgt Light Cavalry (see below) 1 Light Horse Artillery Q

36 Austria The terms Division and Brigade are used for convenience only. Austrians used other forms of army structure (Avant- Garde, Flanks, Wings or Columns). Division of 2 Brigades and 1 Reserve. You may choose your Brigades from the following (the number in brackets is how many of that brigade type you may have): Period from 1805 to 1809 Line Infantry Brigade (1-2) 5 Btn Line Infantry Q4 C6 Sk0 Green 2 Btn Landwehr/Insurrectio Q5 C3 Sk0 Militia 1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4 1 Rgt Light Cavalry (Hussars, Chevau-Legere, Uhlans: see below) Period from 1812 to 1814 Line Infantry Brigade (1-2) 7 Btn Line Infantry Q4 C4 Sk1 1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4 1 Rgt Light Cavalry (see below) All periods Avant-garde Brigade (max.1) 2 Btn Jaeger/Grenzer (see below) 1 Light Horse Artillery Q3 2 Rgt Light Cavalry (see below) Grenadiers Brigade (max. 1) 4 Btn Grenadiers Q3 C5 Sk0 Strong 1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4 Light Cavalry Brigade (max. 1) 2 Rgt Hussars or Chevau-Legere (see below) 1 Light Horse Artillery Q3 Reserve (1) 1 Light Horse Artillery Q3 1 Rgt Uhlans Q4 C4 Lance 2 Rgt Dragoons Q3 C6 Alternatively: 2 Rgt Cuirassiers Q3 C7 Cuirass Leader 1 Roll 1d6: 1, 2=Q4 3, 4 =Q3 5, 6=Q3+ Leader 2 Roll 1d6: 1, 2=Q4 3-6 =Q3 CinC Roll 1d6: 1/3=Q4 4/6 =Q3 Jaeger Q4 C4 Sk1 Light Grenzer Q4 C4 Sk1 Light, Elan Hussars Q4 C5 Chevau-Legere Q4 C4 Uhlans Q4 C4 Lance 36 36

37 37 Prussia The terms Division and Brigade are used for convenience only. Prussians used other forms of army structure (Avant-Garde, Flanks, Wings or Columns). Division of 2 Brigades and 1 Reserve.You may choose your Brigades from the following (the number in brackets is how many of that brigade type you may have): Period from 1805 to 1809 Line Infantry Brigade (1-2) 4 Btn Musketeers Q4 C5 Sk0 1 Btn Fusiliers Q4 C4 Sk1 Light 1 Btn Grenadiers Q3 C5 Sk0 1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4 1 Rgt Hussars Q4 C4 Period from 1813 to 1815 Line Infantry Brigade (1-2) 4 Btn Landwehr/Reservists Q? C4 Sk1 Unpredictable Elan 2 Btn Line Infantry Q4 C4 Sk1 Drilled 1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4 1 Rgt Hussars Q4 C4 1 Jaeger company, add 2 Sk to above units All periods Dragoon Brigade (max.1) 2 Rgt Dragoons Q3 C5 1 Light Horse Artillery Q3 Light Cavalry Brigade (max.1) 2 Rgt Chevau-Legere Q4 C4 1 Light Horse Artillery Q3 Reserve (1) 1 Heavy Foot Artillery Q4 2 Btn Grenadiers Q3 C5 Sk0 1 Rgt Cuirassiers Q3 C8 Cuirass Leader 1 Roll 1d6: 1, 2=Q4 3, 4 =Q3 5, 6=Q3+ Leader 2 Roll 1d6: 1, 2=Q4 3, 4 =Q4+ 5, 6=Q3 CinC Roll 1d6: 1/3=Q4 4/6 =Q3 Line Brigade (1-2) Russia 2 Btn Jaeger Q4 C4 Sk1 Light Division of 3 Brigades and 1 Reserve. You may choose your Brigades from the following (the number in brackets is how many of that brigade type you may have): 4 Btn Line Infantry Q4 C4 Sk0 Drilled 1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4 Grenadier Brigade (max. 1) 3 Btn Grenadiers Q4 C4 Sk0 Elite Drilled 1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4 1 Rgt Cossacks Q? C3 Unpredictable Lance Light Light Cavalry Brigade (max. 1) 2 Rgt Light Cavalry (Hussars or Uhlans) Hussars Q4 C5 Elan Uhlans Q4 C4 Lance 2 Rgt Cossack Q? C3 Unpredictable Lance Light 1 Light Horse Artillery Q3 Reserve (1) 1 Heavy Foot Artillery Q4 2 Rgt Dragoons Q3 C5 1 Rgt Cuirassiers Q3 C6 Cuirass Leader 1 Roll 1d6: 1, 2=Q4 3, 4 =Q3 5, 6=Q3+ Leader 2 and 3 Roll 1d6: 1, 2=Q4 3, 4 =Q4+ 5, 6=Q3 CinC Roll 1d6: 1=Q5 2, 3 =Q4+ 4, 6=Q3 37

