INDIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, NEW DELHI. I. A. R. I. 6. i\igipc-s l-i'il AR! "g-r.,OOO.

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1 INDIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, NEW DELHI. I. A. R. I. 6. i\igipc-s l-i'il AR! "g-r.,OOO.

2 TYPES AND BREEDS OF AFRICAN CATTLE

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4 PAO AGRICULTURAL STUDIES No. 37 Types and Breeds of African Cattle Prepared by N. R. JOSHI Animfll Breeding Speoin.list E..II. MoLAUGHLlN' COllHultant, on O!ttLle Breeding nnd J{,ALPH W. PHILLIPS DnpuLy Dil'edol', Agricu]tUl'fl Division '"'"'"IIIIJIBIIIIIIIJlIIIIIIIII IARI :FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZA'fION OF THE UNI'l'ED NATIONS ROME, 1957

5 ~.. ~----. Conversion Factors I length -_....--_. Area Volume _. Mass ~ " I inch I foot 1 yard 1 mile 1 mile - 1,760.._ = Cl 11.,= I n. = 0,9144 m. {In yards = 5,280 foet 1 sq. in en 1 sq. ft O.O!l21l 1 sq. mile = 2.59 kr 1 sq. mile = 259 ha. I acre = h 11. I square mile = cu. in. 1 en. ft. 1 cu. in. 1 gal. (U.S.) 1 gal. (Imp.) 1 pound 1 short ton 1 long ton 1 gallon 10.:19 c rn = ln lite!' = a.785 lit era = 4.54:6 lit m.'r,,_ 4, (!lu1 rts = 0.4/1:16 J dlogl'mll~ = Il!}i;l'iu 1;011 = m (;)j;ric tdlls Temperature of ~- DC H >< "rr,~ + FAO 1957 Printed in Italy iv

6 CONTENTS IN1.'lWDUOTION METHOD OF PUES]!JNTATION Gnoup I Egyptian Cattle Libyan Cattle Brown Atlas Gnoup n Adamawa Azaonak Manre Northern Sudan Shorthorned Zebu ShUWlL Sokoto Flliani or Peu] Nigerian Fulani or Peul (Zebu Peul nigerien) Sonegal Fl1lani (Zebu Peul senegalais) Sudanese F111ani (Zebu Penl soudanais) White Flliani M'BoI'oro GROUl' III N'Dama West African Shol'thorned Cattle Guom IV Knri GUOUl'V Ankole Barotse Basuto Nguni Nilotil'. Nioka Nganda rronga : ii

7 GROUP VI Angoni Boran Bukedi Galla,.Jiddu and 'l'uni Lugware" Nandi Southeru Sudan Hill Zebu Tanganyika Shorthorned Zebu 'foposa-:murh o GROUP VII Africander GROUP VIn :Madagascal' Zebu LI'L'EHA'.rURE ei'l'ed !l :17 24:{ U 2(i !1l vi

8 INTRODUCTION This iii the Hecond FAO llubliclltioll regaedillg typeh and breeds of cattle. rrhc finlt dea,lt with Zebu Oattle of India nud Pakistan (J oahi and Phillips, lo/i8) and, as WHS pointed out in the introduction to tlult publica,tioll, FAO has been giving attention to the cataloguing of genetic stocks since.l04fl. Much of the work 1ll1S had to do with plant l!l'eeding material, purticularly rice, wheat 11:ud barley, and it, has ~heell -posl-i'i.)jle to issue only one llull1ication thus 'fur on genetic stocks of cattle. The lack of detailed information Oll the gelletic traits of cat-t,le was recognized when the first publictltioll wah issued, and thel'0 m'e ohviously many gflpk in existing infol'mt1tion. Pel'hf1pS one of the most uhefuj purposes of Huch a publicat,ion is to poiut out the gapr in ol'der thali resea.rch workers may undertake studios!dmed at, providing the missing informat.ion. In additioll to t,ite ovor-l1jl objective of cataloguillg informatioll on import,ant broods and t.ypor uf cattle, in urder that it mllj be genemlly av!tihtble to breederr in ttl! collntries, it must he recognized that mans' important, nut.ive typos 1\1'0 in dangor of heing lost or diluted through the marr intl'oduct,ion of other blood. This problem, in Africa as well a~ in A8ia l1ncl tho ]1'a1' East, wafi recognized Itt the Meeting on Improving l.. ivel:\tiock under Tl'ollicn.t nnd Huhklypical Conditiolls, whioh "ras held ill Lue]mow, Indil., in Hl50 (PhillipR, H)50). At that meeting it was recommended that governments should take Hteps to prosei've ~uch lllttive typek even though, in KOBle cases, t.he twimalh might he uneconomic hut might havo pokntial value foj' use in breeding experiments, Subsequent t.o the Luclmow meet.ing, FAG t,()ok Htep~ to e~tttljlish!til iiltergovel'mnenttll committee to U.RRist in the preparation of matel'iltl on the indigenous typen and lll'eods of cattle in Africtt. The conntriol:l which part,ieipated in the work of that committee and the men designated to serve on it, arc listed us follow:o:

9 GountnJ BELGIUM EGYPT FRANOE POR'rUGAL SUDAN (Repuhlic of t,h(j) RC<PI't'SC';Ltatill(Jt; Dr. It.,1. OUy!.H1X Conseillor v(',mriuail'l' Dir(J(li;ioll goj}llral {ill.m:inikl,r'n'o doh eoloniob Brnflsnl~ ]Jr, H. H,. F. Colhl\ck Vnterillftl'Y Ai.lviH'''' t,(] Llw (1nv{ll'lII'I'.Chmol'ai Ll.npoiclvillt\. BoigiHll Clongn Dr. A, H. Sklky Dil'oei;Ol', Allinml Broodillg Dt ' l'lil'j,iil"nt, (now l\nni~tt1r {If Agl"inuh'lIl'o} MiniAt,!,Y of AgrieIlH,llI'l', Cairo l\1011flh'\ll' li'oiluj;(\iij1 V ut,el'illai ['( <[nh]loclt,t 'Ill' gtllll'll'al ~VIiniHtc)I'(l elt' Ja Fran('" t]'mlj,j''''lil1'l' Pal'iR Dr.,JUBlI do Brit,1I (~llj,tij'i't " Dit'oec;uo Goml d" Ji'ollltmbn Colonial MiniRtOl'io (1111< OOiOlliHH, Liflholl Mr.,J, 1). M,.Jalde tllldan Ilot,ol'iwLl'V H"I'\' it.".khartolllll. 1'1'Of(:\HHIII'.1, H. H. HiHIi{\htlI' P. O. OndOl'Ht(I'flO(IJ'j,(. I'rllt".rin :ProfOS801' ]f. N. HUlIHmo. Agl'ioultlll'!tt HOH(\!ll'dl rilht,iltl(,{' i'l't't,(ll'itt UnivnrHit.y or 1'I'nt,ol'ilt, UNITED KIN(!DOM MI'..J..l:'. Malllo DiroctOl' (!OlnllltHIW{lltlt.h B\lI'{\flll of Allillmi Bl'OlJding HUt[ UOIII\(,i<IH King'A BliiltliHgH. W('Ht, MII,illH ]ij(linbmgh. N(I()t.lmul HOIMl ProfnRKOJ',r. N. Nit',lio\" Anima! HIlHhlHuh'Y Diviflioll UniVOl'Hil;y (!()l1ogo (if WII]"R AhnrYHt,wyt.h, Wal"H Mr. G. M, <IIII;"H VetorillI.LJ'Y. D('lllwj,IlI(ln I, Kllrilllll1, Nig(ll'ht Mr. D. g, ]t'!lllikii!ii' Dopltl'j,mlJtl't, of Vnj.(,dIHH'V H"I'\'i"('H Zomlm, NynHILi!tllti Mr.,J, C. HaallI Dnpl1rtrnont, of HeH"ltl'l'h Hilt! Hptl(\illIiHt: S('rViCDH.1'.0, B()x :lii, ('I\IIHt\Wlty (Nont,IICI"1l lu,"t]iirit\) 2

10 Material for the present publication has been assembled from the published literature and from many other S0111'Cel:l. Much information has been supplied by correspondents, and the main contributors are listed below, together with the names of t,he breeds 01' types upon which t.hey contrihl1tccl informat.ion: (Jont1'ibuto'r Agricultural Officer Departmellt of Agriculture Bambui, British Cameroons Agricult,ural Officer Dopartment of Agrieultnr!-' MUFmia, Siorra Lflono Mr. P. AlI1egeo Ohef do Itt circonseription d'elevago de Sokode 'fogo. l~rench West Africa Prof..r. H. H,. BiHScho}l DiviHinn of Votorinary SOl'vicos Dllpal't,Hlllnt, of Agricnlt,ul'o, P. (). (Ill! h'l'htf'poih'l, Pl'oi;oria, Union of Sont,h Africa Mr.,J, C. Black DOpl11'Lmont of Vctorinltl'Y S8l'vic'PK Mf):zalmlm. N orthol'n Rhoc]ollia Director of V utol'ina,ry Services I:C!LII1j)a,la, Uganda Dil'oetol', (Jtmtl'e federal till mchel'ches zootochniques HOl'vico do l'm!wo.go at rlos industries anima10r Bamako, Fronch Sudan, French ~Tsst Africa Dl', DI1fH.'Ol;(mr Oh()f!les SflctOUl'S occidentau'll: BOllar, Oubanguiohari, French I<:quHtorial Africa Mr. G. M. Gatos Vntllrinal'y Dflpari;rn!'nt. Nignria Dr. It, Gnyaux COllROillol' v!\t(\l'illl1ir!~ MiniHMl'(1 do", enlonioh, Ie 4emc Dil'ectioll gensral, lere Dil,(!)()tion, Agrienltul'o, foret-h, c\levagr et, colonisation 131' nl:l8 (,1[:1, Bolgiurn Mr. H. G. Hutehison LivORtock Hn1lol1l'ch 8t,lttion Vl.\l;orhmry H,liFHil1rch Luhol'at.or.y MpWft]1wlI, 'I'mlgltnyilm Dr. HOl'in Songa Farm,.H.tmndtt.Unmdi Mr. ;J, D. M. Juc\( f)u(1!tn. V ot,(lril1ltry S~rvice Khat'j;oml1, Sudan TY1J8 or B1'etld Arlamawa ~'DHnm West, Afriean Shorthorn AiricanclL'1' Basuto Nglmi Barotse Hnlwdi Mallro N'Dama M'Bororo ::.y['bol'oro 'Vest African Shorthorn Lugwal'e Nioka Ankole Tanganyika Shorthorned Zebu Ankole; BOl'an;,Tiddll Ankole N orthel'l1 Sudan Short,horned Zebu Nilotic Southern Sudan Hill Zebu 'l'oposa :M:mle 3

11 Contributor Prof. l'ii. J'.,lorf' d'.ai ell" lnstitut agrieole d'algerif.!. Ce.ntre de recherches 7.0otechlllqUl'~ "t vot.6i'in>1il'pn Maison-Carrf1e, Algiel's Me. R. Larl'et St'l'vice d('\ l'elevage d, tlph illdm{tl'il~h aniltlllll'r Saint Louis, Senega] 1111'. A. Lal!1l11W InspC'etioll gtjnt:'l'ille ck I'(>\p\'age ci'. 11"H indm;ll'ip>'l ftnirnalcs.i\iaclagascar Mr. J', J.\IeCI.l!loch Depari;nwnt, of Animal Health S[;l'vief'H Vom, Nigeria Mr, M.,T, I'ugnt. SL'l'vic('s do 1'6Ievag," rill SUlldall SoLulm. Bamako, Frend. :-;mhm. Fnmeh V{est, Afrie(l Dr.,J. PlllitzGl' ServicL' rio l'plevage Lome, Togo - Mr. T. K Hvall Shikl, Stock 'Farm Depl11'i'Illf'lli of Agricultul't', )iip:c'l'ia Mr, It. L. Heed Depart,mont of Agri<,,"HIU'" Muidllgllri, BOl'lHl, Nigeria MI', p.,r. :'lheehy Animal Husbandry Of heel' Contral H,,'sc-~al'eh I-l t-ati on,.mazabuka, Northern Rhod(,Ria Rervi[~p de I'elevage de la C6LlHl'Ivnil'l' Ivory ('oast, French "i\rest Africa Servim' ell" I'M['vugp de In Mallrituuip :Manritunia, Fr<'neh "Vest Afdea Serviee veu'j'innil'c' dll COllgO )wlg(' Belgian Congo Ik. 'l'rolllleroan Rervice de l\\levagt' du 'l'eltucl Fort Lamy. FrElnch ECJ natorinl ;\ fl'irm Mr. J, M, S. URhel'-WiIHUIl Agrieurtllml Departmont Vola, Aclamnwa Province, Nignl'ia Mr, C, H. "ivalkel' Animal HUHlmndrv ()ffl('ul' Depal'tmE'llt of V~tel'ina]'\' 8(11'l'i('('" Contral Re;;"f1l'ch Station' ~Ia'lahnka, N()1'thel'lt HholillHin T:IJ1Je or Hrr.c,r{ Brown Atla,.; Nu]wgnl 1ft( i Ala( lagl.thoili' ~"I'll AclalllllWH N1I(1<l11(1";(' Fllllllli \1' ('s t..i\jl'i, 'all Nllnl't.'liol'll A:1.I\( l\lltk Whitt' ]"ltlalli N'DaI11lL; Nnkllt;l Wl,sL Af'l'ieall 8hlll'Ll1IlI'11 i(mi HhIlWU, Angolli Hltl;lli,~,' N'I hulln WlIHi. AI'riull!l Nliol't,'itlll'lI AL11I1'I' N"lwg'1l1 1<'1 dalli L,lgWILl', Niokn )\likol( Klld lvl',iiiii'(ii'(1 Nllll\l'H AdHllHtW'1 'l'ough 1\ IIgnll i

12 The contrilmti0118 lu!tde ljy the!:!c Workel'R are gratefully acknowledged by the authors. The importance of ajavtability to the environment in cattle breeding hah been I:ltressed in other FAO publications, including the one dealing with zcbu cattle (Joshi and Phillips, 1053), and particularly in an ea,rlior Agricultural Study on the "Breeding of Livefltock Adapted to Unfavorable ]TInvironments" (Phillips, 1949). Therefore, 110 detailed discussion of this point will be undertaken hare, although it will he recognized hy the l'mtder that this importance of adaptability ih olle of the main collhideratio1l8 which justifies giving attention to the cataloguing of Cl1ttle stocks. Many of the existing types of cattle which have been developed in AfriClt m'e l1ble to survive f,nd produce reaholll1bly well under the l'igol"ons ellviromnentnl conditions in which they ar ltltinccl.this adallt!thilit.y lllay he of value in some cases in other areas having Himilal" conditions, quite apllrt from its usefulness under present conditions of livestock production in the native home:.; of t,jle respedive breecir or in the development of new types hu:!ed OJ!" ('rnhshreedillg hetween imported and native t,vpes.

13 METHOD OF PRESENTATION Information hns been pre~lmtecl un thoi:le typos and bl.'l'e(l" (Jf AfHean cattle which have been collsidered t,o be of' I:ltrffit!ien(; nnlll(~riliili importance and which are cleady diffel'entit1ted from ot.her type~; [l1h1 on which it has been possihle to collect, udequate llmterinl. For collvenience of prescntaliiol1 the cattle types Imvp IlI'(m IH'l'allged as described below. Without entering int.o detaile(l hi:-;t,orioal ovir'lolwe it should be emphasized that such [1 grouping on,1i only lin tentativo. Tribal migration;; n,nd nomadic movement.s a'l'(, ItBlOUg Uw fi1(,t01'o; which have militated agldnst the division of t.he r"lt,t;jo poplllnt.ion of the continent into cleurly defined breed gl'ollllh and {;lw tpltdolloy must he recognized for large nrmtr to be oceupied by eat,1,ln whieh aro intermediate between onp, type and n.jlother, or which ftl'e onl.y dihlcinguislmbl1l by differences in Hize and hody pl'oporl,iol1s riot.el'jllillocl hy 01(' lovd of the nutritional environment,mel in pal'tieuhtl' by 1.lw iiw.itic111co anti duration of recurring periods of Kulnnaintmmlloo (lxiri,oiw(l, The c[l,ttle of Africa h:we been plnced in (;he following gt'olljlh:.-.-_-a;..._ 1. The humpless or vestigially-humped untt.lt\ of l,\l!' 10w01' Nile valley u,nd Meditcrmllcnn Africa (F'jgul'(\ 2): n) The mottle of Egypt, ineludinfl: the Dmnioi.i'.a, Hn.III.di, Sl1idi and Mn,ryut.i b) The Lihyml cnwe 0) The Brown At.la;; cmmo of MOl'oceo anel AIg(\l'itL II. The zelmh of the tmi.lfhthal'ftll 11,011(\ (I~'igul'e Il), ~l'h(\sl\ (,tliit.le have many point-r of similarity with the Indo Pn.ldsi,an II,phus. Thi.: group may he Rubdivided ini,!): 1. Medium- fond short.-homed z8hns, of whitl!t tlw followillg typeh are described: n) The Adamttwa zebu b) The AZltouak zehl1 0) The Maure zebu d) The Northern Sud all ~h()rt.horntid ZdlU e) The Shuwlt zebu t) The Solwto zebu 6

14 2. Lyre- and long-horned zebus, including: a) The Fulanis, of which four types are described: i} The Nigerian Fulani (Zebu Peul nigerien) 'ii) The Senegal Fulani (Zelm Peul senegalais) iii) The Sudanese Fulani (Zebu Peul soudanais) iv) '1'he White Fublli b) The lv['bororo' III. The humpless, straight-hacked cattle of West Africa (Figure 4). Two types are described under this heading: a) The N'Dama b) The West African shorthorned cattle IV. The Kuri cattle of Lake Chad (Figure 5), humpless and with characteristic bulbous horns, which are considered as a separate group. V. The cattle of much of central and southern Mrica from the flood plain of the Nile in the Sudan, through southwestern Uganda and Ruanda-Urundi, to the Rhodesias, Bechuanaland, Swaziland and Basutoland (Figure 6). These cattle are characterized by large- or medium-sized lyre.shaped horns, small or vestigial humps and moderately sloping hindquar. tets, and are described under the headings: a) (fhe Allkole cattle of Uganda, H.uanda-Urundi, eastern Belgian Congo and Tanganyika b) The Barotse cattle of t.he western part. of Northern Rhodesia 0) The Basuto cattle d) The Nguni oattle of Zulull1nd and Swaziland e) The Nilotio cattle of the southern Sudan f) The Nioka cattle of the Eastern Province of the Belgian Congo a) The Nganda cattle of Uganda h) The Tonga cattle of the Southern Province of Northern l:thodesia 7

15 J<'wmtE ~. (A) Euyptian. MUTyuti., "all'; (B) EflYptian IlUll; Cattle in (Iron!! I. (0) Libyn/t COW; (D) Brown AI,las (mil. COl1rt~t.;y of Y. ~aht~t, S. 1,'al'i1l1ki. D. l<j. ~"'l,1i1klwl' und JOJ'll (PAl'{~l'f.l.l<'WUltE :I. Oattle in (h'01<p 11. rl'ightj (A) AdanWII,'(lm,. NuaunrlBl'e " cow; (B) Adamawam " Bcmyo" cow; (0) Azaouak cow; (D) N wlkern Sudan shorthomed zebu (,OlV,' (E) S()/a)to (low; (F) 8hwl1n OO'll!; (G) Whl:tC Ji'l6/nrb'i cow; (H),M'BororlJ ljow. 8

16

17 FIGUH]1J 4. Gattle.,in G1'01~'P I II. (A) LV' J)( 1)W 'liill.. (B) WI'IIt A jl'iea1l. 8/wl'l" /uj1"n lntlf.

18 FWUJm 5. CaUle in Gmup IV. (A) /(1tri bull; (B) Kuri cow. Conrtc"y of G. M. GaLes A/Hoem caw

19

20 VI. The cattle 1ypes of East Africa (Figure 7). The cattle of this nre!. would appear to form n, large heterogeneous population comporecl of of tan ill-defined groups mel'ging into one another ~Hld, in some cascil, into types which have been listed in group V, hut which au,tppefl,r to he proclnminantly derived from zebu stocks similar to those of the Indo-Pakistan peninsula. The following types are described in thi;; group: n) The Allgoni cattle of the EI1)';tern Province of Northern RhodcHia b) 'rhe Boran Cltttle of sout.hern Ethiopia, Somalia and c) el) e) f) (/) northern Kenya The Bukedi zebu of Uganda The Galla, Jiddu and TUlli catt,!n of Somalia The Lugware cattle of the Belgia.ll Congo ancl Uganda The Nandi cattle of western Kenya The Bout,hern Sudan Hill zebu h) The Tanganyika, shorthorned zehu i) The TOTloHn.-Murle catme of southeastern Snda.n VII. 'fhe AMc",nlte:r cattle of southem Africa (Figul'e 8) have been consiclcl'ed nr a distinet gronp. VIII. The Madagascar zebu (Figure 9), on [Lccount of the geographical il:loll1tion of its habitat, has been treated as a sepamte group. Photogrltl)hs of the (mttle types, arranged in this order, al'e reprodueed in Figul'!:'A 2 to ~) to illustrate the broad similarities in conformation between the types within each group. The informatiojl on each cattle type or hreed has been at'ranged under the following main headings and subheadings: Origin; Conditions in the native home of the breed; location, topogmphy and sous; climate; vegetat,iol1; management praco t,iccs; Physical oharacteristics of the breed; Functional charaot.erihticfi of the breed; Performanoe in other areas; Orosses with other breedr of cattle; Sourcel; of hreeding stock and i11fo1'nuttion regarding the breed. Literature referred to in the discnssion of each cattle breed or type is listed nt the end of the Imblication. FWUl1E 6. [left] CaUle in Group V. (A) Ankol6 steer; (B) Barot88 bttll; (0) Ba- 8ttto ImU; (D) Ny,toni bull; (E) NUotio bull; (F) Niolca bttll; (G) NganrIa bull; (H) '1'onga bttzl. Courtosy of C'ongopl'oss: J. G. 131aok, J. B. R. Blssohop. E. A. McLaughlin and R. Druet

21

22 FIUUltE H. Oaltle,in ((mul) VII. (A) A/Ticander bull,' (B) Africander cow. COUl'tCf!Y of FI\l'luel"'; \Ycckly Fmu:ItE 7. [left] Oattle in Oro'ltp VI. (Al Anaoni [lull; (B) Boran bull; (0) B1tiCCld'i lmll; (D) LugwcI1'() [lull; (E) Nandi cow; (F) Sm~them S'lZdan Hill zeln~ Imll; (0) 'l,'rmrf(f,nyilw Bh01 thm'llwl zeb!~ steb1'; (H) Toposu.lIi'Urle bull. (JOlll'toay of J, G. Blank, H, G. Hutollleon, Director of VctcrlUIlry Servlce", Tjgawln. MinlsU'1'O,1(\8 coloniea, BI'\IS~l'lR. Rnlvll W. Phillips find J. D. M. Jack

23 FIGnRJ~ 9. UnfUe in arollp T'.lII. (A).11{udn(Ia::ll'm' zidm bnll; (B) fllth"igubnt1' ZI!7Ht row.

24 Group J EGYPTIAN CATTLE Odgin Various authors (Epstein, 1933; Curson and Epstein, HJ34; Cursoll and Thorntoll, H136) who hme speculated on the origin of the native Egyptillll oattle m;sumc that they are derived from an intermixture of Hl~mitic mttte, humped cl~tt.le from Asia,,tnd shorthorned humpless Cl~ttlc whieh have been int.roduced from Asia and Emope. There ttppcal's to be it very close similarity between the cattle POPl1hltiollS in different rmrts of Egypt ahd for the purpo;,:es of this description they luwe been collhidered as a single type. Conditions ill the native home of the breed L()c(d'iu~l, topography 1I'lId soils Egypt o(l(mpies ~tb()ut a83,ooo squc1l'c miles, of which some H8,OOO are desert!tud 2(il,000 Hell1i-desert. With the exception of H, small number of cms(ls, the only productive land is that which is irrigable fmill the Nile. 1.'he Nile valley south of Cairo is considerahly lower than the desert and i~ ljounued hy barren cliffh ttnd hills separated from one another by the flttt, silt-covered flood plain whioh is never luuch more 1;lUlIl 12 milo.. in width and sometimes extends very little beyond the banks of the river. The easterh desert, whieh is monntainous and disflected by deep Vltll(lYs, approachea the river closely down most of the length of the valley, and it is only between Assiut and Luxor that there is any large tu'c(l of cultivation on the east Imnk. The western desert is lower, nndulilting llj1d falls more gently to the valley so that the chief cuitivlltion Iweafl, the larger towns, aucl the main communications are on the west ]lank of the river. Water can be found in wells and holes in the valleys of the el1stern desert but the westerll desert is nearly 17

25 w!tterle:3s "Wety from t,he line of OH:'lCS which occupy del'1'ehsioll~ nbfluti 100 miles west of the Nile. At Oairo, the Nile forms two bmuchcs which, when they manit the sea HiO miles further llorth, are 70 miles apn,rt. The alluvial Hoil of the delta of the Nile between and n,tound t.he:>e brrmelwio provide>! Egypt with its most fertile land. 'fhe settled and culdvahle ttl'ea cover:3 ahout 12,O()O squhl'o miieh, or 3 1)e1'cent of the whole aren, of the c:ollntl'y (Uell1111iJ, ]!l2h; Shnnt~, 1941; Hurst, 1952). While the conformation of the indigenouh (:att.le of Egypt Hppeal'S to be very similar in,til pn,rtf! of the country, th()hl~ of pn,l'tienlar area,", a,re referred to by differing local names. In Lownr ]~gypt, then' are two local typos, the Damiett!L hy the coaf:\t" n,ml the Iblmli or Httlwri inland in the delta,; in Upper Egypt in the Nile vl111ey t.he eati,lp al'(~ of the Sttidi t~yj1e; and the Mn.l'yut,i or Ara.bian entitle are ill the imlldfl of the nomadic or semi-nomadic tj'ibes ouj~it!o the il'l'ign(.wl Hl'!'HH (Figure 10) (OnrHon and 'rhornton, 1936). CUlnate A narrow st.rip of the north ooast of :Egypt hlth It V(1I'y arid Modii,('!'_ raneal1 climate. The winters are mild with a littlo <:loud nlhl mill (mel1l1 annual pl'ecipitfttion ati Alexandria hal;; hoon H illchoh, awl a1 Port Said, 3 inches) and t.ile HUlluncrH ItrCJ hot and dry. South of the eoa:;ta,l i:ltrip rainfall hc()omch llogligihh' 1\ud, {'\'('11 in the Nile delt!l, is inrlif'ficient for the gl'clw1,h of m'()l'h willloltl it'l'i. gation. At Oairo the mean anlllutl precipitatioll if! (lnly.1 inch, all of which OCCUI'S in winter. 'rhis small amount; of min, llowevclj', Illny fall in violent; storllls, during which hailston(1h exc:c(ldiug it pound ill weight have fallon. While winter tempen.tures at Cairo are [OWN' tlmll Oil!,jtO l'1)f\fil (the January mean hns been 54 0 F.) the SUll111Wr ih (:OllHidol'lLbly ho(;['.(,i'. Humidity is low. At Halwitll the mean l'oh.tiv() Jlll llii (iilv,whi(~h ih 41 percent in May, rises to its maximulll of or porcout ill Hnp!,{lJllh('I'. When the valley ih flooded by the high Nile, howovol', t.lw \\.'('aj,lwl' may be sultry and oppressive. During the spring, Lower Egypt is flubjeeli j,o an int,oi'1lli(,i,(1l1t. hu(" dry, dust-laden southerly wind, known 10c!LlIy <Lf:\ tho lchrt1n8in, whit:]) may continue for two 01' three dayh ttl 11, tim~, d\ll'ing Whitilt j,(llll}i(\i' atul'es lllay rise to llsa P. and the ail' mn,}' he!iiled wi!h fbw dllhj, pa,rtioles.. Cold northerly winds which oecu], durillg 1,110 WilJ({H' IOWP1' tempera.tures until the maximum daily teurpo)'atul'o may b(~ IH,Un 18

26 Fwum: 10. J~(jlJptl~tn cllttle. (A) Blt/adi bllll; (BJ 13n/adi cow; (OJ Damietta 7mll; (1)) Damietici cow; (E) Baldi blrll; (F) Sa'idi cow. 19

27 more than 60 0 F. The night:; are cold and water at, ground level may freeze. Upper Egypt (south of Cairo) has a clehert, dil~lilto. TI~e :sky ih clear throughout the year. Hain only ocours :tt :cory n'l'e ul~l' l~ltol'vah;; a violent storm during which 1 or 2 inches of ram llltty fuum 24 hours following a drought period which mny }ulve latlted f?l' '~s llluo~l a" 10 or 20 years. Daily and Honsonal temperatur~ ~'ange IH h~gh.. f:hu:ulllu' ma.xima in excess of 12()O F. have been expei'louced winle, III wmtcl', night frost may occur in the whole u,rblt. Climatological data for three st.atdons in IDgypt al't~ 1n'l'H(lllted in Table 1. 'rabllil 1. - CI~lj\[ATOLOGICAL DATA FOIt 1'nllEE 8~~A1~IONH IN Ji]GYJ."r Ale:rand"in Mean temperature, of. ",... 5G 57 GO Ii>! GU U :1 (17 (\11 t\,~ :Melln rainfall, in. 2.0 n.d U.~ 1.:1 ~.a 7.4 Oairo Melln temperature, of..., ;:;0 01 OR 7;"; HO ~1 HI 77 7i! (1[, n7 IIt\ Moan rainfall, in. 01) 0, n t1.~ 1.1..,IsBiut l\-ien,ll tempcl'jltul'c, of.., GO O!l 7~ 80 S l ~n H,l.Meull rainfall, In n,:.!.._- SOUfum: Kondrpw. 10G _-_.. _-_ _ Vegetution Away from the oahoh ltlld the Nile thcro j,; imnlhi{lil,nt, Hoil WI~t('L' for!tny but ephemeral or xerophytic vegetlttioll. Muoh of tho nro<1 is banen desert only producing short-lived plant" ttftm' tho ()e(:h~iontli fall of rain. About 261,000 square milm; cal'1'y dt1hort Hhl'uhf:t,: whieh, in some arear, are elose enough together to provide lll'll\v:-ling :I~))' livustock. In the southeast thcro is 1m [won. of ACIl(.:ia,.<iosol't. gi'll.'1h whieh occupies about 14,000 square miles and provicle8 the IH_'HI. gj'allill,ll: land in Egypt. The irrigated land is intensively f!tl'lllcd nllt! ovel' 1I11wh of the area, two and sometimes three croph a yellr LLre tltkou thnn the htud. During the wa.rmer pnl't of the year the principal ('l'op,'1 are (!otton 20

28 (the most important oash orop), maize, sorghum, sugar oalle and rice, while in the winter, wh(lat, harley, beans and Egyptian clover (:hifoli~ltn alexandrimtm) and other coolweather allnual crops are grown. Dates, citrus, vines and n, variety of subt,ropicn,l fruits and vegetables arc grown extensively (Shantz, 1941). 1Ylanagernent p1'actices Although larger estate:-; exist, more than half the agricultural holdings in :Egypt are of less than half an acre and the average area is about 2 7'3 acres. While the land is ctwefully H,nd intensively cultivated, methods and implements are primitive, the fa~s, 01' hoe, heing used for almost all agricultural opel't1tio1l8, from digging to ridginghup u,ll(l weeding. A simple wl)oclen plow shod with iron is drawn by oxen or buffaloes. Threshing is ca1'l'ied out hy dragging a sledfn,rmed with cutting discs, similar to those of It di:;c-harrow, over the cnt wheat!or Imrley and winnowing the hroken hoads ltndlstraw. The straw and chaff if.! carefully collected for livestock feed. Cattle lt1'e maint.ained nlmost exclusively ak dntft iwimals, being em11loyed on tilhtge oporations, threshing, ltnd lifting water hy mealls of the saqiy[(, or Persiltn wf1ter wheel. 'I'he buffalo is the milch nnimal of Egypt, cxceptlin the vicinity of :;onlo of the larger towi1l"{ of Lower Egypt where herds of imported Europettn oattle are maintained and the Egypt,ian oow is not usually l'ogm'ded as a source of milk. Beef is supplemented by call1el meat and SOUle 25,000 camels, llutny of which are imported from Libya, the Sudan and Arabia, are sll1ughtere(l each year. The f(nv cattle that l1re kept by the nomadic tribes awa,y from the Nile valley suhsist entirely on natural grazing. In the irrigated areas, however, all the land I:; 'cultivnted and, in t,he absence of pasture, livestock arc maintttillcd on crop l'el:!idllcs and Egyptian clover. The clover grows luxuriantly Itnd, during the few months that it occupies the land, i8 cnt. four OJ' five times for feeding green to the animals, 01' for hay. Altel'lUttivllly, it may be gruzed, each animal heing tethered to tt l)eg by l\ mpe long enough to permit it. to graze an area of clover Anfficient for ita daily requiremelltr (Hul'l>t, 1952). Physical characteristics of the breed l~gypt.ian Cttttle [we medium-sized, long-bodied animals, lean of l1luscuhtture and lightly boned. The head is of medium length, the face i8 lean and the profile is straight or very slightly convex. The 21

29 orhital arches are :::lightly accentuated, giving it :::lllall (h~gl'l~(,. of concavit,y to the forehcad. The poll is flat and t,]w horll:'! am RllOrt; ami "row from the poll latera']1y, curving forward HO t,hat t.lwil' inelinatiull <; "pproximatcly at right Hngles to t,he line oj' the p,'ofilo. Tho oar;; are of moderate :-;ize and nrc carried more 01' 10RH llorizollj"ldly. The neck is of medium length and tend:;, ill t.lw felllalp, (,0 be Icall. The dewlap and umbilical fold nre i:lllmll. 'ehe el'()s(, ih :l(:enlltuated in the bull but it i:; ouly in the S,tidi :;ubt'ylw t.lut(, It. I-Ulmll (:(\l vi(io thoracic hump is appa,rellt in (;}w female. The hody is long wit,1t ollly moderate depth and Uw ribs tend to he flat. '1'lw (,ul'liuc dips ill its central part hetween the withers,tne! t,he pl'oll1irwnj, hook honos and the bottom line rises thlln front to rom'. 'rhe i'1illl}! ik of very 1Il0(lt\l [~ttl slope and the llccelltuated tltil setting 1:-; orton highor Limn (.1((1 witlwl'f;, The tail is of moderate length. ~rl10 t,highh 101'0 lbt aihi t,ho Jilll hk are long, lean [tnd lightly boned. The llslml eon.[; colomtioll,'arioh from fawn to red. The average hirthweight of 140 male cnlvllh ill Uw 11(11'(1 ()f 1 h(,!!'noilily of Agriculture, University of Cairo, was kg. an(llhm or I:HI rollin In,..; was kg. (Asker [mel nag!,h, 101)2). Functional chal'actcl'istics of the breed Various eslimates of the average!i,ge of J~gY}l( ial1 h(,j f('['m 11,(; tlw first calving hnve becn: 3)Ul8 month!> (AHlwl' awl Hagah, 1.1)1)1), 2.86 years (Asker et al., (054), and :~4.:3 lllout.hfl (H,agah d (11.. I!li,)4). Bulls in the smne herd were very litt,lo m~ctl fol' HOI'vi(:(\ 1)(\1'01'1' (.hoy were 3 years of age (A: ;!wl' awl Ragnh, 1OIH). 'eho [ovprago (Ialvillg interval in the hm'd was 1.15 years ltnd the avpmg(! Tll'odud,iv(l lil'u of cows covered 3.5 laetations. The lwol'age age or (iows ('alving ill the herd wns 5.78 years (ARker I'.t Itl., 1.!J134), Tho av('l'ng(' goht.n(,i(lu periods in the,mmc herd were d,tyh (4138 calvillgk) ['ot' IlHde calves and (l!tyh (807 calvings) fol' fclllltle (~nlv!'h (Hagah IlIHl A:;ker, 1951). Asker and Hagab (H)5.l), in 1U1 illvehtigat,ioll (Ill i.lw gt'lh'['a(,ioll inkl'vnl in the Univ~rsity of C!ti!'o herd of Egypt,inn oal,t.le whi(:h tnllhl'n(:(,(l Llw reoords of 228 malo!tiul 2:18 fellh,le cat.t.le, li)\l\ld (,Imt. {,I[(, ILV(ll'ago generation interval was 0.10 yelh s. The illt(~"val}-i I )(\(.\\'0[ III Hi n:.h())i, sire.daught.er, dam-ron, and dnnh.htughtpl' \\'01'(\ (i.:2:l, (j,:l\l. 1i.74 awl 5.85 years respectively. As~(Cr et al. (195/)), in it siwiy of the elrod, oj' ('ullblg ill j,ll(! UUiWI'Hit.y of Cairo herd fonnd that the average,vil'.ld of Ji"H(. ladnl i011h W/tfl 2,253 lb. (102 recorda), second laetntiolls, 2,851i Ih. (00 ['(.\(.:mt!h), t,hird lactatiollh :~, 150 Ih. (71 reeoi'c1h), and fourth luulaliulls a,2fi7 JI,. of 22

30 milk (49 records). Ragab et (d. (lh53) estimated that, the beritabilit.y of total milk yield for the first lactations was Asker et al. (1952), in an investigation of the effects of exposing :Egyptia,n cl1ttle to sun, found that when tested all three days during which the average air temperature and reltttive humidity were F. and 46 percent respeotively,""the average heat tolerance coefficient of ~ cattle according to Rhoad's (1944) method was 91.5 percent, the normal body temperature of the animals l)eing F. and the average body temperature after being exposed to the sun for two huul's, F. The average body temperature of the cattle during March when the average air temperature and relative humidity wcre F. and 62 percent, was taken as the normal body tempera.ture for the purpose of the experiment. Sources of breeding stock and iuformation regarding the breed A herd of Egyptian cattle is maintained by the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cairo. Further information regarding the native Egyptian cattle can be {)bt[~ined from: The Director, Auimal Breeding Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Oairo, Egypt. l'ho Dean, Faculty of Agrioulture, University of Cairo, Egypt. Origin LffiYAN CATTLE!. 'J'l10 following acoount of the oattle type has been compiled from m~tol'i!tl presented by E'aulkner (1956), who refers to the cattle as the Indigcnolls Libyan Shorthorn. The LihYHlll cattle are considered to be derived from shol'thorned humpless cattle whioh are thought to have l'el\ched North Afl'ica from Egypt in early historical times. Conditions in the native bome of the brccli Location, topoili'g,phy and 8oi~~ With the exception of!1 few animals at oases in the Fezzan, cattle are only kept in the more settled areas of the coastal zone, the jebel or low mountain area, and in parts of the semi-arid J efara plain between the coastal belt and the jebel area. 23

31 The coastnj zone bordel',~ the Libyi11l (:O!Ult along ith full length ami varies in wiclth from the negligible t,o 18 mil('r. 'I'll(> mmsllinq ir low and is characterized hy bi'tjken linch of Rand duller, salt. wai.c't lag()ollh and fmlt marshes. The!:loils mo, except ill llorj-,hpl'll (~yl'(\lln.it~a whero clays predomim1te, sandy and of low fi~rtiliby, Tho l'!lillfall, augmented by irrigation frolll ::;ha,llow wf'lls, ih i,;ufjir:iont. to Huppn]'l, It eoilsiderable degl'ee':,'of crop and fruit pl'oduot;ioll. In Tripolitmlia, the coflstal zone mel'gcl:i into t.lw Honli'!Ll'id ~Jofnl'lL plain, 14,000 square miles in area, which sepnl'ni',cr it. from 1.11{\ johd area further inland. Although pm't of t.he plain,is cnlt,iva(,cd by llwuilh of irrigat.ion from wells, luuch of its area can only he ured H,i'l (JxtOl1Hivo grazing. The ;plaill lying inland of the coilstnl I:ltl'ip in CyrOlHLi(~!t ik composed of " white-earth" soils -which, with a highor humnh nolltullt than many of the coastal soils, for111 the nmjnl' bal'iey-p'j'odneillg Ill't\!t of the country, Roughly parallel to the coast., hut. with n llreltk ill it::; {:(\n1ml llh.],'!; so thltt it forml'l two blocks extending into Libya. from 1;lw IHLH(lH'1l nthl westem frontiers, is"~an 'm'ea of low monnlainr (jeboj~) whi(:h, howpyoj', even in its Cyrenaican section which is highor than tlmt ill ~L'l'ip()li( 1111ia, does not. exceed 762 meters in elev!ttion. The t.o}logmphy in j,ypin!tlly that of gently rolling hills!hid isohtted grnhs-l'ov<:rod. plu'lo!tllh, III Cyrenaimt tho hills have red and hin.ck Rcilentl1l'Y HoilH dmivcd 1'1'0111 the underlying limestone, South of the jebel a.reas the eountry is lil'lw dphol'ii and ( hl' l'llinf'all is insufficient to provide grazing for catt.le. Climate In the northern pa.rt, of Libya, the gl'el~t()l' l)(~r(, of till' 1l111I1Hd rainfall occnrs ill winter with the heaviest fnils in nlo iihl'oo (\old('~t. lllonthh of December, Junmtl'Y and February. ~I'h(l dry flo!lhoil nxtundh from May to October and in June, July ftnd AllguHli pnwillit'lvt.ioll i~ nogligibh The seasonal and annual vm'iat,ioll ill l'll.inf!tll, llllj.'(,i(~\llal'ly ill TI'iJloli. tania, is very considerable and periodic dl'onght:,j OliliUI' whidl 1:1\\11-11\ severe losses both in crops nnlllivohtoek. At Sidi JYltlNri, for iilhjilihk~, there were 73(i.4 mm. of nlin ill 1038, while ill t.ho })l'o(lodhtg Y('IU' (,)Jere had only been H17,2 111m, Rainfall in Oyrellaiea tollclf.1 t.(i II(' bohh higher!.and less variable than in Tl'ipnlitltllin.. In bot.1t Pl'(lVillliflH j,l1o coastal f!lcer of the jebel areas reeoive the highort millf'nh ill t.lw,(,,(l,l'i'ii,oi'y. While humidity is generally low throughout, Libya, i:lw pl'oximity of tho Mediberrftnean results in higlwl' values b(~ing obthlllod in tho coastal zone, particu1a.rly neal' 'f'ripoli [1ml in tho llorthlll'll pltj'i; of' Cyrenaica, 24

32 MOHJl tomperatures during luuch of the year, although modified in tho cmtsta.l zone by the effect of the Mediterranean and in the jebels by altitude,!we genel'l111y high throughout Libytt. There is, however, a considerable seasonal variation between the hot dry season when air tempemtures exceeding 43 0 C. have been recorded, and the winter when frost lll!ty occur for a few days each yeltr. Mean monthly temperatures are in excess of 18 0 C. in most places for six to eight months each year and, during four to six months, are higher than 21 0 C. Very dry, dust-bden southerly WiuelR (ghibli) from the Saham mfty have a severely desiccating effect on growing plants with a consequent reduction of crop and l)asture yields. These winds, which blow intermittently throughout the year, are most frequent in spring. Olinmtological data for representative stations in both Tripolit.tLnia and Oyrenaica in the collstal, semi-arid and low mountain zones are presented in Table 2. Ve.getat io'n The coastal zone in Tripolitania and the adjacent parts of the Jefara plain into which it merges are covered with herbaceous vegetation and annual grasse::; during years of good rainfall. On the plain itself the vegetation includes st,unted asphodel!tucl jujube (Ziziphus lotus) treefl or shrubs. The millfall is sufficient for the cultivation of olives, almonds and barley; where irrigation water is available, dates, citrus, vegetables, barley and grounduuts are grown. Between the coafltal area,s and the jebels, in the semi arid plain, the perennial vegetation consists of scattered herbs ttnd sl11'ubh including Oamxylon artic.ulatum, Daphne gnidium, Ohenopodium spp., Artemisia lw.rbrt alba, A. campestris, and asphoclei. In years of good rains there is!til ephemeral grass cover including B1 om'l.ts I;pp., Poa spp. Loliurn spp., a::; well as some legumes such as lotus, Astragalus spp. and M edicago spp. The lhttnr~tl vegetation of the nol'thern part of the Cyrenaican J;!.lateau if:! low hut relatively dense forest (maochia) dominated by the junip~r (Junipe~'us phoenicia) llud the lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus). During tho rains annual grl\sse>i, including Bromus spp., Phalaris spp., Poa ~pp. and.loliu,?n spp. ltppear in open spaces. The carob tree grows natnrally in nol'thorll Oyrenaica. Barley, wheat, olives, almonds and grapeh are among the crops grown in this area. In the jebel areas of Tripolitania the vegetation, as a result of the Hlllaller rainfttll, is sp~lrser and of a more reduced habit than in Cyrenaica. The platenus are generally covered with grassland of similar species to those which are represented in Oyrenaica and hilltops tend to be bam of phmii cover. Olives are grown extensively, all well as cereals and figs. 25

33 -'-'~-_-" ---_ 'l'abl:f; :!. CLIMA'l'OLOGWc\L DATA FOR ~JX 8'l'ATIONI:l IN LlBYA rruipoll1'.\.:";i.\ (~O_\81' (Hi.~Il,.al"l l\ieau III a xi HI.-HIll t(~lnpr~ra.tur(}. "C. 17. II I~.i" ~1.1I ~~-() ~tj. ~ :.!!),Ii ;JI.n a:i.1l :ll. 1 :!~ H ~.!.f) J!I.!~ ~;}. oj. ]'lean minimulu tem}tcraturf', un. lui I. d 11.1,1 1:!.7 1.;. a I~.a :!().'i ~l.h :2(),H 17.0 l:i.s 0.0 [.I., l\iean t<ji1;t]jerntlll'l'. QU ~.1 l;l,tl ][l.7 18.:\ :.!(I,7 2!.O ~1I_:1 ii',,1 :'!5. 1 :.!1I.7 IS.II 1 1. ~ HI. i Mean re1atin' IlIlmid!t,y, U'.. 0; (l:! Iill ijo ;,l'-: Oil.;)!I Ii:.! 1i:1 ot (i 1 Ii;, Metlu I'ainfall, lun). a:!.(j :ll.:'i 1:1.0 (i.n.1. :\ I.:l 11.0 Il.Ii 11.8 :1.[, W H 1. 17_ 1 J.Jfl.W (Oarilll') M'!Fx r.'jx Mean luuxilullill telnporntul'e~ oj(', l~.o H.l 17. t) ::!2,;-' :!H.B :W, n :1:.!.5 a:.!.!:j. ~n.h ~ri. i) :),:> :!a. ~:.! l\lean luinilllulu teiupel'aturc, ()(~. 4 ' n.:! i.k ll.~ 11.7 Itl :1 ~O.H ls.2 1[' :1 '1~.tI l\icnn ternpcl'atul'e, C ~ j H.R [lui ~(),H 2 ~. a :l<l.. \ 20.8!~.L lfi.~ U.U L~,~ Menu relative IIllmiilit.y,,>' fl7 G! 18.1Il :1().11.. '" 2H :lii :11 :1(1 1:1 11:1 r,,~ 1:1.1 ~IeHn rftillfnll~ nun. 7n.-l- rl~. 7 4;; !l..J. ~.~!l.7 Il.H I!!. (I!!O. j 1 1..j r,!.] :1:1::'1 SICMI-DI';SEllT (Mbl,,) ],{ellil lllllx I III 11 III tumpcl'iltul'e, (lc. lo.~ 1~.\1 ~1.0 ~K,7 :11. :1 :Hl.:1 :1:-;,:; :1',..\ : :,!,"I,11 ~a,fl ~'j.k lueu.n lui Uilll HIll temllcl'atul'o, 00,.1.0 f).~ ~.O 1') ;;. () 10.0 ~ >:\. :1 1 1.:: JlI. 1 fl. I) 1~ \I Menn thrnpcmt,ul'e, 0,... 1Il.1 l~.o ~:L.I ~M.l :!O. i 2H.O ~n.1 ~l.\ 111.\1 11.1I!!1I.1 Meltn relative 1mmldity,,>' fl7 G2 tg :18 :u 3" a~ :J.I 11 IS.,.[ ;,7 la. "; Menn rainfall. mrn (i.u :Lf-i 1.\1!l.1l I.:) fi.:l :2.7 II.S U.7 1I:l.1l 1... _ --- '-~'-'--'-- - 2(}

34 TABLE 2. - CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA FOR SIX STATION IN LIBYA (continued) _~_---,--I_~_' -,-I_~_~--,I,--~~_~_, ---,I_~!_I_~ _' _! ~!_I_:_~_._I ~ I ~ I ~ I i-- CYRENAICA C'OAS'r (Dc1'>w) Mean maximum temperature,.c , , R Mean minimum temperature, C 7.7 s.::! ~1..t :n.g 20, G Mean temperature, ,6 1~,1 14, :l.U 22.,j Menn relati"vc ]lumiclity, % (10!i2 50 fil 57.3 Meanrainfull.mm. (\fi :2S (I.!-\ n.8 n.l !i 2U.R 1:L Low MOUN'rAIN (Em'ee) l\ic!m maximllin tomperature, 0U. la.s 1U,O a 28.3 :n.fi :31.5 ~n.o!11.1 ~8.2 2: ':14.0 Meun minimum temllornture, C i 5,R W.O loa Meun temporature, ,4 It.O H,.K W :3.U :22.4 2~.H :20.::! HI Ii', '; Mean relative 1mmi<lity, %..,.. 74 io 00 Jij fia (,7.3 Mcltllrainfnll, JUJU XIl.O 4" 0 17,0 n,1 1.~ (I.a :10.2 ;'0.i118,0'11\4.8 SJolMI-DEF.lERT (SollIe") 1\'}0(\11 lunx i III U In toulperature, ,1i 1~.1 ~1.11 ~II, ~ :ll.o :l3,r '.14.1 :34.0 :1~.' ,.:1 19,i 26.9 Mean lllinimnm tmnper[ttllre, UC. 5.0 n.b ~.B 11.1 H.7 17.:1 IS,1l 1~.1 17.U ,3 7.ij 12.0 Mean tcilll'01'h,tnrc, DC : ~ 2t'i.G 'lti ]!L7 HLI:I Me(1u relative 1m luidit.y, % on 5R fiu 7;! 54.0 Men11 ralnfo1\, lum ,[ l,o 2.,0, 0.4 0,1 0.0!LO , ~ ~ :. :.:. -_:_ SUUHUE: D'nulkllor, lfrican ('(lute.