38 Britain Division of 3 Brigades and 1 Reserve. You may choose your Brigades from the following (the number in brackets is how many of that brigade type you may have): Line Infantry Brigade (1-2) 2 Btn Line Infantry Q4 C4 Sk1 1 Btn Veteran Line Infantry Q3 C5 Sk1 1 Rifle Company add 2 Sk to the above units 1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4 Light Brigade (max. 1) 2 Btn Light Q4 C4 Sk2 Light Elan 1 Btn Rifles Q3 C4 Sk3 Light 1 Btn Cacadores (Portuguese) Q4 C4 Sk2 Light 1 Light Foot Artillery Q4 Guard Brigade (max. 1) 3 Btn Guards Q3 C5 Sk1 Elan Guard Drilled 1 Rifle Company add 2 Sk to the above units 1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4 Light Cavalry Brigade (max. 1) 1 Rgt Hussars Q3 C4 Opportunistic 3 Rgt Dragoons Light Q4 C4 Scout 1 Light Horse Artillery Q3 Portuguese Brigade (max. 1) 2 Btn Portuguese Line Q4 C4 Sk1 Conscript 1 Btn Cacadores Q4 C4 Sk2 Light 1 Light Cavalry Q5 C4 Scout 1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4 Reserve (1) 1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4 2 Rgt Dragoons Q3 C5 Impetuous 1 Rgt Dragoons Light Q4 C4 Scout Spain Division of 3 Brigades without Reserve. The CinC may only give his bonus and nominate replacement Leaders. You may choose your Brigades from the following (the number in brackets is how many of that brigade type you may have): Line Infantry Brigade (1-2) 1 Btn Veteran Line Infantry Q4 C4 Sk1 Elan 4 Btn Linea Q4 C4 Sk0 Conscript 1 Medium Foot Artillery Q? Unpredictable Veteran Brigade (max. 1) 2 Btn Guard Q3 C4 Sk0 Elite 2 Btn Veteran Line Infantry Q4 C4 Sk1 Elan 1 Medium Foot Artillery Q? Unpredictable Militia Brigade (1-2) 5 Btn Infantry Volunteers Q5 C3 Sk0 Militia 4 Rgt Cavalry Volunteers Q? C3 Unpredictable Scout 1 Medium Foot Artillery Q5 Cavalry Brigade (max. 1) 3 Rgt Dragoons Q5 C5 2 Rgt Hussars Q5 C4 Leader 1 Roll 1d6: 1=Q5 2, 3 =Q4 4, 5=Q3 6=Q3+ Leader 2 and 3 Roll 1d6: 1, 2=Q5 3, 4 =Q4 4, 5=Q4+ 6=Q3 CinC Roll 1d6: 1, 2=Q5 3/6 =Q4 Leader 1 Roll 1d6: 1=Q4 2, 3 =Q3 4,5=Q3+ 6=Q2 Leader 2 and 3 Roll 1d6: 1=Q4 2, 3 =Q3 4, 6=Q3+ CinC Roll 1d6: 1=Q4 2, 3 =Q3 4, 5=Q