35 FWUHE 11. Lihifan heifer (I/Jout 4!}NtI"S olt[ (height (l.t witlwl"~, 106 1:111,.) liseil for plowing on an AmI) h()lding in the irri{latcrl IttWIN oj thl' c(){{ntrd zo/w hi, Tripolitania, JI!tnrl(Jement pmctil:r.s In the co<tsl:ill strip and the adjacent pnxth of tho plain th(1 )toldingk are Hllmll, seldom exceeding 7,teres in "rca. CropK lire growll nndf:'l' irrigation, the witter for which ih dmwn from slwllnw WOllK, nsll!1lly from 5.5 to 7.5 mej;o1'b doep, by allimltl power IJltl'Uy, mhl ill Tripoli. tania almost entirely, provided by mtttle which are nihil utilir.ed a~ draft animals for plowing the h1llcl (FiguJ'e 11). While sedentary agl'ienltllre ir well doveloped in tho emthtal 1tl'(,ilS of Tripolitania, It large proportion ofthe population in tho corresponding parts of Oyrenaic<1 remain nolllltdic or semi noll1mlio, po~hihly owning it few ditte palms lletu' the COl,Kt, growing their barley on the,plains and jebels during t.he mins, and seasonally moving their livehtock in search of grazing nllll wnter. Cattle are llot kept in larg() numhprk. A cn)tivn,tm: seldom lll1,i11- t,lins more than one 01' two hflf1d of on,tt.le and j,h(\ Hemi.ll()lllfld, (\xc:ept in parts of CYl'Gnnica, has only comparatively Rnmll hcl'd~, the gl'em,el' part of his wcalth being in his very considci'ltble fl()c:k~ of Hhccp, While co,ttle!h'e given precedence over the other chlrsea of livchtoek for the limited supplies of water, the pmct,ice of hobbling t,he n,niml1,]r to prevent their straying and of leaving them in the charge of HmaU girls near the homestead or tent, tends to result in the intake of' grazing being restricted to below that required for the propel' development and ma.intenance of the lmimals. Faulkner (1956) ObHOI'VeH thut 28

36 phosphate/calcium imhalance, phosplutte deficiency and vitamin A deficiency arc undoubtedly present, as a result hath of the soil stfltus and the very low plane of llutl'ition dtll'ing most of the year (Figure 12). 'ivh.cre the cult.ivat,ecl holding;.; [11'e scattmerl the cat,ue al'e maintained Oil natural grazing in t,heir vicinity, but, where little land remains uncultivfbted it llecomcs necessary to devote a propcll'j-,jon of the irrigation w[,ter to the productioll of stook feed. Although their milk n.nd meat, is utilized, drttft i~ t,he prime purpose for which cattle [11'e kept in t,he cult,iva.ted areas. On the jebel [,re,18 in Cyremtica arc found the only hwge herds of cattle, which are the foundation of an export trade to MaJt.a and elsewhere, In 1054 a total of 3,022 head of mtttle were export.ed frolll Libya, 2,877 of which were received by Maltlt, the ronw,indel' going to Egypt, (120) and ItRly (25). In t.he period , 11,404 hoad of cattle (including cllives) W!:leo shwghtcred ltt the nulin populat,ioll centers in Libyn" Physical characteristics of the breed The Libyan ~horthol'ilcd caule al'e small, humplchk, lightly bum anilll[ljs (ll'igurer 13 and 14). The head ifl of moden.te length with its greatest, width Itt t,he level of t,he eye~, a wide muzzle and a straight to fllightly concave profile, 'I'he forehead ir flat 01' Rlight.ly concave. FWUJUi) 12, Libyan mule fjf(lzin[j 'in deagj t scrub. Courtosy of D, 1iJ. Fllulkllcr

37 FIGURE -13. A ~Li7Jy(Ln bu.ll at the Mazzotti.Ea:perimcntal Statiun near Bfwche in Oyrenaica. FIGURE 14. Libyan cow (hbight (I,t withers, 1.18 em.) ltndcl' (/ood 1!7111'itionat conditions at the 8irli ' It'lJperimental Statiun. Conrt.e~y of D. lil. ll'111,llmer

38 The. ears are short!1nd rounded a,nd arc carried horizont.ally. The horns are thin and ahout 10 to 26 cm. in length, circular in cross sectioll and ending in hlunt tips. The usual hom color is oream hut the tip is invi1ri(~bly bltwk. The poll is mmally covered by a quantity of fairly long ht1ir. Tho neok is short aml well a,tt.aol10d to the Rhuuld{ws and brisket. The HllOnldcl's are compact hut t,he withal':'; tend to he high. AlLllOUgh the ribs tend to be flat the abdomen is usually of good capacity. The body is long and somewhat lacking in depth. The topline often flhows a Rlight depressioll over the middle. The rump is 101lg Imd lean, some. what narrow, [tnd tendr-; to slope downwardr from the prominent hook hones to the narrow pinhones. The tllii setting is prominent and is often higher than the withers. The tnil il> o;lendel.' wit.h a well marked colored switch which reaches woll helow the hocks. The dewlap, for it non.zebu, il> weu developed in a considera.ble proportion of these cat,tle. It, is thin and sometimes ends in two sepa rate folds hetween a.nd hehind the front limbs. The umbilical fold and sheath nre also well developed for non zehus. The ~(,highk llre Ila1'1'OW and poorly fleshed. The limbs nre fairly well placed, of llloderate length,,mel are very TIne i\nd light of holle. M,tny!tnimftls Rllow ft tendency to sickle hocks. The hoofs are reln,tively lttl'go ltnd, though well formed, are often overgrowll. 1'he udder if> small hut well shaped with small well-placed teats, and is strongly attached. Thc skin is t.hin and pliable [tnd is of black, light brown or red pigmenta,tioll, 'rhe muzzle is usually black. The hair is fine but there ir n, seasolhti v!triation between the rough, harsh winter coat and the normal coat which is seen in summer. The most common coat colors t1l'e whole fawn, reel or black. Red or fawn animals, espe. cially lmlls, often lliwe some degree of black 011 the head, hindquarters!lncl legs. Black ih pal'ticuhwly common around the eyes, on the head ancl elws, [tncl on the lower pal'tfl of the legb. A pn.lc hair ring around the llmzzlc!wu It rmle stripe down the back of a d!lrk colored o.nimal are frequently seen; white patcher AOllletimes occur on the abdomen (md udder. The avemge bil'tlnveights of male and female calves at the Sidi Mesri Experimental Stiation were 18 and 15 kg. respectively. The avcmgo liveweight of mature males at t.hc samc sttttion was 400 kg. and that of mature femaleh, 325 kg. The average livcweight of mature ca.ttle hrought to the Tripoli almttoir for slaughter was 280 kg. while the Im'gest animals weighed about 300 kg. Other estimates of u.verage live weights also given by Faulkner (1956) are: COWB, 270 kg., 290 kg.; bulls, :180 kg., up to 450 kg. 31

39 The average. height at withers of 14 llhlture cows a,t, Tripoli llutrket was lll.o cm. with a range of to cm. At Soko Jmna market near Tripoli ll further 14 mature cows had. [Hl averltge height at withers of cm. with a range of to em. A mature bull which was measured at Sidi Mesri Experimental Station measured CIll. height cl,t withers, 152 cm. length from shoulder point to pinbone, and l(l3.0 cm. heart gil th. Five nuttme cows were measured at the same station. Their average llleahurements were: height at withers CIll., length Ii. om Nlwllider point to pinbone em., and hellrt girth cm. Functional characteristics of the hreed No information has been received as to the agc at which cow" calve for the first time. It }las been reported that, [tlthough no general life statistics are available, there is locoj agreement thllt even nnder poor conditions they calve regularly at yearly intervals. The mean lactation yield and duration, derived from :31 reeordh made by cows in the herd of the Sidi MCiU'i Experimental Station, was 2,829 lb. of milk in days. The maximum daily yield was 24.2 lb. In Cyrenaica it was reported thn,t it war common for cows to give about 9 lb. of milk daily for appl'oxinmtely four lllonths. Analyses of 147 milk samples at Sidi Mesri gave an average butterfat content of 3.2 percent. Faulkner (1956) observes that, given reasonable feeding conditions, the Libyan cattle appeal' to fatten easily, killing out at 45 to 55 percent and yielding meat of reasonably good quality. '1'he fat it!, however, pool'ly distributed, being put OIl suhcutmlcously 11,nd around the kidneys. The cattle are docile and easily trained for (lmn, work. None of the severe epizootic diseases appeal' to occur in Libya and ticks are rare under the prevailing environmental conditions. Faulknor (1956), however, mentions that cases of piroplarmosis and trypanosomiasis are occasionally reported. Tuberculosis, which is oommoll among imported breeds, is of rare occurrence in the indigenous cattle. Anthrax: and rabies occur throughout the country, while qual'tel'-evil appears to be confined to OYTeualcn. The incidence of oysticorcosis, strongylosis and echinococcus is high. Ringworm alid pl1mtyphoicl are commonly diagnosed in calves. 32

40 Sources of breeding stock and information regarding the breed Faulkner (19;'i6) reports that the total number of cattle in Libya l~ 63,000. The indigenous Libyan cattle could be expected to fol:m the lal'gest group cont,rihuting to t-hh; total. Further information Oll the Libya,n eattle CUll be obtained from the Director-General of t.he Ministry of National Economy, Tripoli. Origin BROWN ATLAS For the purpose of this dehcriptive l\ccount the term "Brown Atlas" has been understood to embrace the indigenous cattle types of TuniRin, Algeri}.)' and Morocco. It appcars probable that the Brown Atlas cattle are derived from types which have been established in the arell from very ancient times. BooS 1Jr'imoaeniu,s rnau1'itanicu8, which was discovered hy Thomas in North African quaternary deposits, is thought to be the main ancestral stock (Dechamhre, 1922). Bas-r(~liefs, dating from the Homan occupation of the area, show heads of cattle which flppear to be essent.ially similar to the Brown Adm; of the present day and it would seem reasonable to assume that thero has been little modification in the conformation of the indigenous mtttle dul'ing historic times. More recently, however, French settlers, in an attempt to increase the productive ability of their herds, have introduced exotic stocks, including most of the French breeds, which have been so freely crossed with the indigenous cattle that Brown Atlas cattle which show no signs of any such admixture have now become rare, at least in Algeria, An attempt was made toward the close of the nineteenth century to form an organization for the preservation!lnd improvement of t.he local cttttle in Algeria, Little interest was, however, aroused and ~he movement did not receive sufficient support to permit its continuance, No further steps were taken in Algeria until 1942 when an experimental breeding station was initiated!tt Kroubs neal' Constantine which included prominently in its program the prescrvation of the Brown Atlas and an investigation into its productive potentialities. The herd at this station, whioh included in 1951, 3 bulls, 20 cows, and young stock, is one of the few surviving groups of purebred Brown Atlas cattle in Algeria (Jore d'al'ces, M. P., Personal Communication), 33

41 Conditions in the native bome of the breed Location, topo({l'aphy and soils Brown AtlaR cattle are distributed along the Atlas complex of mountain ranges in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. The elevlttion of the mountains and plateaus varies from 900 meters 1,0 4,000 meters. Olirnate. The climate of thoso parts of Morocco and Algeria in which CiLttle can be maintained is of the Meditcrmne!tn type with a winter rainfa.ll and a hot dry summer. ']'hc summer climate on the Atlantic (mast of Morocco is, however, modified by the cool Canaries current, so that july temperatures are commonly below 70 0 F. and the high humidity and fairly frequent fog and low clouds relieve the drought which affeebs the remainder of the area. In winter the westerlies bring min. III Janu,try mean temperature all the coast is about 18 0 F. lower, l1nd inland BOO F. lower than in July. Snow ltnd frost occc1flinnn.lly OO(\\U' in the north, the seawltrd slopes of the Atb~ moulltrlins being SIlOWcovered for most of the year. Eltst of the Stra,its of Gibraltar higher tempera.tures two experienoed in summer, the illcftll temperature on the Algerian coi~sl; in t;}l0 hottest month, August, being about 75 0 F. About 80 peroent of tho annual rainfall occurl-l in the winter-half of the yon,r. In J'fUllutry tho l1ullln temperature is between 50 0 and 55 0 F. and f1'ort is rare. While Nle whole of the area reeeives more than 20 inchos of l'ainfa,ll, thero is considerable variation from year to year, the recorded extl'omoh 11t Algiel's having been 113 and 51 inches in a year. The plateau of'the Shotts has, both as a result of' altitude 1\.n([ cout.inentality, and the effect of the Atlas mnges bctwcon it [mel the flea, a steppe climate. Dry north winds bring severe cold in t;ho wintier with temperatures considerably below freezing point; a.nd violent AllOWstorms occur. Geryville has an average of 84: dl1yfl with frost in t.l1o year. Day temperatures are as high as, 01' higher than,,those ocolllting at sea level, but the nights are cool, the diurnal range l'el1ohing 30 0 F. Geryville, with a recorded winter minimum temperature of 9 0 F. has, in summer, reached F. Rainfall is from 10 to 20 inchcs it yeth' with the maximum in Rpring. Heavy thunderstorms OCOllr in spring and autumn. Rainfall is heavier in the Saharan Atlas than on the platcmu. The range forms a sharp climatic divide between the lltud to the north with 34

42 iii a ntinfall I:mfficient for plant growth and the barren Sahara to the south (Kcnclrew, 191)3). Olima,to]ogicl1,l data for foul' stations in the area,h'e presented in Table 8. TABLE :~. - CLlMA'l'OLOGIOAL DATA FOR FoUR STATIONS IN '['HE BROWN ATLAS AREA Oasal)lanca.. Moau temperature, of ~ I ~ I itit~1 ~ ~ I ~ Ii I ~-I~~-r~l-i ==r=~=c;===i===i= i I I i I I T ;,!I 'II ~ _ ~ I" J" " fi3 G! ~ '" i '" liiean l',liufnll, In ~.;l I.", 0., O'~IIJ.l ; ~.9: 111.;( M:arl'alcech Mcrlll temperatui'o, of.... ;,:3 MI 110 0" (In 75 ~:l 8:1 i7 7 I r,f, Hi' Menn rainfall, In. ll.~ 1.( (I.n 0.1l 0.:1 0.1 n.l O ,lI Alaiel's Meun tolllllol'n.t.llrp. "F.... "... ria [' 1 ii7 ()I) llr) 71 'iii 77 Mean rainfull, in. 1,(1 :1.0 ~. {) 1.(; Oil o~ f'~ I' ; ~.~ a,o, a,l 20.S I m.ruville Mean toidilerature. "F. I :w ~ I" J2 (10,0 is 7, MeitH l'!liniau. in, Il.l) 1.J oj.j ~.! '- -'- ---' I ~ ' -'- l. --_--- SOUUOIOJ: Kendl'ow, 19n3. I ii i 5~ Oil.,' ;,11 i 4<i II 4U j '-I_~l~_ 1.": Ld V I',getation The vegett~tioll of the Browll Atla~ t.rea includes bot,h temperate mltl tropion,l species. Different species of palm (including the date pa.lm) ocour with the jnjul,e, juniper, tamerisk, olmmdel', poplar, willow, alder, Euphm'hia spp., and, on the Moroccan Atlas, cork oak covering very extensive areas. Among the grasses represented in the area!~re Dactylis glomerata L:, Bromus spp., Agrostis spp., Ag1'opyrum?'epens Beauv., Cynodon spp., Holc'us lanr.d'u8 L., Anthoxanth1Lm odoratum L., Poa palustris L., P. sinaica Steud. and Festuca altissima All. in assooil1tion with Cal'ex spp. Legumes are numerous and include species of Trifolium and lvledi cago, as well as Lotus spp., Vicia spp., LathyruB spp. and 111elilotus spp. 35

43 Napier grass, Kikuyu gm:;s and Ohloris gaya.na have been introduced into Algeria and Morocco from further south in Africa and have heen fonnd to he successful in this ellvironment (Duraud, 1942). }.;Ianagement practices 'fhe management of cattle in Algeria and Morocco is very largely determined by, first, the natural environment, and ill particnlnl' the summer dry searon, l,ud secondly, the :<locial organization and syhtem of land tenure. Land is held ill Morocco under three different types of tenure: biens Maghzen lands, the administration of which is gu11rantced by the state; biens habous, inalienable lands owned by religious found!lt.ions; ami. collective tdballand, inalienable and untaxed, over 3 millions of hectares of which, 01' a third of the agrioultumlland of Morocco, have been registered. Individual holdings are very often reserved for cultivatioil, while the farmerll' cattle are placed in the charge of a herdsman who ill reflponsible for finding adequale pasture for the herd and who llltty, in Morocco, receive as payment for his services either a proportion of the value of the increase in the liveweight of the cattle in hir charge, whioh lllay be fixed at a. half, third, quarter or fifth, or ;, proportion of the calf crop, 'with which he may start 11 slaughter or breeding hcrd of hifl OWL)' Breeding is arranged so that the calvei'; are dropped between e~tl'ly September ttnd late January when the cows, on groen mins grazing, are able to provide an ltbundancc of milk. Forage is not generally preserved and there may be holwy losses if the supply of natural pasture is interrupted. In 1928, for instance, when the Gharb area in Morocco was flooded, it was cstiillflted that 30 percent of the cattle died, and in 1930 there was severe mortality when the pastures were heavily damaged by locusts. Improved management practices, including grazing control, fomge preservation as hay or silage and the use of crop l'csiulles for cattle feed, are practiced on the holdings of EUl'Opef111 eolonists and hy the more advanced indigenous stock owners (Dumud, 1042). The Kabyle tribesmen in Algeria pay some attonj;ioll to tho proteetiol1 of their cattle during the winter, although the shelter may he only a stone wall, a jujube hedge or a roofed but wall-less huilding within which the animals are confined during the night 011 the bare earth without litter. Some straw and carob nuts (1re feel to the cattle in addition to grazing. The calf is separated from the dam during the fil'rt month and il:! only allowed to suckle twice daily, before milking, to stimulate milk 36

44 ejection and, at its conclusion, to withdraw the strippings. Weaning at 6 months causes the calvcs to lose condition hut, if the pasture is good, they quickly recover. W01'king oxen are castrated Itt 2 years of age. The cattle are used for dmft pnrpose.~, sometimcr, for heavy 'work, being harnessed in mixed teams with mules. Physical characteristics of the breed l'he Brown Atlas (Figures 15 and 16) is a sturdy, fairly compact animal reaching a greater development in Morocco than in the territoriml to the cast. Thc head is short and broad with a straight to slightly concave profile and, i1s a result of the fi1int prominence of the orbit:1l archos, a rather concave forehead. The horns are short, growing laterally from 1;he poll, then turning forwards and upwards. The inclination of the horns is approximately at right angles to the line of the profile. The neck is short and there is little development of the dewhlp. The ribs are well rounded and the chest is deep. The topline is straight or h~t!l a slight dip in the center plut. The rump is of medium length, tends to be light and slopes only slightly from front to rear. The sacrum is, in some individuals, slightly accentuated, giving the appearance of a downward break or step in the topline in front of the low tail setting. The tail is thick at the bafle and tapenl to a full switch, falling well below the hocks. The limbs arc fine and the hoofs are hard a,nd close textmed. The hairy coat is short and close. The coat coloration of the cattle in the eastern part of Algeria from Tunis to Djurdjura is a light gray which, especially in bulls, shades into darker areas covering, to a greater or losl:lel' extent, the head, shoulders, limbs, hindquarters and underline. In the remainder of the area, while the dark shading remains, the gray is rcplaced by fawn. There is often an area of light-colored hair surrounding the muzzle, which varies from slate-gray to black in color. The horns are white or gl'ayish at the base with black tips, and the hoofs are slate-gray or black. The switch is black. The skin is thick, and of dark pigmentation. In Morocco there are two varieties, distinguishable only by their coloration. One, found in the Atlas and continuous with the cattle of western Algeria, has a dark fawn hairy coat, light along the topline and with a white ring around the muzzle, but shading toward black on the head, limbs and switch, and with a black muzzle, tongue, mucous membranes and hoofs. The other, the Race blonde des Zaers, occurs in western Morocco, between the Atlas and the sea, and has an over-all 37

45 light coat colon1,tion with pale muzzle, mucous lllemhranel'{,1,nrl huof:;. A pied type, intermediate hetween the preeecling two, ih found ill the' Fez.lVIekneH llrea (D1ll'llUd, 1942). 'rhe height at withers varieh from 1.15 to 1.2fi motel's with a depth of ehcflt of em. in Algeria, to 1.18 to 1.30 metel'h ill Moroello. 'rhe nverage bil'thweight of calves at the Station expcl'imont;nle d'611'vagc at Kroubs has been 20 kg. with a rnngc of 14 to 27 kg. The liv0weighth of males and fmnnles at one year of age were fthout no kg. ami GO kg. respectively. At maturity, which is reached nt about 7 years of «ge, male:-; weigh bet,ween 250 and 420 kg. and femaleh fthou1; 200 kg. (Jore d'arce>l, M. P." Per80nal Omnlll,'nnicntion). FUllctional charactcristics of the JIl'eell Heifel':-; cltlve for the first time f1t between 22 mlcl 2'1 months. Young bulls lore allowed t,q serve the cows tlllci lwifel's a:-; soon as they reach sexual l11<ttul'ity at about, 10 OJ' J 2 IllOllthH. The ijulls are genorally quick to KCl'vice. At the time of wl'iting no cletailed l'ecordfl of milk awl butt(l]'fltl, yield,:; were I1Vl~ilable. Jore d'arces (Per,wJnnZ Oornmu,m:mtion) Auggosti-i that the hetter cows in Algerif1, give au out 8 liters of milk a!cby during the j;\vo months following calving, after which the yield fall,:; I'npicUy FWUHB 15. Bl'oum Atliis bull. Al(J(lI in. Courtesy of M. P.. To1'o <1' A1'coa

46 FIGURE 16. Bmum AtlU8 "cow, Alg61 ia. Courwsy of M. P. Jore (l'arces until the lactation is terminated after 5 or 6 lllonthl:l, while Duraud {1942) is of the opinion that Moroccan cows give 8 to 12 liters a day when the pastures l.re at their best. The butterfat content of the milk (over 40 grams to the liter) is high. Records which are being kept at the Station d'elevage at Kroubs suggest that it il; unlikely that Brown Atlai:! cows will equal the yields of Tarantais females at the station which have given 5,000 kg. of milk in 300 days. Brown Atlas steers fatten well on grazing. Normally, on rmtural l1al;tures, the cattle are fat from March to August, after which they deteriorate in condition until, in January and February, they have lost.aoout 20 percent of their former liveweight. If t,he cattle are killed when in peak condition they yield between 45 and 49 percent of useful meat,. The liveweight of steel'fl between 2 and 5 years of itge which are fat off grass is between 200 and 300 kg., while that of mature animals retired from the herds at 12 or 14 years of age is between 200 and 400 kg. (Jo1'e d'arces, M.P., Personal Communication). Difiloth (1922) refers to steers weighing 500 to 600 kg. and killing out at 50 to 55 percent. Duraud (1942) gives 50 to 55 as the killing out percentage of Brown Atlas cattle in Morocco. ']'he m.ttle make docile, active and steady draft animals, with a wn.lking pace covering between 2.4 and 2.8 Inn. an hour. 39

47 \Vhile the Browll AMtts is resistant, to many of the cli;;e<.ses ttnd parasites to which imported "European moule are sul:lceptible, it is snhjcct to a number of epizootic and enz()oi-,ic diseal:!es occurring in Mediterranean countries, notahly piroplasmosis and anthrax, Sources of breeding stock and infol'mation regarding the brect] The only source of lh'eeding stock and inforlllation on the Brown At,]as in Algcria i8 the Stat,ion experimentale c!'elcvloge ltt Krouhs (Oonstantine). Information on the cattle of Morocco cnn be obtained from tho Direction de In, production agl'ieole, Sous-Dil'cetioll du Servioe vet6- rinairc, Ministerc de l'ag6cnltul'c, H,almt. " 40

48 Group II ADAMAWA Origin These cattle [1,re of!l medium-sized zebu type found mainly in the Adltmawa territory in the Oameroons under }!'rench mandate, as well as in Ba,manda Province in the Oameroons under British mandate ami in part:':! of the Brit,ish mandated territory which are administered ah part of Adn,mawa Province of Nigeria. Gates (1952) dehcribed t,he Nganndcl'o, Banyo and Yala cltttle undel' the heading" Adamttwa. " l\:landoll (11.)<18, 1953) de8cribed this type as " Zebu Peul" of Adn,mawa, probahjy bemmse thet>e cattle Me kept by the Flllani in the same way as the M'Bororo are kept by the M'Bol.'oro tribes in Adama,wa Province in the French Oameroons. It is probable that Gates (1952) referred to theflc cattle as Ngaundcre, in recognition of the fact that they originate from the district of th!tt name in the French Cameroons_ The Banyo!tuel Yola cattle may bc regarded as being varieties of the mn,iu tyl)e. Gates (1952) considered that the Banyo cattle had some M'Bororo!tllCestry, a content.ion which is supported hy the gelleral conformation of the cattle and, in partioular, that of the hump which, in the Banyo is markedly different from that of the Ngaundere, or Zebu Peul, ah deseribed by Mandon. He also put forward the lmggest,iou, which would appear to be corroborated by the hump, dewlap, horn ~Lnd em' conformation of the cat,tle, that the Yola subtype is derived from t.he interbreeding of the Ac1amawn, 'White Fulalli and ~Test Ml'ican (Nigerian) shorthol'necl cattle. Comlitions in the nalive home of the breell Location, topog1'aphy [tnd 8oi~~ The area where the Adamawa cattle are bred lies approximately hetween 60 and a little nort.h of 8 0 north latitude and between 10 0!.nd 15 0 east 100igitudc and is situated in the Adamawa Province of the French Cameroons, Bamallcla Province in the British Cameroons, and the Memhila district of Adamawa Province in Nigeria. These 41

49 ..---~, -- two lalter arcur al'e high plateam; l'<mgillg hem 3,5(JO to 6,O()O feet 111mve Sl'll Jew'l and composed of granitic and hmu:dtic roclul. Tht' soil is of varying depths and COllRists of' st.rongly leached porous ancl sandy claye; of a reddihh color. The Yola v:uiety is found only in cputral Adl1mawa Province ill Nigeria, ~which is about 700 feet above Rea level, the soils being mainly sandy with black cnuoll Hoil and laterite ill some nrear. Clhnote The clil1lcttic conditions of the Adnnmwa plateau in ]!'l'cnch territory and Bnmenda Province in British territory vary necol'dillg to altitude. The average rainfall in the French Cmllel'OOIlS area is about. 1, m. (60 to 65 incher), while ill the Brit-iRh (hmeroollr aroll it if; 80 to 100 inches. Rains begin in March or Apl'il, Lhe hmwiest pl'oeipi. tation being in the months of June to September. Light, Rhow('l's, TABLE 4. - CJ_IJlIATOI,OUWAJ4 DA~'A FOIt ~'HE NGAOU.N.llWtJi;, BAllUQ.NnA AND YOLA AnIMS -;, ~ 1 itititil ~. -I E,'~I { 1- ~J~tl_~_1 ~.---~ ~----~..-~~~ ~--~-~.-..~.~.---.~- I NGAOUNDI am Ausolute Illuxi mum tcln}jl~i'lt tllre, QU.... Ahsolute lllillimmu tcmih!'l'atul'c, or' Hainfall. mill... :1:J,2 :i5.2 :lli.u :l2.1!i2.2 :)0.0 :20,(, 2H.H : J, g.\) Hi. 2. '14.0 H.fl, lui H..1. fi 1.11 : ]OS.~ 21l1l.7 2~:I. 7'2nI,R 2:1:1.1 :1'1. 1 a~.2 ~I:I. n :1~.1i H.n In.:! 1:l.\1 1:.:1, J. a I().:I~ B.\1IR:.t1l.\ ~\:~el~n t,en111cl'a,tnrp~ l ill 71. 7~ n~ Ufl or) 07!i() {in 70 (i~.\l Hnmidlty, ':;,.:. Uninfull, in..:.. no (if! I;] ~ H. In ~IJ Hil ~4 ~u 01 Kil B.SH n. 10 la, f)!) HL]i lr..ii\i 17.7n ~!,", HI iii ~II.K IO.II:l a. j(j 1.:10 10". 'OL.\.l\ICHll t(~ruij(~l'h tun', (IE'...,... Humidity, "' Hainfull, in "'O.~ ~:I.D SK.8 11\ o.m 0.00 O.3a \l(ui Kn.1I K~.O 711. II 7n.. 1, :!(i :J!) III IIIl IIH no 1. H2 LK7 (j,an :-lo [)(W 8; 13lllliendll: McCulloch J.. Pel'sonal Oomm1t1tJ canon. "\:~{)ln: TTSllcl'-"\\l'ilsOll, J.1\'[.S.~ Personnl Oom7n'll'llicat-i(Ju, HI.r, ~.J I),... HO.f! X:I.1l HO 2U I HI 'iii.. ~ :l.:!:l II.~~ 1 (10 : _ 42

50 however, occur throughout the year. The central region of Adaml1wa Province of Nigeria is drier, with a lower average rainfall. Climatological data for the Ngaoundel'e (Adamawa, French Cameroons), Ramenda (Bamenda Province, British Oameroons), and Yola (Adamawa Province, Nigeria) arear are given in Table 4. V eyet(ttio n vvhere the ~tltitude uf the Ca,meroum; it; between 4,000 and 7,000 feet there is montane vegetation, including dwarf mo:>s and lichen-bearing trees and mountain grassland. The area is dissected by deep gorges. The hill grazing is generally a clumpy mixture of Sporobolu8 spp. and clover. Fairly comillun grasses in the Bamenda area are.1i1elinis minutt/lora, Pennisetum pu1'11urewm, Eleusine indica, Paspal-um spp. Setaria spp., and bnperata spp. On the lower slopes coarser grasses, principally Andropoyon spp., (!ymbopoyon spp., Irnperata spp. and Penniset'wrn purpureu'm, are encountered. Ma.ndon (195a) lists the following varieties of grarses in the AdarmtW!1 region of the French Cameroons: Pennisetu'ln polystachyon, Penn'iset'urn s-ubany'1l8t'zltn, Ohlo1'i8 pycnothri;r;, EleWJine indica, Rllynchelytrurn repens, Pa8palwin scrobiclllat~an, 8]Jorobolu8 gran ularis, If YP(/ 1 1 henia?'it/ct, Setaria pallidilusca, B. cornrn'unis, Andropo(fon yctyanus, Penniseturn pltrpw/'eum and Brachirt1'ia rnutica. 111 u1utyernent practices Almost all the Adamawa cattle lue owned by sedentary members of the Fulani tribe. The herds are, however, with the exception of smallllumhers of milch cattle which are kept near the villages, placed in the charge of either a section of the stock-owning family or professional herdsmen and are kept in constant movement in search of grazing and water. During the rains, from May to October, the cattle twe widely distributed bhroughout the area where the tsetse fly is not prevalent. In the dry season the shortage of water elsewhere in the,.rea makes it necessary for the herds to concentrate near the main rivers where they graze the riverain swamp grasses. Some of the smaller herds, however; remain on the higher land throughout the year ltnd ttppear to thrive under these conditions. Where the mn,ill herd is of the wilder M'Borol'o (Rahaji) type, a smt.ll herd of the more docile and, by comparison, fairly productive Adamawa cattle is often maintained for the supply of milk to the village. The semi-nomadic sy:>tem of animal management results in there being little co-ordination between animal and crop husbandry, except 43

51 .-.,~ that m.ttle are allowed to graze crop residues on cnltiv!~tecl land after the harvest, and cultivators who themselves have no livestock ouon establish a gm'den on the site of an abandonecl Ilatt,le camp. Apart from this limited use of crop l'el:;idues HInd a little sol:ghum bran which may be fed to calves and milch cows, the cattle subsist entirely on grazing which is, however, under iihe nomadic system, normally sufficient for their needs. Most stock owners provide tiheir oattle with local or imported salt rdi intervl~ls whioh may Vltry frolil two weeks to three ll1_onths aecording to the wehl,lth of the her'd martel', Physical characteristics of the breell The Adamawa (Figure 17) are medium-sized cattle with the long narrow convex-profiled head, sloping pelvis and uptight hind legs typical of the snbsahal'an zebu, While their general conformation is similar, there are diffel"ence~ between the Ngaundere, Banyo!1nd Yola subtypes, espeoially in size, hump conformation loud COltt color. ation. The true Adamawa, or Nganndct'e, measures ahout 110 to 125 em. at the withers, with a heart girth of between 150 and 100 cm. and a live weight of between 350 and 500 kg. These cattle are distinguished by their ehara,cteristically flaccid humps. The most usufi,l coat colors are brown, roan, red and white, and black and white. The Banyo ;has an average height at withers of hetween 120 Itud 130 cm. The hump is firmer, more ereot and highet' t.hove the withers, and the horn1! are slightly longer than in the Ngl1unc1el'C. The coat coloration is red or red and white with, in the latter, prominent white TABLE 5, - DATA ON BODY MEASUREMENTS OF AnAMAWA OATTLE (YOLA) MI110 II'omnle to 1%12 to 2%1 1 to 1% \2 to 2% I. years YCCLrS matul'o yo!lrb years mature Weight, lb ~2o 742 Longt,h frem shoulder point to pinbone, in U5,7 21.S Height at withers, ,5 48,2 38, Depth of chest, in ' Width of hips, In ,2 16. '7 Heart girth, ill,...,... 46, B ,5 OS.O SOUllOE: Uaher-Wilson, J.M.S., Personal Oommunicalion. 44

52 ]!'Irm,R]] 17. Ad(lIInww(~ cattle. (A) Ngaundere atee1'; (B) NgaundiJ1'B (JOW; (C) Banyo bull,' (D) Banyo cow; (E) Yola bull; (F) Yola cow. Oourtosy 01 G. M. Gates

53 patches on the face and underline, hearing some resemblance to the coat pattern of the Hereford hreed. The Yola is smaller than the two other subtypes, with short horns, a. hump which is medium to small in size, and a less well-cleveloped dewlap. The coat coloration inoludes combina,tiom; of red, black, brown, dun and white either in patches or in a speckled pltttel'il which has.re.~ulted in these cattle being sometimes known locally as Trttlabareji. Records of liveweight~ a.nd hody lllcasurementf; of AdmlHtWa eattle (Yola, v(1riety) from the herd established at Kofa1'e Expel'imentitl Farm, Yola, Adanmwa Province (Nigeria) are summarized in 'rable 5. The birth weights of 20 male and 26 female calves at thir Station were 48 and 45 lb. respectively. Liveweight records of AdallHtWa cattle (BaIlYo nnd Ngaulldere) maintained at Jakiri Veterinary Station, Bamenda Province, are report.eel in Ta,ble 6. The hirthweights of male and female Nganndere calver were 53 and 52 lb. respectively, while those of BallYo calves were 60 and 55 lb. respect.ively. 'faele 6. - LIVEWEIGHTS IN POUNDS OJ!' ADAMAWA CATTLE (BANYO AND NGA.UNDERE) A.T.:fARmI VElTERINAltY S1.'A'.CION, BAMJllNDA PltOVINCE Variety I Male r l<~male - I Ox:" - 1 yeal'j2 yearsjmatul'e 1 YOIl,!'j2 yeurs!lllaturo I~I\~~ Adarnawa (Banyo) 25Q :l,io 80U 100U Adam.ll,wa (Ngaundere) ) 3i[)!lOa 1 11JO.-., ~~- 80UROII:: Banyo: McOulloch, J. Personal 0o mmwn;cation, Ngaundere: Agricultural Officer, Bambui, Cam~l'OOIlS, Personal (/ommunicatio1l. Functional characteristics of the breed Adamawa heifers ca,iye down for the first time at between a and 4 years of age and young bulls are usually first uscd for service when they are about 3 years old. The annual calving percentage of the Adamawa herd at the ZootechnicltI Station at Wakwll, French Cameroons has been reported to be about 88. Although there is no definite breeding season in Adamawa herds the mn.jority of calvings occur at the end of the rains in October ltud November. Adamawa cattle are of a very doeile temperament and give evidence of being potentially good milk producers. Mille performance records 46

54 of the different varieties of Aclamawa maintained at the Govornment Farms in Nigel'il1 (Kofare near Yola in Adamawa Province, and at Bambui and Jakil'i in Bamenda Province), are summarized in Tahle 7. TABLE 7. - MILK PRODUCTION OF ADAlIIAWA Cows AT BAMBUI STOCK FARM, BAMENDA;,JAKllir VETERINARY STATION, BAMENDA; AND KOFARJil EXPERIMENTAL FAltM, YOLA, ADAM.AWA PROVINCE VOl'i(,ty : Averago I Days in! Best I Days iu Calving TJrO(luctiol1, milk ; yields, lb. milk interval, i lb. daya I Ngauudel'o 1 ':J{l(J Hlf]-;ltlll., I :!IIIJ-:l1I1l ami BallYO 1 nail :!17 :~ K()() Yola., l:!o :!IU ~ H7t1 ~90 4:!0 I "-... _--_._ ~ " S<lUnOE: N!!:llUnrlcl'c: Agl'icultuml Olficcl', BambUi, ['asonal Oommunication. H<tuyo: 1IlcCulloch J. Pel'sOI/III CvnwulJlication. Yola: UAher Wll<;on,.T.i\J.S. Pns01ll1l OOIll1tlllnicatioll. ~,"''''' ;Ui;j As meat-producing ltnimals, the Adamawcl, in Nigeria are reported to be well aclltptecl to fat.tening on gmzing alone, though no recorcls are ltvaihthle. Mandan (1953) report;; from recordk in the Frcnch CameroonK t.hat good sla,nghter Cltttle weighing 520 kg. at 4 years of age gave It clres::;illg pereen(,age of 51, while animals at 5 years of age weighing between 580 and 680 kg. yielded 52 percent dressed meat. ordinary Cl1ttle from breeding herds at 4 yeltrs weighed 400 kg., while liveweights nt 5 years varied from 410 to 460 kg. The animals are reported to he guod as draft animals. They are utilized in Nigeria for farming operations on moderately easily worked soils. They arc also used for the tra.nsportation of farm produce in small carts. On average they are worked for six to seven h011rs a day. Sources of breeding stock and information l'egarding the brec(l 'rhe Adl1111llWfl, region in the French Cameroons is the chief source of hreeding stock. The following authorities.cdulcl l)rovide further information: The Chief of the Zootechnical Sta,tion, 'Vakwa, French Cameroons. 'rhe Director of Agriculture, Kacluna, Northern Nigeria. The Director of Agriculture, Enugu, Eastern Nigeria. The Director ofveterinal'y Services, Kaduna, Northern Nigeria. 'rhc Principal Veterinary Officer, Enugu, Eastern Nigeria. 47

55 AZAOUAK Origin The Azaouitk onttle obtain their llume fj'lllll till' A~m()llnk C'otmtr_\" ill the cn:'>tcl'll French ~udall. R.yall (Persotud ()o'/nmuli imtioll) Hlld HoJ.ls (lh44) give Adnr a~ tho colllltluuly used llumo fol' t.he cattle in Nigeria. Other nanlcs listed are Aza'wal allc1 Azawajo. Thoy an' included in the SllOl'thol'llod Zebu group of eattie bred hy dw Amb,., and Tuareg,; of the Azuouak l)u::;ill ill the eastcl'll l~l'elll'h Sndall. They [1,1"e also found in the Azah valley to the west and t,ll() J) BtLS:-i(1 to the south and in central Niger Colony and in t.hc northerll hurde!: a,rea of Nigeria. The type is nnd0r stmly at. Filingue Farm in Nigel' Coluny, French,Vest Africa. Thc fouudation herd was Iml'dHu-\l~<.l from Tuareg pa~t()l'alihtf4 in the ']'nholla J'egion. Conditions ill the native llome of the hl'eed LoccttiOll, topography (tnd wils The Azaouak hasin, where the cattle originate, lioh betweon :~o and 7 0 el1ht longituue l1nd 15 0 to 20 0 north latitude. In Nigeria, AztJ.onak cattle are found north of 120 north lalitud0 and between 4 0 and no f>ltflt longitude in north Sakoto, 1(n.t8in<l. ilnd KmlO Provinces. The area. is undulating phtteau land with an average cluvation of 1,600 to 1,800 feet ahove sea level. The Roil if4 light and sandy with more or Ie:;:,; sedentary sand dunes. During the ntiuy HcaHOll liumy of the depressions bet.ween the sand dulles aro flooded. During the dry periods W}lell the water evapomtes these I':WLtllljlS JlI'oduce exeel1ent vegetation. Climate The habitat of the type has a tropical t:linhtte mm'kc<'l by It long dry period f!.'oill Octoher to :MLty, and a l'ohlt.ively short, miny Heason from May to the end of SeptemLer. ~rhc nvcmge millf!tu, whi(,h ih about 30 inches in the Ronth of t,lw aroa, dcnrc,.thos to U10 north. Nlal'eh to June (H'C the hottest months, when maximum templ'mtul.'oh ma~' reach to F. January is the eo01es1o month. Climn,tological data from t>wo fltations ill Nigeria and ()ne ill til.!' French Sudan are given in Ttthle R.

56 'l'abl}j 8. - OLI1HATOLOGIOAL DATA FOR SOKOTO, KATSIJ)fA IN NIGERIA AND GAO IN l'hlll FRENOH SUDAN Sokolo MeaIl temperature, of.... Humidity, %... Rnlnfull, ill.,,,, Kalsina Mean temperature, of......,.. Humidity, % Rainfall, in. Oao Mean temperature J OF.... RainfalJ, in.... ~1~I~J~I~I~I~)~li J8)~I~I~ jrj nil 71 I I I ~7 9a 11:1 IllS tiz HO 8~ Oil i thi I b,j rh,;. 10 ~~ :W j-l rlt) ():!,9 ~i Ijil 5U I -to ;n i5:!.. jlo on 0"",0'''1 "'"I ',H, "'''[ 0," ""[ '""1 "n I,," I",." 7(; 8~ 8; ~i I ~-i /:in ii ~(I I,~8 179 j 7;1 1'10. go " H~ 170 8~ 87 8! I'i~ \ ;l~ 1;;0 52,1,) lull nil (I,O;! 1I.211 ~.441 :1.61 ll03 lli n.4:! 1).(1l llili2~.:l'i I I' i I I I! i i iii \ 'I' i I 7:J iii 1"+ I '10 9'> 9:; I (HI I ~I.I ofl i Oil! 84 i ;r, Ii ~tl IJ 1 II "ll,1 '1). 1 : 'J 1 'I '" J 0 I o[ i n <1",!.. ~.u :,,11.11 Ii.l~_~ I SOUIWI,: :->okoto!luil Kutslnu: Ryull T.l~., Personal Commllllication. Gao: Kenilt'ell', Vegetation The dominant vegetation of the area is of the savannah shrul.l type.,]~he trees have small leaves and there are ~t number of Acacia spp. ~rhe scrub vegetation consists largely of Oombj'etum micranthwm and (Juiem seneyalensis. Such areas are used for rough grazing. The following lue Home of the grasses found in the area: Oencl!r1lS ciliaris, Chloris prie1lri, Digitaria ga,yancl, Eragro.stis senegalensis, E. ciliaris,.echinochlocl colonel, IE..star/ina, PaniMlm laetum, Hyparrhenia mynechtii, A ristida rn1ltnbilis, Drwtylocteninm aegyptium, etc. Some leguminous phmts, slwh as Z01'nia cliphyzlcl and Alysicarpus vaganalis also occur. :Leaves fro111 Acacia tol'tilis, A. seyal and Ziziphu8 ZOi1l8 are utilized as fodder. Oereal by-pl'odnets, roa,inly the stovf'.l's of maize, millet, Eleusine CO,],llcana, n.nrl Di(jitMia e.:t:ilis, arc also urecl as catt1e feed. A-Ia-nugeme.nt l}1'((ct-icp-s Azltmmk cn,tt.l~ in the Nigerian area are maintained by the Fnlalli tl'ibe. While these people were originally nomadic (Figure IS) a consid erable I)['oportinn of them have now hecome sedentary agriculturists. 49

57 / / FIGUltE 18. A bntl of AWOlKbk t!/pe u,8e l as (I, peeck mni'/'/wl /OJ' the ti'cm'~fj01' tat ion oj (b Tuareg encmnpllle.nt. CourteR)' (If Henri 1,11OtO Cattle, however, even in the crop-growing /,1'0(\1-\ contiuue to depend vcry largely Oil pasture, although ROlllO Cl'OP produot,fi, including 1:H>l'ghulll straw Rnd grain, cottonseed, plljmkel'nel meal and gl'oll11rlnut cake, m'o utilized a~ Hupplell1ental'Y feeds. The pmctiob of pnhtllring the catt,]e in large herds, in which a number of ljllllh serve the COWH indj,.; criminately, precludes any COllRtl'llctiv8 hreeding pbnning. CM.tle are taken to water once daily. Saine cn,ttle owneri'l, lmrtieuliwly in the Azaouak va.lley, give their Itllimab ]!'ogha salt, and ealdulll phohphat.e l:oward the end of the dry sea~on. Cnlviug, as a coi1hequmlce of 1,h0 dependence of the oa.tt.le on natural gl'n.zing, noj'ilhtlly oc:curf:l during or slightly hefore or after the l'l1.iny HOIIHon, Nowadltys cows are being milked for the production of saleable milk products, Ca,ttle owners Rl~o derive income from the I'mle of Rlaughter stock..,,.. 51)

58 Physical charactel'istics of the hrccil Az!tounk C<Ltt.lc (Figures 19 and 20) nre medium-sized!tud compact. The clewhtp and umbilical fuld are fairly well developed. The hump ifl well developed hut narrow, being ahout l2 cm, thick in the females and 12 to 16 cm. thick ill the males. The horns of the bulls are short and thick at the base, while those of t,he fcmales are medium-sized and curve outw!ll'd;;, upwards and forwards. The earll are medium-sized, mea,suring a,bout 21 cm. in length in the females. The skin ir slightly 100;;e and of medium thickness. The pigmentation of the Hkin is clark, as is that of the muzzle. '1'he coat colomtion is varin.hle, but is uswtlly a mixture of red E\,lld white, hlack!tud white, or f!twll with white pat,clles. TABI"E 9. - LIYEWEWHTS AND MEASUREMEN'l'8 01" A:<:AOUAK. OAT'rGI'J AT FrLINGUE STATION , ~.. ~O-;~ti I 42 ;)ii!o\'ol' [i0 mature tuilut.jih luullth.-i lnonths -:'-,,--;j-iji-i--'---. ~-5-(}---: _ I ' LCllgtil fl'oill shnul<1ln' poillt ",0 pilll)ollc, em.... 1~i". :i ]:H.:.!;-, 1-!:l.U lh'ij..t'ldo at WUIU'l'l':l, ('lu :1. 1 l:!i. :2 U1.4 lltlpllt of "ltest., m...,.... III,7 H5.H 80.4 \\'jflth of hillr, "Ill... :17.7 n,n 'lil.n Heart g'il'tlt. "Ill..... l;i~. ii WO. ~ NO'I'Ie: Numbers ill bracketr show tlw lluill])el' of >tniimtls Iue{l~U1'"d. SoU!um: Pngot, l:h. i ls+) l~;j.~ (IlO) (tl. i (110) J:l.CI (l~'ll 155. i (Ill) ---- AttemptK Imve bl~en made to develop a. fawn-colored animal with d~trk extremitie;; itt Filingue in French W'est Afl'imt where a herd of AZ1LOlutks is maintained. 'rhe average livcweight, of mat,urc females is l1bout 300 kg. t1nd t.ihtt of males ahout 890 kg. Body meh,8ul'ements of Azaouak ca.ttle mainta.ined at Filingue are given in Table 9. Bil'i;hweights of male and female calves nre about 80 kg. Functional chal'actel'istics of the b. eell The Clottle, both in Nigeria and French West Africa, are primarily utilized for the production of mille As meat-producing animajs they :we of average qultlity, 'fhe AZ!1()uak is considered to be light for hmwy draft purpores, but it llftkes an excellent pack ox, eapech111y in the 1-1I1udy areas. ill

59 FWtTRE H). FlGUHE 20. Az(t(nwk hull. A;!(tllwtk cow. hllll'tohy of t:. l\l G o.te~

60 Pagot (1943, 1952) has studied the Azaouak herd <tt the Filillgue Station in French West Africa. Heifers calved for the first time at an average age of 40.1) months ("with a range of ~~f:i to 46 months) and young bulls were sexually mature at about 2 years of age. Most calvings occurred during the months May to September and it was notioed that cows siiowed a tendency to only take the bull towards the end of the lactat.ion period or when thcy were dry. 'rhe average hwtation period wa>: 293 days with a standard deviai.ion of 23 days. Milk production figures calculated for different lactation periods are summarized in Table 10. These are derived from monthly prodnetion figmcr based on 10 tert recordings made each month. ~rable MILK PRODUCTION Oli' AZAOFAK CATTLE A1: FILINGUE STATION * ~~=============-.~--~-=-==--- ~.=-=============== Luctatlon Cajllulatml production in Uters in an csthuntell lactation of 9 monthr in an ehtimated lactation of 10 months 1st 211ll :ll'd 4th 5th 11th 44;;.51\ ± 9. 2 {17.M ± M.8' ± B ± lLUl ± ~7.14 ± 32.6; Jat. ;] ± lija5 fi17,70 ± ;1.5! ± G ± ,22 ± ' ' ~ MeanB ± standard error. S[)UROg: Pltgot, Sources of breeding stock and infol'luation regarding the breed It, is estimated tlu1,t thero 11l~'Y be over olle million Azaouak cattle in Frenoh NigRI' trrritory. No estimate:; from French Equatorial Africa are availahle, >tlt,hongh the Illnllbel' thero lllay be larger. Further information l'eg~tl'ding the type and its availability may be had from t.he following f1,uthoritiek: DireetoL', Service do l'elevage et des indilstrich animales, J),dmr, French West Africa. Service de l'61cvage et, cles indu>:tl'ies animales, ]'ilingue, Nigel', lrl'onch West Africa. Director of Agrioulture, Kadulla, Northern Nigeria. Direct,or of Veterinary Services, KaflUlll1, Northern Nigeria.

61 Origin MAURE The l\itturc type of short-horner} zebu 1mB de\'cloped ill l\'1,tlll'itanin aihi the western French Sudan in French "Tm;t Africa. MaHon (t051((') list~ the following as synonymous lhlllle;; for the t.ype: Arab, (ialmruye, Mauritanian, Moor imel MooriHh. It. has been ItfifnImecl that. t.hese cattle reached their present hahitat with the migrat.ioll of Remitii' tl'ibefl from the east. (;onclilions in the nativl' home of the bree(l Locati(Jn, t(j]jo(f1'l/phy IIlZrl 8()i/8 In MUlLl'iianill, Mltlll'C cattle are llhtintained in tht' Hoell!, Asr-ml.,t, Gorgol and Tagllnt. m'eas, nil well as in petri of nort.hc]'n Bmlom and Tml'za.. Lack of w:.ter and t.he scm'city of good ]:ll1.nt,lli'c limit thei]' spreltd further to the north. They It];.m oeem in the Fl'eneh Sll!l:tll, pal'tienlady ill t.he Nioro, Nant, GounUltm and Timhnktu al'ear ~ti1(l ext.end as far eart a" Mncina and to the llol'i.h (If the Nigel' hend. The to}lograph)' of Maul'itltllilt ineludcl:l a. HerieR of mountain I'ltugeN Hlll'l'Ol1luling a vast llltel'itic plain t.o the Routh of whic:h there ttl'o nmnel'ulls stl'e<tlllk lmel htkcs bordered by good pm;tul'e Janel. ']'owu,l'fl 1' ho OCt;;(;, in the French Sudan, there is It great HfI.ndy phthl with llulllel'ouh seriellta,l'y dunes whieh arc flurl'ollndecl hy!troan of sancly loam I:mils. Good partul'c arear ltj'e al-!soe1atecl with the Nigel' "v"tem in the II'rclleh Sudan. '. Climrde The elilllltte of the area ih hot and dry from MI1reh to,june, but t.he humidity increases steadily until the ftdvcnt of the mink which begin in July and continue until September. 'rhe wint.er is dry [tud cool wi(,h it high diurnal temperature range. The alliuml minfllil h; low in the north (15 t.o 10 ineher) but. increases toward t,]l0 Nout,h, t.he average for the whole ltl'ecl l)eing ahout 20 inches. Climatological data for t.he Mftul'e al'eil are given ill T~tble.I. L. 'rable CLIMATor,OGlOAL DATA J!'Olt TRE MAumo CA'V'.rLB AlUlA ~~--=::::=::_ =c=~== -~l-~-l ~ I ~ I ~ I] I ~' I'~L-I Mean h.nuii(_,j'utul'(i, - I I (Ie.... :! " 21),4 :J:l,:J :1 1. i :la.l ~'j'a >1;;,7 ~H.fl Humidity. (~~.., 27 2.~ I 25 a:l 17 I Gil 4, :l:l 27. a 22.0 :Ill :J.t,2 SOUIICg: Director, Centre f,'<1'''',,1 [1(' rc"\i('! "\\('., 7.ootonliuic]1l(\R, nicafion. l'cl'snllul (JonWltl" 54

62 l' e(jetution The vegeta.(,iol1 in the northern zune is scanty and consists of Uwrny hushes and woody grasse~, which give SOIlle green herlmge during the wet I-Jeason. OerwhrllB cathal't'icub I,nd several species of C'Yl)enI8 m'e found. Vi1riou'S Hpecies of Acn,r-iu provide Rupplementa,ry fodder fol' the cattle. In ltrelt~ which enjoy higher rainfall, such as the south fwd the east, and nem' permllnent ponds, lakes and rivers, the grazing ih good and the pastures are full of llutritive grass ~pecies. Home of the varieties of grass commonly found are Panicmn staqninwrn, Panicum!'epens, Puspal'um 8cmbiculatum, AndropoiJon pseudo pricub, Andropogon gayanu8, Oymbopngon giganteu.s, Digita,/, irl seta'ria and Echin()r.hllJu SPIJ. l~i anagcment practices Maure c<lttlc (Figure 21) are completely dependent on grazing ami roceive no snpplementa,l'y feeds. Grazing in Malll'itania is limited in extent and ench tribe is restricted to its own grazing area which usually include,~ its own watering points. In the French Sudan the tribes migrate from their gmzing areas in the north to the 80uth Ol' east in search of gmzing in the dl'? sonson, ret.urning to tile north in the rains. Tile cows,ire mill,ed twice daily <md are allowed to go out to graze after milking in the evening. The herds are usually glttherecl together Jl('ttr t,he watering points at night. FIGURE 'Ialire Zel!lt8 118ed (;8 ljuck an-tmal8. (Jolll'teay of Musee de ['Homme, PIlI'ls

63 The practice of allowing the young hulls 1;0 r11n with the herd ("LIlli to serve the cows indiscl'imirmtely preeludes any effective selective oreeding, although BOUle of the hulls 111'6!:astrateu at n, later elate. Physielll charactm istics of the hl'ccii Mame cattle are loosely built, Bj,rongly boned Hnimals, lean of musculature and of medium to huge silw. The head iel long Itud le~tn with It fltraight profile loud orbital al'ehes which l)y j,heir prominence give a degree of col1eavity to the forehead. The hoi'llh Iwe fine, short in the male, longer in the female, circular in CroSH sect,ion a,ncl grayish or brownish in color. 'rhey grow from the poll in a HldewaYH anel upward direction and turn forewaords at the pointh. 'rho neok ia lean [md fiat, and of medium length. ~rhe dcwhlp is of only Hlolicmte (levelopment. '['he hump is large in the male (it; lllay stnud 10 or 20 <)m. above the withers) but is small in the female and the ohht,mted male. The chest is long and not deep, with little flpring of db. The topline rises fl'om the with err to thc high sacrulll Hnd isleml and decidedly roofed. The pelvis is markedly sloping nne! with a tcndency t,o be t,riangujar in phlil with the pinbones olo:;e together. The t'lil setting it:! high and the t,llil is long l,md fine. The limhr [\,):0 long and tend to hc coarsely boned, and the hoofs are large. '!'he udder is of fair development Itud the teath are long. The eo at coloration of Maure ClLttle ill Mauritanht if! generally bla,ek or black and white, while in the French Sudan a dark red is more usual. In the latter a,rea the I1ppearallce of white spotting on the (loat of an animal, the hump of which is larger thltll is to be cxpcoted in the true Maure, inelimltcs the presence of Peul (Fulalli) in the mleehtry. The skin ia supple and fine with little folding and the hail' is Ahort (DoutressoulJe, 1947). Somc liveweights and meal:lul'cmcnts of MiLum eo,ttlo in Mmlritauift and the French Sudan are given in Titble 12. Functiollal charactel'iatic8 of the hrced Maure zebus are utilized for milk Ill'oduction as well as for dl'l1,ft purposes and meat productioll, although the latter quality if> not well developed. For draft purposes they are us eel as pack alliml1la and also for lifting water from wells and for the transportation of water for domestic consumption. The animals ealvc thl'qughou,t the year, although a greater proportion show a tendency to come in estrus at the onset of the rainy season. 'fhe age at firflt calving is 3 to 4 years. The males are first put to service a1; between 2 Yz and 4 years of age. The bulla arc slow in service. 56

64 TABLE AVERAGE MEASU,RElIIENTS OF MAunE CATTLE MOlle Female Ox Regioll Liveweight, kg o---aOO I not avnilable I MttUl'ltania Livewelght, kg. 35[> ()-Soo I French Sudan I Length (l'om shuulder point to pinllone, em i 118 M 't. I am'j anm Length from shoulder point to pinbone, em, French Sudan Height at withera, em I Ma;lrltania Height at withers, em )-160 F1'6l1ch Su<lau Depth of chest, em. I Mauritania Depth of ohest, om. luot availab1" not available!lot ItVltilable Frenoh Sudan Width of 1lips, em MmlI'itanla Width of hips, em. 43,17 53 Frenoh Smlno I Heart girth, em. I Ml1uritl1uia HE'art girth, nid. I I 1~ U French Sud au SQurce: MIl'Uriiania: Service de j'{)lcvage de 111 Maurltauie. French Sudan: Director, Centro federal de recherches 7.ootechni'lueR, Personal Oommunicat-ion, ' --- In an average hwtl1tion the cows produce 600 to 700 liters of milk with a peak daily production of 6 to 7 liters. The lactat,ion period is from 7 to 8 months. They are reported to be even-tempered but slow in draft work, and when employed as pack animals are able to move at 4 to 5 km. per hour, covering about 40 km, in It 10- to ll-holli' day and carrying an average load of 80 to 100 kg. The bullocks are used for work when they are about 4 years of age and weigh about 250 to BOO kg. Maure zebus!lre slaughtered for meat at about 4 to 5 years of age with a liveweight of about 350 kg. The dressing percentage is reported to be 45 to 50. Doutressonlle (1952) givel'l the following figures for commercial Maure shmght,er stock: Average liveweight.... Dressing percentage.... Raw hide.... Head.,.... Feet, etn,.. "...,.... Tallow..,...,.... Bones...,.,...,... Net meat..., kg % liveweight 2,86 % 2,28 % " 1.67 % of weight % " % " " of quarters " "

65 SOUl'ces of breeding stock and information regarding the JJl'ecd It il:; estimated tha,t thero,m~ ove], 100,000 MrHlI'C cal,tle in Froueh West Africa. Further information rega,l'ding the t.ypo mily be had from: Inspection genemle, Service de l'elevage, Dl11mr, French West; Africa. Chef, Service de l'elevage et des inclusl;rie::; animales, Bamako, Sudan, French Wesl; Africa. Director, Centre federal d'elevttge et de reeherohes zootcehniques, Sotuba" Bnmctko, French West AfriC!t. Origin NORTHERN SUDAN SHORTHORNED ZEBU The cattle t,ype, referred to as the Northern fjlldan Hhorthorned zebu, includes the following local pollulations: KOlUtllit or Itnflt'ai, Butn,ll!1 (including Shukria, Batl1hin, Hadendowa), White Nilo, Western or B,tggarH, (Darfur and Koruo[a,n), and Nort,herJl Province (illeluding Shendi, Deleigabi, Dongola and Geigarawi). The type was most prohably introduced by immigmnt t,1'ibe~ from Asilt in very remote times. While thero is too much variation within the type as a whole to justify its description as 11 breed, disbinguishahle subtypes occur, of which the cattle of the Kellana and Hufa'lti trihetl in the Fung in Blue Nile Province, Republic of the Sudan (Figure 22) and those of the Shukria and neighboring tribes in i;ho Butamt bet,ween the Blue Nile and the River Atham (Figure 2B) are oxampies, whioh could provide the material from whieh the future dtlvolopment of breeds would be possible. In much of the area, however, periodical severe depletions of the herds by war and dihease and their sub;;equent replenishment from whatever stocks may luwe been most readily avttilable, luwe resulted in the ILppmtrance of hetol'ogeneoul:] populations often only distinguishn,ble from one another byenvironmentally induced differences in size lond conformation. rrhus, the cattle of Darfur Province,u'e derived to [l, eonsiderttble extont frolll Htockii which have been brought in from territories further to the wosi; with the movement of tribes from that direction, while those of Northorn. Province,we descended in large part from a I'lel'iel:l of introductiolls, fih

66 FrGlI.ltE 22. NOI'i1wrn Swlan shorthomecl zebu «Ke.nana, i) cow. FIGURE 23. IV orthern Sudan shorthorned ~ebu «Bufano, " bull. l'out'tosy of E. A. McLaughlin 6 -- Ah-iw" cattle.

67 ench of which followed a :-;eyere outhreak of cattle plngue and whieh included red Inllupless cattle from Upper Egypt. in the bte HillO teenth century ft,lul cattle froul Kordofan in Hl44 and U)45. Tn till' past twu d(\!1~ueh M'BOl.'Ol'O ul),tt.le have heeu' lirought as far east as the Blue Nile by migrating West. Afriuall t.l'ihei:nnen and their intlueu('c has been detected in local herds in Kordofnl1. 1VhiJe it i>1 thought thn,t thel'e JUtR lloon little exchange of hl'eeuing stock bet.ween t'!w Arnh; of J),trful' and t.lw Nilotm, of Bahr 01 Ohn7.al Province, t.he Ahialaug Dinlm fll1.'thel' to the eart, l\r well tlr the Shillnk Ilnd Dinlm on the YVhite Nile to the north of Malakal, arc in doser eontncj; with Amh UOJ1HtdR and it. ir pohrihle that Nilotic cattle lllay Imve entered Northel'll Sudan herdh in t,hese!lreas. A tendency towa.rcls it more RtoCley conformation in the cattle to. the north of the NU]J<t mollntains nmy he in P'~l't. diw to interbreeding' with t,!w snmll thiclmet hill c:m,tie, ",hioh have been hriefly clprcll'ihed hy Milb (H)I3B). Conditions in the liative home of the J)l'eed LocaHnn, topo(vnphy and soils 'rhe ctrea, occupied hy Lhe Northerll SudaH 7.cbu ean l.w divided int.o two l1al't.s; fil'.~t, the S[W!1Jlllah belt gl'll7.cd hy PltHtol.'al hcrd,; and, H('ecH1clly, the lltrip of cultivated land hordering tjw Nile whel'e it tnwel's()r the desert from north of.klmrtuuhl t,o the Egyptian horder. The pcthtoml are,t il:1 part, of the low,'n,infn,ll woodland Rlwlmnah belt which extends acro:,;s Afrielt Houth of the Sltham Fmu which, in the Sudan, lies ver:y ctppl'uxllllttte1y ljetween 10 0 tmd 15 0 llorth I Ett,it.ude, and crosses the country fo1' approximately {JOO milch from t,he frontier with Ethio})ht and.el'itl'ea in the eltst to that. with Ji'l'ol1oh Equatorial Africa ill the west. The topogmphy of the m'ett is thll~; of it flat plnin of dopnfjit;ioll hrokell only by isolttted rock masse:;, of whioh Jebel Mltm ill Dm'ful' Illld the Nuba mountains ill Koruofan are t.he ll10ht collhidel'al)le, Imd 1i1'<llmected in its eastern pl11't hy the channels of tho "Thit,e aud Blne Niles,~nd t.he tributaries of the httter. Slope ir frolll wert and ea.si; towltrd the rivers and Itltitude varies from 740 metel'b n,t, Jm ]'ltnhel' in Dm'ful' to 380 met.ers to the south. of Khl1l'toum. The soilh of Dal'fm' and KOl'dofan illeluue large ltl'ellk of H()(lelltlu',Y continental dune Haud (Arabic, qoz) tth wen llk t.lle medium to henyv bl'u\\'l;l Hnd black cla.ys whieh, intol'rpersed by >lilmll ltj'tlar of Rltlld Itn~l detrital material Ilem' the rock out~~()ps, eovel' the remainder of the a.l'oa. Comidemhle m'ens of the cla.y pinin nent' the' 'Vhite mhl Hhw Niles,tre irrigated fl'oll1 the riv01'h. (j()

68 The river~.in lands by the Nile to the north of Khartoum comprise,t narrow strip on eitch side of the river wherever fertile soil occurs and the brtllks are sufficiently low and free of rocks to be suitable for irriglttion. The soils vary from fertile silts to poor soils with a high salt content resulting frolll the evaporatioll of irrigation and flood water. C'li'iYwte The climate is that of a tropical cont,inenh,l are" with It clcarly defined rainy Se1180n. Rl1infn,l1 il1 generally distributed over tjle period May to October and varies from little more tilton lll. in the north of the pastoral belt to over 800 mm. in itr extreme south. Rainfall in much of the Northern Province il1 negligible and near the Egyptian hordor several years lllay pass during which no precipitation is recorded. Ail' temperatures are high during much of the Yf'al' and there is u. considerable diul'lml variatioll. Climatulogical datu, for stations in Darfur, Kordofan, Blne Nile and Northern Provinces are given in Tahle lb. Fegetation The vegebttioll ill the north of the pa,;toral belt il1 composed of short annual gmsflcs 'which nre replaced further south by tall annuals including Ciymb(1)ogon nervatus, Sorghum purpu,reo.,se1 iceum and Hypcw I'henia pse1lrlocymbaria. In the extreme Houth of the area the tall peren ]linj gntsses such ah Setaria spp. <tml Hypwrrhen ia spp. make their ILppefLmnce. Scattered Inulhes, trees and woodland occur throughout the area and inr.lude Acacin mellifera, A. seya,l and A. {ibtula, as well as othor Hpecies Ruch a,; Brtlanites aegypticuxt, Adsonirt digitatct, II vphaene thebaicct, and toward the south, Oombret'urn spp. LrLl'ge areas are devoted to rain grown erop::; under forms of Bhifting cultiv(1,tioll. The main crop is dura. (Sorghum vulga1'e) and the middle l'aillfldl part of the a,rel'l is the traditional granary of the Sudan. Other Cl'0PH include BeBame and grounclnuts. On the clays, ground is cleared for uult.ivatioll hy burning the gmss. A Huccessful burn depends OIl the gr~thk not having been trampled by cll.ttle <'l.nd there is some conflict of the interests of pnstomlists llud cultivators in these areas. The irrigation schemes south of Kluwtoum on the White and Blue NiloR, of which the Gczim ifl the largest and most well knc)lvn, are devoted prilllarily to the cultivation of cotton, with dum and lubia (Dolidw8 Z({.blab) ar subhidiary Gl'OPS in the rotation. In t,]l0 rivera.in htnc1h of the Northern Province, dum, lubia and wheltt are the principal crops grown on flood lands Itud uuder irrigation.. 61

69 TABJ,]]; 1:1. - Cr,IIIIATOLOGlGAJ, ])A'l'A 1;'OB TIn" NOBTlIBItN SUDAN SlIOR~'HoltNEn 7:1mrr Al<E,t DAllf'UIt (fiji io'ash"!' 1 AltiLml, : Hli m., l\ican llluxinl'l.jltl tel11jirrntuj'u, o(}, 1JOilTl nlinilllll11,1 telnilcl'nlln'{~, ne, l\i(lall 1'I'I"j,jv0 1m" Illidit~" at 1l8.0li 111"7 {}~ Meall l'ol"tivl' humidity nt, 14.1l0 hr., I:'ri. l\[ealll'ltinfall. lulu, :l:}.tl!i,s 1!.:~ '.I.:..! IT.7 :!tl.7 ~].o :.!l.o ~11,:i 11 II ~, II 1 ;n 1-1 III r; J,~ I.. /i.i ;Ia lob ;111. J :17.a :; 1." a~.n :!II. 'I 1~.2 1:}.~ to.:.! li I ;I, :11 ;!.~ :!,,'-\ I r, 1;1.I.~ ;1-1 r. Hi,(j,II hi ;110 ICtlItUUF.\_N (h'l O/Ie;(/) A1Litll<!e: iill5 lu., lucan lunxiluuil,l tolnljet'ntul'(~, 00. Moan minimum t,empel'ntul'g, 00. l\[eull rcllltive mil1ilr at In'., (~;j.... MClin rlllatlv(l 1mmltllty Itt J4.00\l hr., % l\[eulil'llinfun, mm. :Ill. ' a~.. 1 ;lii,7 ;1.~.7 :1!1,1 n,n l.~,g \ilk lii.u ~~,:I 111 I [ fill 7:1 il) :10 15 r)~ :I~ ilk l~1 :!-l.n :m.1i :H.:J :n. l :f.l.k ~l.~ ~li.h,,\..~ 1~.1I lrl.:i 1111 :10 jo 111 ~1 ~t :!,"" ;111.' lllu)~ Nn,Jo: PROVINOg (Sin(Ja) Altitude: l~u lll. MClm maxlmnlll temperaturo, ()(). Mean mlniiuulu tempcl"ntllre, 00. Moan rehttive 1mmldity llt li8.no hll" I};). l\lean l'elutiv(l 111l lu.h1it~: nt l'l.(}u Ill'j III Menn rainfall, mid. 111.:( 17,] ~~,II ~1.1 ~:J.O ~I,B ~1.4 :;0 :11 :I J 1\1 I... WI) 1,"1; :i I, 1 ai.(i ai..'" I;l :!1.~ :!l. I II),:! ill.j.j :i:; NOIt'I'HlmN PUOYINOH (Karciuw) Altit,lule: 2[,0 Ill. )\[QflIl lnllximum tolnolll'atllro J -OCt Men.n ruillhuulll tclullcrllture J {IO. Moun relative Illlm.lilit,l; at 08,(1(1 hi.,,'0, Menll 1'l'latil'c IlIl' rnttlity at llr' j ~';l.... Meun I'ltlufall, lll1ll _..c~_'--- ; Houumc: Irelantl, III IIi,.,.. I "_.,).[[.1 :!!I.:l :!n.:i ](1 II H lk " I H I~.tl.w.n a.i. I :l11 ~ :1,'1.lI ~II,I ~'I.;J 1M.:; I I.K ~11,5 -'-_-'-...._.. 1:1 ;111 02

70 On the larger irrigrtion schemes lucorne (llj edicayo satiw) lutty be grown as a fodder crop. Date palms are important ecollomically 'in the area, (McLaughlin, E. A., Personal Oommunication). 111 anayement pmctices Except in the Northern Province and in the irrigated areas near the W'hite and Blue Niles where the population is sedentary, the great majority of the cattle are in the hands of nomadic or semi-nomadic Arab tribes. The seasonal movement may extend over as much as 300 miles northwards with the advance of the rains and a similar distance southwards with their retreat in the latter pl1rt of the year. In Home parts of the area tills seasonal movement is occasioned vcry largely by the necessity for avoiding the swarms of biting flies (Tahanids and StomO:l.:Y8 Bpp.) which emerge during the mins. In the rains young growing grass provides adequate grazing, but during the dry 8eltSOn t,he cllttle have to rely on dry mature herbage augmented by such swamp and l'iver8ide gmrr 11fl may he available. In most of the area cattle graze ii'om dawn to dusk and pass the night in thorn enclmmres as it l)fccaui,ion against wild heasts, hut in Kastl district in Blue Nile Province it is reported that mottle m'e driven out to graze again l1ft,er the evening milking and remain at large nil night. Although the Bupply of grazing is sufficient to maintain the cat,tle in reasonable condition during the greater part of the year, serious shortages IllI1Y develop in April, May and June prior to the onset of the rains. At best, during this period cattle can only exist at subsistence level, while in a bad year there is, in many areas, considerable m.ortality from famine, especially among young stock. Forage is never collservell 1)y the numads but village herds lill,y receive some dura, sesame, or groundnut residues during the dry season. In the rains cattle are taken to wa1,er once a day but in the dry season, especially if gmziug is inadequate, two or even three days llll1y elaploe between waterings. In tho irrig!lted areas lubin, and, in Northern Province, lucerne are grown ItS forage crops. The straw of dum is conserved for feeding to livestock as well as being grazed in situ. Concentrates are seldom fed outside government farms. Calves suckle their dams and are only weaned when the lactation is completed. They are usually allowed the milk from one, or possibly two, teats at each milking. Only in a very few government or private dairy herds are cows milked in the absence of the calf. The calves remain in the camp or village for the first one to three months. and are then herded separately until they are between 6 and 12 months old according to their stage of growth, when they join the main herd. 63

71 Cattle are maint.;aiuc'd in the pastoral,u t>a" almost t>xcluhi vely for mille Liquid milk forms pm't of the diet of the past.oral trilleh, and is suld by them in the town markets wlwn t.he seasolutl movements bring the' herd:; into their vicinity. 'rhl'onghont the ymn (~ proportioll of the milk is converted into clarified butter (Arnhie 8(mm) for cooking. and other pmposes within the tribe. During and imllledil~tely after the mills - in the foul' months July to Oetoher - when t.lwl't' j;; a flush of milk surplus to the requirements of the pastomlists, thoustlndr of tons of semn. are made ttnd brought to the local markets for Hale in the towns and for export to Egypt. Beef il'i very little tliltcn hy the cilttle"owning tribes, hut considerable number:; of male enule are sold for slaughter in the larger population centers in the SudalJ tmd Egypt. More recently 11 meltt.-procehsing factory has oecn put into operation at Kosti on the White Nile which, when it ik ill full production, is expected to sh~ughter 100,000 head of cattle [~yoar. l:ho Darfur and Kordofall Arabs lisc ljullk ttl'> paek ImimalK (Figurml 24 and 25) and they are extensively used for draft work in the il'l'igf1ted areas (Figure 26) (McLaughlin, B. A., Per8ou(tl Ootn municat-ion). Physical chlll'actel'istics of the ),recll The cattle l11'e well adapted for existence in the dry tropics, with long straight limbs, very dumble hoofs, It short close coat; in whieh the fine undercoat is ahsellt, It loose pigmented skin and the ability to go long periods without water [lind to thrive on dry mature herhage. The head is typically long and eoffin-shltped with the dihtancc fl'om the poll to the eye approximately half that from the eye to the muzzle. The face is lean and the pwfile oonvox. The forehead is fiat and the orbital!lrches are not mnmlly prominent..'fhe eal's arc of medium size (about 9 inches long and G % inehcr:: wide) and are usually carried approximately horizontally. The horns seldom exceed 12 to 14 inches in length. They are IL broad oval in cross section and grow from a fiat poll in I.tn out,ward and upward direction typically more or less ill line with the promo. Unattached horns and scurs occur hut truly polled animals }uwo not oeen observed. The hump is muscular and is cel'vico"thoracic in position. It. tends to slope from front to rear and there is usually SOUle overhang to tho real' in the male. Its height in the male is 4 to 8 inches. The average depth of the dewlap is about 10 % incher (IS sflmples) in the female and 12 Y2 inches (16 samples) in the male. It starts under the chin often as a double fold and continues to the breastbone between the forelegs where it may be continuous with the umbilical 64

72 FIGURE 24. Northern Sudan shorthonwd zebu. Baggara cattle camp or feriq on the tlwve in Dm'lur P1'01Iince, Sudan. Courtesy of J. D.:M..Tack fold, the average depth of which in the cow is 3 ~ inches (H) samples) while the sheath and umbilical fold in the male is of an average depth of 5 Y2 inches (16 samples). The skin on the side of the neck, single thickness, is about 4 mm. thick in the female and 6 mm. thick itl the llw,le (MoLaughlin, 1955). The cattle tend to be deficient in both spring of rib and depth of ohest. Bulls, ill particular, may appear to be pinched behind the shoulder. The topline rises from the withers to tile rump. The pelvis il:! short with a high prominent sacrum and slopes steeply to the rear. The tail setting is low and the tail long with the switoh reaching to the fetlock. The hindlegs are very upright in position. The udder tends to he of poor attachment and the teats, which VltI'y great~y in size, are commonly close together. Coat colors vary greatly. Kenana cattle (Figure 22) are predominantly gray with a darkening over the head and shoulders, the hindquarters, the front of the knees and around the coronets. This darkening varies considerably from one individual to another and is usually more pronounced in the male. It is due to a black and white banding of the hairs, the proportions of which vary in different parts of the coat. Kenana calves are generally born with a red coat color- 65

73 l<'muhe 25. NO'l'thel'n Sudan shol'thu1'ned zebu. Bn(JrJr l'tr. pacl~ bull in Da1'!u1' l:'1'ovinc(j, Sudan. COurteAY of,t. B. H. flirbcllop ation which normany ffl,des to grlty before the calf is (i months old. The Butana cattle and the ma:iorit,y of those ill the Northern Province (Figure 23) have a full red coat color although KCllltlm eolomtioll occurs. In the remaindel' of the arell emtii c()lor~ [we mixed rlllcl iuelude full reds, browns, blacks, and comhinu,tions of one or ll10re of t,hese colol''' with white. FlGum" 26. Northern Sudan shorthorncd zebu, Kenana bulls being used for plowing at the Oezira Research Farm. Courtesy of E. A. McLaughlin Measurements and weights obtained in different parts of the area are given in Tables 14, 15, 16 11nd 17. The average birthweights of 73 bull calves and 84 heifor calves at the Gezira H.esea-roh. Farm were 52.4::1: 0.9 lb. and ,7 lb. respectively (McLa-ughlill, 1955),...

74 TABLE AVERAGE LIYEWEIGRTS AND MEASl.mEJlIENTS OF DARFUR CATTLE -, :Male Female OJ( --- maturo 1 year 12 years 1 mature I year /2 years /maturo Livcweight, kg... 7u UO ~80 ~oo (estimatml) Length fi'om shoulder point to pinbone, em jjg no Height at withers, cm.... ldo n5 los Depth of chest, cm SO Width of hips, em : I Heart girth, em SOURor~: Jack, J.D.M., Personal Oommunication. i I U 1,5 TABLE AVERAGE LlVEWEIGHTS AND MEASUREMENTS OF 'tvrite NILE CATTLE _-----_- "--~-.-- Male Female I Ox I Liveweight, kg.... I (estimate!l) I I I 1 YClt! 12 years] mature 1 year 12 ycars!mll.ture mature I tl llo Length from shoulder point I to pinbone, in.... I 40 4a Height at withers, in.... I ;1 60 Depth of chost, in..... I Width of hips, in..... I \) ! Heart girth, in... I 52 M Souucm:.Jack, J.D.M., Personal Oont1lL1tn'ical-ion. 'fabtje AVERAGE MEASUREJlfENTS OF KENANA CATTLE AT TBJ!! GEZIRA RESEAROH FARM * At 13 to 18 months At III to 311 months Mature Ii'ElI-IALB Weight, lb ± 1;1.2 (14) ± 21.0 (6) 883.D ± 19.0 (28) Length from shoulder point to pinbone, in... Height at withol's, in.... Depth of chest, In.... Width of hips, in.... Hem't girth, in ± 0.7(14) 44.4 ± 0.4 (H) 20.4 ± 0.4 (14) 13.0 ± 0.3 (14) 51.6 ± 0.5 (14) 49.2 ± 0.4 (5) 46.2 ± 0.9 (5) 22.0 ± 0.(1 (5) 14.6 ± 0.4 (5) 56.S ± 0.7(5) 5olA± 0.6 (28) 51.2 ± 0.3 (28) 27.4 ± 0.4 (28) 18.7 ± 0.3 (28) 67.0 ± 0.7 (2&) 67

75 TABLE 16. ~ AVERAGE MEASUm<1MENTI'i OF Kl';NANA CA'r'1'LE AT TUB " CEZIRA RESEAHCH FAHl\l (I'ontimwd) ~C=-='=-==--~==-~~~7;:!:=T=~~~~~~C_~'=~:::~:="'= ~L\LJo: 'VOight, Ill Length ["OIU ~houlder point to pin hone, in He;ght at. wither", in Depth of e1wkt, in. Width of iii!,". ill. Heart girth, in... 44!l. '7 == ;],'i, 4 en -!t).7 - I.,! (i) lila ± 1).917) ~:'!.8 :1: 0.7(7) 1:1.6 :le OA (7) ril, n ± 1.:; (7) flo-l.l.t (il) 1 W;L~.. au] (17) fil.h 0.7 (K) 1j~.4 ± n.7 (17) _L -Ill.,1 :I: 0.14 (';) a5.fi ± Il,:l (17) :!,l.u ± IU; (il) :n.:!.1_ I).a (17) 14, ::; ± 0.4 (~) I>l.4 ::1:: n.:! (17) uh.4 ± O.R (8).1_ 7:1, :.! I). '\ (17) Means ± standard error. No'rJ,;; NumhCl'fl ~[LnljJled 8I1OW11 in Imwkct~, 80L'1l("':: McL!tuglllin, IV';;;. TARLE 17, - AVERAGE MEASUREl\Il\lNTS OF NOltTlTBnN l'ltovinoe CAT~~r.I': Weight, kg...,., Length il'om sltollhlel' point to llinl10l1c, em. Height, at withcl'a, em.. Depth of ohost, em.... W!cUh of hills, em..... HellrL girth, om SOUHCg; J>\ck, J.n.i\L, Personal C!nmm.miciltion. Functional characteristics of lbe breed Cat.tle arc ui:led by the nonmdic Arabs as pack animals UH well as providers of milk and, by their sale in the towll mel1t market, revenue. In the set.tled irrigated areas they are kept fol' milk and draft, and, to a lesser extent, for meat. The cattle show a very strong herding instinct and are to It high degree responsive to voice signals from their owners. They!LrO gencrally docile and arc readily tmined for draft work and shed milking routine. The age of a heifer at its first ca.lf is reported to be 4, to 4, % years among the pastoral herds. A report from Northern Province suggests that catt-ie there can be expected to calve down at 2 to 2 % years. 68

76 At the Gezira Research Farm t,he average age of 41 heifers at the first calving was 40.G i~ 0.8 months (McLaughlin, H!55). The calving interval among nomad and village herds has been estimated as being between 12 llnd 24 monthfl flnd the productive life of a cow from 5 to 12 lactat,ions. At the GezirfL Research Farm the average calving interval during the period lh48 t.o HJ54 was 408 :1:: 9 days (115 records) and the average herd life of 14 cows which had completed theil' productive life in the herd was ] 1 lactations. At this station very little difficulty has heen experienced in breeding Kenana cattle; J.4 services have been required for each calf horn (121 calvings). Data from the same herd indicated that the aver!lge gestation period of Kenana cattle was =1:: 0.6 da,ys, and that there was no significant difference between gestation periods for male and female calves (McLaughlin, 1955). Among nomadic herds, cows tend to be in the highest condition after the rains in the months of Septemlel' to December and most conceptions take place in this period, so that the majority of calves are horn in the following rainh. At the Gezira Research Farm, where the cltttle are kept at a level lllltritional status, it has been observed that calvings occur regularly throughout the year. No detailed ohservahoml have been carried out OIl the milk production of cows under pastoral conditions, hut its average has been estimated as being about 10 lb. [t day in the rains and about 6 11). a day in the dry season. Lactation duration depends on the time of calving and the avltilability of grass, but it has been estimated as being generally Year Number of laotations MUk prod~"on, lli. : t D~ in mtlk'" moan ± SE.I l'ange mean ± HE. [ range TABLE 18, - MILK YmLDS AND DAYS IN MILK OF THE KENANA HERD AT THE GEZffiA RESEAROH F.Alt1<r, * 1948 l( S 318 ± ± 9 I t ± ± ± a 232 ± 15 I ± ) ± 14 I 6il-3t ± ± ± ± ± ± * The values al'e 'for normallaotations (uninterrupted by disease o~ othel' cames) ending in eaoh year. ' Milk yields were recorded from the fourth day after oalving. Days in milk were measured from date of calving to dnte of drying oil'. SOUROE: MoLaughlin fig

77 -_.--,--_--_._--_ The n,vel'ftgc lactation yields of t,he herd of the F,wulty of Agl'icultmc, Khartoum UnivOl'Rity College, in 1 H52 and HI1l3 werc 4,768 HI. in aon dayr (3a reom'cls) and 4,647 lb. in 828 (bys (8K recdl'ds) respecl,ively. The average litctntion yield of Kenann COWR at the Ge7.inlo Rer:;earch Farm in the Heven yeal's HI L war a 7H5 I 111 lb. in 242 j~ 5 ell)'},s (l4f1 reeon1s). A summary of thc l'~(,ord~-- obtained n,t tho GC7.im l~osenreh Farm ih given in TnllleH lr and 19. 1n neither the Ulliversity College of Khart.onm herd nor in that of the Gezira Resen-reh Farlll m'e lmlver a.llowe<l to Huukle the cow". between 200 and :jon clay" il 17 TABLE lviii,k YIELDS AND DAYS IN MILK IN i'3ucoessive LACTATIONS OF THE KENANA HERD Nr. THE GEZIHA HESEAIWH lj'arm ~.--." ~ ~- i i NnmlJer of T.Jrwtatiou ~ 1n('t,atioIlS!.,- Milk Pl (Hlnr,ti<lll. lb.' I DIWY i II milk" !-_--- ~ llwlln ± SID- rima''' _L~::'~~~~_I ~':_: 2 6 nl' over :l.~ a 707 J:: ~1i7 1 lli !j(j :l: Hi.lal ± U 420 2[10 ± IJ 152-: :10 ± 201l (I 744 ~50 ~f: R ± !iiG ~32 J:: 11) IH7--21l0 a 051 ::!: HS :; Olll 2r;H J:: 1:1 21:1--- :127 4 [,12 ± aiu-5822 ~tijl ± ,10 Recorded froid the fourth day after calving. Measured fl'rlll the (lata of c!llving to the dnto of ilrying (ljr. 80UHOI :: Md.aughUI1. HJli5. A study carried out at the Gezira H.csenroh Farlll with Kcnmm cattle has indicated that t.he repeat.ability between t.he heifer laet,l~tiojl and second lactation wa::; of a low order, while l'e]xlittn.hility betweell the second and third lactat.ionr war llignihcant. At. the smue st'f~ti()ll it was found tha,t total lactation yield was more stl'ongly dependent on persistency of lact.ation than 011 initial daily high yield. The average butt,erfat cont.ent of milk from the Gezim I~clleltrch Farlll herd was o.o!) percent (234 test.s) and solids-not-fat content. was 9.25 ± 0.05 percent (234 tests) (McLaughlin, 1955). The highest. yield recorded from a North Sudf.m zebu cow is t,lutt given by Boyns (1!)47) as having been 10,272 lb. milk in 339 days obta.ined from a Kenana cow. Northern Sudan zebus are used as dmft animals in 'blle irrigt~ted areas in Blue Nile, Khart.oum, and Northern Provinces and elsewhere. They have been traditionally used in Northern Province t.o provide 70

78 the motive power [or the 8uqiya or Persian water wheel. A pail' of bulla turn [1, 8(lqillu, for six to dght hours at a stretch ench day. Suq yas in Northern Province are operated on [t shift system either contiuuom;iy throughout the 24 hours in four six-hour lihifts or from to hr. in two shifts, one of six hours and the other of eight hours. On the 'Vhite Nile, bulls are only required to work on 8(IQiya8 for three hour,,; at a stretch. Bulls lue also used throughout the irrigated arelts as draft animals for tillage work (l,lld for haulage. At the Gezira Research Farm bulls stm t tmining for work at ~1,bout l~ months of age, do light carting n,nd draft work at 2 yeanl and heavy draft work at between 3 and 4 years. It is usual for a Imll to continue working for ten or more years. A pair of bul]f; can work for five to Bix hours a day on tillage work. In this time, working on heavy clay, 0.7 acres can be plowed or 2.6 acres ridged (McLaughlin, ] 85fi). In the Northern Province 011 lighter soils two hulls can plow one acre in a day. Hattersley (UJ51) has ohbel'ved that a pair of Imlh; will walk nine to ten miles in a five-hour day while ridging. Two hulls harnessed to a four-wheeled iron-tired cart Cl1,n move slightly more than one ton over earth roads and can continne to work for seven hollrs in a di1,y. It is reported that a hull used its a pack animal in Darfur Cltn carry it lmod of ahout 250 lb. for four to five hours while traveling itt three miles pel' hour l1,nd that in Korclofan a Lull loaded with 200 lb. can covel' 12 to 15 miles in 11 clay. Bulb are a.lso \1sed as riding animals ill Darfur, Kordofan t1nd pat't.s of the Blue Nile Province and are capahle of traveling at three and it hitlf to foul' miles pel' hour for 25 miles in lt day. The meat from Northern i)udan zehus if! seldom of good quality. This may be ltt least, in pnrt due to ::;laughtered animals being almost always llmture maier l1,nd to their having led a very active life before they are sold to ijw ]Jute-her. The dres:;ing Ilercentagc )111,8 been estimated as being between 40 ltnd 50 percent of liveweight. Northern I':iudan mtttle H,l,'e very tolerant of high ail' tempemtures. It hal:; been olmerved that both adult animal;; and calveii nre able to remnin in t,he full Hun for long periods without, signt-l of distress. Kenana c!1,ttle at the Gezim He:;earch Ji'arm were exposed to the sun from to hi's. in nnshacled Y!1rds with bltre soil underfoot. Reotal tempel'l1tures were taken hefore and after exposure and comparisollh made. The relmits of this test nre shown in r_rable 20. Northern Sudan zebus are highly tolerant of the locally prevalent :;tmins of foot-and-mouth disease. In the part the herds have heen periodically much reduced by the epizootic disea~;es, particularly rinclel'pe:;t and contagious hovine plouro-pneumonia. More recently 71

79 prophyhwtic control of l'indel'peht has heon to It large (,xt,cut suocessful and severe loshes hlwe been I'aI'('. On the only occasion that, is,'opol'ted of a herd t.!:'st. for bovine tuberculosis - at the Gezil'iL :Research Farm in 105:) lloflit.ive reactions were oht.ained. In the smne yeltl' Brucella rnelite'l!8is Wilfl demonstrated in cat,tie in the Gezim, ~ft1stitifl ImK appeared in the herds nj, the G~\zira H,PRP1trch FitI'm and the University College of Khartoum ]l'arm. Both 8treptoC(lCCIiB (l{lalcwtiae ItIlcl (Jorynebacteri11:rn 1Jyo[lenes luwe heell found, No CatleR of infeotious infertility luwe been reported from the northern SUdan, TABLE Cr.IlIIATIO ADAP,rAmLI~'Y OF KJ;]NANA CA'I'T.LE Nr' ~'H:m HESEAROH FARM OEZI.RA A vp rup;o holly t.elnl)('~l'at,ul'e M(lllllllil'Allado tmn!lorllturo cluriu~ test ( 'InH~ _ ~"--._---.!-----'-----';--_._ _... _ '8 eowr..., (11.1 lill.s Or..lI 70,8.ltH.7 :1:1.0 Maim" eowa... l111a W2, :l U2,O H2,11 lio,~ G4.5 ll,;ifct'o;: Hyel'Hgl~ Hg-C :J.J.':1 mo"thh Jo:I.1I ":'.0 8!!.lI UO.O 55.U HUif!'1's: tlyernge i.\g't~ 10 mnnt,lla loa. ~,~a.o 8~.1l ,0 M"t-Uro hullh f, lila.!! 87.(1 HI) 'J 10:1.1 a ~.r, ]~Il11": ;l'ret.'ug'(! Hg'e ~~.~ nwnlhh lllil.o NII.f> HI U 55.0._------_ A = loo - 10 (li'r ) where H'l' ia tho lucllll of Itll ro"01'iliug~ of li.llljolly Imuperatlll'e reool'ding.,luring tho teal;, IllHl llll.l) I. tho not'runl1>ody t())uih.l"lttul'o of "attle (Hhonil. 1944). Bovine tl'yll!lnohomi,tsis aecountk f<ll' lohs(;'.tl in the 11!lstoJ'nJ herds "'hen they arc at the sonthel'llmost limits of their sect movement ill the dry season, and isolnted CH~CH -- JJl'mmrnnbly l'el:lulting from mechnnical transmission by hit,ing fiieh - O(;()UI' farther llol't,h during the mins. Liver fluke (FnscioZa. hepatiw) ih prevalent, in 1I1w nqmd,i(\ Pltsj,ureH bordering the vvhitc Nile [mel is 0" C!tUKe of lohl-let; muong t.lw herds which Me t.n.ken to them for dry Reason grazing. 'l'heile1'ia Itnnnllttrt i8 wmnlly prerent in Northern Sudn,n cl),ttle and it; [,olel'n.tecl by them.. TickR occur throughout the a.rea!tlld, although thf;)'e nw no flel'imlb t.ick-tl'ausmitted diseases, are a -ti:equenl; oaurfl of injury til t,he t,ents 72