39 39 Appendix Playing with Armies Scale and Units basing The base units for the Army level game are infantry brigades and cavalry divisions. Artillery remains at battery level, even if only the divisional and Corps level batteries are represented in the game. Therefore, you will command one or more Corps, each made by a couple of Divisions of 2-3 Brigades. Time and space permitting, you can scale up the size of your battles as you wish. Testing of this level of play took place on a 120x180cm (roughly 6x4 ) table with 6mm miniatures on 6x3cm bases (infantry and cavalry) and 4x4cm (artillery) but, as for the standard game, any kind of basing will do, providing that both players use the same. If you have enough miniatures and space (a 180x240cm table at least), you can play with 15mm miniatures using the same suggested basing as the standard game and representing an infantry brigade with 9 bases (3x3) and a cavalry division with 6 (3x2). Even if you play with 6mm models, we suggest to keep the same measuring sticks as in the 15mm game. This will speed up play considerably. Rules All the standard game rules apply, with the exception of infantry and cavalry formations. Every time a unit is mentioned, in the Army level game we refer to a Brigade/Division, instead of a Battalion/ Regiment. During combat (Approach and Contact) the difference between Combat values is the modifier. In other words, while in the standard rules the modifier is always +1 (no matter if you have C5 and your opponent has C3), in the Army level game it is the difference that gives you the number of CD to add. Example: unit A has C4, and unit B has C6. The modifier will be +2 for unit B. Generals Corps commanders have the same rules of Leaders of the standard game. The CinC is the Army Commander and manages the Reserve. Movement There are no formations. Infantry and foot artillery move 1M per action, cavalry and horse artillery move 1L. Leaders and the CinC move 2L. Important: without the need of formation changes, play will be faster, movement very swift, and combat more lethal (due to the C difference modifier). Historical Scenarios at Corps and Army level The army level game has been added for historical scenarios only, therefore in these rules you will not find Army lists to build your force. For pick-up games or conjectural scenarios, we suggest that you find some real OOB of your favourite campaign and create your Army accordingly. Once you found the Order of Battle needed, use the following tables to give units their Quality and Combat values (and Special Rules). Representing Quality and Combat: Army level tables Base Quality: as per standard rules. Base Combat: as per standard rules. Combat value modifiers: INFANTRY BRIGADES Up to 1500 = = = = = +2 Over 4800 = +3 (or break the unit into two brigades with no modifier) CAVALRY DIVISIONS Less than 800 = = = +1 Over 1500 = +2 Skirmishers Skirmishers of each brigade are represented in an abstract way, just like in the standard game. Each light battalion in the brigade adds a Sk value of one. French Legere, Russian, Prussian and Austrian jaeger, Austrian Grenzer, British Rifles and Light Infantry battalions are considered light for SK value purposes. wwwwwy 39

40 Frequently Asked Questions and Clarifications This section includes the most frequent questions we hear when we demonstrate the rules at conventions. Extra Dice in Combat Question: I understand that excess dice must be spent from the highest scoring to the lowest scoring, and that they are resolved from the 1st die to the third die. I still do not understand HOW I am allowed to spend them. For example: let s suppose that Player A s artillery rolls 5 Combat Dice and scores Player B s line infantry (the target of the artillery shot) rolls 4 dice, scoring Is Player B allowed to spend his extra die to break the tie on the 3rd die, or must he use it on the 2nd die? Answer: The player MUST use his extra die to break a tie. So, in your example, you must use the extra die on the 2nd die (a 3 to 3 tie). Shaken Brigades Question: A brigade comprises 5 units and has its break point at 6 DIS. One of the units receives 4 DIS and is eliminated, while the other units are still at 0 DIS. Is the brigade s break point still 6, or is it reset to 5 because currently the brigade comprises only 4 units? And do the 4 DIS inflicted upon the eliminated unit remain on the brigade? Should I keep track of this somewhere? Artillery in combat Question: In a contact, does the C of Artillery count as 0 (thus giving the advantage to the enemy) or is the C modifier ignored altogether? Same question for the SK (Skirmish) score. Would Infantry attacking Artillery apply their SK modifier? Answer: In combat versus Artilery, the C score modifier (+1 die for having a better C score) is not applied. The Sk modifier applies. Multiple Combats Question: I have one infantry unit in line, with 2 DIS, approaching an enemy column with 3 DIS and a fresh medium artillery. So I roll 4 Combat dice versus 3+4 dice, adding a +1 CD to the line because it had less DIS than the enemy. I also add 1d to the column/artillery combo because the artillery had less DIS than the enemy. Is this correct? Answer: A multiple Combat (a combat against more than one opponent unit) is treated as a single, large approach/contact. All dice to be rolled are added together, so you did this part correctly. However, modifiers are applied collectively. So in this case, the extra die goes only to the attacker. Roll the dice then apply all results to individual units, one by one Answer: Whenever possible, we try to limit memory effects in our rulesets. What counts is the number of units on the table in that moment. The number is compared with the number of DIS points on the table, plus 4 DIS for every eliminated unit. Obviously, if you commit units from your Reserve, the target number increases (but you must do this before the Brigade becomes Shaken; otherwise, the point is lost anyway).