80 of fenulle cattle in the 11asliOl'al herds. Bit.ing flies, in particular the Tltbanids, emerge in vast numbers during t.he rains and make it impos- 8ihle to maintain cflttle in the open during the middle of the day in t.he cent.ral fmd sout.hern parts of the pastoral helt. It has been reported t,hat :KenEl.1la cattle which were t.<lh:en to Bahr el Ghezal Province in the southern Sudan appeared to he \'ery suscept.ible to Demodectic mange (Jack,.J.D.lVI., Per,wJnal Oomlllunicllh:on; McLaughlin, E. A., Personal Communication). Performance in other areas Cattle frol11 the Gezira Research Farm have been exported to Kenya llnd Tripolitania but, while general l'el)orts have been favorable, no deta.i1s of their performance in those areas are available. Kenana cattle have the repntrtioll of being hetter milk producer" than those of the western provinces,tncl bulls frolll the l!'ung have been imported into Darfur and KOl'llofHll and into the Clouthern Sudan in an attemi)t. to improve the lwrds there. Crosses with other Jlreeds of cattle Only very tenhttive attempts have been made to breed Northern Sudan zehus with European cattle. A DeVOll hull WIlIl imported into NOI'thel'l1 Province early in thc present century and some of the local c!tttle are sa-id ti) still show his influence. Friesian bulls were used for Cl'w:isbl'oedillg in Khartoum and ~t large dairy herd there is mainly compo8ecl of oattle, the colofo.tion, conformation anel productive ability of which are evidence of their ancestry. This herd is composed of between 450 and BOO head of cattle of which about 260 are in milk at anyone time. Sources of breelling stock anll information regarding the breed It. i:; e,,[.il1u"tted tlutt there are between approximately 2,750,000 and 3,000,000 head of cattle of this type in the north and north-central Sudan. The lviini::;try of Agriculture, Sudan Government, maintain::; a herd of I(emma cattle at the Gezira Hf'search Farm, and one of Butuna cattle ltt the Atlmm Dairy Farm in the Northern Province. The University College of Klu.l'toulll has a herd of Northern Sudan zehus, the foundation members of which were obtained from the Northern Province, the Kenana herds llnd the White Nile district. There is It privately owned uairy herd at Khartoum composed largely of Cltttle of mixed Northern Sudan zelju and Friesian descent. 73

81 Further informn,tion regarding these cattle may he obtained from: The Director, Depnl'tallcnt of Animal Pl'oduction, Ministry of Animal Besources, Khartoulll, Sudan. The Director, Department of Agl'ieultnl'e, Ministry of Agriculture, Khartoum, Su(itm, The Chief of the H,eseal'ch Divisioll, lvlilli::;t.l'y of Agriculture, Wn.d Medani, SUUt1ll. The Dean, Faculty of Agriculture, Univel'sit,y College of Khartoum, SUdiUl. Origin SHUWA The Shuwt), cattle, whiuh are also known as Wadam, Chon, or Arab zebu, are included by Mason (H)fila,) in his ShorthOl'IlCd Zebu group. The same author refers to Morton (ld43) who t'xpl'('sserl tho opinion tlmt the Shuwt), might have some ul'achycero8 ttllcest.ry. J30th Gates (UJ5Z) and Reed, It. L. (Personal Oom'1n1tnicaJion) maillt,t~in tlh1t the present Shuwa cattle Hre derived from the herds which IWCOlUpLtllied the nomadic ShUWlL Arabs from east of Lake Chad. The la,t,tel' l~uth()l' ity suggestfl tlutt these cattlc are very Himih~l' to U10flC of the BnggarH Arn.bs in Darfur and KOl'(lofa,n in the Hepublic of the SUCbll. Shaw and Colville (1950) refer to these cattle by the llame "Wadawl1," hut MIcHon (195Irt) draws atttmtion to t.ho fnut that. this term has ajso been api)lied to a group induding 1>ot11 Shuwn and Azaouak cn,ttle. COflllitions ill the native home of the breed Loc({tt'on, topo(rraphy mul SOil8 Shuwa cattle a,re found in the ()Ountl',)' bordering on Lake Chad; in 1.he Dikwa Hrea to the sout.h and southwest. of' the lnke, ill the extreme north of the French Camerooml (\V here i.lwy are known as "CllOtt"), Hnd in the Ouaddai, Blttlu1 and Kanem distri()th of Chad territory in French Equatorial Africlt, where t,hcy are referl'ed t.o ILH Al'I~b zebuh. The I\,l'ca consist-i:! of open elevated plain!;, draining toward Lt~ke Chad al1d developed in l)1wt ii'om young ~edimcnt.al'y l'ociu; overbin by sanely quaternary drifts which give rise to eusily worked Roil:-; of good fertility. The Iwerage altitude is 1,000 to 1,200 feet above RPIl 10ve1. 74

82 ~- Clim.rde The climate of the area is characterized by a long dry season and a low rainfall concentrated within the months of May to October. The winter months of December, January and February are relatively cool and are dominated by the dust-laden harmattan wind from the northeast. From March until the beginning of the rains, temperatures are high with means of over 90 0 F. and maxima in excess of noo F. There is, however, a high diurnal range and the nights are cool. Dming June the direction of the prevailing wind changes from northeast to Routhwest and tornadoes are of frequent occurrence. Temperatures fall but the rising humidity results in a feeling of oppression. July and August are months of rain and flooding from the rivers is of frequent occnrrence. The rains end in September and, after a month of high humidity and temperatures in October, the cool weather sets in in Novembel. Climatological data for Maiduguri in BOl'llU Province, Nigeria, [md AbechC, French Equatorial Africa, are given in TahIe 21. TABLE CLI]'yI.ATOLOGICAL DA'l'A FOIt MAIDUGURI* AND ABEOHl!: STATIONS IN NIGERIA AND ll'renoh: EQUATORIAL AFRICA RESPECTIVELY Maid1l!luri M can tompcl'llturo, cu., I'" II E Iumidity, %... M "an rainfall, >-,.g I "" I,_; ;;: '" I ~ _,_; :::> <lj,_; ~. I " I I ". "..q "" ~ >-, I I >-,.q rn I "" I..l I ~ oj '" '" " I il 0 :z; I=l >< " ~7,, HI 31.3 uil nil nil nil nil iliechc M elm temporature " H 11miditYJ ". /" :lo.h :ta.s as.o j, : M (;(1n rainfall, mm. nil ni! nil O.G U nil nil ';1. 5-yoo..r u,"vcra,go. SOUIWE' Maidugurl, Reed, H.L. l:'cl.,mzal Gmmmmicatioll. Ab6ch6: Tl'oquel'eau, PcrS<>1la! Omnrnunication. Vegetation The natural vegetn,tion of the area is tha.t which is generally referred to as savannah woodland, the shrub and tree population of which is dominated by Acacia spp., and in which the grasses seldom exceed 4 feot in height. The plant population is much influenced by cultivation 75

83 FWUltE 27. A herd of 8hnl.l'fl, cutt/e on nr!twral {/razh!fj (10nrl"'HY of n, M. (laths fmd burning, Except, in the viduit.y of towll~, where thel'l' "1'0 per. manent flll'l1ls, shifting cultivation is practioed and t.hc lawl, aft.er being cleared :tnd cropped for sevoml 310:11'8, is n,llowed to L'Oturn to the natuml bush. The Shuwa Arabs hlwll tho replltn,tioll of buillg intelligont f<tl'lllel'~ and grow a vllriety of croph including millet " ~()l'ghulll, mniz(', gronnd HUtR and sehmne, 111 anayernrmt practice,~ The gre:1ter part of the Shuw(L C(1tt,]c l1re owned by the ShUW:L Al'l\bs, a people of nomadio bradit.ioh but: now very largely devoted to sedentary agriculture. The herd8, however, remain semi-llomadic and are moved from ono area to n,nother ~tfl grllzing and water bcoome availahle. Dllring the rain8 the c(1ttlo remu,iu neal' the villages and arc grazed on ullcultivaj;cd land and in the bush, In tho dry season they move to Lalw Chad OJ' to other I1re118 whore W[I,ter is availahle. ~rowm,'rl the end of the dry season grazing becomes SC[Lrce and the cattle In,'owse the leaves of shrubs and low trees (Figure 27). They are norrl1!llly taken to water once daily. Crop residues, inoluding the straw of millet, sorghum and maize and oilcakes from gl'oundnuts, sosame (Llld shea butter nuts, are fed to the milch herds which ILre retained ncar the villages during the dry season. The bulls, only a few of which are castmtecl, (Ll'e l1110wecl to run with the herds, a practice whioh precludeh effective ~cleotive breeding. 76

84 FIGUHE 28.,Shl.IWU /Jull. Frnmm 20. Shww((, eme. Comtp8Y of G. M. nlltes 77

85 . Physical characteristics of the brecd The Shuwt~ cattle (Figures 28 and 21:1) are medium to small in size, avemging about 50 inches ill height behind the hump. The hend profile is stndght and the muzzle broad aud the body is compact and well fleshed. The hump in the male is well developed, but is small in the female. The dewlap, although it i!:; not prominent, is fairly well developed. The chest appears slightly narrow and the legs are short (1nd fine. The rump is slightly sloping. Although therp is coi1biderable variation in the development of the horns, it is normal for them to he short, growing outwards, upwardfl and forwards from the poll. Loose horus, unattached to the holly core, occur. 'l'he majority of the animals are dark red or lmrwll ill cuat coloration, but pied with black or red on white hits also been observed. TABLE AVERAGE MEASUREMENTS Oll' 8nuwA CA'1".rLE AT lviaiduquri GOVERNMENT FARM, BORNU, NIGEltIA Wolght., lh j Mnle TI'(JI11ILlo I~:u+ YOllrsl:~~:: I ~.f"tl+ yoar+l1~turo::: :-1- I I ) i 540 I SUO :11)0 1 -! 70 I nuo Length trom shoulder point to pinbone, in I 47 I 00.[1).j,;") :)' Height at withers, in Depth of chest, in I (i() 17 ~l I :)0 :lti 4:1 :;0 17 ~O i6 Width of hips, in lr \l 1.:1 17 Heart girth, in ".:1, flu _._--_... _ _----"----- SOURore: Reed, R.L., Personal Ommnunication. TABLE AVERAGE MEASUnEM.1!:NTS OF SHUWA (AUAU Z1!JDU) CATTLE IN CHAD TERRITORY ".. -._...". -~-- Matul'o mllie I M'ltl1l'O fmllalo... --,=~.=--=========;===. Ox Weight, kg...,. ; HlOO Length from shouldor poiut to pinbolle, otn Height at withors, om f.i 12f> Depth ot chest, em Heart girth, cm (64 SOUROIe: Troquereau. Personal OOTllTllunioation. 7K

86 In geneml, the skin il> of medium thickness and louse. The pigmentation of the skin is da.rk. The hairs are short and of medium softness. The Agricultuml Department of NigeritL has maintained a herd of this hreed at Maiduguri in Borllu Province since The measurements summarized ill Table 22 were recorded n,t t his farm. The average birthweight of calves has been 55 lb. French authorities from Chad territory report the average measurements given in Table 23. Functional characteristics of the breed The ShU\m is a triple-pul'p()~e bre('(1. It }1ftH fail' milking qualities and mljl easily be put into well-fleshed condiiion 011 good grazing alone. It. hal'! medium draft qualities hut ir nsed mainly as a pack animal The felllu1es calvc for the first time at ahout 45 months of age. 1'hey breed thronghout the year; the largest number of matings is reported to occur during the months of Mil,y to July. The males are put to service when they Iwe about a years old. 'riley are reported to have an a,ctive hreeding life of 7 to 8 years. They are faitly quick to service. A hcrd of ShUW[L cflttle was started in 1929 by the Government of Nigeria at SaImtru Stock Fa.rm in Zaria Province. Average milk performance records from cows maintained at this farm are summarized TABLE STOCK FARM, SAMARU, ZARIA PROVINCE, FROM 1929 TO 1940 AVERAGE PERFORMANCE OF THE SHUWA HERD AT SA1IURU YCllr NumCl' of lactations I.act.ation yieltl, lb. Days in milk Calving interval, days !)~10 HI lobi 1( B til !! 1940 SounOI!l: Nigeria I lith; 1 l~ l 1 (IH H :!!io ~ ( I I I' a ~-~: I_~~ ::_~ 79

87 in T,tble :24. Gentes (Pe.I'8()/l.ul CmmnIUl.icat'ion) hae; ohe;orved, however, that thil:l herd is lloi, of pure Shnwa breeding, as I.>nt,h White ]I~ulalli and Solwto crosses have been made, and that, therefore, the Pl'O<iuetiOll figures obtained from it lllay not he typleltl of the Shuwa type. A herd of the breed was established in its nativo habitat in HOrIln Province at Maiduguri Government ]I~arm in 194,(3, Perfcn'11ltUlce l'ecord~ obtained at this farill arc sunmull'i7.ccl in Table 25. 'J'ABLl!J :lij. - Av:mRAGE PJ!llWORIIIANOE OJ,' 8nuwA CA'l'~l'l,g AT J\oL"'lDlJGUm (iovjflrnlimwc J)'AUlII o~~~~~~~~ c~ ~~~~-l ~:;;:;:~~~;;,;,~,::::-::.. AV6rago milk [I~(J(lueLi"n, Iii :l 1I0,t "\ vorage duy~ ill milk...,.... ~4() Avoruge ('!living interval, day,; :170 Avcrago l1muljel' of Iada!.iollA dul'ing' life... 7 SOFHOlti: :Hced, n.1.(",{it-~ts{)nal (}omnnuiicalinn. The Lest lactation yield of a Shuwa eow was 7,543 Il,. (Re('d, n. L., Personal Oorn1rL'ltnic((tinn). During tho years H14~1 and HlilO the average lactlttiol1 yiehls at the above-mentioned farm were 2,900 Ih. aurl 2,589 Ih. l'nlpectively. Aut.horities from French Equatorial Africa l'eport. an :werage yiekl from Shuwa, cows of :-3 to 4 liters pel' day in it laetati(jll period of 180 days with 18 monthr' calving int~rval (Tl'oquereau, Pr.T,:IO?Ull Oornm:unication). Shuwas sht)"w very good nclaptallility t.o r~lt.t()nillg 011 good pal>tul'es. They weigh ahout 800 lb. at,~ years of age in BOl'llU Province, when they are ready for slaughter. Himihtr figures arc reported frolll French Equatorial Afrimt where it is estimated that the cattle yi!:'ld GO pereellt clrehl:led meat, Shuwlt maim.; arc Ui:led extensively for llaek tral1l:lport and for tidillg, particularly by t.l1o Shuwa Arab women. In Chad territory, l!'l'enoh Equatorial Afrioa, it has heen estimaj,ed that, 7(> perecnt of the internal transportation in the lh'oi1 is carried oui; hy Shl1W~l Imlloelol. ~rhe average load carried oy a bullock is about. 175 lb. In Nigeria Shuw!t oxen nre put to work ltt abou1; :~ years of ago, They are aotive, even-tem.pored and willing workers. In un irontired cart a pair of bullocks (Ian pull a, load or 1,100 to 1,200 lh., at a speed of three to foul' miles an hour. Ross (1944) reports that the small si7.c of these cat,tle limits their usefulness as work animals to areas of light, s!tndy soils. 80

88 Somces of breeding stock ami information regarding the breed The veterinary and animal husbandry services in French Equatorial Africa have est.imated that there are 3.5 million Shuwa cattle in the arell. The population in Nigel'ia is thought to llumher about 1 million head (Reed, R L" Pe1'sonal Oomrmmication). Further information regarding the type may he ohtained ii'om the following authorities: The Director of Agriculture, Kadulla, Northem Nigeria. The Director of Veterinary Services, Kaduna, Northern Nigeria. The Officer-in-Charge, Service de l'elevage du Tchad, Fort Lamy, Chad Territory, French Equatorial Africa. Origin SOKOTO The 80koto cfbttlo [1,re shorthorned zebun bearing a 010::;0 resemblance to the shorthorned zebus of India and Pakistan with which it is assumed tlubt they have a COUlmon origin. Bisschop (193'7) has desol'ibed the migmiiory routes which these cattle may have followed to reach their present habitat in the west of Africa. Alternative names for the Sokoto type of cattle are: Sokato Gudali, Gudali, and Bokoloji (Gates, Hl52; I{,yall, T. E" Pe?'8onal Oommunication). Conditions ill the native home of the bl'eed Location, topography and 80U8 The Sokoto cattle arc found in ::lokoto Province in Nigeritt and the adjoining p!1rts of French West Africa in an area which lies between approximately 12 0 to 15 0 north latitude and 3 0 to 7 0 east longitude. The Sokoto basin, with an average elevation of 1,200 feet above sell level, is well watered by the Sokoto and Rhni rivers which later join the Nigel', and consists of open elevated plains, the fertile soils of which are developed in part, from young sedcmentary rocks overlaid hy sandy drift lllateriltl, Climate The climate of the area ir characterized by a long winter dry season during which the prevailing,vind is the dry dust-laden harmattun from the northeast and east,. and a shorter wet season extending from May to September when the southwesterly monsoon brings rain which 81

89 ... falls in violent thunderstorms during the heat of the day 01', less frequently, as steady rain which may fall uninterruptedly for 24 houl's or more. Tornadoes (exceptionally violent thunderstorms), occur partioularly at the beginning and toward the end of the rains and arn most frequent at night between sunset and sunrise. Temperatures are a.t their highest in April a.nd Ma.y when llu~xillm may exceed F., but,'owing to 1ihe high diurnal temperature l'fmge which can be as much as :Wo F., the nights l'ema.in relatively uou!. Between November n,nd April the relative hnmidity, which may be about 35 01' 40 percent soon anel' sunl'ise, commonly dropl'l to 12 pel'(,(hlt. or less in the afternoon. Olimatological data for Sokot,o are given in Table 26. TABLE 26_ -, - CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA FOIt SOKOTO, NIGERIA - _ ~--"~- <l I I I ~.., OJ :;:oj I " I '" I I I ~ ~.: :>. ~..., ~,..-; ~. ""...; i,.., -1 w "i3 ::> Po "! Menn temppi'hture, of... ~ :1 sa 82 so ~2 Sf! oil 8:l 85.1 Mean maximum temperature, OF UO , O~ Ii 10~ n Mean minimum temperature, OF fi ~,1 71.S / HUmidity, / !l 62 7U H7 8:1 50,W :n 5~.n Rilinfall, in.... nil nil , fi.2g , : nil nil :..!7.9 I..---"--~,.. Vegetation The vegetation of this area is of the Sudan Sftvl1111uth type. A saltbush vegetation offering rough grazing is avitilll,ble throughout t.he region, except along the streams and the deprehsions cituhecl by t,lul fixed sand dunes, where there is It wide variety of short gl'asflcs. Guillel~ corn, millet, groundlluts and cassavtt a,re extenhively cropped,lilli the by-products utilized for cattle feeding. "Bush fallowing, whic'h ih commonly practiced, 111so affords flome grazing, Management pmr.tices These m~ttle are almost all owned by the originally nomadic J)'ubui tribe, a proportion of which has now become fledentll,ry, 'fhe livchtock management practices of the Fulani tribe me described in grc!ltoj' detail in the section on the 'White Fulani (p. 102). Except, t.lmt cattle

90 FIGURE 30. FIGlJHE :31.,"'okato IlUll.,S'"koto CUII'. courtesy of G. M. Hate<

91 zariba,:; are sometimes I='itecl 011 lauel intended f()l' cultivation, the cattle are ent,il'eiy divorced froid (Jl'OP procluutioll and depend very largely on grazing. During t.he dry months, from November to April, however, they live on sorghum sl;alks and leaves from certain trees. The :Fnlani people wander about in the area in search of grazing, lmt do not go Routh on account of the tset:,;e fly infehh"ttioll in that. arca. Physical characteristics of tbe breed The Sokoto cattle (l?ignres 30 and ::n) twe medillll1-sizecl deep- bodied animals. The typical animal is broad in front and wide on the hack and gives the impression that under favorahle condi.tions it would carry,t considerable amount of meat on the more valualle part,s of the carcass. These cattle ha,ve a characteristic convex profile, f:llightly pendulolls enrs and a well-pronqunced dewlap and umljilicl11 fold. The sheath in the male is loose. The hulls have short lateral horns which are usually upturned. The females h[we slightly longer horns thn.jl the males. The musculo-ftttty hump is ccl'vico-thoracic in position and is well develol)(3d ill both sexes. On account of the pronounced development, of the hump the head appears to be carried low. The mhwl color is white 01' cream in the females and light gmy Or ('rohlll with clark shading at the pou, neck, shoulder and tail ill the males. The Hhading varies in intensity ill individuals and dun hulls with blue-gray shading an~ sometimei' observed. The skin is of mediulll thicknehs tluc11oose, with dark pigmentation. Animals with light pigmentation nre occasionally seen. The hair if; Rhort ami of medium softnells. The 1100[," are strong and posse;.:s good wearing qunlity. A herd of SokoLo cattle has lwen maintained at I::lhilm Stock Ji'nl'lll in Zaritc Province, Nigeria, since Hl32. The location hi 11 0 W' north TABLE AVERAGE MIM.SUIWMJilN'.rS ai!' SOKOTO CATTf,E ]\Il110 -Wlnnulll Weight,ll>....,,{l1 1 loll :J1 ;; lio 1 Longth froln shoulllel' poiut to pinbone, in.... '12.0(),,:1.00 IIl.UO 41.IIU 11l.GO Height Itt withers, in lh.;i() d4..00 Depth of ehest., in.... ~IUiO 24:. 75 ~U. 75 :.!l.oll ~i.oli Width of hills. in W.7G HCUl t girth, in fio.oo I 70.0(1 UK. 011 (lfi,;ih I SOUHCE: Ryul1, r1'.]1., Personal Gomml/nir:(ttton. 84

92 htitude and ' cast longitude Hnd is at an elevation of 2,100 feet above sea level. Average data on certain body measurements of Sokoto cattle froul the Shika Stock Farm herd are summarized in Table 27. Birthweights of males average 55 lb. and of females 53 lb. FUllctioI1al chal'aetcl'isties of the hreed Sakata cattle are used for the triple purpose of producing milk, beef, and draft. They have fair milk-producing qualities and rear their calves very well uuder grazing condition:s. They alo;o show good qualities of fattening on grassland. As work animals they are slow but steady, and quite reliable.. There is no evidence of any particular breeding :season, and breeding continues throughout the year. Cows calve for the first time at about 40 months of age. From Ohl;81'Vations at ShiklL Farm it is reported t,lutt the duration of estrus is often short. TABLE AVERAGE REUORDS Oll' PERFORMANOE OF SOKOTO Cows AT SHIl{A STOOl{ FARM, DUl1INO 1934 TO 1950 Your No. of Lactation J)ars in milk Calving lo.etlttiollr yield. lb. interval. days 11) ,'31 5H ~35 ~B9 19:1O 2;') 2 ~O4 :i7~ l:!7 :! ~ :log 10:-W 4!!! 500 2::!4 :.WU ~ 1fI1l 220 :161l lllu :J!!.2!!S!) :! :>:: 2270: ~:l~ ~m !l G2 11) llh" IS 2 :11:1 2Sa 4 ;!!l 1.94[ )47 40 :l ti 1MB 20 ;) 363 2U 40i 194~ 2i 28..&:2 29{ ~ SOUROE: Coloninl Office

93 The males!lre put to service when they are about:~ years old Imd are active breeders for It period of 10 years. Average production of milk from cows nutintained at Shilm Stock Farm, and derived from several hundred lactations, is 2,350 lb., tesl,iug 5.75 percent lmtterfat in <t lact.ation period of 230 days with twice daily milking, It is estimated that on all average, CI)W8 }uwo 8 to 10 lactations during t1 lifetime (Ryall, T. K, Per80nal Cormnnnication). Data from the Sol:ot.o herd at Shilnt Stock ]'mm lll'e sml111utrizecl in Table 28. The hest, lactntion,yield during the year H war rcported to be 4,276 lh. Observations at Shika Stock I~arm reveal that Sokotn cattle show good a,daptability to fltttening OIl grassland. Sh1ughtel' weights of 1,100 to 1,450 lb. ltt 5 to 6 ymlrs of a,ge H,re reported, with [1 dressing percentage of 50. The Sokoto cattle are put. t.o 'work l.tt the age of 3 to 4 years when they weigh about 700 to 900 lb. ~l'hey M'P ur;ed for field opemtiollr,md ca.rting. On an average Lhey work for six to eight hours pel' day, l~lld arc able to IHtul a load of 8(10 i;o ],(loo lb. They tmvel at the I'Iltl' of a,bout, t.wo miles pel' hour. S01ll'ces of' hl'ecding stock and information regarding the },rectl These cattle are av~tilable ill their Imrc form in the Province of Sokoto, Nigeria, and also occur in the adjoining territorieh of French We.st Africa. Further information regitrding the breed may be had from: The Director of Agriculture, Kadunn, Northern Nigel'ia. The Director of Veterinary Service,,;, Kaclulla, Northern Nigeria. FULANI OR PEUL The pnstoml tribe from which thebe cnltle typefl j,ake their name i.-: refcrred to in :English 11S "Fulani" and in French [LA "Poul." 'l'h(, geographical 111'011. OccllIJied hy the Fnlani or Peul cattle extends from west of the River Senegal to east of Lake Chad and includes parts of Senegal, Maul'it,!tllia, the French Sudan, the Oolonie clu Nigel', and Nigeria. The mottle <tre described nnder foul' headings: 1. Nigel'ilul Fnlani or Penl (Zebu Peul nig6rien). 2. Senegal Fulani (Zebu Peul senegalai~). 3. Su(bnese Fnla.ni (Zebu Peul I'ondrtmtil:!). 1. White Fuhni.

94 NIGERIAN FULANI OR PEUL (ZEBU PEUL NIGERIEN) Ol'igin The Nigerian Fulani or Peul fot'ms a distinct variety of the Fulani cattle type. As one proceeds from the Niger eastwards to Lake Chad, however, it is intermixed with other types of cattle in the area and has lost much of its purity. It is called Djelli by the Djermas of the Colonie du Niger itnd Diali by the Peul tribe. Historical evidence regarding the type has been collected by lllany French writers, notably Delafosse, Pierre and Doutressoulle. Conditions in the native home of the breed Location, topography rmd,yoils 'rhe Nigerian Fulani is found in the areas bordering the Nigel' in the Oolonie du Niger from Gothey to Say on the right and from Tillahery 1;0 Korbou on the left bank as well I1S in the Dipaga and Fada districts to the west of the river. To the east of the Nigel', herds have spread tlu'ough the areas immediately to the north of the Nigerian border as far as Lake Chad and the neighboring parts of the Oameroons. The level of the Niger varies seasonally. The rise of the river depends on the rains in its headwater regions and when (in the Nigerian Fulani area) it is at its maximum at the beginning of the year the river is, in places, of considerable width. The Wu,tel' level falls as the year progresses, exposing extensive areas of grazing land. This flood pla.in is a,t its furthest extent on the right (Dahomey) hank, to the west of which is rather higher land which, despite areas of salty soil, provides adequat.e rain grazing. To the east of the river are the courses of dead tributaries of the Niger which are represented by the Dallols: broad valleys, often bounded by cli ffb, where water can he found at :a small depth below the surface and the gra8s remains green for a period after the cessation of the rains. These tributary valleys join the Niger in the reach which lies along the Dahomey horder. Between the Nigel' and the Dallols, in the Djerma Ganda, similu,l' conditions prevail: water is found at a shallow depth and green growth continues after the rains have ceased. To the east of the Dallols there is an area of rocky dissected plateaus, the Adar-Doutchi. Grazing is available in fertile valleys, the entrances 87

95 to which are often found to he clm;cd hy blown sand so tlmt ra,in watpl' from the Aurronnding high bnd acc11lnnla,j",es hehind the Hrmdha!'. TheHe aecunmhttiojl8 of 1'[I,in water lllay be of considerable extent (that 1,t Keiht is 12 km, long and 4 }em, broad)!tnd (11'e often pel'elluild.. Slightly j;o t,he llort,h, in tho 'l'l.thona ltrelt, there is It large pln,tenn disr;cct,ecl hy valley,.;, the bot, toms of,,,hioh m'c filled with (1CCUmllln,tcrl I:mncly material which holdr;, ltt a smajl del)th, it perennial water supply. '.rhe area to the Houlilnvest of the Aclar-Dontehi ie; composed largely of sedentary dulles divided by fertile vltlleyh. To t he s()utheltst. if; (0 stretdl of' stony and Hllinlu,bit.cd dehert. FUL ther to the ett:'lt It In.teritic melt, the northel'll pltl't of the GoLler, provides lit.t.le water,mel if:! hll'gely uninhahited. ~ro ith north (mel south, however, there are fertile nncl well-wlt1ercu vn.lleys which [1,1'(' utilized by the pitstomlists. In the Zinder aren, the sedentary popull1tion of Hanssl,~cnlt.ivator,; and the semi-nomadic Peuls move their m,ttle out, to the south in the dry ;;eason, and north to t.}w Ahkoss in the rains. 'rhe Alalwss ami the adjacent Kant,oHAsO aroa am great Handy plaiuh throngh which isolated rounded hills pl'otrnde. Eastw[tl'(lH from the Zinder the Mn,llglt is n, VU,d.i salldy grn81:l1!tlhl plain in which rain poo'ls aecullmlai.e in the (lepl'ehhiollh )let,ween Hodelltl1.'1'Y dunes. Along the wmlt (Fl'cnc'h) /Shore of Lake Chad, t.he Kndztll] clrly pln,ill (~xtends as far as the I(onutrlougon, a HeasolllLl watercoul'h() whieh is in flood in Decemher, itfte~' which it. f11118 until ]'ehl'ultl'y, and ih dry, with the exception of pools in its mmd.v bed, by March (Dontl'eHsonlle, 104-7). Yeyetation EHHtwRl'(lS of a llorthwtlhli-solltheltsl; lliagollnj from TaholifL t.hrough Ziudcl' t.he vegetfttion is tropical f:l(willlluth wljodland, whieh 001'1'0- s})onds to Chtwltlier's SudaneAe zone. A number of pin,ni'. lths()ciations l'e}aliod Lo varying soil-water conditions Hro included in this format,ioll. In the low sandy pbin south of Zinder to Magm'iya dose to the in{,erterritorial bounchbry the Prosopis-'Perminnlia [tf:lsocintion is dominated by Pro.~Op'i8 a/ricana. Further to the wost, in the MI1dn'lu1-Zinr!ol' Mal'adi arot, the (]omljj'et~tm-solomc(trylt R(WI111nah w(lodhmd is of poorer quality, wlille in the Dallnl Melt till(} Gombl'et7trn-1'errninl1,lia as8()oiaj;ion is domina.ted hy Oombl'etwm elliotii, Tenninalict wvioennioide,~' nih]. Guiem sene(fazensis. A val'it'mt of the latter association oecul's on the lateritic pia tea us in t;}lc Niamey -Filingue-Ta,houa-Ma(houn, area in which Oombreturn mic.mnthum, Awc.ia mac1'ostac.hya together with Guiera senegrdensis are the domjnant species. In the dead river valleys in this arel" the vegetatioh ha,s been mneh modified by culti.vi1tion. 88

96 On the seasonally inundated flood plain of the Niger, borgou (Pennisetlun bul'(!1l) is an important constituent of the vegetttt.ioll association. W'est of the TalwUft-Zillder line there is savanna.h thornland. In the southern part of t.1w area, between the northern limit of the tropical sa,vammhwooulalld formation and the north em limit of unirrigated clllthtttioll, a dense community OCCllI'S dominated by Acac. a. torlilis l1nd Oommipho/'a njriwna, together with other AlXtcitt spp., Balanites aegyptiacn and shrubby species. AnrlrnpogolL {jrlyanlls is the principal gmstl species. In the north ofthe savannah thol'lllal1cl there is l1n open coll1illunity of lower growbh in which Oommiphom nf]'icnnrt and Acacia seyal are the dominant tree species, with Panicwn tul'gidwm as the most, important component of the grass association. In se1tsonally flooded arells thorn stands, usually of Acacia stenocarpa, occur. The Mltngtt pll1in has little t.ree growt.h. The gl'asshtnds are au almost pure stand of Anrlropogon gaymw8 (Dundas, 1938). The principa,l crops grown in the ltrea are,eleltsine comcana and Digitm'ia exilis. Olimate The climate of the area is characterized by n long dry season of between 7 Y2 and 11 months, during which midday temperatures m'e high and humidity low. There is a considerable diurnal temperaturo range at this time of yeal'. The mean annual temperature range is between 45 0 to F. Precipitation is concentrated in the short rainy season, which is of 1 to 4 % months' duratioll (Dundas, 1938), The mean rainfall!tt four stations in the area is summarized in Table 20 nlld mean monthly [mel a,nuual temperatures at, Zinder in Table BO. - - 'rabi,e MEAN RAINFALL, IN INCHES, AT FOl:m t:\tations IN THE COJ~ONIE DU NIGER I rml.a ~ b bi;...;.,...,: <::i ::0 ::0,.., " I~ I I I I ~,.., <ti ril '" 0 I~ I ~ " "" Nguigmi [l.o trace Tahoult trace i l.4il Zinder - - trace Niamey : SOURCE: Dundas, I 2 I>< "

97 'r.<\flr,i~ :W. ~ MKUi 'i':f:mpera'j'urefl AT ZINHlm n. 'I'III<: COLONIF: DU NWI~R ~~"~~~C~R"I~~I ~ I'~ I i]ti~1 ~lil7ri l\fean temperaturo, I' of... '" 72 _~~_ S"_~_~.3_~_~~ ~~ :~ 8_1_._~~~_ SOl.TRcr.;: KAllIil'cw, 1IIfi:1. ilfmutgement practices The Fulani (Peul) tribeh l1re, for the most pm t, Romi-nomadic. Seasonal livestock movements tend to he local 01' between adjoining areas, so that the Nigerian Fulaui cattle are not required to travel long distances in se[1rch of grazing and water. 'fhe dry Roason is passed on the exposed Hood ph1in of the Niger or on pastul'ol'l in valleys (such as the Dallolf,;) and depressiollf.! where j;he aecumulated rain water IJel'mits of,t11 extended seasolt of grass growth l1nd where t1n ndequate supply of drinking water is f1vailahle. During the 1'ItinfJ the cattle are moved to the nell,rhy higher land. Except for the residuofl of the locally grown crops, ehpeein.lly JEleu.sine coracana and Dig itaria ea;ilis, which l1ro ut.ilized in sit'ii" the Cl1ttle fmh. :,list entirely on ntttural pastures. The COWH are allowed to :-mekle their ealvos hefore l1ud (tfter milking, on their return to the village 01' onel1mpment from grazing. Physical characteristics of the breed The Nigerian Peul or Fulani cattle are medium-hized animals with fine, short, limbs. The average height of the allimalh if:! J Hi to lbo om. The face profile is long and straight with Llw forehead flomeumos tapering, resulting in!. slightly convox nppeamllcte The poll loud orhital l.rches are slightly pl'ominent. The horns vary in f:lizl\, hut l.ro geuomlly longer in Lhe feull1le than ill j;)w maio. The average length of the horns ir 25 to 30 cm. and they!11'e lli:ltutlly crefolcent-shapcd, Loor.;e horns occur, but are rare. Polled animuls with vory peaked polls nlro occur. The muzzle is wide with dark pigmontation. Tho Iloek and shoulders are short. Tho chest ih broad and deep. 'riw dewll1p and hump are prominent. The hump has an "fllllbohred" surface and is of an irregular shupe, rchting on it wiele hase ajong the neck ltnd shoulders and lying over t;o the right or left. The bnek dips slightly behind the hump a.nd the ribs Me well sprung and round. 'rhe hindquarters are of medium length and are Hlightly inclim~d to j;}l0 rcl1r. 'fhn thighs HO

98 are fiat, but well muscled. The tail is long and well placed. The skin is fine and supple and is said to be slightly finer than that of the Senegal and Sudanese Fulanis. The pigmentation of the skin is dark. The coat color is usually white, although black and white, red and white, and roans also occur. The udder is poorly developed and the teats are small.. Functional characteristics of the breed The Nigerian Peul is a good meat-producing animal and shows quick fattening qualities when it receives a good supply of feed. Wellfed animals give a dressing percentage of 50. As milk animals they produce about 400 to 450 liters of milk in it lactation, although the lactation period is short (about 160 to 200 clays). The average fat percentage of the milk is about 5 (French West Africa, 1950). In their Imtive home these animals are occasionally used as pack animals. They arc not otherwise worked except on some of the government, farms in tj1e region, where they have l)een ouserved to be poor workers. Sources of breelling stock ami information regarding the breed Further information regarding the Nigerian Fulani cattle can be obtained from the Director, ServiCE: de l'elevage et des industries anim ales, Colonie du Nil-!er, French West Aft ica. Origin SENEGAL FULANI (ZEBU PEUL SENEGALAIS) Mason (1951a) and Doutressolllle (1947) classify the Benegal Fulani ca,ttle as lyre-horned zebus. The latter also suggests that the Zebu Peul cattle came first to the lower part of Senegal in the Fouta-Toro lmsin with the Semitic migrations during the latter part of the eighth century, and thence spread to the plateau area of Ferlo and further we8twards in the ninth century. The type is also known as Foulfou16. The most. important variety which has been described is known as the Gohra. 91

99 Conl1itions in tbe native home of the breed!jomtion, to]jo(fntphll lind.soi78 The [H'P,1, uccupiecl by the Senegal Fulfmi l'(tttle lif'fl between 12 0 aml lfio wcst longitude and between nthl H).IiO north latitude :Lnd comprises the lowor platmin of Ferlo nuu the plain of wehtel'l1 Senegal, extending from t.he v[tlley of :-:.Jill(' to the Renegal river nile] beyund into Manritania. The undulating lown pbteml of Ferlo lies between the wel-llt'l'll (10;t:>(",[l1 plain [LJl(1 the Senegal rivet' a,nd has an [wemge ul!:',vatiull of 125 feet. Throughout the area there is evidence of cj'orioll. The old watercourses of Ferlo, Sine a,nd ~aloum are now dry :tncl Illwe g()!)d alluvial soils, ul-iultlly of sandy ultty ill which the content of' alny, white, yellow 01' l'ed in color, varies in amonnt. Shallow la,kes and po!)l,,; are of frequent oecul'rence throughout, t,j~e fl.rea. ~rho few wellr nre from 150 to 250 feet ill depth. Numerous shnllow lakes stand Oil the Cltlcal'coul-I gl'<ty eia,y of til(' c:ottstftl l)]f,in which elsewhere is ovcl'htid by UlC l'ed I-Iand whic:h fol.'ill"; frequent dunes thronghout the plain. I..Iftl'ge Itl'CltH of the sandy <mel BI,ndy ehty soil:-; ate under cult;ivatioll. The valley of t,he Senegal river, which extends appl'oximftleiy from Matftl1l to the mouth of the l'iver, ih ahout 600 km. long I1nd about 10 to 40 km. wide. Part of the valley is submerged by water during the period when the river is in flood. When the river l'e(\ccies to it~ normrtl heel, it lelwes hehind rieh a,lluvin] deposits and t.iw,h'(~a yields good c:rops. OHmate In the tropicltl clinuttc of the ttl'c<t there if! [L di8liinet. division of tli(' yea,l' inti) a dry ILncl n wet season. During t.he wiuter the hot ell'y northeasterly lutrlllattml wind is experienued al ground level while. during the months of tjlc rains, the southwesterly mollso!lll bring,,; in moisture-htclen ail' from over the Gulf of Guinen, ]~rom Novmnhml to February the weathcr is eonl and ury. From Maroh until th( a.pprofwhing rains bring ltn incl'eltse in humidit,y, i;ompemtuj'ek ris(' while the dryness continues. During the rains, hulilidity is high ftml tc11111eratul'es lower. Tornadoes, which mny cauke collsidomllle dltlllltge, ocour especially I,t the beginning and towltl'd the end of the mins. The avel'ltge number of days on which rain OeClll'H v[tries from 2(j to about 4:t In general, the diurnal temperature range ie; from 1(10 to 20 0 C. Clill1lttological data for the Senegal Fuhmi areit are given in Table al. 92

100 ... TABJ,E OLIMATOLOGIUAL DATA FOR THE PLATEAU OF FERLO AND THE REGIONS OF SINE, SENEGAL AND GORGOL i.c..: :.: ::. I '" I I.;J I... 1'1.,... I "., ~, I ~ _.; ~ g ~ ".:.:i ;l ::l ~ "1 '" <,jj 0 Z A :-< '" '"" I '- I I I tem)wrature, oc, : ~. 1'.to,... ". I 4:1.:1 41.:j ~9.S arl.!) 3" , 38.S 1 I I i Plateau oj Ii'cr/o ~[e!lll maxilnuul I minimum ~lea~l tempol'nture, 00. H. 711~.5i IS.0 ] , ~'~ I Relative humidity, I 0' \ 2,UJ :17.1 4:.!.5 55,t! C,2.,) j4.8 7[,.,j. 60.7i 50. (I, 40.1: I Vapor Pl'CSS11rP, mlljlbar"... 1~.r, 21,;-, 2i.O :.!!J, : ~1.3, ~.oi13.01 U.2 H'tinfall, ! 'j 45.4 :123.: ; Sine ::Ih)("l rulixiinuln tempel'ntlll'c, (lc :llti 40.~ :18.;, 37.9 : :14.0 :n.s :1.9 all.u 32.1: ~4.9 I :Mean miniluulll tempel'ature, 'C [ 1~.9 Itl, :! ~1..1, 2:1.9 2;l.0 ~ ! i Rell1t.ivc llllluillity. U/, ] J.H ti3.7 6S n 65.0' 52.f)! Vapor )}resr111't~. [. millibars.. _ :!.O {) , : 21.0 i RllinfalJ, lulll , 24.7: '626.4 I I.~~cneoal river "fh/ioll Mean maxim UIU! tempol'at1ll'e, DC ao.o 41).0 4IJ.:! ,U S.1 34.sl 31.5! 30.4 Meltl1 min1mum temperature, C ] S ~' :.5 10.:) 14.8 ~ '... ~ I. Relatiye hnmi<1ity,, Sl.7 : ) ' Vl~Ilor In'eF..~Urc),! millibars :!.O ~ : i 17.0 I Rainfall, lulu ! - IS88,3! (lo)'gol ~fnall lnnxlj11111u I tmnperatul1e, u ( ~ l l :1. 7 3S. 36.0', Mean minimum tempcl'ht1ll'e, n(,. 14.;' :J.3 2-!.6 27, : ' RelaUn,lnnui<lity,! % H.O, UA 74, 2 7fi a! 45.1)' 41.0: 52.2 i Vapol' presrul'o, millihnrs :,; ;';) S 2-1.'; " < I Rainfall, mm.... -, 7.4 :!1.2 10tl.M H7.H 0.1 n.5! I _. 93 j!

101 Ve(fetation The area occupicd hy t,he SCllCgld :Fubni el1ttle covel'f.; 7 million hectares of pasture bud. Most of this area comprisen natural p'~htul'e. The natural pasturefl consist of a variety of grasses but include very few legumes. 1'he grasses germinate rapicl1y with the onset of rain and mature during the 1ll0lrtlu; of' September and October. They become vcry dry and coal'::le during November. 'rhe Hpecies of grasses commonly found :11'(; Oldoris 1),l'ie1wi, Braehiar'ia 1'ef/ula1'ili, Dif/itwl'ia horizontalis, Echinochloa, sp., OenclW1l8 ochina,t1.l8, 8choenetelrlia, g1'llcili8, Al'istida mut(tbilis, Aristidn stipoide8 and Emgr(Mtis pil081t. These gmsscs grow to a height of about 50 em., while S01110, Imeh as Aristida stipoides, gww to 100 cm. Vegetat,ion is more alnmdant where there is it good COVer of trees whore the shade also help!> to extend the growing period of the grashes. Grasses which grow well undor tho Rhude of trees ill this al'en. a.re: Uhlm"is pt'ie1l'ri, D'igital'ia debilis, 'l''/'(t(jub?'acemosus, Bmckial'l:a distyc1wphylla, Hyparrltenia. dit/80lut(t, Ac1tymnthes Clspe1'a, Borl'eria 1'~telliae. and Co/,r,IWY'U8 (llito/'i~l8. Tn the moist, light Roilfl of low-lying areas vr"rions AndTopOf/On species ["ro ±cluud, ohpecially AndropOflon (laya-mls, which grows to a height of 2 to :3 meters. After the recession of t.he flood waters, the vegetation in the nreas whieh have been inundated il:l!tbundant and rollsistl:l ma.inly of C'a8si(/,. The principal grasses in cultivated,ll'cflr-;,tre GenchT'u8 bi[loi'u8, Penniset'llrn pedicellatum Le'ptadenic(. lancifolia, Di(!it(f,l'ia IJel't'Ol'etili and J)adyloctenium aegypti1lm. The Rtraws from g)'(lulldllut vines, millet::; and l,eans are of importance H.mong l;he products of cultivated crops availahle for usc all fodder for cilttle. Oroundnllt oilcake ir also used to a limited ext.ent..ill] {tn[tgernent P1'((ctir.e8 Cultivated as well mj na1iu1'a1 pa;;tllres,ere Iwaill11110 ill t.lw region and migmt.ionb take place according to the l1vl1i1ahillty of feed. For exi,mple, the cattle move during HUlllmcr from the pltttcnu area of Ferlo and from the area of Gorgol toward the river valleys of Senegal and Sine where grassel> Itre avaibble, but during the period when the field:,; lue under crop!:;, the c tttle are moved to lmtul'nl pasture!>. They me brought back after the lu1l'vtlst. It is tho practice to. milk the l\owh twice i1 day. As long HS past.ures last the cattle are let Iom;e on thcm ull the time, except. foj' Hhort periodf:l when t,hey are brought, home for milking. Physical chal'ncteristics of the llreed Senegal Fulani cattle (Figure 32) are tall, well mmlcled and symmetrical in appearance. The forehead is Hlightly convex, but the face is long. The eyes are large. The ears are large, wide and en ct. rrhe U-J.

102 FIGURE 32. [above] Senegal Fulnni ster,r; [below] 8udanes(', Fulani,~teer. COIII't,I,'";" of Service intercolonial d'information ut de doculuentation and Servi"e a"!'{,levage ct des inuust,rics [mima.les, Paris

103 horno; are loug and lyre-shaped. Occasionally loose horns are o)).';orvej. Tho hulul] iii liu'go tllld well developed. It. is morc prominent in bulls than ill cows. The neck is short and the dewlap is large, well developed and loose, \vith numy folds. The chest tends to be narrow f1ud ilot deep. The pl.uuch is deep Ilnd slightly pendll1om;, giving a sway-bae1red appclll'itllce. The pelvis i;.; wide and the buttocks aro well muscled. The rump ih sloping. The tail is long and fine imd reaches well below the hoeks. The udder ifl small and poorly developed. The She!Lth ill the male is slightly loose. The hairs are shol't and the skin is thick and loose and of light pigmentation. White coat coloration is preferred by the breeders, although black and red pi.tciles!1nd brindle striper are also seen. '1'he average birthweight, of male cnlw's is ahout 15 kg. and of female calves 14 kg. Average hody me:1flurements of Senegal :Fulalli eaule in tho Senegal area, and in Maurittmia are given in Tables :32 and 33. TABLE 32. ~ AVERAGE BODY MEASUR]lMEN'rS OJ!' RRNEGA], II'UX,ANIS IN TBJll SEN1UGAT" AmM 1_ MatUl'c cow Mlttur(' hull I -iv~(\tnr~ ~: Weight, kg... _ Lengtll il'oill shoulder p()iut to pinb()lie, em.... Height at wltlmrb, em Deptll of ell est, em..... _... l-l~ (:14) 1:111 (34) 72(M),11,; (~) HO(M) ua l'~) 78 (,l) Widtll of hipa, CIll.... 1,; (:Iot),I~ (cl) Hoart girth, em V:la(:!-I) 1o" (1l) _-- ~--. NOTm; ~rho figures In bmokots show tho IlUlubl1r or (ItliJUI11A mo!irul'cd. SOUROE: LI1l'ret, R. Personal Oommunication. :HM(;,!) 135 (Gil) lai (5(l) N(f>fl) 4:l (50) HlO (5\1)...,~.--~-.-- TABLE AVlllHAGE BODY MEASUREMENTS OF RENEGAr, FULANIS IN MAURI~.'ANIA Woill'ht, kg.... Length from shouldor point to pinbollu, em..... HeIght I1t withers, ero.... Dopth of chest, om. Width of hills, em. Howl; gil th, ern..... MILtUl'U co: r~;~::~i::~;'-r~ Mlt~'ll~~~~ ~-I " [ " ij()-:JOII, :1II11-80U I : l;li) 137 Ii;l oil IOU 102 SOunOE: Servico lie l'"levage do la Mauritanie: Personal Oomlltltn'iaation. 96

104 Functional characteristics of the hl'ecii The Senegltl Fulani cattle are used hy the breeders as milking.:illimalh, as meat producert:i on natural grast;lands, and as pack animals for transporting loads. The males are firrt used for service when they an- about 4 years old. Castrated animals are put to work when they are f\bout 5 years of age and weigh ltroulld 300 kg. They are fairly docile workenl. As breeding bnlls, they are quick in service and remain activo breeders for 8 to 10 years. Females calve for the first time wheu they are about 4 years of age. Although they breed throughout the year, the peak period for breeding is in winter during October and November. Ail meat producers, the cattle are fattened easily on natural pasture); from September to November. They are ready for slaughtcr when they are about 5 years old. Although prime animals yield about 48 to 51 percent meat, the poorer quality animals dress out. at only 42 to 45 percent. 'The following figures, representing 70 hullocks, are reported from all invest,jgation carried out at the slaughterhouse in Saint-Louis: LivDweight Dressed weight Tendons Bones Fat lheat Scraps ViTaste... 3 kg. 'rhe average Senegal Fulani cow produces about 450 to 500 liters of milk in a lactation period of 185 days. The average percentage of fat in the milk is 5.G The avera,ge calving interval is estimated to be 18 months. Sources of hreeding stock ami information l'egarding the breed Breeding stock are mainly available in Linguere, Longa and the lower Senegal areas. Further information regal'ding the type can be had from the Director, Service de l'elevage et des industries animales, Saint-Louis, Senegal. 97

105 Origin SUDANESE "ifulani (ZEBU PEUL SOUDANAIS) The Sucla,l1e~e Flliftni belong to the group of Fulani cattle having long lyre-sha,peel horns. Pagot (Pel'sanal Cmnmunicrtt-ion), referring to Dclafo3se, mentions that they probably originate from the O[tttle brought in by Semites when t.hey invaded the region now known as Fl'ench West AfriCl1, in the seventh century. This type of cattle is referred to b.y French workers as the Zehu Peul soudanais (Doutressonlle, 1 H47). Conditions in the native home of tbe breed Loc(~tion, topogmphy ltncl soil8 8udane>le Fuh1ni catt,le are fonml in those a,reas, including the districts of Segoll, l\fopti, Niafunke, GOllndam, a,nd Ti1l1buktu, lying in and ftround the flood pla.in of the Niger sy,.;bem of rivers from Segall to Timbuktu. The Niger a,nd its tributary, the Bani, emerge neltr Segou into a great plain of deposition and di\tide into a serie., of distributaries, which spill over into numerous depressions whioh at"e inundated when the rivera are high, as ltl'e vast ltreas of the plain itself. At the height of the rainl'l the inundated area is in some places 150 km. wide, This system is generally refened to as the Oentr'al Delta of the Niger. The seasonal rise and fall of the river" ih consequential upon the incidence of min in their headwitter th'el1,s and pll,rticlllal'ly in the Fouta DjD.llon plateau, and is progressive from Koulikoro above Segou where the rise is complete in June while \;he level is low in April a,nd Ma.y, to Bambf1 helow Timbllktu where high water occurs in Deeemher fllhl Jallull,ry and low in June and July. The plain of deposition is, for much of its length, more restricted on the right banks of the river system than on the left. The soils are alluvial and vary from sands to clays. Low plateaus of sn,lldstone or lateritic material bound the plain of deposition and emerge from it in places above the level of the seasonal flood waters. Water from the rivers and flooded depressions is ana,ilable in the flood plain throughout the dry season but on the pla,teaus, wens, which may be as much as 80 meters or more in depth, al'e the only source for lua.n a.nd livestock (Doutressoulle, ] 952). vs

106 Climate The climate of the twe[\, h,\s been dei'\cl'ihed. as 811b-snMlien. From March to June temperatures are high aild the humidity is low hut rises as the rains approach. The flillllml absolute temperature range is in the neighborhood of 120 to 130 C. to 470 to 5no C. Rainfall is restricted to the period of June to October and i;;, in most. of the area, in t.he range of 800 t.o 400 mill. it year (Dolltre:;soull(~, ] U52). The winters are cool and dry. Climatological data for a st.ation in the ~outhern pm t of the area arc summarized in T,thle 34. TABLE CLIMATOLOllWAL DATA COLLECTgD A'I' SOKOTO g I ~ i ~! 5 I 2/ ~'~'/=;'~I--~;' -I.....; I~ -, ~ II--i' ~![ I ~ ~ J ~ I -... ~,~!-: -i "L 5 z Q ~ - -~f-.-i -----:-~-- -i-----~-~-i---,;;~;~;~:.,;~ :: i:: ~: : I:: i:: Ii Me>11l ljlaximulll I! I '! I :: I :!: :: :: :: I::: Hllmillity at Iii I I h1'8., % :10 25 I W I 10 I (){j I,5 i ;<",H I,IJ 1;1: 4" Gl. 9 ~.tt_in~ll, nllu' ".'.'._l= G. 1 : ~'i 1 15 _~ l~.~ S(JUHOg: Pu.qot., Pl'r.rmnal Ornnmll1licllti()lI. Vc{/etation In the areas subject to inundat.ion there is an abundant, veget.ation in whioh wild rice (Oryza brevilin(j1tlc~ta) and boul'gou (Pennisetwn burgu) are l1mong the more important species, in associatioll with a variety of aquatic plarrbs. Varion'! crops such as paddy rice, millets and lentils are cropped on the higher land and the by-product>! arc utilized as cattle feed. The natural vegetation on the plateaus OOIL~istfl of grasses, which form a thick CClver during the rains, and thorny trees and hushes which appear in vlll'ying degrees of density a,ceording to Hoil and watel' eondit.iollh. Mmwgement practices CI1ttie [we nl!~illtailled permanently on pastures and are rarely hand-fed. A very complex system of seasonal migration, co-ordinated with t.he rise [~llcl fall of [,he flood waters is practiced by the Fuhwi (Peul) tdbes. Thc herds utilize the lush flood plain pa.stures, retreating as water from the riring rivers inundates the land. They continue to grn.ze the rivel'l1i.n past.ures until the emergence of swarms of biting 99

107 fli('~ Ilcecs~ih\tes the llluvnill'nt of the whole catitle IJU]lll\a\.iUll,,vi1,\1 tho exception of 11 ~ll1nll number of milch (JOWH which 1'{I1wtill [t)], tlll' supply of the permanenl', villnge~, to the higher laud on (,ho p[!vloall~. The cows whil'h remain in the flood plain Lond to be l'cgn,l'dud a~ expend.!lble hy their owners and h,rgc lli11nb('l'~ m:c lo~t dul'ijlp: jill' It)llowillg winter as a result of 1lll1lnutrit.ion IHld [1 ()()udhioll whidl ;'p],lp,wh to be h ypanosomil1sis. DUl'illg the rain8 they tiro!wp(, ill~idl' liuildingh it))' mneh of the day, as fi PJ'otl:'[,j-,jOll agaillrt fliek, :LillI ollly gral\o a(, Hight. Th(;\ remaining mettle arn rlividrrl into, lind" hull:;, dry COWH lllld young stock, whieh leave the flood.plain early <Hlel lliove (~('llkidm'l\hle c1i~trmcell to clry-,~ea8011 pnstm.'flh, uwl, HocOlHlly, tlw mikh CI)WH and calves which ~pend the dry ACilSon on the lesh dikj,mt ullhmd past-iil'iir. A return is marle to the plain when liiting fliek have m~ahe(l to 1lC' trouble~oll1e and the. herds follow the J'etront.iulJ,' IJm:l(1 wi~tm'n, gl'nxing th!.' pllsture" as they lire exposed. ~rhel'e is a eollsidel'a1jle internal trade ill (,t,1,tlo i'u l,hi~ ;,\I'("t <tud tlwrl' arc regular livestock llh1rkots, (lft,ell held 101, weekly ijlj('.j'vili~, ill It number of the mol'o imporhmt }lol.hll.at;ioll ('l1l1tnl'n. Physical Chill'aeteristies of tilt! breed The Sudanese Ji'ulani (li'iguror :i2 iolld ilb) in,~ mcdiulli'nix('d allillm! with a long; [lut slightly AllELllow body. The hack lilop('1i t:olrlu'dk I:ho witherl-l v,nd tlw rump i~ inclinctl. The r,hrht ir rll!('tl lilll11l(,\(h widl h. T]H' li'wum~ :1:~, l"nlani cattle gmzin(/ in the )HlI'tJWl'n J1)01'1I (JUlwt. C\mrt(lSY or Sn['vi(~c intol'oolfllli,d tl'infol'nwt.i()jl (it 11ft tlnmlm(11l1atitiii. PIlI'I~

108 lugs arc IOllg in proportion to t,he body. The head is long and fino. The 1101'l1S Vltl'Y ill :-:ize, but arc generally rather long. The muzzle is dark-colored tmit the jaw has llumy skin folds. The hump ir hu'gcl' in l;lio liu\le tlum in the fenmle and if'. well developed [md lllusculofatty. 1'he ([owlap is thin but well folded 1011d extouds.from chill to brh ;lwt. The umbilical fold and shmtth t~l'e lctls collspicmmw. '['he Hkin ih HUn, with pigmontl.ltion varying fhhll light to dark. Tho Imir is short Hnd S11100th. 'rho wmn,l color ir gray 01' light, gray with dark l)atcher. Thc uelder and tents ilre not; very well developed. Hirthweight.s of nu\le calves are about 17 kg. and of female calvos ahoul; Hi kg. Some typical melthul'clilontk of 10 Sudanc!'lc Fulani cl).ttle arc slilllmarized ill Table :W. Weight" kg.... :;:111 T,mlgth frolll Hlwllli'lm point t,t) vinllolll',. (\TIlf to 0 1:J\J 1 17.l(ei!-:ht li.t WilJlI'I'H, (1m.... Wl(lt',ll of elioht., om.... vvj(lth or hill~, mn... ".... IlIl au 111] Id HCflrt. gjl'i:il, ('lu......,....,... Ill:; IH loll HOtIUOFl: Pl1got, l'ern(ma! Omnmunical-!IJ/I. Fllllctional chnl'llctcl'istics of the brco(l The Rudu,1l0ClO ]rulani is primarily ntilhr,cd for ~lw pl'oduqtion of mont and i,(i some extent i'm.' mille '1.'ho ltnimals are rarely Ulmd for <Intl't pm'posu;;, but; M'O ocouflioj1ltlly employod I~S pack animals. TIll' fl'lll!tk~s cnlvo for t,he til'st; time when they ~H'O about 3 yours of a,go. ~rhe ttnimnls 1\1'(1 mmally heed during the winter. 'fhe l11n.les are ready for!'icl'vioo whon thoy are 2 yearn and 6 months old. They are usually Alow in sql'viec. rrh.(\ average hrooding lifo of a bull is considored to lie 8 to 10 yonl'h. It is O/:ltilllatod tlmf' tho cow::; pruduoe about 450 to 500 lltol'h uf milk in u lac(;lttion, excluding tho quantity takon hy the calf, He()oL'ds taken fl'olll It hord of Hi cows kept in tho Segall rcgion and fod concen trates, Allowed!Hl avorage yield of 1,041 kg, with 4.8 percent fat. The 101

109 lwomge 11cak production is al)()ut 5 litera It day, t.he ttvt!mge daily production heing n.bout 3 liters. The average ealving inte~'vnl il1 ahout; ] 6 months. 'rhe average number of laotlttiom, d.nring It lifetimo is estimated (;0 he about 6. The breed shows somo l,ptitu<ie for fattening uuder flworttblo)'codiug conditions. During winter mont,hs t.he nonclit;ioll of the t1llinmls is good. They produce a fltil' quality CltrOlt:;;s. Tho nvorage woight oi' n, gooel animal for sbughter il:! about 325 kg. 'rho drm;sing P0l'(:Otlt:tgu il1 Dobout 46 to 47. vvell-nourished l1ninl!t1s Ahow good. ['at (:O\'(II'illg. 'rile fat is frequontly yellow in 00101'. The breed is fairly t,olel'ant. to tick-borno dircaseh. Tho om:lil'i (.\IlO(' of foot-anel-mouth clisenfl(1 ifl Vtll'y rare. Sonrces of breeding stock ami iufol'mation reglll'ding the, breed It. is estillln.tecl 1;hltt. i;lwl'c aj'c (lvol' It million lwad of 11'ull1lli ('ltt,u(\ in the French Sudan (1050). FudhcJ' infonyhltiol1 I'Pgnl'ding I;ho typo can be obtained from the Din)cj;ol', ::-;ervieo do l'61evllm;o nt, doa iluhll'ltdes a,nimales, ]hmnjw, French SlHl~tn, Fl'Olleh \~r()f;j; Afi.'iel\o, Origin WHITE FULANI 'rhe Whit.c Ii'nlalJ i tltttle, nh'io known al:! :BUlltLji Hlld Yalmllu.ji, "ppettr 1;0 be tho most widely dio;1;rilu1;cd type t,hl'()ughou1i NOI'L}wl'll Nigeria. Mason (HJlHn, Hl51b) c}t,sflifies Whit,o li'nlalli (1(11,1;11\ under blw group "Lyre-horued Zebus." It ir bolievocl tim!; 1!1lOO;D na1,j,ln ltj'fj 1'0l))()t.dy derived fl'ohl st.ocks origilmtillg in Asia,. ~[,ht\y 11l'11 lhltilltldllml in 1,holt, pure f01'111 by the nomadic Fulani t.ribe, :1 llahtoml 1)(1opil\ of HmniLio Ol'lgm. Some a.nt.ho)'it,icb suggest Hml; thio; type may l)()i'lhibly luwn resulted fl'om an intcj'lllixl,ure of short,llol'lled zejmh with uat'liel' (!Hi,nillished typefl of eat.tie, RlWh a:;.; Lho HautiLjf'. Longh(ll'll. Conditiolls in the native houle of the breed Lowtion, topo(!1'aljhy and 8oil,~ The White J~nblli is fonnd ma.illly ill tho Northorn :Pl'ovim:(\ of Nigeria,. Thi::; territol'y lies l'oughly hotw(\oll HQ a,nc1 1:{(J easj, longii,rhlo ftllcl 9 0 and 13 0 north }:tt;jtnde. The provinool:l with t.he gr(~l1otot;t, popu. laloions are 1(ttI10, Kat-sinn!tlHl I~allehi, ahhollgh ('oilridernhlo llutul)('l'h

110 ~,~,.,,.".-...,- am also found in all ouler pl'ovitwes. Within thih longitudilll11 ami latii, udill1.d boundttl'y (H'O two distillot veget.umon zones running east to west and pm'allel to eauh o(,lwl'. These 111'0: tho Sudan zone (somotimes Clolled tlw Nigeriltn Smhn) to the llort,h r"nd the northern Guinea zone to the solll,h. 'Popogrrtphilmlly, the llot'blim'ulpnl't, of lihe country G(lllsisbs of open elevll,ted plttins, develuped in PIH'l, on young sedhnontm'y roc1ul and covored by rm.nely drifts. Whol'ovol' (,his drift. Iluttol'inl is 001tl'SOtioxtnred it givoh ll doop, tm:;ily worked sanely ;;oil, while ill the areas where it ir Iinoe toxtlll'cd lilw ~.;oila, though Hlightly he!wiel', are still product,ive. '['he average nltit,ude vttl'ies ]Je(iween 1,()()O u,nd 2,000 feet above!:loa jevol. Tho high phlteau of Platmm Province, however, has an altitlldn of.1}\oo to (),OOO feet. Over llllwh of the plntoau i;nih~ m'e dol'ivetl from t.ho nndedying bahomellt rocks :mel Me thin imel poor, with a [,onuolluy for 1;110 fomllttioll of lumlpal1 COllCl'etiOllR. The lltll'l-'!wru half of Nigeria ih ill t,lw Imbsahnmu region. It. i:'l It (lry {~nd ;-mully lw(\tl. At KllllO, fo1' exi1111ple, LIlt'- lwo).'ltge Ituum11 llllml)(li: of RUlIny ho\ll':4 :,1'0 O:4tillln,tt'd to be :1,OOn (K.on<il'ow, 195:3). 'rhoi'll i!:l to dmtl'ly 1l11u'lw(1 1:IJiny /,!oa>loll. Tho year lllhy he roughly divide(l illl,1i thl'lle olijllltl,ie }loriodr; l~ wet poriod from Mlty j',o October, It (',ool, thy pnriml from O(\tolHll' to Jl,nmwy when Lhe northeabterly wirulr Ihlln ("ito d(1:4(ll'f', alfod, the Hl'OIL, an(li.1 dry hot period ['l'om J anum'y io May. 'J'AlIl']~ ;1(1, - CI,(MNL~OJ,()lHUAr, DA'L'A ]'Olt J'os AN'!) KATSINA AH lml'olt''vlad IN ~1~lm Ol!'Il'I(]IAT, HANPllOOK em NWl!lIUA -,,._n ~ -'_it [r ~,, ~ ~.,--~ r-~ ~{m: MOIlU t.ullllhu'ullil'(, o,[i\...,... ill H ~ 70 (JU 71 7 j 7: l1lli<11L~', ",,,... ~lu ar, 4:1 lui HI H I.~U 110,~:I :IH oa.~ Mellll l'ninfllll, ill ( ~i) :l.:17 7.7:l 11.0<1 12. ~1 n.71 H.B 1.IlH O.()Z ,'7 l\:«(lsillll MOHIl 1.oml'''I IILnl'l;. ni.!'. I 71 7n H~ Hi HI H I HO 7i BO ~:I 70 7:1 ill. 1) rr \l1ll itlity, "I."... ~II :!v :H :IK 'U:! 7lJ H~ i17 M (I~ a~ :10 Ii~.l MOttll [ n.l1lf,tll, In o,oa 0.20 ~.OH :I.UI (J,():! :1 (). I~ 0.01 ~H.3ti ~. -.., '.---'.~.~-- -- ~.... _._- ~ :1

111 J;'rauRE :14. A /11'1'(1 0/ WhitIJ J)'lltwnli,~ltttlc,in wji'i/wl'n,i\' if/ilrin. (!()lll't(\hy ur (1, 1-1'. UUi.cH Vl1l'illg UlO cool pol'i(jel menu i:<!llllltwat,[ii'ek ltt"! ilk high It/-! 7Uo,F, The almost COllHtmrt. winlt ii'l known 1tH the hlh'llhttj,ftll and in V(11,'Y (.ir;y and duhj,y, Gloat' fjldoh ltl'() l'lu'[',' In thir HOllliOll pln,nt~ Nhtlll thdl' l'~llneb. :From lvittl'ch <)l1wiil'd, humidity mlll Lcul}wmtnl'o l'ine!hid 1110 hcmt ijc()oltwk kevej'l'. Thcre ii; It c()uhirlomhle vlil'iutiou ill the diurllul t em}jemt,lll'e. In Jlll1ll, the dil'eetjoll of t.iw wind, dmllgofl!lnd H()ubhwl'Rt, windh l,ring cloudr, 'rhih if.! 1'.11(\ period ill whh:h t.m'nlldo('<i ()(',t:lll'. The mnge hetween night II1l11 <lay tl'1il1)(!mtm'l'k in V(ll'Y HBuIIL '1'1)(; rains hegin ill Illte Mlty or early,jullo. '.I'Jl(! ILVPl'llgtl l',dufltll in ahout -io inches. ClinHlj'olngienl dab fur,jon mul K!llHhllL!Lre g;ivml in Table i~f\. r: cgeto t ion The typieal SUdllll v('getation ih mow opr'll 111lUl (.Iw fltwmlll(lhh in t.llc Guinea, ZOlle to the KOHUt I\,lld [!(JllHi~tfl uf Jim\-kilV()(l t,jhll'll)" trech mixed wit,h hrondlpltved NpccieM (Figll1'(\ :14), Ll'!W(,R of 8(lIlW tl'p()k Rtleh as.-lett(:i!! J!allid(/ a1)(l Parkin l\,l'() \1Hl'd an (',1\[,(;[0 {(10(l. 'J'hnl'('\ j" moro <:il' INil'( l:olltirmons gmhk (:over. ']'lw gmh~pt\ i~l'l) H1Wl't [lilt! feathery t1ml mnmlly undor 4 feel; in hei[,llil" l\n (\(li)[,m~t.(ld with till' gmksom (If the (iuilw<1, I,UWltllllllhK, whieh lil'[', t,all, ('(!lii'no and 1'U~HO('k~'. Vegetntioll in t.he Suclml zone h!\8 heen gt'l t\'tly I1llldili(,(l by otlltivacioll, l gmzillg mul grasn fil'e~. "Vhew, g1'i).7,i1\g ltlhl Ll'u,lllVlinl-': 101'(\ hmwy, gra~s i:-l kept HIlmi', or ltctua.lly l'ooted H]), leu" ing tho gl'()und hate, ]11 most of the SUd\\ll zone, whel'evgi.' irriwotion fauilitich I\l~e Ill)~ IW(tihLblt! tha most, e(l1llll1011 enlt.ivaterl crops IH'(~ millet.. MOI I.l:]ltllll, IlHliz(!. 1,(1'OUlHI. 104

112 nu[.r, Hl'I:'eUle., nnd, 1;0,~ el'l'(;(~ijl extent, eas~ava and yalll~. Cotton is ~rowll OIl the heavier :;oilr of the Guinen zone. Eleusine coj'(tc(uut and Di(litaria. (?:dli8 me gl'own on tho 1lom'ol' ulllaud ::;nik fn some p!~rts I If the al'ciih, nob1bly in the Kauo (lil-ltl'ict., tl'em.; sneh as Acncin allitla '1n<1 Pa.rkin I-lp. provlde, in their lenves, ieed for livehtock and, lls they n;mn,in green in the dry ROllflOIl l1ll(1l:lhml their Im1vt''; in t.he l'ailw, allow adequate light, for (\l'opfl growll under them. About!if} pel'cleut of theso l'att.le,we ill the hl111ds of the Fulnni Lrihe whieh 18 ahnokt entirely 1l0lHadio, although more nnd more illclividnal,; are being pel'hnaded by the government to Hottle dow11 ith mixed f!)'l'merfl. C:1tUe, a,}\ well ~1i'i hoing ~\ fldure(" of individmtl prostige, are the IIl\Hie wealth of t,he noma,dh and, together with their producth, provide the lllelolls of cxclmnge for the pnrchft~(\ of, for illhtnncc, grain, which ih ohi;f\ined in exchnllge for milk a,llct hutter. Mouey for the lmymcnt of taxes and other purpoh(1h ik olltllined by t,lle salo of male (,},tt,lp, whinh, a,ftiol' the selection of the he,~t. whieh nr{' mlained for hl'ocding pllrpo;l('h, two ml,strat()(l for ~l,lc [1.:::,Young ';[,lle]( OJ.' slaughte!' Ji'lll\Jm~ :Iii. A tmil' IIj IT'h#c F'1tlrtni U)(/1'k moen. r~()lll'tehy of: G. IH. Butt's

113 animl1lk. COWR are dispm-led of W}Wll tlll'y are llo longl.lr fort.ile. The trihesmen tug very l'elulltant to dikpokl.' of bl'l~eding oatt.lc. While the ownerrhip of lilw eattlo in IIflUtdly vel-lted in tho mon of tiw tribe, the un,iry productlfl are ebinwd hy the,wollwu. Milk formh the basi!; of the uiet of the noil1(1( lh, nllcl ih eollslilllcd ill its liquid form or as n, form of clarified hutter. 'rhe COWH arc milked t,wiec daily and t.lw mdvch Hl'U u.llowod 1,0 liuckle ii110 dams hriefly at the beginning of lllilkillg and Itt it s pondmlion, a RYHtem which u01'llll"tlly l'()hu]t,k in the calv(\h. c\x(.:np[, for It flwor!jd few clortillecl to llouollw st,llel Lmllk, hoillg U!l(l('l'Jrld. 'rhe llomacls grow 110 croph theml:wlves h1lt. }lul'ch:lnc' all Choir grain from the fnrmol'n, who permit the hordn t.o gmz(', OWl' 1,1Il'il' c:uitivated hmd after t;}le hnrvort, nllowing j;jw lhllllaclltlld hih (tllimltlh [,110 gloltuingh of t,he crop in Clxolmllge for t;jw manuro loft, 011 1;lw lawl hy t.1i(', ol1uie. The fl1l'.llwrs lmy work oxen (J)'igUl'(l :lli) from t.lw noi\l:~dh an well IlH hm~st,s fol' fattening, wldeh they kl'l'p t.io(lnp :Uld ft ('d OIL f'l'o]l 1'(1l-lidlleH :;l1uh HH gronndllllj, t,oph, Horginml Ht,l',~W alld bmn nihl ('ot,(ollheed. The ontj,jo ren]lolld w(,]l to fattellillg [Hul mally.lilw [ll'ants 1'01' Hlnnght:(! have beon pl'()cllwe(l aronnd Kan(). TI10 oat,th~ ([.opond tdlllort entil't1iy 011 gl'n",illg and IiU!" nj,(,ompl ir lllad(, hy their ()Wll(lt'H to provido Hupplr,mollta,ry 1'(,(ld during N(~:tl'eity pol'iocin. nm'iug the dry RonsOU (from NovnHlh<'t' Illlt,n April) tllll het'dh arc constantly on tlw move, lllhinblilliug n ]ll (,c,ltl'ious lmlajw(, between the IWPri. for bou,oj' }HlKtl1l'1tgt' ajld til<' dal1g('i' of ('oull'lwling ti'yplul11r01ni:tri8 in the wettm.' Koutlwl'lI 1'<~gi()Jls. Physical charactel'istics of the bteml The WhiLe Fuhmi NLLtle (PigUWR :11) 11lld :17) art!.lm.'go IHlinmiH mea:'iul'illg ahout 180 Olll. high at tlw Nhouleicr illllllcdin1.ely hohind t.he hump. The muml (:0101' ik 11 full whit,o, llllt Hlllllt't.illWR tmimalk wit.h hhtck 01' hhw flecking ave Keen. :PiglllOll t,huoll of ( ]w Hkin if-! normally bl!wk, ltlthough G!Lt(~H (PMWOlla,{ (/o'/fl!i'iiu,m:r:f/,uon) lil(lni,iolik l:,hat,, Ill'obahly through c)"nnning with red ty}lofi, VHriol,i(,H with red 1111<1 white coat 00101'8 on ll whito Kldll ha\'p Hh~o Ill'NI oilh(!l'v(ld. ]~ttl'h, ey(jh, muzzle, feet, horn tiph :tllfl Hwiteh tu.'c lihliltlly hlnok. '('he JiM:!' ih long wit,li I, well-developed llluzzle. 'l'ho fo)"!']wad in wielo mid Hat. 0]' i:llight.ly eoncnvt~. 1101'11s twe mediulll to.lollg, 1'.lIl'villg OULWftl'UH and upwi.trd:,; HOOll after Itmving the head. Nrmw hav!\ all o\ltwnrd l"lll'll again at the tip giving n, lyro Hha]lo. ~l'he (iltl'h HI'(l on'd.. ~rho llock ill i'lhort (t!ld tho shoulders muhculm'. Tlw c,lwh(' i:-; witlp and cloop (mld t,}w back wid(~ and long. 'I'll<' l'illh two round aud t.ho middle ih ;~leep. The 1'1lll1P is long, wide and Hloping. Tlw Uli~hR al'(i mllh(1uiit1'. 11 Hi

114 Ji'.ra1m:rn :16. WhiM }t'ti1nni b1tu. ('mll'tory IIf n. lvi. HfLl{~~ l<'wu.rill :l7. Wh'ite l!''i1,lcl'i'bi 00'111. cout'toayof 1'111Jllc HolattonB Dopartmont, G(lvt, (II' Nigerilt

115 Tht~ bdl i.t:: long wit,h it good Kwitjdl, Tho hoof:; are slirong Hnd UVen. The skill tends to he looso ami tiw hail' ih 140ft.. Tho Innnll if~ wen developed, j',ttt,y-muhuular ~1lld uel'viuo-1:homoio in IHmition. Tho dewlap i:; fnjrly lttl'g(~ 11Uli well developed with lllltlly foldk. '1'11(1 Hhoath and navel Hnp are not marked. The uelder in well dnveiop(>.d wi(;h mediullj Hizccl te'lttk. {{,yall (Pf.TSOiW.l (}mn'mnnir:uiiil11) givmt the hiri:.hweighth (If male and female calve;: HI' ih ;tih! flo lh. l.'ohlwetivoly. 'l'akiw]' (I!l!11)) TAllLl~ :n..- 'l'yl'ioaj,,i\,ieahomdl\mn~i'h 01>' 'WllrL'J~ FlIl,ANT CA't"l~r,l': lwain'1'ain1w,a~l' RHlKA 11'l'OOK FAunr, NWl!lnfA W"if.(]lL lh.,... ;1~1l.(J 11( \.0 l'i'ii~th fj'om should"i' to ],1111- hone, in !i:J, 0 nil. II H<.liu:lll nl wlthnl'k, in....,ll,1i,(11.0 (m.il,w.i~',ill.;' HI." DOI.I I, III' ei1tlht, ill.... llo.1i ~II,() ~\I.r, a.1I ~1l.11 Wldt.h olt hili,';. ill..,... tn. " I,~. I.'UI 11I.i. 1:1." lfu, JJnlll't g'ii'i"h, ill..0" fio.1i III.",11.0 In." li7. f. 1I1l.1, ~"l'it(1)1: HYni1, 'r. 111., l't'i'h01il11 UmllntHlIit'atio)J. givek t.he hirthweight-h of m~lveh ft'om IL hm'llof Whit.n J1'ulmliK IIIILilltaiUlld I'tt, Vom in the year 1050 tth 451b. fot nh~lel:l o,11d.j 4 Ill. I'm' fmuii,!oh. S()ml~ j,ypicn.l mclthurcment.fl of Whitjc J!'111!Lui eat,blo maint,aijwd at Shilm Stock.li'arm, Nigeria, are given in 'I'nhIe 87. Functional ChUl'ul~leri8ti(~s of the hrl~ecl AU,hough t,he produetive einciency of the bl'eed ill tho <11:1 (If t,he lio111ac1fl is n,t, n, low level, t-.hcl:lc mtttlc have booll uflcd ak t,riplp-}nn'llose lluinmll:l for boef, milk, and wol'k, A:; Iwof ItllimaIH t,hey IUlI'JHally fnhni 011 un,tuml gmhslrmd when it in plcllt,ifnl. AH work IUliml1lt" I'm' t.iiln.ge purposes, they are fairly good but. slow wurkel'h. 'riley an' ;tppl'ccinted by the lmt.ive hreodel's as fl1ir milk pl'oiille(11'h hy (H1lHl)i\1' ihon with the o1;}lci' indigenotli-t types ill tho lwen. Heifcl's eu,lve for the first, t.ime when they,we ahout a,y0l1l'k ;l1h[ 4 months of age. Theil' breeding life in 111)(lUti to yoal'~, ~I'he (lows a.ppem to be fa,irly regular 1>reedo1'<l!tIld to IJl'udnco!~ (~1t1l' llvnl'y year. Hichal'ds (HJ4()), fi'olll hik study of the l'ecol'<ih of the White ~Fnlani hol'd Itt. Shikl1 St.ock Farm ill the Northern Pl'ovinc(ls of Njgt~I'iI1, loll

116 report::; t,hnt the,wel'nge :;el'vice period fot' It totnl of 2:3: 1 (JOWH wu~ Si~ ChLYR. The Iwemge Ret'vice period of a Whit,e Jrulani herd kc111, in tho Southern Pl'O\'inoeH, howcvor, WitH approxitilitt,ely 161 dayh. The :wcmge product,ion or au t0flted vvhite Fulaui ('OWl' in t,he hel't! at Shilm W,tN repoj~tcd (Ryall, T. J~., Personal Oommnnication) t/o h<: 2,250 pounrls of milk with 5.75 pol'cent butterfat, the!wcrctge hwtnt;ioll period h('ing 240 (htyh with IL (/alving intel'val of X75 days. The proclllctiun of IL snperior eow ih reported,1k 5,075 pounds of milk wibh {).Ii pot'('(\nt hnhprfn1, in ~Hi'b clllyi'l wit,h,l calving interval of 4fi7 (lay:-;. Hp(/ol'dt:! (If White l1'ulani eatt.le nt, Shilnt Stoek Vm.'lll were t:!ubjoeted. to a Ht\l(ly uy Itoilortl-HHl (HlI)O). H,eeol'dH of OV01' 500 Fulani COWR which had heen milked ill bhe herd were t:!tudied. In ["hit:! herd, the lw{)['agt' ago ai, til'kl (mlving WIlK!\uout. 43 monthk. It WI\H noted. thttt" in ILhou!; 2,000 'oillvingh, t.horo WPI'O no twin births. ~rlle nvemge length of tho milking life of OOWK Wtls IL1JOut 5 InetatiollH. The avol.'ltge ag!.' of hullh ill l',hih herd ILt, the birlih of their fil'hi; offspring WitH tn monthfl. The average til'hl lilet.nt.ioll yield wah [Lbout ISO gitllollh with 11 coefficient of Val'ilLtioil of 50 ])el'mmt. 'rhe effect of the nge of (Jows on their yield WitH invehligntpd hy tlw Tmil'ecl Inet,ILtioll method. The effect of age ih HllOwn in 'I'ahln :~H, '1',\lII;g :IH... l<}v]"j~o'l' l)l.' A,m ON MILK Yll111~1) olr WHt'l',II! l<'ur,ani Cows A'P SHIlCA STOOIC FARM ~'[(""III'(' of pl'lj(hwtioli Tlw em'l'l\\tlt,jo\t oj' yield in l.hw itwt.iltioll with that of the next was found t.o hl' oioi-\(l t.o O.()!\Ill1 HULt. of'lne\.tttion hll1gth 0,5. The heritabilit.y, t\"; obbtined. frolll the int.l'f1, l:li.i't> regl'ohhiolls of the dl1ughter's!lnd'ol'il\illwn 1\11 tiutt. I)f the dj\ill. I)f fl Hingit- l'em)l'(1 WILH found t.o he O.:~~, ttnd. of \,\1(\ lwemgo (lr t,\\'o l'('em:d~ 'I'm;lwl' (I ~liili) l'opol'tlld Ow ykld of Whit,(\ ~'ulani COWH llhlintaiuo{l a,t, (.ho.live:-lt{ll~k InVl'Ktign,tiull (\mter, Vom, afl 1,'107 lh. ill 305 day~. 'I'he lwt'mge hwt.a,tio\l period WItH,!WW(WtW, only 25(1 dayr. These l'e(lol'dh 1'01'01' to (;B full IH,etlttio\ll-\, 'rho Iwel'ltge percentltge of fat in milk 0[' Hw herd war! ().30, with U.2H llertlont fl\1; in the morning and. (i.56 percont hlt, in t.he evening milk 81\mplef\, The mean number of eow:-; in milk WItH I) t. lob

117 AH dl.'aft Itllinmls, t,he ]!'l1htlli cattle arll ]I11L t,{) w{)rk at a ttl 4, 'yeat'k of age WIWll bltey weigh nbout; 700 t,o HOO Ih, Th!')' are Hlow but evnjl tempered. Itlld willing workers. A pail.' of Imllooks nan luml It load of ahout; 1, ill it eart while walking,d, about two mih'h IUl hour ltlhl working Kix t.o eight, houri,; l1 tiny, On avorage 1 hey work ahout 3M) tll1yh a yem' ill variouh Held ami ia.'11lli-i!loi'l, opomt.iolls. \Vell!'eare;l. IlW'[1t. n,nimalh m'(' "(lady for shmght:(,l' at about, G Y(IIU'K of age whon Llwy weigh 1,100 (Il 1,2()() lh, 'I'ltt' PflLimai;(1(l ([nirsing pere(jllj,ngl' ik a bollt, GO to IIG. Pm'fOl'mallCe in "tjwl' Ul'IlIIS A henl ur WhiLe l!'nlani lml,t,[(, Wl1H oclli1hlishl1cl al Ullivol'l:lity Cnllogl', Illation, vvek(;orll Nigl1ril1, by bho tl'luli'lfcr of Hix cows, 11 hoifor and it bull frolll Shilm Goverlllllent, Rtook Farlll. ~'hese oattlc 1111(1 [,lloil' progeny have heen llmintaiucd HitWl1 WoO ill open buildings ahout. 500 yards from it strcltm by whieh LHebHO (Cl-lo88inn 7)((Z(l(tlin) luwo booh e!1ught, while Htomoxys Itud ~'abltnidh havtl booll it A{Were HO[\.l:lOnal PORt llgftl' tho Lmildil1g8 lihe1l1aolvefl. Tho el1ttle }mve beon nllowed to gl'l1l1c pcmm11l0nt pl1stures bo(;ween the huildillga 11ml tho Htnmm, During the JJeriod Hl50-55, Bliaillod blowl HtllOIl),H ill whioh 'l'rypanosoma,8 vivw'v was the most oommonly idolltified Hlwdos, 1111lhough rr, congulense war found ill 4: pel'oont; of Ule HniCl1l'S, illllieatod positivl~ trypanosolllll infection in SO p~rcent of the hord, while' the rmnaining animals I:!howed symptoms illdicu.tiw of tl'yihtlloholtliabih, alt.llough the Pl11'11sitc (louie{ not he del1lollhtmto<i, With tho (lxeopt,io.ll of OIlO foun. dation eow which l'ceoived tl'cmtmonli, 1;lw fel1u1le At.(wk, ann]' Hhowing HymptolllH of (,he dil:!(lhl:!o which varied fhnn tho mild 1;0 i,lw fairly /tontt', Itppeal'ed to recover for rottsollol which wero liot wholly tludor'htood, :tlthough iii il'1 knowu iilmli an ltdoquato plaue of lliltrition, slioh ttl:! tim!, whieh pl'ovnill':! in 1,his }lord, elm e!hjotu'ltge the HppOl1rlHWe of 11 8tl1tl\ of premunition to tryplulol:!omitlhih,. lot. WitS l:!ugg(~atecl,'" ioo, that, l:penvery was Itssil:lLed ljy allowing tho alliltll.dh (lolllploto l'(.'m,, (.'X(10pt; J(lI' milking, during ntt!lclcfl of fever [mel HiekllCl:'U" While 92 pet'oon!i or t.ho ulltrm1i;cd female H(.()ok I:lul'vivml l11ul l'emainml ill :Lppl1rellj-, good h(hllth and In:()(lllC~t;joll during t.h(l!iv(' years, it. was found that young draft, lmllh broke down und~r tl'ypmlo RomiaAis but (lould stand up to holwy wode l1[toi' prophylaeiiio t1'0i11;. mont with antrycide. After t.wo hulls httd died of tryplthohmniaaifl, i~ll mflle animals were given routino tl'olttmonj; with nntrydde pro.hltl1. every fuur months, Lactation records made by the fonnd!1tion COWH nt"ttlt? lihoil' ltrrival Jti; Ihaden in all CI\fleS ex{)oedod the proviour recorda l1uulo by tlw AltIn(' 110

118 t'o"!'h at Shika. The lwel'ltge pl'ocllletioli of 21 laciauol1h at Ibaden was 3,603 lb. of milk. The two highm;t recorded yields were 6,506 lb. of milk in 427 dltys, and!5,642 lb. in :W5 days. The avel'age ealving intcwval fol: t,he herd WI\,I'\ 402 dflyh (l.b.:m.d., I Dfifl). - Sourees of bl'ecllillg stock ulld ful'tiim' information regarding the bl'eell It i:,; (~Ht,imn.t;ed thltj, t.here are llv(;'j. :3 million hea,d of these mtt,tle. Furl lwl' informatioll Oll t.he vvhite ]i'ulani may he had from: '('he Dir(~ct,Ol' of AgricultUl'tl, Kadnna, Northern Nigeria. Tho Dil't~()tnl' of Veterillary SCI'lrineK, Kadnna, Northern Nigerin. Origin M'BORORO MaNOll (HI:")I n) dttsl'ijil's t,he M 'BoI'OI'o a:-; a IOllg Lyre.homed :.Ielm :-;0 a~ t.o diatingnihh it from t.he Lyre.horned I!'nhtni oattle types. Gate;; (1 %2) snggest',n UlItt t,hek(1 oaultl lilay lliwe Imd t,heir origin ill Sa,nga (la,t;tle whioh Ill.ig.mt,(.ld werhvlh'd from Upper Egypt" and it may he (lolll:lidel'cd that, t.lw confol'lih~tion of the eat,tie, und in part.ieullu t,hm of t.]'w hllltd, hol'lln muj hump, lendh NImH: support to this theory. In Fl'cueh t(l1'l'itol',y thehe cat, tie are IlsUlllly knowll as DOrOI'll, M'Doro. l'odji or M'Horol'o, from the Ll'iile of that Ilame, a ::mh,lidh11'y of the J?nllllli group, whi(\h OWllH large herds of thih type, uml whioh, in itf' t,urll, cieri VIlK jt,~ lllh1w from the filot tlmt its members live in the JlflJoI(,1'()U'I'(I, 01' lmsh. Lmmlly Hw NlU,le lllay bo (mlled Bl'llhazlt (in t,he Ha.mm and Bcri-Hcl'i ltl'<jith) Ol', toward the eltl:r(" Himply Fulani, a.lt.llongh i-,}l0 lwl'dfl ill Dal'fm' in the f-lud!lll are mnmlly spokell of ah M'Bororo. JIl Nig(ll'ill f,llis om,t.le type ih Imown. generally ar; l~ahaji; J{.ahmm, Ond!LllO. Gablti'lfilW, Al>nri and Hal1logal1lba I1rc alh~l'mttive lor'a) li1tuwh. ] )('Keripl,ive ll1mwk which Juwe beon applied to thebo (.attie, lllwp beon l::'cd li'ulnni (t,() difltingnif.lh t,hem from tho White PlI]ltui) and, Pl'o[loNod by OM,OK (H)f)2). I::'c!l Longhol'n. Al)l~()l'(ling (,0 MOl'nnt 1tlHI _Kolle (1 H41) the Hm:orodji. tri.be originl1lly inlmhibtte!l the arca whieh ih no\\' t,h{' Colonic (In Nigel' in PI'oneh WOKt Afl'[(a~ and \,JIe H()kot,() Pl'ol'inee of Nigl1l'ill. ')'0 [woid JKlttmizllt.ion in tiw lmdy plwt of the ninot.eenth century, this tribe fled. to the (:Ilost ;t11<1 ;;oj,tiled in ]3ul'll1l (Nigeria), Adltllutwlt (Oamel'()OIli:l), l\layo _l{obbi (Uhnllgi.l;lhari of t,ho i!'l'eillih Ca.HlCl'OOIlA), :BaguiJ.'Jlli (Ohad Colony) nnd H,A fiu' (lltrl ItS l>al'fm' (H,opuhlie of the Sudan). III

119 (;OJl(litiollil ill the lllltiv(~ houh~ of tb(\ bl'('ni Locnl,iml, lopo(i'i'1l1)hy tliln 8f)i(.~ H(mlH of 'M.'13Ol'l)l'O wttk M'O follnd Llcal' Llw llol'llwl'li I )(nllldl~i'y of Nigcl'h :lhllll Sokoto j,o L!~kc Chad, in tlw Hmnell<lll!tlld Mltlnhih~ ureas of the Brith,h Cmlwl'oOlIH, nncl ill the adjoining Fl'oll(:h Lel'l'itol'ieH of Frenoh 'ive~t Afl'iol\,mel :Fl'lHWh Equatorial Af1'i('n, ]lll,l't,ioulnrly in t.h.e Oolonie tlu Nigt l' mul. in Uhangi-Slml'i I\nd H'\guil'mi. Ifloh\terl hords OCellI' as fal.' E\f.\,Rt as Darfur :PI'OViIHl(l in t,ho Hepuhlie of UllI ~nd!tll (l!'igul'e :~B) where it luoh l)oell ('flt,illlntnd that 1,1H'I p Itl'P aholll [m,noo head of thc:,r\ ol1l;1;le, 'rhe IH)rthm'll honlcl'h or Nigel'in and tho n<ijnillillg Oolouic dll Nigot' in :~'rench WOHl, AIHca IU'<' UJ1(llllntillg pbillh of 1,200 to 1,uOn fell I; elevation, In tho CalHel'O()I1~ j",o Ute HonLh of Lnk<' nhad t,he ('mmlil'y is mouubtilloll:4 with e]('vntiollfl of frohi 2,000 \0 4,O()() 01.' /),()()() renl in tjh.\ Ba,nlC'nd!t ltl'ea, In the llol'th(ll'll regioll Lite ~oil ih light!tlld IUtlHly, of omllge hl'own to red colo!', flf'dental.'y dunes (WOUl' lhl'(hl~hont t.lhl nre!t. AJ'OUlld L!~ke Ohad the :4oils are phtrtie eby:,; with IWO!tH of looho Band, whiln in the l1l0ntltllc regiou:,: of (;ho OmnoroOllH strongly IO!le)wd friahle porou iol,md HltUc.ly clayii of l'pddihh ooinr ooom', 112