41 Leader failures and reactions Question: Suppose I activate a leader, roll two dice, and I score one success and one failure. My opponent may react with one unit with one die, and must do so immediately. With the action obtained by my leader, I opt to activate a group, and I roll two dice against the leader s Quality. Do any failures rolled on these dice cause a Reaction? And if so, must the opponent react immediately again? Answer: All failures cause a reaction, but the reaction must take place immediately ONLY WHEN caused by a leader activation, and not, as in this case, for the group order. Contact Question: The rules say that every contact is a valid one and there are no adjustments or shiftings of troops. The defeated troops must recoil keeping their front to the enemy, and the winner of the combat may occupy the recoiling enemy s position. Let s use as an example the contact against a passive unit shown in the diagram on p. 16. Suppose unit A closes the contact against B s flank and wins the combat. B must recoil. What happens now? Does B: 1. rotate around its centre until it has A in its front and then recoils? 2. recoil keeping its current orientation, thus intepenetrating A, then A advances and wheels until A occupies B s space and original orientation? Questions about Special Rules Question: what is the difference between Elite and Guard? Does the Elite bonus applies even on a reaction, while the Guard applies only during its activation? Answer: No. Elite troops have an additional action if they score a double 6 on any activation (activating or reacting). Guards do the same, but both on a double 5 and double 6. Question: must rerolls caused by the Weak, Determined, Wavering, and Strong special rules be used before comparing one s dice with the opponent s dice? Answer: You may use the reroll after comparing the result. In most cases, you pick up the lowest scoring die and reroll it, and apply the new rolled score before determining the outcome. Question: Does an Unpredictable unit add +1 to its Q target number if it lies out of command range? Answer: Yes. Answer: 1) is correct

42 Order of Battle CinC Q Special Rules 1st Brigade Leader Q/C Special Rules Shaken at 2nd Brigade Leader Q/C Special Rules Shaken at 3rd Brigade Leader Q Special Rules Shaken at Reserve Leader Q Special Rules Divisional Breakpoint Permission given to reproduce this page for personal use. Ganesha Games, 2011

43 Ganesha Games - Available Rulebooks Song of Blades and Heroes (Fantasy skirmish) Song of Gold and Darkness (dungeon supplement to SBH) Song of Wind and Water (outdoor supplement to SBH) Song of Deeds and Glory (campaign supplement for SBH) Song of Drums and Shakos (Napoleonic skirmish) More Drums and Shakos (supplement to SDS) (Company-level American Civil War) Mighty Monsters (Giant monster skirmish) Mutants and Death Ray Guns (post-apocalyptic skirmish) Flying Lead (modern skirmish) Hearts and Minds (Afghanistan supplement for FL) Flashing Steel (Swashbuckling skirmish rules) Song of Arthur and Merlin (Arthurian skirmish rules) Song of Fur and Buttons (Colonial Teddy Bear rules and campaign) Song of the Splintered Lands (fantasy skirmish rules) Fear and Faith (Horror skirmish rules) Kooky Teenage Monster Hunters (vampire supplement for FF) Armageddon Hour (post-apocalyptic solo boargame) Familiars (magical pets RPG) Tales of Blades and Heroes (Fantasy RPG rules) Shadowsea and supplements (licensed) Song of Our Ancestors and supplements (licensed) All our games are available in PDF format and as printed books. We also carry many games from other publishers. For freebies and an updated catalog of available products, please visit

44

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