120 Olimntr' 'rhe climatic pl1ttern of the zone ()(I{JUpicrl by the M' BoroI'{) cat,tle Vt1riCK with 1,he :-lituat,ioll and relief. Nettl' the northern border of Nigeria l1ucl in the eafltern plwt, of the Colonie du Niger it i:-l genemlly hot Itnd dry. Durillg t.he (11')' l::ielltloll, whieh ext.!md:-l ovcr seven t.o nino monthr, the dnht-ladon Ilort.heaKterly harma,ttnll Willd:-; blow and, ()Jl IW(JOllllt of t.h(, quantity of dm:t in the air, the day;:: arc not (,1m\.!' and bright, in i:lpite of the hot HUB. There is great VlLl'i!ttioll hp '(".ween day fmd night. t.empcmturcn. 'rile 11l'evlliling winds are southwerter~y d,)1l'inl! I.ltt' wet, He)\\ilm, W111Ch hef.,rimdn M.ay, and the climate lk hot and hulllid with deul't"i1heci rliuj'llal tempern.ture variat,ion. fll 1;lw IllOll1lt!LinoUH l'egiom: of t.lw 0I1111Cl'OOIH; the averuge rainfall ik about IOO inclwl:i and t.elllljemtures Itl'tl moderate. ClilllatoJogiOltl dat.a fol' thl'ep 1'l1;Iti'.hmK in the M'BOI ()]"() lu'ea are gi vpn in '''nllie :{!l. V 8(II!.t((.t-ion 'I'ADUD OLIMATOl,OGWAL DA~rA FOIt ~'H.lil KNI.'SINA, BAMEN])A (BRITISH: OAMlnROONS) AND BOUAR AREAS 1\:(11"(11<1 A Wille vltriety of v{lget,!tl,ioll lk lilet with in the area occupied by tho M'llol'ol'o, depending upon t.he ciimf.l>t.e, rainfall, loc!ttion and altitude. In al'eilk of 20 inehck Ol' leki; miufall, where Val'iOUH specier; ()f Amf.lin are oommod, :-m,i1; buhh type veget.ation ]Jl'ovides rough grazing. :lvfeulj bllllllh!fllt,tn'('~ ull\... H1I1ulclity. u,;,.. IlIlIJlI'I~Il U 2!i (I.m 1111 M ~ M ~ ~ " ~ W W ~ ~ 00 W ~ ~ M U n M O.OH ,4:1 : : nil , Ilcnlli'llllrc 1\ l'liuillm'ii' tuw), \Ill' ~ 71 ill l\~ Ilr, or. (\i OIl 61l ill os.1)\1 llull,\l,ii(,r. '!,;,. (Ill (III 7:1 RO!4:j HI) 89 UI ~Il ( n n lllfnll, In ~.HO llufi 15.17!lUO ( ~I no 105.:17 JIIHUlI' MOllil t.(lltllll!l.'n t:lli I P. 11('. ". II ~ L I ~r;.n ~(i.4 26.:1 ~r , :J 2;1, ,, ,J.8 liumld It,y.,II / oil fili lill 07 7:! ns.j.l 'lh 65.8 HuillCnll, ]Illll., a,t{ I) :)0.7 HllA H.4 228, nil :40IlBOf.:: Knt~hm: Ulli'.<,S. G. M" l'{lrh(mal Omnmuniea!ion. HnUlomla: MoCulloch. :1.. PersonaI Omnnvwni.cntillH. BOllftr: DOHNlt,ol1r. Persona.l Cllm'l1l.11,nir.aU()!I.. 113

121 FrOlTltlG!W, il1"bo/'1i1'1j TlIIll, \Vhere Lho minlidl i:-; Il.iglwl', gl.'lt~:-;ok of (,IH' gtllwm.. Ind/,()jllll!on, /[1I2)ltl' rhenin Ibml PMmi8i'lnln OCOlll', Pnp'yI'\LK (lxi;('jlcb \\'(\11 (1\1[, int!) Uw Hhlbllow witte I' bot'during Lak(l Churl. InaL ll\lwpi I ('UHHocky gru,hho* (including SP0I'U/JOlIl8 H1IP,) lmd dov()j',~ in dumph ILl '(I OOJ\\jIlOIl ill til!' moulltn.illollh l'ogirhln of 1,110 Cltllle1.'()()11H, OLhol' gl'lthhl'1' O()(illl'l'ing in the I'Ogioll iuollldo JiJleU8iu,(J. inrui\a, Setl/,I'l:([ HPP" MI1U'II'':,~ min'llullm'((. Paspalmn sjlp, llud Imper(ctl(' HIlI', On (.he 10wo[' Hlol'llN VOILl'HOl' gl'ahhok Bueh UN Andl'(1)()!lIIII, HPP" O?tm7)O}){JIIO}1. ;;pp.. rmpm'(illl Hpp.ItlHl J)('II:/I,'i,~du.w pm'plo'buri/. O(1(lur,,].f,11wymnell,l }Jl'lwtio(,8 Hardinol'lK, Kh()\Villt:H~ and Kizl! 111'0 HOlllO of t,ll(! ulml'1bo(.!lj'ih( iuh look(l!t for by the llollh\die horcb-lluon ill ~d[\(:t,ing M'Bol'(Jl'o entt.i(l I'm' hl'(jilding. 'rhe hel'clh,we l'ehi'ed mit,il'()jy Oil gl'azill,!.!; t.hl'onghou(, I,ll!' Y(lnl', f1l t.lw IH

122 northerll 111'1)!1K the cattle llligrl1to toward rivers, valleyi:! and drying swailllls dming the dry season 11nd roturn to their native al'eas at the beginning of the rains. In the lllountainous regions of the east tiu' cattle are tillwn to hilly gmzing!tl'eas during dry periods. SupplemeniAtry fcedf; n,rd never given. Physi(~al ChUl'lIctCI'i!;li(~s' of the hi'ccd The M':Bol'Or<l ol1ttie (FiguroH all.mel '10) nrc i11l'gc.fl'!tlllcd allimaih. with good height and long legh. rl'he hump is well developed, Il1usculofatty in natul'o alld col'vieo-thol'!tcic in sit.nation (Gates, G. M. PersonAl Oormn11,nication). Iii ill mnch larger ill the male than in the female ami t:!1ht,mt;ecl lllllle. The dewlap ill alll(] well dcveloped, extending frol11 und('l' tho (~hjn to t.110 hl'citktljol1c. The naval fbp and, in the hull, the Hhellth, j,.; lomlo and polldnlouh. The hearl is fine and IOllg: with large, lyre-simper[ horllk cnil'ving outwardk lmd upward", and ul:iultlly w hittl in eolnl' ami reported (;0 be 75 to 120 Olll. in length. Th[~ ha,ok ih long, but t.he l'ills do not show I:lufliciont, spring and look thtt. t.he shoulders hoing llhl'l'ow. 'rhe hindquarters are sloping, ~rhe leghn.l'o Hne and long. with ~trong hoofs. The skin ii:! lo[)~e 11nd of mediurll t,hioknehh with pigmentatioll vnrying fj'olll light to dark. 'fhe Imil'~ FWlTHN W. M' Boml'o cow. U01ll'loHY ur o.. M. (;/!1les

123 ... _ are Hhort IIwl OOaJ.'HC. 'I'he ooal oulol" ih ["(ldclihh browll j.1) dal'k red with, in HOllW CtL80H, 11 wllite switch. SotnEI hody lllelthuremcllt::; art' HUUlllHtl'i7.NI in Tlthlt' -W.!\lal" 1,'Olllltl.. Ox.\ ' "': I~.\, al'hlnuli'lii'" ';1::,1 m'll Wl'igllt.. I'~ '..... IJungth f!'0111 HlwlIltlm' [loillt to llinlwl'w, om.... U"lght at witbol'h. ''Ill... Uf1[1t.ll of chert, Olll. Wiilth of ItiI'H, (' lui) :.!no ;':-Itl :,(111 II), Illi I :~!I 1: " r.:l GU 71 ~,..: :1 1 till UllIll t gil'th, "Ill I,1ft lfiri 17f, ,~ --~. 'HI',... 1;,,11 -,':11111 li,1) :11111" i I :,11 HI II~ :.!H 1;111 :-4(Jt1H(!I'); J)(JBl'OLOU1',.lJcl'so}/lIl {/(lliunhni(!atioll. 'Pl'OqUOI'tJll,ll. Pt'.J'.'wu(li ()(JIi11HlIni(wtitJJI. Functional dllu:a<:tcl'isti(.~s of thl' b. Md The M'BoroI'o oat till [H'C wild Itlld of nil iui;rnet ah[u lmd IlOl'VOllH disposition, Ap, milk animalh t,}wy nre very poor, producing!thout 2 }it.(\l'r per dn,y dlll'ing flush poriodr. Tho IILOt.!ttioll pel'io<1 ir of Ahort <1111'11i;io11. ~[,he moili; is roporterl 1',0 lin (loiws(1 nud of pool' quiijh,y with. a high pl'o})odion of hollo. Malldoll (l!jfl8) n1pol'l.k cij'okhing lwi'(:cmtagefl of 40 to 42. '{'hough they are Hwifi; in Llwir movomont, 1.]Joy do Hot luulw good draft ILniHluls on IwentUlt. of their llol'vol1h disllol'dtioll, Only n few young males two (ll1stmted and tmined as Imd{ ItnimalH. 'rho hider from M'Bol'O.l'O cl\t,t,](, 1t1'1l 1))11(1h vllhwd alhl malw good leather. Shal\' Hud Colville (11100) report that dehpili(.' Llw lhldol,limhlo f(l!1tul'eb montioned Ithove and general unt.hl'ift.iljorr, t.lw nnimalh al'{' kept in large 11lll1lbel'l-l. "PoHsihly thia ir due I~o tlwir picdml'oaq1l0 Itppem'ltlwo and ltueged dog-like abilit,y to olley their ]) ,01.'8' Ol'dCl'H. ~I.'his h~tt()r qun.lity ml,kep, them good" lntrh... Mlimah-l, ~PIlCy 1~1'(1 Raid to 1:I00tttN' quickly to avoid danger at the i':ilightcht Hignal from tll(\il~ martol'i':i. ~rhe M'Bol'ol'o are hardy and atiaptn,ble to II, wide range of (Jlim(l,tie (JonclitioI\i':I vltl'ying from tho hot, dry regions whore the majority /H'e found, to mueh colder highet' rainfall ttl'o[\i':i 4,000 to H,OOn foot. n,hove sea level; to whioh they hl1vc\ been int,l'ochwml. liu

124 SOlu'ces of breeding!llock au(i fm'ther information regarding the breed ]l'rolll the llumbel'1'l of M.'Hororo eattlc exporteri to SOllthern Nigeria for slaughtor llllrpofoles, it hit!'; hoen est,imatcd that thcre nrc OVCl' 200,000 of the:;;e oamle in tho Colonie rlu Nigel' of French West Afrina, partionln,l'ly ill it,,, eaht.p['11 nr('a, lind t.hilt. t,hoy Inn)' not {1x('ood 400,000 head in tho Camol'oonH, rrhm'o im IL herd of M'H(lI'oro CtLttie nt the Liv(JHtuck lnve:-;t,igatioll Conter lllaintailh,(j hy the V('tel'inal'Y DCllHl'tment nt Katsina in Northem NigerilL. Further il\fm'lll,,,uoll 1 pg:.ndillg t.ht' Lype may he ohhtilled from blw -following allt-,hol'itim.;; Direet()l', HOl'vice (i(1 l'dlevnge et des indw;tries animale", Chad".li'I'OIWh Equatorial Africa. Dit'oct,lll'. Btll'vice (h~ l'iiltwltge llt deh ilhlu~tl'ieh Itllimalos, Seoteul'S lloeidontitld::, H01U~l', Ouhangui Sluwi, 'FI'C'l1ch Equatorial Africa. The Dil'eetol' of Agriculture, KndUlUl, Northern Nigeria. 'Plw Dil'eetor of Vet.eriul1ty RerviecR, Kadulll\, Northern Nigeria.. 117

125 N'DAMA Origin It ih believed tlmt the N'DltuUl (,ypt' Jutll ib; ol'if.l:in ill 1'.ld,Lie whieh aocompanied Bcrber migmnts from I'lOuthOl'lL MOl'oeeo. '1'11(\.I!'ontl~ Djalloll plltteau in I!':rench GUirWI~ ih I tlgt~l'ci('d ItH hl.iug ith poiu\; of origin in \Vest AtHo11, from whieh it,!tilh HJH'OI1c1 CO t,he HIll'L'olmclillg arellof.!, where it has interbred with both. (ilw ;'.ohu n:d,(.i(. of tho sub Ha,har!~u. sav:.111iu11m [mel tho ::11\1<111 shol'thol'lwd. 1',11[,(,1(\ (If ~h(l <'thtsto,1 areas. The m:on. occupied hy lilw N'Dl1llw Hhmvo!L il,:-i gl'oniw-l(, ijl(\i'(1it1-h' ill the pel'iodr following tho l'imlol'l)ch\i opi:!.oo(il(ih or 1H\l0 thh I and 1918 when theho (JItt,tll' l'ephlllmllwl'cifl of other (iypeh in HmlCgl11lUld ill (;he ~~l'ell()h Sndl111 whieh had been dodhlatnd hy t.lw dihphn(i (n0\11'1'(~h K(mlle, 1047). \Vhile thore is It eor:(;:till IttllOUllt, of vmiatiott ill t.jw e<l1lf'oi'illht.joll of cattle from cliffol'en\. ImrtH of t.lw IW(.!t, j,lw]'u clonh not. ItllpOal' [,0 Itav(' been a sufficient d(~groe of dil'i'ol'(mt,iilt.ioll to jm~ti(y their ('()nhid(ll'!~ti(jll ILIl discrete breedr, The typ(j ht1h, (,llol'ofol'll, h(l<'1l ciif"lollhhocl undo)' It single lleading as the" N'Dluna,. (whilih elm he t'i't~iihlat(1d an " Hmall G!Lttle ") including, ItS well aa tho O!l(;t,l<~ of lrout,a ])jalloll, filw Hitlulnwil and BOl'goH,mhtypnH which lmvll boon donr.l'il,o(\ hy DOUt.J'OHHOlll1e (HI47). ConditioJls ill the ulltiv(1 houw (If thli h.'(i(i(1 LO(Jation, tnpo{]j'ltphy Il.nd 8oil,~ N'])ILUlI1 caht.!n are found iu Lilli HOllthot'll P111'1; or t.jw 8(}lIllannim;!Lud the llot'tlwrn Pllol't of the flwiuaenn(! diumtie :!.OlWH (llollt,('tikhouut'. l!147) ill It holt of (lollutl'y ap]i.roxilllttt.ely pl1l'nllnl jill (.lui (\([ ' and Htretching fl'om the AfiltLlltie (loi1hi; in SeuognJ. awl GuitWI1 (in tho B()l'~oll dihtrict in northorn Dahomey, 'rlw nol'!.\l(ll'11 l~nd f\out,l\(ll'll limith t1l'i~, VI11''y approximately, llt latitucb,.i.~() N. ilnd HO N. 'Cite northol'1l limit nf the N'DnllUL ltij]jl'oxinmt,oa VPI'.v uload,\' ton that of UW i;t40t.h(i arell and, consequently, to the Hou(,het'll limit, of iilw 7.(\hu (Httt1n of t.ho llhli'n opon oountl''y to iilw!lort.h, UH

126 ~rhll t,l'up N'Dnnut is found in tho l~()utn Djallon phtteau ill FreIloh Guinea. ]J'rolll thore it has spread l1orthwesl,wardr to southern Senegal, llol'tiu)cthtwnrds to the Hivor Senegal in t,he French Sudan, eastward!-l (,0 the Fl'cneh Sndml Houth of t,he Nigel' and the llorthem part of the I vory Coast where the Bam hara type IlltH developed, and further east t,o the NOl'therll. Territory Df Ghmllt, the Horgon aren, in Dahomey <HHL Sierra LI'OlW. Mueh of the Frenoh Su<iml if; It grcltl; peneplain of Lt lllean altitude of ltijout 200 to 000 meters intcl'secterl 1>y vl1lleyh and alluvial plaim! whieh Itl'O innndated for part of t.lw yeltl'. 1_ihe plateaus are very hwgely env(il'ed hy It htteritic shield. Only in the Fonta Djallon plnteall ([oefl (;Iw clnvntioll l'ire above 1,200 met.m'h. Oli11l a.tl~ Tho (:lilllltl.o of the an~i' ill whieh N'Dml1lt cattle nrc fonnd if! chamet,erized hy a divih\ol\ of i;lw ycu,l' hetwoen It dry seahon n,nd It rainy 'l:lcason dependent. npon the movoment, of thc intel'tropicnl conver geneo hetwcoll tho north~rly ~dl'y continental I.il' mars (lll1l'matten) which is contored OVlll' the Saham EtUel t.he!,;out.lnvf11l1, monsoon of llloirt ~dl' coming inland from bho AUantic. In,TltlHml'Y t.he (Ionvel'geucc is td; its farthert H(}uth ~tnd t.he whole (jf tho [trelt is dry: whilt\ in,tuly it has moved north and the monsoon eovors tho whole l~egion. Mosi; of the rain OOellI'S in [) 11elt ahout. aoo miles widc nnd ahout 100 miles south of the oonvergence and generally fl\1i1' in" lloavy thunderstorms, although there may, on occa sion, he ('.loud (tud prolonged min for 24 hourll or mol'c. Heavy rainl4tol'llls OOCUI' whieh are of short; elm'ation, hut at'! preoeded hy 'violent< wiuds whieh (mn CltUHO collsideru.ble dam1lge, III g(l)101'id, tho dry Henson ILtsts I1pprOXilllLtt.ely fr(jm lttte Octoher or N ov()lllhor to FobrtHtl,y or March. The!til' if! dry and midday temper- H,tUl'OR lll'o high, chll(leil1,l1y in April 11nd Mu,y when dltily maxilnlt may execc'd 43 0 C., hnt t he night.fl arc eool. The sky, although oloudless, is of ton ohsctll'ocl 1»), a. hll:7.0 oltrlred hy fine rhu;j; pftrticlcs, whioh grefltly l'eduees ViRihility. Tho rlti]\1< n.rc IJl'l.lOodod by It period during which thero arc sever(l dut'lt. si,orms, HidnRt.<Il'mR ljegin in April mld May and continue until OotobeJ' or November. 'rho highebt preoipitation is in lttte August ~md early September. During tho rainy months stor11l8 usually ooour illl 10 to 15 chtys in on,eh month. Tho humidity is high, but. tempel. ;ttlu~of:l are lowel' than in AIll'il llnd MI1Y (Kollch'ew, 1953). While thol'li if:! Ito great variation in tho mmm annual temperature through t.he m'ollo, precipitation inoreases from north to south. A division of tho a1'ea is nftc1n mnde into rt} the 8011danai8e zone in the 119

127 driot' uorth where j,iw dl'.y Rea:-am lahb; from early Novomill'r to lr~lo' M,n,l'ch or early April and the liwilll!tl1mmltmnpemtlu,'(l ih ItbOllL,:U;o C., and Ii) tho!rni;u)cmw :l;lllltl whm:\'- LIlt', ltnil1mi 1'Itinfltll vlwieh het,wool) 1,01l0 mm. lllld 4,000 mill. ami whore tlw (try HlmH()1l (lxtcn<ih h(\bwllllll, November and April, while I,lw llhlltll tolllpm'(d,nrp V(~riOH Il(,t.W()Oll a mjnimnm of 220 ttl 21i0 C. ItlHl a nhtximulll l)f 28 0 ti() im,o n. HmnicliLy in t.he f1/(,i'nl~en'/l,l' If,0l10 varich llet;\i'(~cll 00 pm:ueul< in l;h(1 (try nnd It maximum uf!lh pon',ont, in tlw rnillr (Dollj,I'ONHonllo, I!)4 7). Cliw!1tologien,1 dlli,a for HL!~tiollH in Uw N' Dltllln. I~l'(,n. Ml' giv(111 in Table:,; 41 and -l-2. 'l'a'1i1~ll: 41.."" UU~1A~roLolHuAI, D..v,I',\ I('(llt HOI',\ 1\ I::, I VOl{'; ('0,1,14'1' (l:l-ybalt MJ!lANA) "'~~ ri I ~ 'j ~'r~ 'I ~'r~, I ~ I I ~ I ~ I ~ I ~ j---".'''.'' ,... " _. Meltn tnl'p, tult.\lll\i'h- 11(1,. I'll ill full,! i : ' I ( '>'1 II ')11 III ",; III ",;,.,- "1 "11 I.),- II.) I '1 :!I II "... i '" 71 "I J I > I -" :" :,; ;,,i :,",::,::1,~:" _~: "~, ::1":,, "'::: ::1 ::"' -,,I ' "~,: 'l'aul,ig '~:l... (:I,IMA~l'()l.fl(iWAJ,.IJA'I'A ll()jt HAlIIAI(O ANn H('J(IOlr,fN ~t'j1l!l Ji'ttENUH HunAN.MOltO t,ulu1jorll.tnl'll, BUlnnko,oO. :.. m.ti :!7.7 ;JO.U a~.!'! :il.i ~1"I.H ~{L7!W.J :,!tl.l ~'j'.h ~; ~ ~!5.o 2B.:~ Meuu rainfall. JIll' malt", I\IUI... II II 1117 Mouu I'uiufltll, H.. g'oll, nuh. Il II II 1(1 :10 00 II I II II~II ;;01'1\1'1':: lllllllnkn: KOll(ll'mv, lu[i:i. H(Ij!on: RUI'vit'tl clt l P(~lIHl'nl.w ~111 :-;0,,111111, (J(~NMlial (.' "'lit'il'"uli. V('.yetutio!l, In the 8()udnna'i8(: 1f,0l1ll the1'o if! It dotlo UOVt)!' of HOll- t.[wl"ily Ll'COH arul hw:llwh under which l,all mlll1ml gmhh('h Bpl'ing np (luring tito.l'ldnh, The l'ainfnll is Imfficiont for t.he lll'odu(j(;jon of m'(jph muj t.l1o hli!goly sedentary 11l1l11!tn popula.t.ion gl'ow:'; ('nnl'lid(\l'a~bie 1t1'PIIoN of rip~" oo1;ton and ot.her crops. l:.w

128 F'Ul'tlwr f>out,h, ill t.he II'twneenne ZOlle, the tree cover is t,hiclwr t~nd t,}w anllm~l gl'nssc!'! Hre to Rome degree replaced by tall perennials. The vegetation ik very suhjccl to tiro during the dry season. On the plate!tuh there are lingo arelts of open grassland, while forost, OnCI1l'R along the l'ivm'k (J)ollt.reRsoniIe, Hl47). llfll'iul,ijp;ment l}'i'i(,dl:n~8 In the :Frcnelt ~UChtll and the Ivory OOltHt the hcl'dh!he l:!edental'y,~lld ltro (ill t.he tsuclltu) lu:1tlltlly owned l)y Bn.mu!1ra villagers who employ Peul hol'ci:;nnen to supol'vike their cuttle. As well ItS natural pflht;uroa nmtt' t.jw viliageh the cattle Itre herded on the millet and maize fieldh Itftel' (i}l(' IUU'VOHt 80 tlutt t,jwy mlty OOIlK1U11e the l'chiduek of the m'ops. rn mudl of t!w lm.m tho hcrdk make HeltBunal movements, which. nl!~y bo very 8hor{;, I~/'l in northorn Dahollley, or, 118 in the Borgon a,rel1, nmy ex(;olld over two or t,hrec clayh' llutl'ch. The Clottle loro usually \mmghli {Iown from tlw Illn,tCltUH l\,ml hilhl where j,hey pash the rains, t,o river ImukH mlet doprmmions whioh, flooded during the minh, give gl'oon gt:ttzing when expo:,;ed during the dry :-:eml(lll (Doutl'esHoulle, 1\)47). (() f. the tllich i:\yhttllll ()f tho Niloti{~ I:Itook owners of the Hepu hlio of the Ruclall.) 'rhe I1V(.lI'ILg<\ (IOJllpositioll of hcnlh in tho Kl1ytlH (Sudnn) a,relt has boon given ita oil COWH, 3 Imllfl, IH young cattle between 1 mul 4 YC<trS, 22.0 (ialvm~ tuld 1.5 oxen. In the Kita (Sudan) urea the average herd COIlHhd,od of 447 (IOWH, with 3 hull['!, 16 young stock, :30 cnlves ILnd 4 oxen (Service de ['Olevl.go du Sondltn, Personal Oommunication), In northel'n RIOI'm.Leono iilw en,ttlc 1.1'0 maintltined under it pastoral and lloj\mdio HYl:ltOlll utilizing gmzing as and where it becomes available. In t.hir; ttr(m thoro it; uhlmlly It shol'tage of grazing in the dry season. Catt.le OWllOl'H ortoll give t,hcir I:Itool< a liok containing, ttl::! well ItA HO.lt" V!LdOllS ofilwj' :'mhai,n,ncph, induding, JClweR, l'oot:-: and ha,rk.,pbyl:li(lul (~hlu'!lcl(ll'istics of llu~ JIl'l:ml J)ou[,t'('HHOIllle (1047) hl~h dokel'ilwu t.hree vlll'ietietl of this type of enttle: t:jw i,nw N'J)nnHL of t,he Fouta DjitllOll plateau; tho Bamb!tl'o, or Moro of t.lw Houiilwl'll part of thn lhonoh Sudan (which is the product of 01'OHHbl'opciiJlg bot;ween the N'Dnmn ltnd the Peul zebu); and the HOl'gou of nol'i;]lorn Dahomey Itnd the neighboring territories, Hhowing sighi:! of the influonce' of tho M.'Borol'o zebus 1:0 t.he north, ItH woll ah Oint of the West Africun Shol'thornH of the em.htnl ~wea. 'I'lw N'])anm (Figures 41 Itnd 42) ttl'o smitll, hmnpless cattle, sturdy ;md bhi(\kh(:lt" lmd with long lyre-ghl.pee! horm:. The hon,d 11'1 short 121

129 ]l'r(h1lu:,.t.1.!v'nrun" hllll. UIIIIIIII. Il'WIIHf,:,L:l,!V'/JIII/Hl 1'011', Olu/.1l(/. (IIlIll'l,llHY IIf 0. 1\1. Gat.cll 122

130 :md lll.'oad with a,,"i,might ljl'olil('. 'l'lw III'hilal ftl'(1hci:i HI'(1 Hut, ue(:ellj'ii<l1 (~d n,i\(1 t,ll(> fol'nlw:ld ik Hat, Tho horllk lll'o about 20 (' ' morl' ill dl'('lllllf('l'(~lln(' at t,ll('. hll,"<' It1lcLIH'() of eil'c.'lllal' eros" ~ent.inll. The UHLHtl IDllg1.h ik lhllll,~ii til i)() 1'111. (~(,I'Viel~ de 1'{>IC'YHge clu Soudall, P(~1'8m/(/1 Cnrnlll,nnil'rI.fion). Till' h()rllh gl'ow ['!'Otn (',lw f1id; poll ill :ll\ cmtwlwd ;tlld Klighi.ly imt'kwhl'd dil'c'['j,ioll, j-,hen tui'll fonmnls a lld upwal'd:,: (wfn!'!! indining iuii'ttl'(l" and ~lightl,y hhekw:\i'!b n t, tlw "luli'ply pointed Ilxtl'c,\IIitiPK. Thc' eol<1l' Ill' tlw hol'ilk ih ge\wm.lly whh,e wit,ll dn,j:k j\xt.l't\liiit il'.k. ('XI'upt ill 1'.ltH [(' IIi' t.lll' BltlllIHH'H. >;11 llt.ype with browli \.mti, (,(llm'h,t.illl\. t.lll' hoi'llf< IIi' whil 1I a.i'[,. whnll,v dark in ['(10)' (Doui-n'H "amlte,i\\.t 7). Tht' Hoek ih oj' llludinm Ipt1g1h and 11l1(,p Ilml "kim/!: in [h" male_ TIll' t.oplilll1 ['rolll thl' wit llp!,,, to til!' 1 nil HPi,tiul,( i:,; tlal ami \"011 ll11weled :tihl ih np]li'nxillllltply Hi.might with H Mtight jelldolloy to l'ike to til(" hindqllhl'tol'm, 'rill' l'limp ik or 1ll0dI'1'at(~ II'HgI]J aud >-Iligh(, ~;]()P!' wi(",h n<l(\([wi,tr' lll'nnclth ]lijh[.el'iol'l,v, '.I'l1O K1H'1'UIll in not [1l'Olllinnni,. 'L'lw (,nil ih IOllg wilit n wc,ll-([c,vclopccl Hwitell. Tho l'iiln <ll.'l' well RJ)J'UIl,t!.' :111<1 Uw mllhulllnj,nl'p of ('.]1(\ i:llwulcl(,i'~, ha(j1>. and himlqllar1;pl'h i~ wnll devdn[1('([ a,nel I'llllluted. Tlw dp.wlhl' and lunhilicml fold aro :W<'(.'llj,unl:\\d. 'l'lw lind)h 1tm Hhurt,.uHllil1o Hud t,iw honf~ nre reported j,o hi' : ndliclj(lnti,v (tllmhlc' WIWl1 [:]w ('att.lc' I1I.'C' (:Il1lpIU.I'l'd. in draft 1I'01'k. '['Il(' l'igilw1l1:t(,j(l1l of elw skin. whi(1h ih of Hwdimn thioklws8, l'nli Vl11'Y CI'OIIl bll10k (,0 Hgh [hl'owlj. Tile 1I1\1~~le and HlIl'I'OUlldK 0[' ['.]10 nyek 11"'0 llclllltlly light ill nolo I' hill, may he dn"'c TIH' hait'? (loai, is ~mf1, and "hod t,lw '~'()1It!1 DjallolJ M'!.la tho lion(: oo]ol'l1tioll ih genel'ltlly ydlo\f (II' f'ilwll wii,h d.ill'klll~ (lxtl'('lllit.ich hut. VOl'Y dark eolol'htioll, IlcPlll'oximnting iii) fnll hhwk, eltll he Keon ItS well ItH pied with bllwk OJ' fawn on It whik ~r(lttlhl lmd. l'llrdy, full whitc'. The skill if! g01wl'ally of light pigmllll {Milln, ilut hltwk llmy Il(',eul' in nn ILllpl'ceiable l)()l't;ion of ttnimltlh. '1'[11\ liyllivl\,1 (\Ollll,tt.ioll in Uw IhmllfLm (J!Ltth.' vlh~i('f; from whcn,tcll ydlmv 10 I'c"cl in [,J)(\ north (If tlw f<uht.yjl(' IH~elt i;o hrowll in the >!outh wii h pa,11' pigh\(ii\j,ilt,ioll of lhl' 1111I'l.:r.k, j,ong\w, (It,e., l'\xeept wlwl'l'. t.hl' noni l'o]lii'i\.i.il))1 i,\ dltl'lc 1.1\ (,Ill' B01')J;OI1 1'Ilo(,(.II', j,hl' c\olol'lti.ioll ih IHLl:lien.lly whil,p, wi1.1! Hnpn1'impOHl111 p",1i.nl'llillg wit,h gmy, hhwk In' t\l\v\l lin U\I' lbnl"" I('/lvillg LIlI' loplilll' nnd 1l111lpl'lilln wiju,(\ (1)0111,1'(1:'\:-\01111(', l.\14 7\. 'l'lj" Iwi,u;hl, a.t, wi( 11I'I'H III' hll11,'-\ varinh 1'1'1)1)1 \li') 1 n 11){) 011\.. ILII(I \,I\tIl 01' OXt\11 1'1' III 1:!11 ('In. '1'111\ livlllvl'igijl; of I~I)IVN in 11(\1'\\'1'1'11 ;!IO awl :.\140 k!.. while' 11)(1111 ill!'!ii'hpj ioilit,li,\' g o. ~CI l'olhlit,ioll nm,v l'olwh :l:w kg. In N(lJl\~.!.(al. :t, lnl'!.(\\ nnd. a slllitll VI1J'iul,y of 1,lw N'lhtlTlH have hel'll distijigllishl:(1. '1'1w :lovl~l'u,gn Jivmvnight 1t1l(11wigll[; 111; WitlWI'CI I)j' l;~ OXI.lIl ~,lld :1:1 c:nwn ur [,It(' 1:1l'l!(lI' vnl'id,y \\'(11'(1; IlXl1}l 2!1:J kg, ItlHI (llll..

131 cows 2:n kg. and 1l1.H em. Similar llleasnl'ement,~ wm'o made 011 tile' smaller variety: average livewcights of oxen 11.11<1 cows were 232 Hnd 210 kg. respectively, while the average height nt, withers was and om. respec~ively. The range in height at. \vitherh of animals of the larger type was 105 to US om. Among tho snl(lllcl' type the range in height [tt withers was, for oow~,!lg 01' ler;s to 105 <:In. and for bulls 100 to U2 Clll. (Larret; et ai., 1948). The avemge bir~hweight of oalves has been reported. as follows: Sudan, males 16 kg., fernaleh 1,1 kg.; Ivory Coasi; 14: to 21 kg.; f{iprm J~eone (Telw Btock 11'arm), 13.5 to 18 kg... Average liveweights and meaf:il1l'ements of N'])allltt (luttlo in the French Sudan, the Ivory Coast, and Aierl'l1 Leoll(, aro givph in ~'ahi(ls 4:1, 44, and 45. TATILE.J:l. - AVEItAGr~ LJ:VEWJ~WH'J'S A]'\'() M'I<;'\SU1WlMJiJ.N~l'l' 011' N'DAlIrA (BAMHAltA) CATTI,l~ IN TllE )!'UIGNOH ::-luna]'; TJivewuiglLt, lq~ L01lgth fl'onl RllOuWer lloint t.o plnbollo, em...,.... Height HI, witllors, em Width 01 hiph, mn Heart gll [.I, m.... I _" "" 1111.JIl LiD J~O ~Oll TAllLlll AVmtAGl~ LIVEW1U[GUTS ANI) ~1'J.:AHUHl'Il\unN~PN (H' N'DAMA GA'rTL]i] A~r IVlT.rSAIA STOOlC l<'altm, Sllm.ltA Ll']ONB 1,jvcWlIiA'ht., kg-. '". 1;1(\ 2:!.O!l03 l:ih Ir.! ~!:lh :IJV r,ongth lrom Hhoul(l(ll' point to plnbmw. om. I I ~ UI H~ n 10 1 lui lloight. at wlthol'h, (\JU ) O:l loo 114 Wlclth of llll's, em. 28 aa u~ :!..~ ao 3~ 77 Hem t girth, em HQ log lto 12r. 147 lth ~_.~_~,_..._..._... ".,~ ""e, S()UROI,~: Dh'lIe-tnt' or Agriculture, S(lll'rll i,,,oilo, P"r8l11wl (Jmnlllltlti, al(rlll. 1:!4

132 -.,_,._-,._.._.".~ "'_' ~._.'.n ~--.~, TAnIa,) AVrmAlUG LIV1tlWJHUH'J~f; A::-ID '!\ljo!asujmmen~~s lll<' N'DuUlil CATTI,]) A'r lviwanicro, IVOHY COAST I,ivtnvoig']Jt, kl\.... R4 aon 1111 ~l 234 3";: J,()IIg'UI fl'olu SIIOUld('l' polllt' to 1111(.(' Willg, C~1l sri!i3 Rl 84 Hl'lght; lit Wit,lll'l'H, (' !).! llill 115 M ~ 'Wi(lth or hl[lh, ( m.... :lii :m HI 27 an 40 H(llll't, J.\'ll~th, mn.,. t H~ 1(,( ].I,:: 1(;-1 :4OU1<I1,':: R(1l'vi<lo (1(, 1'6111Vn,J.\'11 do lit Cnt,, tl'ivoil'(l, Pel'sonal (Jomllllln'imUIJ/I.. IrUIlCLiollUI chul'nctc:dslics of the hl'cc(l N'])!\llllt heifers l11'o reported t.o Ci\lvo for the first time at from 3 yeanl (8uclI1l1, Ivory COHst) to 3 Y2 years (Sierra I.lcone) of age. 'rhe average intervnl hetween subsequont calves in the :Frenoh Sudan har been l'opol.'tod to be 113 monthk. COWR oontinue to bl'eed for 10 to 12 yem'k. Young lmlltl are firolt used at between 2 Y2!md 3 % years!~nd are reported to bo quiok to service. When the llutritional stt~ttls of the cattle is kept level calvings ocel1l' throughouti the yon,r, but nnder,the local system of management the ll1!tjol'ity of cltlvingi:\ occur ~o()n ftftel' the termination of the rains. 'J'ATlI,)U ',1:6. - Av.IlmAmn 1Vhr,u: l)!toduotion OF N'D.4.MA. Cows AT MUSAIA YtHtl' STOOK FAJ\M, SIERItA LEONE, ".._, -~ ,.,.,".-.~,-..,.....,..._ ~,--~-- "I' "\vm'ujl;o'j:l~:b~i,'-'i' :~:~U~~-:~~-I:-~::~'~-I--~~~'~!l lonjl;th (~;- mlllw(l per Itlotlttioll, lb. luotatioil, days loh ~(i :! ~O 1\)47 HHI\ lh 1R \) ~ 1 2::!r> ~a ;' (, ~37.,._ _. "..-...,--,,--.-~ _ "'~----'-'-' ----_-- ~()ltlt(m: Col()nlnl (line,), lur.li. 125

133 i 'IIHilll': 1::, N'/)(/.I//(I,{roll ".",',.. fi/liiiiii, Milk,VinIc[ ik l-(ojhli'ally,~hii,11. j\ 1:('pol'L 1'1'11111 l.lit' 1<'1'1'1\1'11 Hlldllil h;,~ f,(iwil :If)O 1.1).150 lifn'>1 ill Ii 1.11 Ii ' 1\.,., f.ii(' I\Vl'I'ilgl' 1lillIllill la.et.at.loll yil'lli, 'fhl! hlll.i,()lofi\.(. colll,plli, I)f' 1.lli' liiilk jh I'IlPIlI'I.,'d III 11<' hif(11. [)1;lltl'(l~~OIlII(' (I il.l.i) l'i'jlil)'i,.; f.lml daily.vil,lds oj' :! II, :1 lill'i".' lire nlil,!,iulld fl'om BOl'g1i1l I~OIl H. AVI,mgl' Ildlk,l'i('IIiK IIi' N'j)I,IlIiL (~t)w:-;,\{', \,;II1~n.in, Kf.flf,k Pltl'tn ill Ki(,1'1'11 Lnl1ll(' :m, givl'l1 ill 'l'nbh, H\. N'T)alllll eal tt(\ givi' :, good bool' eill'l'!lk~, AVI'nlg" 0;0.:1'11 killl'l[ dul" iug tlh' miuh a n1 I'o]lol'j.ed ( 0 yi(\lli. frojl\,if, III ;ill Jllll'I!('IlI. ill' 1ll,(id,li, llllla!. while l,lli\ bpst li1ay kill Ollt ill :).,[ 1)(' fif) rh'i'i~(,ili. '.I'llI' 1111'11.1 ik IIi' good ([lhtliiy ml(l IdoHll gndnnd bill hwk~ il1f,i"'iiiii.~('iiii\.i rill (i)oili.i'i'''' K!llllle, l!1,t/). ~l'lw I 1;0.: (\l I ih'(\ 1I~(\d ('oj' dmj"t WOl'k, Il(l( 1i rill' Imlllllgl' I,illngl' (11'ig;IIl'(',I,:l), 'l'ho~' ill'(' lil'l.ln Knitl'(I. 1'01' II'lIl'k "'hit'lt is l'illi('i' IlI'olollgl.'d Oi' l'(,«(llil'iik violent. \1'1'01'1', '\IHI 111'\\ huh!. Iltili'l,(,d in In)'gl' (.(:limll \\'hil,ll li n' wl)j'lwd only ill (.iw {'Oil I '., 0[' t.hn!lllll'uillg ()lllll[ l'iikhiiui!{', 111,17), N'J)il.JIIH. (lll(,i lll mil l'i'[iol'j',,,d )1', n t, kil~(i Lli HIIlIlO UXI.I\ll(" l't'kin!.1i111 (:0 ('l',vp"iiilhollliahik IUlil ('lill hi' Iwp(, in 1,"()1.~1' Il\lHh UIJlIll(,I',I' 11'11 (',I'{' oj,)wl' I!lttLle!,Yf!l'K, H1Wh ilk, for illf,j'.n,ili'.i', tlw il,ojil1h III' (.11(\ Hlllt~nllnl'lll1 KIWI\,II llahh, ILI'n lliw.hlo t o (,hdv(,. N'llmlltlH ;(,1,(1 lobo 1'(.'1I1I1.l!d f'll iii' I'\IKiHI.unl. t,o )lil'opll\hmi)hi~ 1m\' 111'1' HIlHI\t'pl.iltlo (.0 I'in<iol'j)(lH(" lilll'.}thii'i'i\.g11il' HIIJl' tien.cmi:l. ami hovilw i;n]u'i'enlilhi...:. No l'okihtluwe ('.0 j' i('.k inf(\h(,iii.iol\ ImH he"l\ 1'11})(.»)'\.(Id,

134 11('l'ds or 1\'.1>1<11111 ('al ti(' Ilan' 1"'('11 ('''taillisl)(~d ill Nigel'ia with I,h(' ltilll "I' t'('sl,ill,!l [ \I('il' 1'{'Hi.~lilll('l' 1,(1 ';!',Y111l1l0NllllliaHis, improving 1])(, "mall nat i \,(., Hhol'lll( 'l'll(,d h\llll ple",~ ('ah[(" 11.1([ tllll'()lludllg oattl(, inlo 1,;'I(,I,"(1 illl'( s1.<>d ('()lil1iry. Till' (ii'il.! illal hnd al IloriH, 2(10 miles llfll'th of LagoH wa,; r(lllllllt-,j with ('al,l fr, whi(,jl In'l'l' imported from t.lw Oa,lllhia ill l!l:lii, Lal{,l' illql(lrlaliml~ 1\('1'(' Ilindt) ill l!lim :ljici 1047 from.i.('i'('lwh Clllilu'.1\o, 'I'jl(> [;1(.1(,1' grollp PI' 7:\ (,(,lis and. ~(l IntllN wa" 1,,,taldi;.i1wc! ill (11'I,hal'd IlIlsll (:"lilli,f.',\'.ill ()yu l'i'(lvill(>('. (~lilllhi il' ('ondil,ionn HI'(, "imilal' III litll"(' ill (.h(' 'ho,',\' (~()llnt, (!Iilllidi(, data 1'01' tlw a,'('a nl'l' giviiil ill 'I'ahll' -1 7, A(, O,VO (,h(, ('Id,[,l() hn \'P IlI',(\l! Iludn!.aill('.d lill gmjlil\g awl h,iy wil,h, ill (,I\(' NO\'I'lll hf'i'-apl'il cll',y "nasoll, Nnppl('III1'niHI',I' fl'eding of hay, NWl\l't pohltll(',n, ;\,lill ('II N"<I,\'<\ ilk well an II (\IIl\(\p!l(,mto mi;d,ul'l' inoluding llllilll'h (~()I'II (II' IlIniv,(" ('IfI'loll ""eel. palm k(\"lipl l11c'al. 100\1l:-;t heau" 1"II'1':-YI':,11: ('I.J:IL\~r()1.0HII'AL.i'I'ig,INk 1,'(11{ Tim il.ojut-;-o,(l.\m'l,\, IN N'1fI:mmA.\hHI1I t l'lll ppi'ii t Ill'n. "(\... "nail l'pin I,i \'t' <111,\', ".\l(ll\ll IIUH. 1,,,1111',,11,.,,1. I... "I \ I ill,,,1 i H.~,! " I i.\ Vl<lIt,\ttl<: LlVJ~WN((ar~I:H,\ NI) lyhaa8ltiti'lmllln'rs ('"" N'DAMA (L\~I~'l'J,N A'l' 11~OnIN, 'Nln]'~n'fA,11111" \ ;\'\'111' I V(lf'" \ :~ 'ypat'h! Hint,ul'I', I Li\"'Wt'i"dlf, I,!-t. 0" 1/l1':!\I) I 1\1::(1::1 I :_!,..,i III 11:;Ii,fl I I, I (lill I r~l'lil.d Ii!'l'lIIn ~Jhlllldt~I' 1',, l'iuhd1u'. t'li\'..., ~H t "\1 i \ :\~, U ~) I II.. klll III Wil.h"I',", ('Ill. ", I" f:jj I IIf;- (rl~ til III III~ (ll i,~\i (-II i III PI i, :.! ~r) (:!f.) l ~!. \ (:,1 I ()oj (;0) IIi'l'lh nl','ltl'''i,.~lh.," ("I Ii!! m, ;;! III I ;j.! (::1 I II,' ("I Wi,li II III' lliph,,'ill...,.... ~...,:11 I ::... I:,) ~!.~, (II I ::0 (II i,' 1 (r,1 1I"III'f ~'II'I.h. 1' "..,, II j!:o I NUII.tlH'I',. sawp]!:tl III IU'llIlk,'I>',,"":(lfIlH'I':; l:ruu. 'P. I~~.. l J (')'.'1I)IIol {'WillHlIlJ;/'IIH.J/I, I ;;,:. (:",) 111 III I I~I (,1) : 1;1;) (:1 ~ I 1~7

135 Dlll'ing t,]w night, Ow cattle won' kept, ill OJlPll CalveH WDrc Hucklpd HllUI t.lwy wel'e wpluwd at, and pigeon Ile[~K. fenced onclokl!l PH. hetween 6 [tnt! 0 months of l~g(). The avenl.ge hil't,hweight of +a 1HIll \,~tlv(',i'\ W~tH t f).a I'g. lm(l I,lmi, of :n heifer calves wa::; l+.r kg. Average liveweight,k ane! flody 1JI0HH11l'l'llwut,H or (,athe at t;!w IIorin Ji'a,l'lll ~tre RhoWll ill T~tll](1 4S. Heifers luwe ctllved fo)' the 111'101[, timo ai, Itbout, :J Yz yoal'k mul mtlveh have been llorn at nil senhonh of t;he YL'Itl'. Young ImllH Jmvo Ileen first, used for service Itt; about. a ymtl'h of Itge Itll(l lliwo (,old,inned ill hreoding work up t;o their.loth 01' I2t,]1 yeal', Hllll" an' l'opol'j',ed to have been ntther Khy to HcrvieL'. Milk yields of 1l()4 lb. in 20!) dayh awl 272 lb, ill I.H!) dnyh have been recorded. The enm,in at IJorin 1tllel Oyll ]ULY(\ fau',pllod HltLisfiwtorily on gl'll.zing. Oxen llhed fol' dntf't work (cl:~l.'ting ItlHL tillage) lmvl' honu \\'o1.'lw(l for I1pproxiuH1tely 200 e:ix-houi' working (l!1,)'h in It,)'(111.1'. At, hltulage work Il. pith' hl1r:l pulled It load of Itbout 7 Y2 11ll1ldl'(l(lwt'igIlL (lv(\i' a,hout. two <tnu olle-judi' lliilch in ILl! hour. N'Dmlllt ent,1;ie I~t Ilorin and OYI) havo booll found t,o hi' l't'hihlmlt iii) trypltiloe:omilthih hut l:luhooptible (,I) l'indol'])oht awl j,() foot-ili1(i-lilout,h direaro 11ud lu 'l'l1gie sept'icltemitt. Calves havtl beell found jlll(~ht,(\d with l'oluh.i worms. A lllodemte HmwolltihiliLy to l'iokh lind li('(' hah heen reported (l{yall, 'e.k, Pe1'8I11Ull Oomm'wniclttion). N'Dmllll, enttjc Imve h(1(~n illt,r()dl1e~!'(l int,o L(1opolel vill!, PL'ovillo(l in t.he ]~(llgia.n Congo, wlu'.l'o Uwy two Hllvint.a.iue(i, wihh fl>w \.x.oo}ltiollr, ill hords under JiJnr(),ptll~1l malll~genwllt. 'l.'iw (lliumt.o [" (\Cjtm()orit11 01' Hemi-e~quM,ol'j!t1 with mullutl minfidl v!tl'ying from HOI) llllll. 01' it.isr with a Sil.::-lUO!1Ul dry "OIH10Il lhlitt' (;)1(1 CO!tHt'" t,o ;!,()()O mlh, w.ith It dry SmtSOll confin(j(t to,june Itml.July in tho nott.\) and \lol'thmtht,. 'fho HaVMllHth veget,lti,ioll of 1.;}w OItUJe-hl'oodillg 111'enK illdmlml open gmfll:llands, grim:llilltlldh with l:wj'ub!tlld Koa1.toJ'!l!l Ll'l\OH and open foroht.. The t:1~t,t,le arc II11tinb1ined Oil ph.mtu,t.iollk, lilissiolih awl tilrllls priml1rily fo)' tilln Huppl,)' of nwat j,o L110 loon'! populnliioll, lvbllng PHHlllt 11'1 (1xt,enSiVtl, tho ()ltttle lwing III1Ht;lll'ed Oll lmtuml HIWltllUah gl'ftzing during tho (lit,)' Itud (lllelol'lod. in kl'ltalh at night, llxe0l't ill tlhl Kllmller Itonh; which!tl'c of ton pahtnl'l'd in fonoo<1 paddookl'l. ~ri(!kh m'(' (IOllkollNl by i'\lll'!tying or dipping wit,h an nonricido. 'rhe N'DmHlt hltil been founel to lin an OXOC\lltlll[; (InLt,]e 1',;\'lI(' fol' hl'(lf pro(hwtion on l'olltt,ivoly pool' H1Wltlllmh gl'lt'l.ing in tllih 111'(Ja 11lHI oxnl.he roported i,o l'!1aoh 1m n,ve:h'ltgt\ livewelght, of :WO kg, on llmt,ll1'ij,y (Merokx, 1!Ill!)). N'Dmnn ()ltt.tlo 11'01'0 ~\Xpol'(t\d ['l'om I'?('llogld in :I H2G awl ItLtt'l', t.o Uw ihlltndh of MHI'i"-iniqu!1 ItlHl OWt(I(o](Iu]l(' in tho Wl'Ht IIHLi('H. Bo- 12H

136 tween 1870 nnd H1l4 importl:l, a11:00 of Senegal cattle, were made into t,he Virgin Ishmds. Thei-le hlwe heon crossod -with cattle of the British Bo(l Poll breed l~n(l the progeny have beon reported to have been succe';kfnl hoth for luf.mt and milk production. Crosses with otliel' ])l'ccds of cattle AN woll ttf.! crosses between N'DltmaH and the zebm; of the north lmd tho ''\TeHt Afrieml Shorthorns of the coastal area, DoutressOll11e (U).:l, 7) rnontiollh the fohowing OI'OHHeS with exotic breods: ]. (!hnrolla.i,~. rcwo bn11s were imported into the Frenoh Sudan in 1\)27. ~ehe first generntioll (F 1 ) l1uimals showed It col1sidnt'ltl)lo degrno of variation. When tho Fl females were put t,o It Ohal'olhtis hull the 3/'1 Oharoilltis offspring wero more Uilifol'lu. ~rwl) 3/4 Chlwolll1is bulls which were used for hl'e('ding weighed 500 kg. and 525 kg. rerpectively. The lililk production of 8/4 Ohl1rolluiH female~ was 5 to 6 liters <tn,ily. Average liveweightl:l a,nd me!\f\urements of 1/2 Chl1-1'01lniK mid 8/4 Ohl1,rollaiH cn,tlle arc given ill Tables 49 and 50. TAnLJ". W. -- A\':rmAn)~ LIVEWJDWII~I'S AND M)nASUR1~MEN'L'S OF ),'mst CHOSS 112 CITAlw.r,r,AIR - 1/2 N'DAMA. CA~Y.rJ.J;; Li",,,\'pj~ht. kg'..,...,... III" :!;"itl :100 ~oo 250 ;1~O Hl'lght. lit', wlllll\j',". <,Ill I! IHI ~\ UI'lll't, J,!:il'Lh, "Ill... HI Inu 1M 151 1(\(1 1( _ ",.. _-_ ".~.---- :-llltlhl1!o:: llolltj'iihhcllllln, Ion. r,h''''w('lgj,t, 1(1-\',.,... '... loo!h:io :~7'n Ul'Ight 111. wlt,!j"i'.~, (Inl, l ~(l 1~4 Upnrt gil'lll, <'Ill......, trll 170 IHO 1:1(1 loll Hl~ 1211

137 :!. Nor/na.ud!!. A NOfIllallde hllll \\'a~ illl(i(l)'(<lld ill UI:!7 illto Lito l~rench Suda,q, 'l'he lin;! goltl'i'a!ioll (Ftl N'])allla (BHlIJ. h(ll'it) x NOl'luande olf:-qll'illg' mll'(~.ii!,~,~ HIW(!(!,~"flll 1,1!H1l l;ll<l.~ll from Lite Uhal'()Jlai~ IHdl~, The :tv(!i'h).!" li\'(,ii'('ighl of Ilm(,ul'e 1'\ f(llhitlol"' 11'11,1'; :!7:; to :mo Iq.r. DonLI'(lSi-lOlllJo (UJ.t7) m;t,itulltu<i I,hal \,h(!i'1' \VI'I'I' 1,:100,000 (.aj,[;k of taul'iue (ypn ill ji'n'llnh ""m,t. Ardell. n ih prohahle' (.ltn.l: t.ilo gl'('hi Ol' pnrt of 1'.IWN(' wel'(' N'.I)aIllHN, A l'i![loi'( I'rolH NiPn'H L('(Ilw I'HI,illlal,ed Lhai: UWl'e \\'111'1', ill thal (1ol\)u,v, IIN,nOn 1~1t(,(1P. all or whil'h Wl're, thol\ght. 1:0 Ill) N'])nllla..lJotd"'P"Noullp (.I.O.. IJ';) ()Ht,illlat,nd tlw( 1 11(11'(' 11'(\re :IOO,O()() "al'.t,!o or ["Ill' N'DaI1lH awl Ilpl'ived ty[lt's iu (,Il(! V.I'PIH:h Nlldal!. '\I'u I' ('.1111 I' iuformal,ioll 1'(!gMllillg N'!>ltnW c:at!.l!' ('IH1 1.(, obl,ailled fl'lllll:,"{ol'''(l;(, <II' 1'6Im'III-W nl dn~ ill<lil.~ii'il'~ allimalt,." Ahid,jan, lviii',\' (:I)II.N(., 1"I'(\Il<~h We~ ii, Aft'jlm. SOi'V.iI'I'. (ll' 1'1~1()\'ilg(l 1'1, dun illdun t.1'i1!s i 1111\.11'", HaHHdw, 1"),!'IWh Nll(ilt.II, 1.'I oll.,h \V(~H(, Af!'iPiI. Nm'vil'e d(,.i'i'lnvag(' n( ((ps illflllsj,i'jnn :lllill1al('~, WPHI Arden. SI'I)('gal. 1"l'nltllh S(\I'vil'I' dl>. l'i~i('\"aw> p( (11):-; illdll><tl'il':'; aniltlal"", "'I'('I1 h (1llilUllt, ' 'I'(.lwh \V(IKI, Ardell. '!'!w Oil'olil,lIr or.agl'i('.lill'lll'i', \V(!/'ill'l'lI I(,ngioll, IliadI'll, NigNia. 'l'bl' DiI'II(.(., II' 0(' ;\gl'i(,11i t.1i1'1'. U,'pnl'('IlII'Il( 01' Agl'it'.lll! 'll'i~, Xi"I'I'it LOllu!'. Oril-{ill WEST AFIUeAN SHORTHORNEH eattle J)OULl'eN:-;oullll (l!l-i-7) in or (.111' Pllllll. III I hnt. (hi! Nhol'l.IIOI'lll'd \VnNt, Afri('itll hlllllplnhs (.:\.(,(11', Hfl ",PI I an (.Iw N'lhlllll, hil.d ( \)('il' llj'igin ill Iw]'(lH b.l'oll/!hl sout,1t h,\- Bnl'l)('I' t l'jl.('hl1l('ll ('1'0111 HOllt,h(ll'1l MOI'OliliO. I{(\ IllOn1 io ll;';, \J(I\\'(!VI'.I', 1.111' opilliolls or l'i'!i'i'(' (I lhhi), 1,hal IllI' PI'('sl.'nl, I'tI,tt.ll' poplllnt.ioll (rt' (.hl' (,()a,kt,al I'('),(ioll \\'ilh <I(IHI:IIIIIII.(l ('rolll liu'l'ian liatit;ln illj;j'o(llwl'd h,v (-.ltl' (lift'i.v l'oi't.ligllln' Ila v.iga,j OI'N, Hilt! of l'ol!and (11112), t.hal j;jw,y IYPI'(' 1II'rh'-I'd IhHIl (,11(\ illdigl'1i0lls KomlHl. ('a(;i.i(', nat.t,le ()r (,Iti" I,\'(ll' hltn' I)( ~(lll J'('I()j'1'11t! (.0 HI"' WOHI.,\I'l'i('tUI HItIll'I," hol'll,.. I~aep d(1:-; Ln,!!IIIlI';;,".. HOllllm," Nig(ll'iall '1)11'111'" NIIIJI'lhOJ'1l

138 I)]'.. M.lltlll' II:, " Bako"I," and Own!'!' t-litol't hoi'1i (MaHlitL.IHliLu;.l)nul;rcH,;ouUe, 10407; Uoloniltl Onit-e, Inr;:n. It, i14 ooil:,:i<lm'(l(l (.hnt. (I\(' Joeal point. oi' ol"igiu of Hw t.,vpi' WMI tlw ll\(llmt ainollk l'pgioil or At('H('O!'a ill llf)j"ulol'll Daholllcy who]'(' t.he HOlllhll 1.,tl',Hp.,tl'\' IHI \\. found (l)ollj'i'('kkollllp, I!lJ7), DOllt;J'(_'KK(lltilp (Ill-I,?) dik[illguikhe~ It ~Ilht:vpl', t,hl' Hunnle, in the (li'nt.raj IY"I'~r (\mkt, in till' Hmmk(, H-l'n;t and»hnwill)! 1\w dynd of n]'ohhillg' with till' N'On'lIlll (0 (Ill' liol,t.h.. 'I'IH' Hom ba l'a(,t.11' W(,I'[, llo( all'(ll'i,(,d II," tlit' rinderpoht o]jizootio of I K!l~ and so \1'('1'(, aill(' 1 (, \\(lllllliz(' ttl'{'lts i\\ tlw. neighhorhood of tlw At.I,a(,m'n 1I11l1l1l(inills Wlll('" had. l'lll'li cl(,kto('lu,(l by l.lw diilea8e. A '.'lil1si(loj'l\ hh' amollll1 or ('l'flssing wit,li (Jj'.lwl (ypc\:< sllrh as. for jnrtanl'f), 1.1\(\ Boq!(lli. (001, [11:1(,(' in (-.]10;;1' amas, Coudilioll"; ill Ihl' liuth'l' IWlllr of 1111' IIn'ed!AWl/liOIl, /Ojif1i//'1/ ph.y /I.IIr{ suils l>oll(.i'(\~"illl[l(, (IO,n) givni"!.it(' i"(jlllll!'1'i\ PHt't.X oj' tjll' IV{JI',v CO<ll'lt, 'I'ogobl\d,,uIII [)i~holl\(\'y ill Itd(litiOll t.1l llw A1,tn(\om 1ll001lltnillR in 1\01'1.1101'1\ I )aijoilli'y /I.:; t.lw Illlhi( nl of tih' "'CH( Af1'i('tUl l-!1101'1;jlotncri,'al I In ItS \\,(,11 ;is nit,.bl\otth~ ;tl'oa in (.he (\('lii rat 1 VOt',Y Coa:.;[.. MaHon (l Hr; I (I) :l1";(1 1'1'1'(11'1" \ VI'S! Afl'i('all ~h{)l'th(j1'lls ill the <bmhilt (where j,ltt',\' 111'(' dying- (Jill), ill [.]w ('on,st al ltl'pll"; (If nlwhn., l,et.wecll nw Ni_U:('1' awl H('lIl1l' I'iV(\I'''; and I,lw NCII ill l'\igni'in ttl-! woll <tk ill il:lohtt.cd hilly Hl'('U.:< aloug I.hl' (\I\Nt'('l'll hort!nl' (Llw "Mut.lll'u" Huhtypo) and, J'1'olll a :1(1',1'('1].1"01<1 I\.(W!lIllI(, ill Ow (,oa14(.n.1 rogillllh of Liliol'in, '('II!' Il\,l\d lh'tw [.1\(" (\OI\KI: of tlllli,1i of 1.h\\ :well is luw and :-<,mdy with, in IIHtIl'y "lap('h, laj!(hillh lljll'lt to LIte HOlt or' dofl<'d fr'(hli it. liy flnudb!1l'fl. III111Wl lilt' al t.j(,lldn imn'()a~(';-i t.o 70 01' '" and, ful'uwl' north ill (;11<' H()\lak(~ MPH, 1 0 :l!in IIwfnl'f;, lind iahwitit' soi]f.: ii'llvenl' an \n~1i 110M :-11\.11111' nlld IOHIlI:-<, ( 'limlll!' TIH' iilinlah'.iii l:olll,l'llllt,d hy UII' l'it!1tht)]mi 11Ol'I.Ltwanl,md :iotl\,hwltl'd lllllvt\l\h'11\, "I' Lim infl\l'fl'opit'ttl t\ollv(\l'gmwp..tn ~IIHlUttl'~r, WIWll the I'OllV(lI',!..((\IlI'(' i:i ILt. i(,1i flll'{ II(':'I1, HOllt.h, lilt' 1IoJ'l'n i" (.0 :iolll(\ (1x1.('111; Hubjeet; 10 tjll\ III',\' 11111'(.111'1.'1,\' JWl.'lIlat.1,an wind II'hieh, huw(,vel', in KOJlwtimeH I'Pl'ilw('d h,l' :,lull I It \I'I\K[(,t'[~, wjl\(l:-;. Jhll'illg (hi' p;i'i'nl(w pal'(, of I:hl',vuar (.JIl~ l.'otlhtrd ttl'oltfl tire tiovered \1,), 1;11(' IllllliHOllll. AlIgllHI IIllrl. ~(\plojll1.lm', howover, ;lh a ],(!RUlt. (If an illvt'i'hj'lil "I' 1{'~1I\1'(il'lLt1lJ'(\.ill (.it!' IllIlKR of IllOllHOl)1l ail', have lit.tjll 1'l1in. 'I'h(, IlIP:1I '111 PPI'aj,l1l'(' i" ahmti '.:n o n.!tnd Iwit.h(\)" til(' di1lrll

139 nor the,.;easanal vllriatioll exceeds 7 0 C. Rainfall may exceed 4,445 nun. in the yecll', most of which fall;; between April a,nd November. Over much of the coast there are two rainfall maxima; almost two thirds of t.he rain falls in April, May and June and there is a second maximum in SeIJtember. The Sierm Leone ltnd Liberill,ll coasts have, however, a single maximum in August. Further inland the dry season is of longer durq,tion and. the seaflonal temperature mnge is rather higher. rrhere is a narrow area on the Ghn,na, ~rogohl.ild allcl Dahomey cuasts which, with about 760 mm. per annum, has n, considerably lower rainfall (Kendrew, 1953). Climatological data for stations in Togoland (Solwd6 in the Somba area and Lom(~ on the coast), BouaIre in the Baoule area, and Abidjan in t,]w coastal savannah area are given in Tltbles 51, 52, 53, and 54. TARLJ~ Cr,rM.ATOLOGICAL DA~'A FOR Lo;\n~ IN 'l'he TOGO COASTAL AR.]lA ~. -_ ~ -I ~T ~ I ~ I ~ I ir'i-, il=~=~-i ~ I ~ I ~ --1-' I :\Jeau tcjnl)t~i'llt\u'e, tl(' ~7.5 2~.1 27.~ ~j'.~ "1.;' ~r,.2 2tL2 20.U 2U ]\fehn "aillian, null. 10 3~ 4S ~4 13!l I~O 00 H J() 7U :13 1:J 002 'fempcrat.ul'e: Data for a slugle yelil' Hltlnfall: iilchmive. ~()FHC";: Polit.zer.r.. PmwOIwl Uo",mullif'IIUrm. TABLN CLBIATOLOUICAL DA'l'A ]'OH HOKO]):m IN THE ~OJVlJ:jA AU:WA, TOGO ~ ~ ~ '--.--~ ~~ I ~ I ~ I ~ \ if i IT1~lj \"iti-' ~ \ ~ eau ;If toillpel'a, t 11l'f~ 7 DU ,0 :.!i.,~ :!S.4 2!l.1 ~(i.o ~.J" 0 U.G ::!4.G 2 t,(\ :W,O ~il.() ~U.:l can l'clo.tivc h nmldlt.y, Ol '".. 28 in I\:l Hl 'iii 80 8:! 8:1 8~ :37 Ha,l) ~I enn rainfnll. III m :W x : r, ~U I) I... ~ ,--- :-)OURC'g: Alneg{~l', P.. PersoHal O(Jmmlfllirrlii()lI. Vegetation Much of the <L!'ea, especially nenr wntercour;;es, is den:,;c tl'o}jical clo;;ed forest, but in some areaslby t,1ll1 COItHt a.nd on the inland plateaus ~here ih sltvannah grassland where the more important grass genera lilclnde bnljemta, Rottboellia, Digitaria, Andropo[Jon, Oymbopo[Jon and

140 TABJ~E 'YEAR CLIMATOLOGIOAL MEANS l;'qlt BOUAKI~ :Mean tempora ture,!~(j :1 :!.~.5 )'IlllLU 1:eiativ(I humidity, %.. lifelln 1'ltinfnJl, mid..... III :: IN' THE BAOUI,E AlUlA ~ I ~ ~ 'i.; ~ "'-~-r-~., I I I l~i">j~jrr.151~1~1 ~ 28.0 ~,~.li ~;.4 2r..l 24.U ~ ~li.(l121l.iil ~'.(1 2fi.&,::,::,:,: : I': I ~,: : I: I, ~. RIlURCl~: Service (Ie l'ijlevagc d~ la tjliw d'ivoire. Per.qanal Oommunicat,w7I. TABLE 5 t_ - S YEAH CLlMATOLO(}WAJ> MEANS ]>'0.& AJUD,YAN, IVOltY COAST :=~~-----=:-~---::::::::::::--.--.' _._-- ~ 1- I ~ I ~ I ~ I ~ I ~ I ~ I ~ -rw I ~ I ~ liicltil tcmllel'll' I hue, tic... ~7.5 2S.: t.l,( l).3 :15.+ ~4.0 ~5.t 20.!) j. ~ ::!t1.\) 1I1elill l'eh.ti vc lnlroidity, ()~ Mean rllin full, mm " 7.", ill ~!l.~() 5a 101) 12~ 3011 ~Oll WI I "1 ' I,1"\ SOI'IH'J-:! SIlI'viQ" [Ie ]'(!Jcyuge rlp lit Cllte d'ivoire, Perso7lal t!ommunicatioll P(Lspalum. During the Hhort dry season t,lw savannahs arc much llubject to n.rcfl. '1'ho greater part of the arell provides an environment favorable to bhe t.setre fly. Much of the fql'eht is now devoted to Loth plantation crops, including cocoa, kola, and citrus, nnd to food orops such as plantains, cocoyams, maize and cassava, and. considerable areas are under forest regeneration 1'1\11ow (Commollwel\lth Burean of Pastures and Field Crops, 1951). ).11 nnagement practice8 In much of the m'ea cattle are maintained solely for sooial and l'itun,l l)urposes, Ilolliml11s heing exchanged in the bride wealth ami ::ilaughtel'ed on ceremonial occasions. In the coastal and forest areas the cattle are genorally left cl,t liberty ill the forest during the day, grazing along Pl1ths and clearings and ohtaining much of their require ments li:om plctntt-> other than grasses. During the night they ma.y be confined in an open enclosure for security, but nowhere in the area is any form of st!~bling employed by native stockowners. 13:3

141 In the Baouhl and SomiJa areat> (central Ivu!'y Colt"l alld 1lOI'theni Dahomey) herdsmen of the nomadic or semi-nollladie Peul trihes are employed h~' t,lw :'icclentary ('ultivutors Lo take theil' ('attic to graze tlurin~ the day. In these area::; r:o\l'''; ll111~r he milked Oll llwir 1'~~tUl'll I'rom grnzing in the cycning. 1Vlovements to grtlzing al'o (hdl,'- and lonu.l; ('here,\1'(' IlO (ll'olouged,,(.aihmal lllorellll'uts ()f the herd:->. Physit~al chnl'llcteristic~ of the breed 'l'llt' \Yes( African RhorUIOI'll" (Figlll'l'i' 44 and 4;)) are :-:ll1ah, ('hid;:hol animal,.;. The hend is short and hroad. TIll' profile is HII night. l'hp orbital arches are well marked, lending a degrce of collea vit~, t.o th(' wid(' forehead. 'L'he poll ih ht'oad and stl'llight and til!> "hol'j-, horus, of eirculm' 01'0";:-; section ill tlw male and oval in the female,,.;pl'ing ti'olll it. in H, >iidcways and upwui'dr direction, eul'ving f()i'llal'd nt the uxtl'prnitie,.;. Polled aninmis are of frequejlt oeoul'l'elh c'. as al'() thm;e Idih h01'i1'" which are Ullttttuched to the b()ll~r eor8. Tltt, helld i::; c<tltied low 011 thc short awl. ill the hull, powerful neek. The topline i,.; appl"oxilllately straight fl'tjlll the wither,.; Lo the t ail-:->dtilli! and the back i:-; broad and well lllll:-;ded. The I )1u'I'ol iii well rounded ijut tends tn lack dept,h ho11ind Ule sholll<lel', The hindqllar1,ors :In' of medi.um length and slight. slo})!' awl HIP :-:aoj'lil1l is not aoccnt.natnl. The tail is long wit.h n well-develo]l(>(l switch. The dewllll' and umhilical fold arc little accent,natcd. 'l'lll' lim!'" :11'(.' Rhol'1 and lil1e of bone. The skin is tight and it" pigmentat.ion in elm'];:, as is t.hat, (II' Clw muzzle and RUl'l'ound of the eye. 'The l:()at coloration vitrles ('()]lsidemljly, Bb(~k and, Ies:,; freque11t.ly. various ;;;hades of hruwll OCellI' I10th a,; who}(' "0101'''; and ill comhinat.ion with white, Gray;;; and duns lire ki"s COIlIlllOlI, T_\Tll.l';,"iii. AVJo:JUOE J,lYE\\'J"IlHI~I'S.\:-<1'1 ~lji;asl.:hemk"t:; OF \\'1':.-';'1'.i\]lItWAN "'HOBTHOHNED ('.\.'["1'1,1': IN '1'000 (RII('(: df'8 IAlt/IIIII''') ~J"ll',.\'1'111' I, 1"0' ::~ I Ii;: Ifill IIBight, lit wi Llll'I',";. (_ lll.... Ii(; O:.! fi:i ~o HI \VicUh of lji11:-i~ ('Ill.... Ii :!!I I" :.!:l ::(1 Hea1't g'ii'ul. ('H.l....,.. Ii;; I;\! I 1,):. ~ 1:1 II;) Per.'{m,n/ (!mil1il,ll'jd,_!ntj'oh.

142 Ff(;('l!l<: 4 1), We81 Ail'i.l'IIf/,...,'hlJ-rfhrJl'll ('01/'. ('I)I1Pil... ;,\.' III' ti. ~u. UHtc"

143 ~-~-~ 'l'alli,b {'6. -.AV:mtAUE LIYEWBWH:rS AND MEASUHEMENTS OF ""VEST AFltIOAN SHOHTHOHN.ED CA'rTLE IN THE IVORY COAST (BAOULE) ]IfnI" Female ycar I., yonl'~ I mature 1 your I 2 yom's I matme Lin weig l\t" kg'...., ; BS lui' 2S!1 Heig-hl at vritlh I'.~, ('lu.... 8! fi'j u:-; IOU Wi<lth fif hi p:.; J ('lu.... :!:{ 24 ~5' ~l a~ 4~ Ht'ctl't. git th. ('ill :1 t:jo IOU 1:16 lin SUUIvor ; : S('rvlee rk l'tilevago de IlL ('<iti"rl'ivl)irc, Personal Communication. TABLE AVERAGE LIVE WEIGHTS AND JYfuAI'lUltEMENTS OF "TEs~r AFmCAN BHOR'l'HORNED CATTLE IN NIGERIA (MUTUJtu) "" ""---_'c.~~"_-=--===;======== ]I'['llt' year\:.! year8imu~1i.e _._------_,-- F",W'I;-~f yearl~ yeluslluatu~_ mature J,h'cwoigltt, lh Length from shmllilci' lloint to pinhone, em Height at withers, CIllo Depth of chest, ('Ill... Width of hil.a, ('m Heol'~ girth. em Oil il 8il,lj :!4U 4r,[,n SO ihj IO! 48 5n 30 3u 1a[l 152 SOUIWE: Gates, G. M., Personal Communication. 143 :!:!7 ~50 00 ill Sil IH n S ,---" TABLE AVEIlAGE MEASURElIIENTS OJ,' \VEST AFH1C1AN :-:IIOIlTHORNED CATTLE IN THE SOKODA AREA, TOGO (I:lO],;[HA) Male " Vl'nlnle --:.~- Ox 1 Yeal'12 years\luattll'e 1 yenl'i2 :I'eal'sIIUtltllI'O lulltur!) Height at wither~, <=1U. Depth of cbest, ern. Width of hips, em..".. Heart girth, om , ] ~ lsu, Meana derived from measuremeuts of 60 tluimllls. SOURCE: Amogcc, P., Personal Ommnunlcatioll. 136

144 The average hirthweights of calves hayo been reported as: 2ii kg_ (100 calves in Togo coastal arca) (Politzel', J., Personal Communication); ~md 22.7 kg. (pre8ent Ghana, 1952). Average measuremcnts of "YVest Mrican Shorthorns from various stations are given in TableR 5i5, 156, 57, and 58. Functional characteristics of the hl'eoll Thc age at first calving of COWH of the West African Shorthorn been reported as follows: a) }lace des Lag1!rtes, :3 years (Ivory type h~ts Coast) to 4 years (Togo); b) Muturu (Nigeria), 2 % to :1 years; c) Baou!e (Ivory Coast), 2 % to 3 years; d) Somba (Togo), 3 % year". The average interval between subsequent calvings has been 12 to 14 months (Somba) or 24 months (Race des La01mes). Where the nut:dtiona,l status of the cattle was kept approximately level throughout the year there was no calving season, but elsewhere the majority of heats occurred in March, April and May. Cows have been obrn'ved to have a productive life of between 4 and 7 lactations: Young bulls have becn capable of service at ahout 2 ye,l!'" of age a,nd have had a breeding life of up to 12 or 14 years. Milk yield is low: 1 % to 2 liters a day have been recorded and a report from Nigeria suggested that 28 gallons (127 liters) was an average lactation yield. Lactation continued for 4 to 6 months. A butterfat percentage figure of 3.3 percent was reported from Togo. West African shol'thomed cattle give a beef carcass of good quality. Animals of the Race des Lagunes have given about 55 percent of useful meat when killed at between 4 and 6 years of age. Oxen of the BaouM subtype have been killed at about 4 years of age with an averag(liveweight of 200 to 300 kg. West African shorthol'ued cattle are not generally used for work. At government stations in Nigeria where they have been so utilized it has been fotmd that their working capacity has been small and their stamina limited. Cattle of this type appear to acquire a natural imulunity to trypano SOlmaSlS. This is known as premunition, whereby the trypanosomes occur in the blood in a state of balance with the host, but the immunity can be broken down if the animal is weakened by other disease, malnutrition, overwork, etc. and the normal symptoms of the condition appear. Resistance to piroplasmosis has also been reported. Susceptibility to rinderpest, foot-and-mouth disease, haemorrhagic septicaemia, contagious abortion, tuberculosis and pleuro-pneumonia has been reported from various tenitories. Ticks are prevalent throughout the area. illfection of calves with roundworms has been reported from a. number of stations. 137

145 SIIIU'CI'S of bl'('i~dilll! sloek and information l'tlgal'diul! tlj(' bl'et d Thel'l' Ht'(' reported to be, \'('1',\' approximately, ailunt 100,OOO,Mutnnt ("tttle iu Niger.in, X (I nrp(ll't", ha \'f' heen ()l,j'ained as t o lllllllhel's ill ()dwr tel'l'itol'ie;,;, FUl't,lwl' infflrjllntioll 011 th(' \rl'st Afl'i['an "']Hll'thol'lled r'lttt ]t call II(' ht.ni [wr[ from: :-;(',l'\,jl'(~ til' l'p]evagt' ('1 de" inrlllht,l'ies animal"h. Ahidjall, [YlII',\' C'mu-;t, French "Tpst AfrieH, :-;erviep rip 1\~leYilge drip", indllhtl'ir'" 1tJlilllnle:-<,,/.Olll( ')'0i-!0, Fl'elldl,\VPi-lt Afl'iea. The Pl'iul'i),a] Y l tl'l'iufll Y Oitil'el',,I<.;UUglL 1\ igpl'ia, Th<:> Din (,t()l' of V(,t(,I'illar~' Henice::;, [haden. 1\ igerin" Th( Dil'P(,tol' of Agl'il'lIltlll'C", Enugll,!\igel'ia, 'f'lw f>il'('l'iol' of Ag'l'ic'llltul't', [hadt'll, Nigpria, 13H

146 Group,IV KURI Origin Kuri, or as they are sometimes e,111ed, Lake Chad or Buduma, cattle are maintained by the closely related Kuri and Buduma tribe" which are thought to be descended from the Kanembou tribe which migmted to the Kanem district from Libya and the French Sudan in historical times. A number of suggestions (Curt;on and Thornton, H136; RosH, 1944; Kone, 1948; Gates, 1952) have been put forwh,rd to account for the derivation of these cattle, which are the largest in West Africa, t1re distinguished by gigantie bulbom: horn;;.:, and hear little resemblance to any other cattle type in Nigeria or FrenC'h West Africa. COllilitions in the native home of the hreell Location, topography an(z soil~ The area in which the Kuri cattle are found is between approxi Im1tely 13 0 and 16 0 north latitude and 13 0 and 17 0 east longitude, and embraces the islands and shores of Lake Chad, both in Bornu Province, Nigeria, and in Chad territory and N'Guigmi Province of the Colonie du Niger. The type also extend~ into the Sudan Savannah zone to the west and south of Lf1ke Chad and to the borders of the Sahelian zone to its northwest. With the exception of that part which extends into the Sudan Savttnnah zone, which is undulating with fixed sand dunes, the area is flat with extensive marshes near the shores of Lake Chad. The elevation above sea level is a,pproximately 1,000 feet. Climate The area occupied by the Kuri cattle has the Sudan zone climate with a clearly defined wet season extending over the five months from May to September while the remainder of the year is very dry. During the period October to February the days are hot and dry and temperatures of over lio O F. are often recorded. The diurnal range in both ""- African c(lttte.

147 temperature and humidity is, however, considerable and the nights can be cold and sometimes foggy. During the rainy months storms move over the area from the southwest. At this time of year, although temperatures are lower than in the ch'y season, a feeling of oppression is induced by the increased humidity and frequently overcast sky, Climatological data for Bornu Province, Nigeria, and for Fort Lamy in Chad territory are given in Table 59. 'TABLE 59. CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA FOR THE LAKB CHAD AREA Bornu Pr()vince, Nigeria Mean temperature, DC.... ~ ~1~1~1~1~1~1~1,~181~1~1~ I I I 23.9 ~3.tl 2fi, ~.2 ::!O, fi fl ' Humidity, at hrs., % ;20 15 ~o an 40 ()U U :12.9 Rainfall, mm.... nil nil nil nil as.1 0: nil nil FOl'j Lamu, Lake Chml TerritorY Mean temperature, OC].. Humidity, % Rainfall, mm.... 2a.8 3;'1.7 nil nil!iii R.2 : ri 40.5 G:!.:l M l: S 29,0 SOURO!!: Bornu }'I'uviuce: Reed, R. L., Pel'son,,! UOimnunication. Fort Lamy: Troquereau, Personal Uommunieation H.D nil 6~2.0 _ Vegetation The vegetation of the area is a mixture of Sudan and Sahel zone vegetation. Around the shores of the lake, in the marshy area, tall reed grasses of the papyl'lls type grow profusely. The vegetation of the Nigerian shores of Lake Chad has been described by Golding and Gwynne (1939). Kone (1948) describes the vegeta,tion from the French side. Along the bank':! of river;; and rivlllets which drain into Lake Ohad there is a dense growth of Oommiphora njl'ic(tlut, Acaoin raddiana, Brtlanites aegyptiaca, Acncict senegrtl, Oaunba fnrinosa and Oalotropis procera. Of the grasses, Oenohrus eoainrttus and Andl'opogon spp. are found. Elsewhere in the area other grasses occur, including Pani01l,m exile, Pani01l,m elatum, Digital'ia exilis, Eohinoohloa oolona, Bporobolu'<! sp., Pennisetmn setosum" P. pm'viflorum, P. mollissimum, Ohloris prieuri, D:tctylootenium aegyptiacum, Digital'ia gayana, Al'istida ml tabilis, Eragrostis tremula and Oryza braohyacanthn. 140

148 ~M anagement practices Most of the Kuri cattle are owned by the KuriandBildullUl tribesmen who live on the islands and marshy shores of Lake Chad. The cattle are usually seen in herds of 30 to 35 cows with a bull, and suhsist mainly on the lakeside grasses. Several hours are spent each day in the waters of the lake which have a high potassium chloride content, either grazing or swimming between the islands and the shore. These cattle do not appear to thrive as well when they are taken away from the vicinity of the lake. The cattle are utilized mainly for milk and beef production and, although some are used as pack animals, they am not, generally considered to be Huitable for draft purposes. Physical characteristics of the breed The Kmi (Figures 46,47 and 48) if; a tall animal, distinguished by its enormous horns and by its absence of hump. The head is long, with a stl'aight profile and a wide forehead, to which the prominence of the orbital arches lenda a degree of concavity. The ears are of medium size and are carried horizontally. The horns of the Kuri are, perhttps, its most remarkable featme. Typically they are long '(70 to 130 cm.), circular in cross section, and about 35 to 55 cm. in circumference at the base. The clli'ection of growth is that of a high lyre shape or wide crescent. Sometimes, however, the horns may be short - about 20 to 30 cm. - and as much as 24 inches in circumference at the base. These horns may have a surface which is. roughened and ridged and a cross section which is flattened so that theil' appearance if: that of "enormous ears." The coloration of the horns is generally light with the exception of the tips which are black. The horns, although their appearance is massive and lends an aspect of great weight to the head, are not heavy as their structure is cellular and porous. Loose horns can be seen in Kuri herds and polled animals are not uncoillmon. The neck is short and flat. The body is long and the topline is straight, rising slightly from the withers, which, a.lthollgh thick, show no evidence of a hump, to the hindquarters which are of moderate slope. The tips of the dorsal vertebrae show a fused bifid structure, The limbs are long and the hoofs are large and open. l'he most common coat coloration is white but gray shading over the shoulders and the extremities, red, and red and white are sometimes seen. In areas further from Lake Chad Kuri herds show evidence of a degree of zebu ancestry EJ,nd small cervico-thoracic humps may be 141

149 FWUll.E 47. J{II,ri ('DIP. COUl'(esy of. G. M. Gntof:-

150 :FWURE 4K. ]{u1'i cottle mar Lakl! Chad. Courtesy 01 G. M. Gates,;oen ah well as all increahed proportion of broken and pied coat colors Doutl'eRSQuJle, 1047; Reed, RL., PCfsona,l ()ommunicntion; Tl'Oquel'cl1U, Pel'sonal Oommnnication). The a,vemge bil'thweight of male calves has been 55 lb. and that of fcltif1les, 50 lb. (Reed, R. L., Personal 001nmuniclliion). Avemge measurements of Kuri oattle at the Government Cattle Farm, Maiduguri, BOrIlu Province, Nigeria and in French West Africa are given in Tables 60 and til. 1'ABLE 60.. AVERAGE MEASUREMENTS m' KURI CA'L".l~LE AT l\ialdtjouri 1 YL:~l.l' 12 rual'l'j Female I miltlll'e I 1 Yf'llf I z -years ~ mr,tnrt'. W(,ight, JlJ....,.. Length frou! "houla", ]JOillt 1,0 pinhonl'1 jn.... Heigllt at withe!'s, ill. Depth of "heat, in WWth of hips, in Henrt, gii'th, In......, ~IIII ~17 4" 42 Hi lil lu 111 1:1 40 rl~ I 1 li~j Ill) (1) ',27 I! I I I HI i j(i : I 2HO I 400 I "UlI 411 lfl 57 I ; IJ t:l l~ B 143

151 TAlILE AVERAGE MEASUREMENTS OF KURr CATTLE IN FRENOH WEST AFlUOA Male Female Ox Weight, kg Length from shoulder point to pinbone, om.... Height at withers, em Depth of chest, cm Width of hips, em Hearl b>irth, em n ) !::lOURCE: l\falbrant et al., Functional characteristics of the hreed The type is mainly utilized for the production of milk and meat. The catt-ie are well adapted to a warm and wet enviromnent but they do not thrive so well in dry, sandy areas. Part of the milk is utilized for the production of butter. As a draft animal, the KUl'i, on account of its heaviness and lethargic temperament and slow movement, gives a poor performance. It is reported that even as pack animals they suffer from the sun and get tired quickly. Females oalve for the first time when they a.re 3 % to 4 years old, and thereafter produce a calf every 15 to 18 months. They breed throughout the year, although the usual breeding season is from July to October. The average number of lactations during a lifetime ranges from 6 to 8. The males are used for service after 3 years of age and have a breeding life of about 8 to 10 years. French authorities report that the average lactation yield of KUl'is is 600 to 700 liters afte(feeding.the calf. The peak production~in a day is about 6 liters. Lactation:duration is 6 to 10 months and the calves are not weaned until the end of the lactation. A government herd is being established to study the breed. The Government of Nigeria has established a Kuri herd at Maiduguri Government Farm in Bornu Province. Average milk performance of Kuris at this farm is given in Table

152 T.A1lLE MILK YIELD OF KURT Cows AT ]HAJDUGURI GOVER}<"1\1ENT FARM: No. or cowr produetiolj, AveL'uge lb. I I Days in milk.!.a vc-l'ago ('OWS, 1~ 2 77G 2BO Superior ('(IW$, 6 E Average nalvlng interval Romarks several lacta.- tionb from ea.ch cow SOURCE: Reed, It. h, Pej'sonal Commllnication. Kuris in French territory have been reported to make excellent slaught,el' animals. They respond to natural grazing and are ready for slaughter at 5 years of age When they weigh about 1,100 to 1,300 lb. They dress out at approximately 50 percent, yielding about ~ 500 to 600 lh. of meat. The shoulder is heavy and the proportion of bone is high. Sources of breeding stock and information regarding the breed Further information regarding the Kuri may be obtained from the following sources: The Direotor of Agriculture, Kadul1a, Northern Nigeria. Director, Service de l'elevage et des industries anim ales, Fort Lamy, French West Africa. Director, Service de l'elevage et des industries animales, Nigel', French West Africa. 145

153 Group V ANKOLE Origin The Ankole catt,ie arc mnmlly referred to as being of the Sanga type which is considered by Epstein and other workeri:l to have been evolved from the intermixture of the h\teral-horned zebu and the HtLluitic Longhorn (Bonsm", 19(1), Cm'son and Thornton (1986) describe the rontes which these cnttle may have tnken when accompanying human migrations. They state that "the southern st.ream probably pnssed t.hrough Uganda and followed the great, lakes until the Zambesi was reached". Ankole cattle have a.lso been spoken of as BahimlL (Uganda and t;he Bclginn Congo), Watusi or Wa,tusi Longhorn (Rmtnda-Urundi and Tanganyika), Ruanda and Barundi (to the north of Lake Kivu) from the tribes and districts with which they are associated, while CmBon and Thornton (1936) mention, in addition, the name Nsagab.. as being used in Uganda,. In Ruanda-Urundi, the sacred cows, Inyambos, are of the Ankole type. The Bashi cattle of the Belgian Oongo, which have developed from the intermixtme of the loea'! cattle of the district of that name and the Bl\l'undi, are a smaller varict,y of the Ankale in which the horns are finer and shorter. COnllitions in the native home of the hreeil Location, topography rmd soils The Ankole cattle type, together with its local strains and varieties, is located in an area between approximlttely 1)0 south and 30 north of the equator and between 27 0 and 32 0 eastjongitude, which comprises parts of the southwestern districts of Toro, Kigezi and Ankole in Uganda; the Bukoba district of Lake Prmrince and the Kibondo, Kasulu and Ufipa districts of Western Province, Tanganyika; RUfLnda- Urundi; and the district of Kibali-Huri in Ea.stel'l1 Province, the territory of 146

154 Buma!Lnd Irullli and the mountain lande; to the west of Lake L-'Vbert, Kivu Province, Costel'lU[LllSville district, and the territories of Rntshurn, Masisi, Uvira, Fizi and Mwcnga in the Bolgictn Congo. The itl'eft in Ugandct in which Ankole cattle oeem is a highland plateau with an ltpproximate average altitude of 4,500 feet abovc sea level. In Tanganyika they fbre found in the western section of Lake Province and the highll1nds of Western Province. Anlwle (mttle in Tanganyika ocenr, for t.he main pltrt" on a strip of mollntain grasslnnd along the bol'del'l:i of Belgian territory. In the Eastern Province of the Belgh1Il Congo, Ankole cat tie nre found in the mountainous areas where the altitude varies frolll 1,200 to 2,000 meters. The Hoil of this region is of granitic origin. They were formerly maintained in the nlluvial plainfl of Scmliki valley, but the area was evacmmed owing to tsetse fly infection. In the zone north of Lake Kivu this cattle type is loca.lized in 10 highland region of elev::ttion het,ween 1,600 and 2,000 meters. 'rhe soil in the whole of this area is of recent volcanic formation and, ill the Rutshul'u territory, is of more or le,,~ wcntherecl lavft. The western sector of Ruzizi valley ir slightly undulating with an altitude varying from 750 to {loo meters. The Roil is s;mdy clay with interspersed limestone. Along the bank8 of the river slightly saline lagoons occur. In the southern zone of Lake Kivu, where the smaller Bashi variety prevails, the region is lllountainous with altituder,; varying from 1,41)0 to 2,200 meters with a red clayey soil of basaltic origin which is intensely cultivated. Olimate In the Western Province of Ugftnda, where Ankole cattle are bred, there [brc two peak rainy periods. The first peak occurs during March to April while the second peak is in September to October. The average rainfall of the area varies from 40 to 50 inches. The mean maximum temperature during the day is about 80 0 to 85 0 F. while the diurnal variation may be about 25 0 F.. l'he climate of the Ankole are~1 in Tanganyika is hot and dry, except in the hill country of Ufipa, Kasulu and Kibondo districts. A fairly high annual mean temperature of 70 F.) with daily and seasonal variations exceeding 30 0 F., is experienced. The annual rainfall occurs in two periods and is about 30 to 40 inches. The tract where Ankole cattle are raised has a comparatively poor rainfall, but in Bllkoba the annual rainfall is as high as 80 inches. Climatological data from Bunia in the Eastern Province of the Belgian Congo, where a;l Ankole herd is maintained, are given in Table

155 TABLE CLIIIIAToLomcAL DNt'A FOR BUNlA IN THE BELmAN CONGO lii"ximum telllpel'at,urc,! (le'.. l\iinimtl11l temperuture. C..,. (ALTITUDE 1,250 M.) ~ I_~ 1 ~ 1 ~ 1- ~ : $.1 ~ 1 ~ 1 ~ 1 ~ 1 2 I * I ~ I I ~l7.0 ;16.0!J7.oi a:l.o ;~I.oI31.() 2!!.n :n.al ;)2.0 :n.o!lo.n ;1.(\ l~.o 12.(\ l:l.~ l;t ll){ I:LS ;' 12.4!!::!,n ~2.~ ~U.5 2().~ ~ ~ H no 1~1 80 1~11) I 8t W\ FlO 217 HI 1211 S S SOURCE; Herin, Personal Commullimtioll. The climatological data given in Tables 64 and 65 are for the zone norul of Kivu, the data in the first of these tables referring to the elevated area, while those in the second are from Lulmrilm Station in the Ruzizi valley. TABLE 64,. - CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA FOR LULENGA MISSION IN THF. BELGIAN CONGO (ALTITUDE 1,1150 M ' E., ' S.) l\rcan leillllt'l'a I-ure, flu.... Humidity at Itl'A., ~:l Rainfall, mm.. liiaxiil).um tempci'atllrl-~, C. 2i.8 28.R 2Q :! S.0 2i.O 2i,rl 2U.O 2i.O :W,O 28.0 Minimum tmlljlc l'atnre J oc..., n H.O , n.2 Mean temperature,.c Ii." 18.0 l~.o ~.O l~.o Ayel'oge Imml<li ty, % HI Sf! ~" S Hi A Maximum rninfau, mm >\0 H\6 llu 22.1 : Minimum l'ainfnll mm III " HOI! Moan 1'a illfall, mm. lull 12!i lor 223 1ftl lug Il I 82" SOURCE: ~HerinJ l:>ersonal Com'mlll1ic(J.lirHl 148

156 TABLE ULIMATOLOGICAL DATA FOR L{lBARI:KA STATION IN THE BELGIAN CONGO (ALTITUDE 850 lii. 28" 55' K, ' S.) 8 1 " I- i i i... ;:j,d..: :-.,!:) oil....j ~ \ \ I I I,,; Q, 1 " I a:i OJ '" ;::i -<j ~ ".?; c.j >-, >;, >-, -.: " rj.. "" '" 0 " ~ H I i-< I '" Maxim 11m tolnperature, C :H.O ~a.o 33.0 : :12.6 :H.l :m.o ail,n :)'U :H.oi 3,1.0 Minimum tempo, rature,. C. '" lii.o IlL 0 lo.n lti.o 16.0 lfj.o 1I;'U 15.ul 15.5 Mean tempera ture, DC , ~ :).8 :H.i 2!J,l ~i'i : Humidity (1050) %..,... ; ~.:J 7G.3 7f).O fi5.{) 5t"1.9 Ill.() fifi ' Ro.info.ll, mm. (1\) ) '" Ho,1 il.fl 85.0 lrl.7 :12.1 ur,.1 1~~. 7 If,I).:111 ~1l8.2 1 SOUROE: Herin, Personal COlnnmnic(1lion. I Climatological data for the southern zone of Lake Kivu are given in Tahle 66. TABLE CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA FOR KABAHE IN THE BELGIAN CONGO (AL'l'LTUDE 1,925 M. 28" 4:1' E., ' t{.). - I I I I I I I I I... ~ ~ >-, U1 \ d..ci,;..: ~ s h -..; e' >-, '" "' '_. I ~ I I I ~ ~ 14.; os...-: ~ 0 A P-< '".. d ::>. '" a '3 ~ '" I i I Temperature,O C Hl.tl 17.0 IBA S: Rainfall, mlu fir 48 2U H 1 4<\,9 SOUROl~: Herin, Personal (Jo»tmun-wation. Vegetation In the Western Province of Uganda where the Ankole is the prin. cipal cattle type, the communal grazing areas have poor grass cover but in other grassland areas the growth is luxurious. The -area west of Lake Victoria and stretching across the country to Lakes Albert and George is covered with elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) growing in rain forest areas. Nortl1 of Ankole is the Themeda and Acacia area, while ill most of the highland area of Kigezi, kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) is dominant. In Tanganyika the Ankole area is largely mountain grassland, which lies along the borders _ of Ruanda-Urundi. Extensive studies of the vegetation types of Tanganyika territory have heen reported by Gillman (1949). 149

157 In the Belgian Congo the vegetnlion is of t,he easterh s,wannah type. The pastures nrc hmnt in July to August., just prior to the rain!:>. In HUl1llda-Urum1i, during the milly scftson (May), the pastures show excellent growth. The following genern have heen o\j:;erved: Cynodon, Bracki;(l'ill, Prm wm, P1I8]l(llu'ln, (!hloris, 1'hemerla, HY]JrITrllCnill, Pennisetllll!, 8etrll'ia and others. J~I(tn(lyl3m(mt practicei>' 'rhe bl'cedel's oj Allkole C11tt.}e attach a social importance to their herds; to them catt,le llumhel's are all indication of wealth. As the currency of the" hride wealth," cattle gullmlltee the t:itability of the uative family, while, by different provisions in the deeds of transfer of animals hetween chiefs awl subjects they contribute t,owards maint.aining order in the tribes. Under modern economio pl'esl:lure some cattle owners are beginning t,o understand the economic vldue, based on productivity, to be derived from the ownorrhip of a hcrd. The cattle which are slaughtered on ceremonial occasions nrc also of import.ance in the religious and tl'ilml cw.,;toms. MUle fmd menj, are utilized only to ft limited extent, but the animals are regularly bled liy SOllle t.rihes, the hlood forming part of the diet. Very limited use is made, and only in a few localities, of {ihc dmft, power of the anim<tls. In view of the ahove, disease is the only major factor, other than low reproductivity, that limits the growth of cattle numhei's in the area. Individual Ankole, breeders in U galldn. usnally own a considerable number of ftnimals. The owners (He not normally the. herdsmen, but the management. of stock is left. t.o othcr tribeh. Oattle are kept many miles from the owners' homes, under semi-mnching condit,ions. 0(t1ves ftre usually well cared for and in recent t.imes some supplementary feeding of maize, cassav(l, sweet. potatoel:l, et.c. has been pract.iced. The Bahima breeders of Ankole district in Uganda are showing increased int.erest in rearing male ca.lves (tnd the tmdit.iomll Him a, CllRtom of slaughtering the majority of male calves shortly after birth is reported to he all the decrease. In Tanganyika the area oecllpied by Anko]c c!1ttle is well-watered mountain grassland. The cattle (11'e grazed during t.he (hty for a few hours only and corralled at night in an enclosure. Oows are regularly milked, but, usually only once daily. The cftlves l1ccompmly their dams during the day but ftt night they are separat.ed from t.heir d11111s and are housed wit.h good bedding. The Bahima, Bl1,tusi and other 'herders in the Belgian Congo follow more or les8 the same management. pattei'll. The practice of " farming out" cattle by wenlthy landowners is also followed in Ruanda-Urullcli. 150

158 As the herds are maintained on grazing. seasonal scltrcity of herbage affects the growth of the animals. During dry HeaSOllH the cattle may he taken to marshy areas. Saliue earth from certain of these marshes is fed to the en,ttle as ~1 substitute for Stolt. Heid, N.R (Personal Commnnication) has observed that impoverishecl pastures are the main limiting factor t,o reproduction and growth in Bukoha, and tlmt the same factor, due to overstocking, operates in Ruanda-Urundi. Breeders have often paid a,ttention to breeding for abnormally large horns or fancy eolors; heyond thn,i., natural selection is allowed to determine the development of the cattle type. As all the animals, adult as well as young stock are run together, and,ts very little or late castration is pradiced, almost all the young and old hulls have an opportunity to serve the cows. Physical characteristics of the bt'eed In Uganda, Ankole cattle (Figme 51) have hcrm described as being large animals, with straight hacks, and with predominently cervical humps which, in the male, may show some development, hut ill the female are not prominent. The horns are long and sweeping, though polled animals, known locally as Kigez i, are occasionally seen. The predominant coat color is a dark reddish-brown, though deep red, red and white, light red, yellow, strawberry roan, and red with white spots are frequently seen. The average weight at maturity has been estimated to be 800 to 900~lb. in males and 700 lh. in females. In Tanganyika, the cattle have been described a,s having large horns and small humps. Whole-colored reds and browns, with occasional white patches, are frequently observed. The horns are of enormous size and grow typically outwards, upwards and backwards. The animals are tall and the legs are long. McCall (Tanganyika Territory, 1926) gives the picture of an aged bull weighing 850 lb. with height to the top of shoulder of 58 inches. Girth measurement is about 68 inehes. In an Annual Report (Tanganyika Territory, 1937) of the Department of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, when a tuberculin test on a group of 14 Ankole cattle was carried out, it was recorded that the average skin thickness was 4.4 mm., with a range of 6.0 to 3.0 mm. Belgian authorities described the cattle from the Eastern Province of the Belgian Congo (Figures 49 and 50) as fairly large in size, bigboned, long in the leg and with long and well-developed horns, the growth of which is frequently stimulated by irritation of the matrix:, and as having a cervico-thoracic hump. The coat is usually red, or red and white in color. Some animals have dingy black hair; The 151

159 FmURE 49. Ankolc cattle. Bahema bltll. Frn1TItE 50. Ankole cattle. Bahema cow. Courtesy of H. Druct

160 FWURE 51. An Ankale (Jaw in Uganda. The ham.s measure 52 inches between the tips. C01ll'teAY of Dept. ot Infol'mation, Uganila Pl'otectorate hairs are short and neither coarse nor Raft. The skin is slightly loose, of medium thickness and of dark pigmentation. The hoofs are hard. AThe Ruanda or Barundi type (Figures 1, 52 and 53), bred in the Bahutu tribal districts located northeast of Lake Kivu and in the Ruzizi valley as well as in the mountainous region west of the Ruzizi river, is described as follows: the coat is brown; this color lightened to it bay shade is fairly common in the Ruzizi plain, while red, white and red, red and white, black and its compounds - white and black, black and white - also occur. The frame is good, lean in poor pasture regions, well muscled in n,l'eas which are not overstocked. The horns are as described above, but polled animals and cattle with mutilated horns occur throughout the area. The Bashi type (Figure 54) is smflu with a fine skeleton and horns of reduced size. The Allkole cattle in Ruanda-Uruncli (Figure 55) are described as short-bodied, highset animals with short heads, narrow chests and elevated and pointed rumps. The withers may be topped by a more or less distinct hump, which is more obvious in the male than in the 153

161 F'WURE 52. A nlwle rntt/p,. AILeI'd of '11)0,"1. and bbef cattle Oil the NlIam!/rt{/a Live8tool~ Frmn in Ruanda. COllrtosy of COJJ!rOI'1'OS8: J. JlIllldeJ'. fenmle. The dewlap ih deep. :Both polled and horned animals occur. The h01'11s, which lllay :1tt!1in to :1 large!:liz" both ill length and t.hickness, show variat.ion in t.he direction of growth, the most characteristic being in a slightly spiralled lyre shape as is the case ill the ~,Icred cows (Inyambol!) of t.he Ring of'ruandll,. It is reported, however, that the offspring of polled animals may have horns. The usual coat color is an even dark red, though shading from corll color to brownish red OCClll'S. Piebald coats arc also frequently seen, The mucous membranes are light or pigmented. Average data on certain body measurements as reported by the veterinary [Lut,hol'ities of the Easte1'll Province in the Belgian Congo are sumnmrized in T[Lble 67. TABLE 67. _ AVERAGE MEASUREMEN'l'S OF ANIWLE CA'fTLE (BAHIMA)._. Mnl" I".. Fum,,", '~I"~ 1 YOH!' i ~,ear'.' I I mature --;-;;-r~';i-i~~ 61 I I Weight, kg'....., :)5. 0 (4:l) 1\10. 0 (~1) (8) 12".0 (m IH:i.1i (47) (,~) 3,11 Length from Hilon),)c'I' point. to pinbone, em.... \JfLl (43) (21) W. 7 (8) ili1.0 (H) l11l~ (47) (8) _ Height at wmjer~, em.... \l7.11 Uo) (21) HI. 7 (8) Ui.:l (41) 1114.R ( 17) (H) Depth of ehest, em :1 ( W) n:!.1i(21) 7~.O(8) 4(i.b(H) 511.7(47) 11;),(1(8) Width of hips, tllu., (43) :':I.r. (~1) 13.2 (S)I :!S.1l (ll) 3:1.0 (47) :10.0 (8) - _li_e_,u_t_g_'ir_t_h,_l'i_ll_._._._.._._._.._._._1~1~_'!i_.(_1(_.13-,)~1:_l\l.o(21) 200.:1 (gt~~:~~lt=:~(m ~~:~o~:~_-= Numbers sampled In IJI aokotb. SOUHCE: flerin, Personal Commwlicat;on. 154

162 Average data on certain body measurements for the Ruanda or Barundi cattle are sulllmarized in Table 68. TABLE Woight,kg.... a) AVEltAUE lvilla8uheikltints Olf ANKOLE CAT'l'LE (RUANDA OR BARUNDI) Male I I l'emalc I Ox /I) Lengtll from "houl<ler point to _pinbone, ~lu a) b) Height ut wlthel'h. Cll.1... n) b) Depth (If ell est, em... (I) b) Width of liiils, I,ill.... ct) h) Heat t gil'tll, CIll... rl) /J) I' I I year 12 YClll'slmatlllloll ycnr 12 YCUrs!muture 1~~tUl'f" I I l!{i\ 1;ln \!!~n :!;n Il, 121) oj 1:!1 11[> 11\1 loa 11rl 45 [iii 40 4;1 :27 :17 1:l-1 14:i 1a I I.nu Ho 2(J.1 ;115 ~ ;1 202 :100 3Gg IIll ISO un 151 8" 1')" In! Ha 1:1:1!](I 117 Eli 13~ 1~~2 I)\) "1 l~l} 70.~~ fi2 (i1 Gil ;i11 3[1 -t-ii iifl tT :W 44 (j i 14;) 11m 174 ISS ll~ Ul 1110 li7 I a) Duhl, ft'olu volchnic l:'cgi(jilt:l. II) Data frolll plains. ~otrn(,'e; Horin, PCrlw1tal U()nt{mmi('aU(Ju. FmURE 5:3. Ankole cattle. One of the breeding bulls at the INEAG Farm at Nyarnyaga in Rttanua. This bull weighed 550 kg. at 7 years of age, a liveweight well above the average tor the (trw. Courtesy of C'ollgoprcss:.r..l\lultl"J'H

163 FIGURE 54. A.nkole cattle. Bashi COIV. Conrtesy" of Minlstero (les colonies, Brussels FIGURE 55. Ankole cattle. A. bull in Ruunrla- Urllnrii. Courtesy" of ('ongopl'''"s: J. Mulders

164 The average birthweight of males has been kg., and that of females kg. Average data on certaiil~body 'measurements for the Bashi cattle, which are localized in the Bashi tribal arells of the Province of Kivu in the Belgian Congo, are sumllu~rized in Tablc 69. TARLE AVERAGE MEASuREIIIENTS OF ANKOLE CATTLl'J (BAsm) "-" "-" -"- I ~Iale F{'male I 1 year 12/3 years 1 mature 1 year 12{3 years I mature Weight, kg J.O ~O(l.O Length from shoulder point t.o pinbone, em g ~ : Height at withers, cm Depth of chest, em Wic1th of hips, em Heart gil'th, em I SOURCE: HerIn, Personal Communication. The average birthweight of males has been 17 kg., and that of females 15 kg. The principal measurements of Ankole cattle on the Songa Farm in Ruanda-Urundi are summarized in Table 70. TABLE AVERAGE MEASUREMENTS OF ANKOLE CATTLE (RUANDA-URUNDI) 1 ycar ~rale I Female 1 2 years 1 mature 1 year 1 2 years 1 mature Weight, kg Height at withers, em Width of hips, cm ;1,5 Heart, girth, em...., SOunCE: Herin, Personal Oommunicati(m. Functional characteristics of the breed In Uganda the Ankole cattle are larger but have the reputation of being less hardy than the other cattle of the area. They have been sa.id to be more susceptible to diseases, particularly rinderpest and trypanosomiasis, and also to unfa.vorable climatic conditions a.nd 157

165 pool' grazing. However, no datll [L1'e available on these points. 'rhe bulls attain their maximulll Rize at 5 years of age and the females cll.ive for the first time at 3 Y2 to 4 years. It is estimated that the calving intel'\titl Illay vary from 18 months to 2 years, depending upon grazing conditions. Very little information has been recorded on t.he productivity of the hreed. In Tangan;vilm also, on account of its supposed susceptibility to tick borne di;,eares and other epiz(lol,ics, thc Ankole has not rcceived much attention. Buckley (I05a) repol'ts a production or' 0.2l lh. of milk pel' day per cow in l!lfl2 from an Ankole herd mainttdned at the Government Stock F,1rm, MpwapWit, since ] 938. In the Eastern Province of the Belgian Congo, where the Ankolc are bred by the Bahima tribe, it, has heon observed that the heifers c<:1ive for the firfit timc at between 4 and 5 ye1h's of age, when they mmally ha,ve 6 permanent teeth. Breeding tends t.o takc plaoe in two seasons of the yenr, from September to October, and between Mltl'eh and April. The majer :::turt service at 3 years of age and have been reported to be slow in serviee except undel' improved mniutgement oonditions. The average milk production nnd laetn,ti()n dumtioll derived frum the records of 72 cows was :302 liters in 212 dayf3. Among these 72 recorded cows, the 34 which had It pl'odllotioll higher than the n,vemge, were clarsified as follow,,: 12 ('ow>' pl'()(l!lcud ado t.o 3!iO litul's n :150 to wu to 4fiO (j " 450 to IiOO 4 1i0O to 550 eow fifio to 600 The inclividual butterfltt content of the milk varied from :3 to 7 percent" the average being,1.5 percent. The average calving interval v!,riecl from If} to 20 lllolltllf,. Cows produced nbout 8 calves during it lifetime. The ontt,le are not utilized for clmft purpwms by the looal people. It has been oljserved that Ankole cnttle do tlot fatten easily em the grassla.lld of the region. The males and steers are sold for shtughter when they have 2 permanent teeth. The vetel'imll'y authorities in the Eastern Province of the Belgilul Congo reported that the average live'neights at markets were: bulls 301 kg.; bull calves 157 kg.; old COWl:! 250 kg.; oxen 2aO kg.; young bullocks 176 kg. rrhe dressing percentage is reported to he tl

166 The following informa.tion Wit" reported from.t herd of Ankole cattle established by INEAC (Im;titnt nation;],} poul' l'etude agronomique du Congo beige) itt Niokn 8tlttion: The average age of heifers itt first ctllving was 4,2.i months. The bulls were put to service at the age of 4 yeltrs. The d;tilv milk yield of cows' was].5 to 2.5 liters containing 4.4 percent lmt tfcll"fat.. 1'he average lactation period war 240 ditys and the average calving interval was 12 monthr. On good pastures Ankolc Cltttle f:'ltten well. At 4 year;; the bullocko; weigh about 303 kg. and dress at about 150 percent when slaughtered. The functional heluwior of the Ruanda or Barnncli cattle of Ankole type bred in the northern zone of Lake Kivu and in the Ruzizi valley has been reported as follows: In the volcanic region the cows have their first calves when about 4 yellrs o1d. The liveweights of the cahcs vary from 25 to 30 kg. The males are first used for service Itt about 2 to 212 years of ~tge and are observed to be very quick in serving. The act.ive hreeding life is ttbout 10 yellrs. In the Ruzizi viluey the en,t.tle mature fairly e:trly; Ithoni :31 percent of the heifei'l; are bred when they luwe.:(., and 67 percent when they have 6 permanenii teeth. The males start ~ei;vice at. the age of about 2 Y61Lr8. In the volmtnic region the dltily milk yield averages a to 4 liters with a la,ctation period of ahout (I HlOnths. The butterfat content is 5 to (I percent. The average calving interval is about 18 months and it has been estimated that there are about' 7 lactations in an average lifetime. On the Ruzizi plain, on Itlluvial sandy soil with good feeding, the average lactation production reported for 135 recorded cows was 960 liters of milk in 240 dltyfl. The htrgest amount of milk yielded in one day wal:! 8.3literl:!. The butterf,tt content varied fro111 4, to 7 percent. The bullocks are used as draft animals. They are put to work at the age of about 2 Y2 years, when the ayerage liveweight is about 300 kg. They are active and willing workers. A pair of oxen can haul a load of 800 kg. in a rubber-tired cart. They call travel about 3 % krn. in an hour or approximately 16 km. in a working day of four hours. When plowing hard dry soil Ankole oxen can work for between four and five hours in a day. The cattle show fairly good adaptability to fattening on grassland on alluvial soil. They weigh about 358 kg. at 3 Y2 years and dress out Itt about 50 percent though 55 percent is not unusual. It has been reportecl that the meat is well marbled. In the volcanic region mtttle are not ready for slaughter until they are 4 to 6 years old, 159

167 and yield about, 175 to 225 kg. of dressed carcass. The dressing percentage in this region is about 45 to 50. The cattle bred by the Bashi owners to the south of Lake Kivu produce about 420 liters of milk in 240 days with an. average butterfat percentage of about 6.0 The calving interval is about 2 years. The animals in this region are slow maturing and about 69 percent of cows do not calve for the fu'st time until they are over 4 years of age. The bulls start service when they are 3 to 4 years old, and are usually kept in the herds until they are 10 years old. Although not much utilized for that purpose, Ankole cattle have been found to be tractable but slow draft animals. In Ruanda-Urundi the Ankole has been observed to be slow matur ing. Heifers calve for the first time at the age of about 4 Y2 years. The animals are not very prolific and the calving interval is about 2 years. The milk yield is approximately 3 liters per day from a good cow, in addition to the amount taken hy the suckling calf. Slaughtered animals show a dressing percentage of 40 to 45. However, the animals respond well to improved feeding. A herd has beeu established at Songa Farlll since Initially, two herds of Ankole were established, one of polled and the other of horned animals, but as it was observed at a later dabe that the animals without horns neither bred true for the polled character, nor showed marked superiority over those with horns, this part of the experiment was discontinued. Birthweights and production figures fronl the horned animals are given in Table 71. TABLE DATA ON HORNED ANKOLE CATTLE AT SONGA F ARl'I IN RUANDA-URUNDI --_.- Birthweight, Number of 0--' Average Avel'l1gtl Average butterfat monthly milk yiel(l, contont, woight Year kg. days lactation litol'~ lllorou.se ill of c(~lvos, kg. "' I 70n 5,45 U.71) l I UOii :;.l.UO :1:.0 3"" \ " ;j 4.Uti ) I I SOURom: Herin, Personal Oommunication., I 160

168 Herin (-), in the Annua,l ReportR of the Songa Farm, records that calves born in the dry Reason showed 11 higher mortality rate than those ]Jorn in the rainy season, and that calves born during the rainy Reason showed grcater liveweight increases than those born in the dry season. The bullocks at the farm were good beef animals and when slaughtered dressed ont at 55 to 60 percent of excellent meat. Sources of breeding stock and infol'mation regarding the breed Infol'mH,tioll rog!wding Ankolc oattle in 11 gandll clln be obtained from the Director of Veterinary Services, I\ampala, Uganda. A herd of Ankole cattle was maintained at, the Government Stock Farm, Mpwapwtt from 1938 until it was transferred to the ",'estern Province Pasture Research Station, Tumhi, Tanganyika, before being dispersed. Information on the Ankole in Tanganyika can be obtained from the Director of Veterinary Services, JllIpwapwa, Tanganyika. In the Belgian Congo a herd of Ankole (Bahima) if! maintained by INEAC (Institut national pour l'etude agrollomique du Congo beige) at, Niolm. Information on t.he s(;ock can be obtained from the Officer in Charge of the l)rovincial Veterinary Service, Eastern Province, Stanleyville, Belgian Congo. InfornuLtion on the Ruanda-Urundi or Bal'undi type is available from the "Service veterinaire pwvincial," Usumlmra, Ruanda-Urundi. Information on t.he Bashi type of Ankole can be obt.ained from the,. Service veterinail'e provincial," Costermansville, Province of Kivu, Belgian COllgO. Origin BAROTSE The Bitrotse cattle are of the Longhorll 8anga type. The animals possess cervico.thomcic:musclliar humps and lu,rge lyre-shaped horns. The Barotse and Baila are virtually identioal and are allied to the SetswmHt cattle of Bechuanaland (Walker, C.A., Personal Communication). Conditions ill the native home of the breed Location, topography and soi18 Barotse Province of Northern Rhodesia, where the Barotse cattle are found, forms the most westerly section of Northern Rhodesia. It is-bounded by the Kwando and Zambesi riverb on the west and south, and by Angola on the north and west. The area is located approxi- 161

169 mately bet/ween 22 0 and 27 0 east longitude and 14 0!tnd 18 0 south lati. tude. ~rhe altitude vade::; from 2,000 to 4,000 feet above sea level. The Barotse va,lley includes the plain in which Lealui, the sea,t of the paramount native Chief of Barotse is located. This area is flooded every year during the months of March and April due to the rise of min waters in the Zamhesi i'ivcr. The predominant soils ure sandy or s~tndy lmim... Gli7nate M!ty to September is the dry Heason with easterly a,nd southeu,stel'ly winds. The first part of this season, which lll,ty be called the post rainy season, is good for plant growth with sufficient moisture in the soil; in the later part the tempemtures begin to rise, although on an average they the dry, cool and comfortable months. The nights are always cool :and ground frort Cftn occur. Temperaturefl are at their highert between September and November, in the second half of which the rainy begin and continue until early April. vvith the exception of the rain months, the SUll shines brightly throughout the year. Climatological data for Mongu, the provincial headquarter>'! for Barotse Province, l~re summarized in Tlthle 72. TABLE CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA FOIt l\'[ongu Mean temperature, oj!' n.3 (ls M ( Humidity, % :35 Rainfall, in. 8~ L : SOURfJI;;: l\ietcorologieal Delmrtment for Northerll RllOdosla. Average for 10 yem's. Vegetation The natural vegetation of the pastoral areas has been described as low grass savannah with open woodland. l'he grass cover varies in density. The locally impodttut grasses are of the genera Paspalu1n, Hyparrhenia, Brachiaria and Emgrostis. Crop residues are also utilized as stock feed. 162

170 ~lj1anage'lnent practices As well as their general function of producing milk, heef, and work, the cattle play an important soeiall'ole. They are used for the payment of the bride wealth and also for ceremonial purposes. The cattle, which are very largely dependent on grazing, remain in the riverain areas in the dry season but are ta.ken inhmd away from the flood plains of the rivers during the mills. They are also tethered on orop residues as a simple method of manuring garden lands. The calf is allowed to Buckle the dam but some milking is done to provide milk for preparing mafi, 11. fermented milk product for human consumption. Physical cbaracteristics of the hreeli The Bnrotse cattle (Figures 56 and 57) are large in tlize, heavily boned and have, in general, large lyre.sha,ped horns, although there are wide variations in the shape a,nd size of the horns. The hump, which is small 01' vestiginal in the fenmle, is of medium size in the male, muscular ill texture and cervico-thoracic in position. The mmal coat colors are ljl'own, black, dark russet!\nci fawn. Whole white coloration is l'itre. The skin is loose and of medium thiclmebs with dark pigmenta,tioll. The hairs are short and of medium soft-ness. The dewhlp is of moderate size and the ears are medium ill size. The hoofs m'e characteristically large, lmt!1re reported to he not very durahle. The birthweights of males and females, as reported from a herd of Barotse cattle established a,t the Government Experimental Farm at Masabuka, have heen 60 lb. and 55 lb. respectively. Liveweights of males at the same stl1tion were 312 lb. at one year of age, 700 Ill. at 2 years, and 1,350 lb. at, maturity. Average data on liveweights and body measll1'eme'nts of Barotse cattle are summarized in Table 73. TABLE AVERAGE LIVE WEIGHTS AND MEASUREMENTS OF BAROTSE CATTLE I ]d,jo I "om"', Ox 9 ai' 2 cars 1 YOIll.j2 Yeal'sjii titha~ 1 YOa1'j2 yearsj9~t.l1s: mature Livewoight, lb [ Length fl'om shoulder point to pinbone. em Height at withers, em Heart girth, em J SOUROE: (Male, Female): Blaok. J.G., Personal 001nmunicatiall. 163

171 FWUHE 56. Bm'otse bull. FWURE 57. B(~rot8e cow. Courtesy of.j. G, Blank

172 Functional characteristics of the breed The Barotse is reported to he hardy, slow maturing and sufficiently adaptable to the hot conditions of the region. On account of its size, it shows good possibilities for development for beef production. The females ca.lve for the first time at over 3 years of age and the males start service when they are about 2 years old. The average breeding life of males is estimated to be about 12 years. They are reported to be shy breeders. Animals used for draft are put to work when they are 2 to 3 years old. Although they are even-tempered, their working capacity is limited by the poor durability of their hoofs. The beef qualities of these cattle have been under investigation at the Experimental Farm at Mazabuka. It is reported that animals slaughtered at, 5 years of age weighed 1,200 lb. The dressing percentage was It was also noted that the average percentage of hone:,; ill the carcass was Faulkner and Brown (Colonial Office, 1953) report that the best of a few recorded Barotse cattle showed a capability of yielding half a gallon of milk per day at the peak of the lactation in addition to feeding the calf. It has been obl:lerved that Barotse cattle l1l:e not heavily infested with ticks. Records of performance of the Barotse herd maintained at MazalJUktL Government Experimental Station (Northern Rhodesia, 1952, 1958) are summarized in Table 74. TABLE PERFORMANOE REOORDS OF A BAROTSl;; HERD I No. ot cows in herd Corrected livewelgh t Average weight at beginning of eaoh of beef produced - I of calves, males breeding semon 'rotu.] 'rotal 100 cow unit!loud females, progeny progen~produc mortal -I ed, ity <- III In -! III 5 In G b '" Z! ~ ~ "!) "" ~ lb.,.., lb. lb. 01 '"... '0 I yoal's, year."! yelll'~r t--",., '" '" I 04\7() loa I \ / ,,0 - I Sources of breeding stock and information l'egarding the breed It has been estimated that there are over 228,000 head of Barotse cattle in Barotse Province. Further information may be ohtained from the Director of Veterinary Services, Mazabuka., Northern Rhodesia. 165

173 BASUTO Origin There seem I': to be some justifimtioll for considering the Bt~suto c,tttle as a type distinct from other mtttic varieties in southern Afi'ica,. Bisschop, J.H.It. (Personal Comm'unicntion) is of the opinion that, notwithstanding the IJresence among them of exotic and Africander grades, the ma:iority of these cattle conform in general body build and, more p:'1l'ticulady, in the slutpe of the hea,d and horns, to a definite type which is quite separate from n,ny other known indigenous cattle type, and thn,t these conformational characteristics arc sufficiently specific to permit of the nse of the term "Basuio eattle." These cattle are thought to lmve accompanied the Basuto Bantu tribes on their migra.tion southwarcl through Mrica to their present habitat and to luwe heen remotely derived from the Ihllmixture of zebu ltnd Hamitic cattle which ie; assumed to lie <1t the origin of the tianga group of cllttle types. Comlitions in the native home of the hreell Ecological conditions in B,tsutohtnd are broatlly simihtr to those,rltich are dmlcribed in the Hection on the Africander (p. 268) and the management practices of the Basuto bear some reflemblance to those of the Nguni (p. 169). Physical chamctetistics of the hreed The Basuto cattle (Figure 58) lue animals of only moderate size [tnd weight, usually fairly well proportioned conformlttionally, hut lean of lllllscula,ture. The head is long, pltrticulttrly in cows and steers, straight or slightly convex of profile etnd with a slightly dished forehead, the convexity of which is accentuated by t.he prominence of the supraorbital processes. The horus, which may be either round 01' oval in cross section, seldom met1sure more than 18 to 24 inches along their greatest curvature. They come away from the head in an outward and slightly upward and backward tlirection' and then turn forward, upwards and outwa.rds. Up t.o ahout 5 percent of cattle in Basuto herds are na.tumlly polled. 166

174 FWURE 58. Basuto bull. COnl'tf'R~' of ;r. II. H. DiSHCilop The muscular cervico-thoracic hump is well developed in t,hemale but small in the female and castra,t.e. The dewlap, particularly in the cow, is not strongly developed. The body is of fair length and depth but often tends to lack width through the he,h't. The topline is straight hut is often narrow and flhm'p, although the loins are usua11y of fair width and strength. The l'iljs, which tend to he stmight and fiat in front, show good curvature further bnck, giving good cligel4tive ctlpacity. The umbilical fold is inl1l~ Il in hath sexes. The rump is of fail' length but slopes considerably from hooks to pins. Owing to its narrowness between the pins, it tends to be triangular in plan. The sacrum lies approximately horizontally and shows a distinct notch in front. of the tail root. 'fhe tail is set on high and is long and slender, with the vertebrae extending down to the hocks, The udder is small and Qtul'ied close ~lp against the h?lly. The tents are small and generally pigmented. 167

175 The front legs are generally \vell placed hut, as a result of the nar rowness of the pinbones, the hind legs al'e onen cow-hocked. The skpletal bones are light, small, dense and hard. The hides of mort of t,he C<1ttle which have been inspected have been pigmented. The hairy ctmt is short and smooth. An inner coat is discernible. Black is the most common Cottt coloration; other colorations include duns, reds, red and LIne rcmns, and hlack, red and black-ltncl-ta.n color-hided "nkonc" Imttel"l1R (BiRschoIJ, J.H.R., Personal Oommunication). Crosses with other breeds of cattle It appenr.'l-probable (Bissehop, J.H.R., Per80nal Oornmwnication) that the cattle types which hlwe been referred to as the Uys, Kemp and Tintern Black have heen derived from indigenous South Mrican cattle simila,r to those of the Basuto, which were crossed with Cl1ttle from the Netherl!1llCls introduced at the time when South Africa was n Dutch colony. CaM,le derived from t.he cross were introduced into Natal at the time of t.he Great Trek in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. Herds of these cattle appear to have becn maintained as ltpproximn,tely closed breeding nnits and a recogni:z<able type has heen developed to which the llame " Drakensberger" is now applied. The cat.tle have pigmented hides a.nd short, sleek hhlck coa.ts. The female has no hump, while that of the m~tle if-! small and cervico-thoracic in position. The head if-! of medium length with a hroad forehead and muzzle, a.nd the horns are short" growing from the poll in an out ward and forward direction. Drakensherger cattle ate reported to be well adapted to the local environmcnt of the Orange Free State and Natal, with the a,bility to produce milk alldmeat at. It reasonable level under extensive husbandry conditions (Weideman, 11)48; Van R.ensburg et al., 1947). Sources of breeding stock ami information regarding the breell Further inforlllfttion on the Bal'luto cattlc can he obtained from: The Director of Livestock and Agricultural Services, Ba8utoland. The Director of Animal Husbandry Itud Da.irying, Depiutment of Agriculture, P. O. Vallis, Pretoria, Union of South Africa. 168

176 NGUNI Origin The nomenchlture "Nguni" h[1,:'; been approved by 11 committee appointed by the Secretary of Agriculture of t.he Union of South Africa. (Union of South Afrimt, 19.50) to make an investigation into the indigenous breeds and types of livestock in South Africa. The type had previously been referred to as " Zulu" or., Swazi" ltccording to the tribe of Nguni Bantu in whose possession it,vas found. Various authors who have speculated on the remote origins of indigenous African cattle (Epstein, 1933, 0000; CUl'son ami Epstein, Hl34; CUl'son ftud Thornton, 1936; Bisschop, IH37) have suggested that the Nguni cfttt,ie may hftve had their origin ill an intermixture of the!low ext.jnct Hamitie Longhorn and the Lateral-Horned zehu Itnd, as such, have been included in the category of " Sanga" in classifications of African cattle. Cattle of Nguni typc would appear to have had their origin in northeastern Africa, from whence they accompanied the Bantu migrations to l>(juthern Africa. Conditions in the natiye home of the breed Location, topography and 801~l8 Nguni cattle are found in Zululand (northern Natal), Swaziland, and in southern Mozambique. The part of the area which lies in Natal and Swaziland has heen described as being" the region from the Komati river, north of Swaziland to the Tugela river as its southern boundary. In SWazlh,nd the Drakensberg mountains and the Le13ombo ranges form the western and eastern boundaries respectively. In Zululand the western houndary of the area runs sjightly to the east of Vrijheid and to the south approximately through Babanango as far as Mapumula, with the coast as the erstern boundary", (Union of South Africa, 1950). The coastal helt is gently undulating country with marshes and lakes nem' the sea and with a maximum altitude of 500 feet. In the Houthern part the soils vary from red saudy loams in the west to sandy soils in the east while in the north there are deep white sands. Inland from the coastal strip the country becomes more undulating and hilly and increases in altitude towards the Hlabisa hills and the Ubombo range in the west and beyond to the Nongoma and Sapana. 169

177 ranges. The soils change from sfluclr in the east to fertile loams in the west. To the west of the Ubombo mnge t,ho nrea, includes the Lebombo flat,s, n level valley of fertile soils flnd flltitude in t,he neighborhood of 700 feet above sea level. The land rises west,wards in a series of steps to the 1l1iddleveld of f:j'waziland where the averago elevation is [Lbout 2,000 feet. This is undulating conntry with soils of' a fertility somewhat lower than those of the Lehomho flats and which has deteriorated as the result of continuous cultivation hy the native peoples. The higlweld, n, part of the Drakensl)erg runge, lies to the west of the middleveld and rises to altitudes exceeding 5,000 feet. The burl is hroken and dissected hy gorges and the slopes are generally too steep for cultivfltion (Sw<"],ziln,nd, - ). Awa,y from the group of east-flowing rivers (including tjw I\:omati, the White and Black Umbulusis, the Usutu, and the Pongola) which arc fairly evenly distributed through the tcrritol'y, w!ltel'ing faeilities for livestook are vcr." limited. TABLB CLIMA'rOLOGICAL DATA FOIt MBAnAN]~, I:lWAZIlJAND (ArJnTUl>E 3,HOO ])"1'.). - --"-._------_-.._----_..-_._----- ~ _Jj_t~ I ~ I ~'I ~ -r~~rili-l-it-~ I-~]-f l\fphu tt!iupel'utul'c', (of', illi i~ ~Icnn rainfal1. ill. ').II \1 :l.u 1.:l OJ, ().Il 1.1 :~.] '. n 11.0 ~"ll,.lo Sotmm:: Ken<ll'Gw, _,,_.m,", Climate In general, the cliumte of the Nguni area ih warm with relatively high humidities, lmt there ar~ very -considerable dinwtological varil~' 1'ion8 between the different parts of tho region. Along the coltf:ltal belt. 60 to 70 percent of the rainfall occnrs ill the H11ll1mm' montlm and annual precipitution is in the range of' 30 to 40 inchef!. Furtlwl' illhmcl in Zullllancl tempemtures m'e lower and the winter ix drier. Anllual pl'ecipitation ranges from 2fi to 35 inches. 'L'hc Leholllbo illl1",h and tho contiguous area along t.he east side of t.he LeiJom ho mnge h.: llhtl'kcclly drier wit.h Hllnual precipit.ation between 15 1tllcl21l inclwh. DlhY i-ompm: nture~ are frequently high. Mean lllaxima in excehs of Hilo F, oeom' in some areas for several months and H.h30lute llutximlllll i;olllperatul.'os of np to F. have been recorded. The greater part of i,lio ILrel~ ] 70

178 is frost-free throughout the yem (Kendrew, IH5;~; Union of South Africa, 1950). The mean!1ll1llu:ll rainfall at Sipofaneni in the lowveld hns heen 26.5 incher, while at Brcrnersdorp in the middle veld it was a6.r inchch Etnd llt, Mhll,I><1.no in the highvelrl, 54 iio 55.6 inchel:l. Annual mean maximum ltnd minimum temperatnres at the same stations luwe been: H4.4 and 5~).50 ]'. at Sipofltueni, and ri4.10 F. at Brem01'sciorp, o,nd 7'2.7 and fi'2.ro If. at Mbo,bo,ne (Swaziland, - ). Climatological (btll for Mhab:me in Sw:w,ihmd are given in '1':tble 75 and moniihly minfa.!l lwemgeh for Mpiili in Table> 7fi. TABJ,B YBAH MON'rHLY RAINFALl" AVRHMa,;;; h-or MPI:'H CATTLE BnEmlINa S'L'ATlON, SWAZILAND, V e(jl~ta.uon The vegel;lltiol\ of the ~mlldy ('oa,stal belt is sparse EtHd COllHiHts h1rgoly of inferior gms:-;land clomil1ltted. by A1'i8tidn Hpp. of low nnt.rit,ionu,l vllluo. Inland of tho coa>:tal fltrip, i.()wllrcls the Hlabisn hills aud the UlJolllbo range t;lwl'o ik gmhslnnd o,nel scrub (thornvclcl) of good nutritional vldnn ill large lu'our of which ~l'heme.da triand1'a is the dominant sljecieh. In the Leholll 1>0 fhtth there jg good shnannah grazing which merges ijlto mixed thol'llvcld in the middleveld (Union uf South Africa, 1950).. 1I1wUI{/llment pmcticrs Cl1t,tie are kopt cxtoll:;ively by the no,tive population of the aroll. rrhoy art' l1mintnincd brgoly fo1' the provision of milk, hllt beast.s are 1:!1nughtel'od (In festive oomlsiol1s and the meat from cattle that die frolll natul'nl caufles ih eatcn. The hides are utilized locally for household purposes. Oxen lll'c used as dmft animals. CI.L\,t.le pby it predominant part in t.he socio,l life of the people, lmrj;leularly ill l'ela,t,ion to the hi'ide wealth or "lobolo" system. 1'110 herds are not the property of individuals to be disposed of at will, 1n11, are regarded as being held in trust for the family, distributed in time, including t,he!tncestors and descendants as well as the contomporul'y household. A8 there appears to be 1ittle or no consideration /lfri(,llli (~(ttt'.(.'.

179 of the qultlity of the en.ttle offered n,s the bride wealth, numberi':! fwe regarded as being of paramount; importance [md it has been difficult to obtn.in local co-operation in mea,surer designed for the prevention of overstocking 01' the improvement uf the conformation and productive mlpacity of the catt.le, huji which might entail a reduction in t,he size of the herds. On fm'ms under European lllimi1gement Nguni COWR havo been ma,int[i,inecl for the production of beef C!1lves hy erossing with hulls of imported beef breeds. Nguni oxeu <11'e uhed exteusively :for dmft pnrpo:,es and m'o comlidered to be snperior to the Afric[1uciol' ill this function undel' jihe climatic conditiom; of N:ltal. Bed exports from the Nguni area al'e predomintl.nt.ly tu DurLmu ami <TolUtlllleslml'g and it large proportion of the hiuefl go to DUl'brm and LOUl'eu90 Marques. CrelLm is collected at sopm'f1iiing flt.atiolls in the native m'ells luhl ahout 500,000 lb. of hutiter are exported ('neh year to.johannesburg and LOUl'eJ'lQ() Mal'tjlles. Physical chal'actcristics of the breed Ngllui cattle (Figures 59!.ud (0) Rhnw t1 'lory (lollhidemhle VlWiat.ion in size which appears to he dependenti on local nuti'it,lonal eonciitions. In general they are ClLttle of medium flize, with 1L tilil' dept,h of hody, fairly short, legh and a t,cndency tiow:tl'ds the W(\c!gc-slmpcd " dairy t,ype." The head it! of fail' lengt,h with the width f1ii tihe eye" ollly Hlight.ly greater than that. ali the poll, so t,hat t,he hroacl forehead is ml!1l'ly roehmgular. The face constitutes a,}jout three fifj-,lu; of the lellgtih of t.he hol1r\, 18 lean,),ml fn,i.l'ly hroad [\ncl tape.l's only seghuy to the wide. muzzle. The profile is stmight or, in the hull, slightly convex. '['he orbital arche;; are Hlightly accent1u1ted, so that the forehead Jlmy 1ll1ve a degree of lateral concavity. The ean, :J.l'e smitll and,fllmrply pointed and I11'C pin.ced helow a.nd behind tho horns. Tho horns :],1'(' clouse in Htructnre aud are lyl'e-slmped ill tho adult anim!1l. Thoy rise from a level poll often on weh-defined pedel:ltnlk in nu outwal.'d 1.\.11<1 i':!lightly backwlwd direction, theu grow UpW!1rdH f:md fol"wm:dll, tul'uing inwards in the second half of their length and inclining Imclnvl,wcIH in the finu,1 4 to 6 inches. 'rlle horul; are round or slightly oval iu orohs section, They are usn ally of mediulll thickness and end in thin t[~pel'illg pointl:!, but Faulkner (1947) refers to two horn types, one m.rrow etnel flpringing from the poll in a I:!lightly upward direction, H,nd tlw othe1' thiokel' and with its initil11 growth hol'izontl11. In the bnll the horm; 111'0 markedly shorter <tucl thicker than in j;he female. 'rhe gonol'nl line of growth of the horns, :1S viewed from the side, is in advance of tho line 172

180 Ji'rUllJm on. N!lu,ni lillil (tl tlw Jlpi81; U(tlilp. Bl'epriin!l Station. FWURE (io. ~V[/Ilni eoii! tit the Jlpi8i O(J,ttle Bl'ee<iin(!,,>'tation. ('Olll-tt'Hj" of.j. 1I. n. DisschoJl

181 of the profile with which it makes llll angle varying fcom 50 0 to or more. The neck is fairly long tl,nclleun. The hump if! llluseula.r and cer vicnthortwic in position. It is well developed in tile male but small in tjle fcnmle. The topline Hhows considcrable variation. It tonds to be lmrrow forward, widening to the rear, and fairly level 01 rising to Rome extent toward» the rump. It is gencl'n,lly rather Jean with It (;elldcllcy to he ;, roofy." Thc rump is of lllodemtc lcngth and l:llope with n slightly prominent i:lll,ci'um and tenelfl to b(1 rml'l'ow over the l)ini>olle:-;. The dcwlap ih of modemte or sulall Hize and 1",he umhilioal fold, while not generally app~,rent ill the female is, together with the flheatit, fairly prominent in the male. TIw 1i111 hs tend to be Rhort. 'rhey are lean and light of hone and tend to be upright in J)oHition. 1~he tail is long l1nd thin with a full switch. '1;ABLE AVEBAOE LlVElWEWHTS A])![J BODY MEAfHfItl!lMEN'J'S OF NGUIH CA'I~TLE!N SWAzrr,AND Cattle Ag~, weight, of bolly, with!)j'h, lit hijlh, g[t'th, of eiloh, lb. CIIl. Olll. "Ill. eill. eill. I Live- I IJcngt,h IT night. It;; -,- ~",rt~-i-~i\(~~=-i~~(;;;~~~= ~---';_----';-----_T_ Females 1 year :ur, \)" nu 1111 l:..!fi 'lil Fomttles 2 yoars 457 Jl!> 11:J lis.i:ih (,:" Female, mature 7:..!:~ l:hi 1~:! I h ) 1;;7 Oil Malml mature 1 : :1;1 I:l~ SOUROE: Bon8um e! ai., 195:3. --, ~~.-,-- -~" In the majority of Nguni cattle the hide, which in of tough, fine texture, is darkly pigmented. There il:l a consid.el'l1ble Vl1ri!LtioIl ill coat coloration which has been ehtsrified in comidernhlc detail by the Union of South Africa Committee on IndigellouH Live:,jtock (Union of South Africa, 1950). Full whiter, blacks, browns, rcels, dulls and yellows occur. The hides of white and yellow cattle are of lightm' pigmentation than those with the cants of the other colors. Blitek and tan and brindle also occur and there are, in addition, a series of patterned and combination coloratimm. Bissehop (H)4:l-l!)46) luts suggested that a coloration (nhlophe1cati) in which the whole coat is white except for the areas around the muzr,lc and the eyer, and the inner surfaces of the ears, may be l)asal to this series which has \Jeen descrihed in detail by the South Afrioa Committee on Indigenous Livestock (Union of South Africa, 1950). 174

182 The average liveweight of cows has been given as about 750 lb. wit,h it range of 500 to 1,000 lh., and that of bulls about 1,100 lb. with It range of 050 to 1,300 lb. In arear in which the grazing is of poor nutritional qutli~t,y cows llre found measuring 3 12 feet nt the withers and with Iiveweights in the neighborhood of 500 lb. The Union of South Africa Committee on Indigenous Livestock Types (Union of South. Africa, H'50) observed bulls of npproximntely 1,300 Ih. liveweight and steers which they estimated to he 5 feet high at the withers 11Ild of 1110re than 1,800 lb. live weight. In a few cases steers estimated to be of' 1,600 lb. liveweight were seen. Some liveweights and measurements of Nguni cattle at the Mpisi Research Station in Swaziland are given in 'rabies 77 f1nd 7R. 'l'ablel AVERAGE LIVEWEIGHTS OF NmJNI CATTLE AT MPISI CA'rTLE BREEDING STATION ('litue Age in months I ~nmhcl' sumdled/ Average livcweight" lb. B"OllHtlf'H U : : <1 over ;](1 I 1:15 is8.:1 MalI'S :! : :1 ove!' ao ;~!i Oxen {) -] ,7. "; !I 24 - ao 2:;1 0:18.7 ovel' ali l(;~ t;oul\oe: BfLrnard, 19&1. The average hody temperature of Nguni cattle at Messina Research Station before sunrise W!1.fl found to be F _I. n.m. This value was significantly greater tluj.,n those obtained for the body temperatures of' Shorthol'w:; and Afrioll,nderN (Bonsma, 1955). Functional characteristics of thc hreed Apart from the role they play in the souial organization of the native peoples of the are L, Nguni CfJ.,ttle are maintained for the production of ul"mmill'cd beef, milk for local consumption and clntft animals. The femalck ltppeltr to be slow in reaching sexual maturity. Although, und.m lomll coll(lit.ions, heifers are nol'mally allowed to Tun with It bull, they Neldolll calve at less Umn 3 ymtr:-; of age. After the find; oltlf, COWN llppcttr to (mlve (lown at, reguhtl' intervals and a high 175

183 propurtion arc l'l"pul'tc'd to contillul' kef'(ling until tlwy art' 1[> 01' mure VeM'; uld. o The Cllioll of ~on[,h Ar, ita C'Ollllllitt{,e 011 Imligonou" Liwstllck 'l'ypes (Fnioll of Suuth AfJ'ica,!!ISO) sugge,;h,(l Oll till' basis.of lopal opinion, that. NgUlli caltic had a ('UIlHidlemhle polenti:d valtw ah milk producfu':';, Nativc' ()\\']wrc; \l'el'() I'epmlt,cl to have dailllctl p(mk (laily vields of J to :~ fiallon,; of milk (Iff gmj\ing. Tht, l'(\sltlls o])t.aincd at the MJlisi H(\HC:ll'(,h Statioll have, llowt,v("i'. J)(~ell JeHH promising (Hal' IUml, l(lf):~). The 'lv<:'i"i).((\ yiuld ()f eowh which calved ill J\Iby to.july wah a:-n Ill. ill Hil days and that or COWs ealving in Novl'mbl'r lo,januhl'y Wal-; ;jj!l lb. ill.2 17 dayh. TIl hoth C<tl'l'H the yieldh wcm thohe of cows which were abo sueklillg tlwir (o'llvek. TIll' lilean valuei' of ImUnditt. te!'t,; made at Mpisi and reported in I!I:12 illhl I nrm wer~ q.2:l }JPl'C'Cllt and 8.:iO percent l'ospcdivcly (Barnard,.IO!i2, HI5iI). Fifty-five Nglllli sj"'l't:rk, of nv('rage age :1!i lll(jnt.h", which Wlm~ exported to,1llhallncclijurg ill lfl5] and whinh had Oil li1tivai lin avenlgl' livewpight. of!107 Ill. (as (~(I111pared to I,O()O Ill. bufore I(Hwillg HWl1'11ila.ml) hlld nn iwemge d.res~ed weight of ii.21 Ih., giving It dl.'chhillg pcl'(:entagtl of 57,7. rrlte nwlill wdght of dw hide's was 1i:1 lh., alld Lhat of ilw offn,ls :31S lb. (Ihm<lTd, HIll:!). A f\ll'ih(lj' sample Hold ill.r()halllll~;;jjlll'g jll 1052 had an,werage (ll'tos;.;etl weight awl dl'l'ssing ]wl'l'elliage or Il04 lb, and :J.jA (Bnrmtl'd, J!I!i:l). TAHLF: 7H. - LI\'J<:Wl-:J(:]ITS AN]) ('AI{I'AHK ])NI'A ImOM.NUIIN] ~'r:gjo:l{s AT ONPgl!H'I'J.1I'()nll'l' l\[eon Hg'e, mnllthh I\tJ, or Htp(,I'S 1\'1(\UI1 H\'I'WI'h!;lIl, Ill. t'al'~'am:-) "'<li""ht,lh. 1\1 '-~illl ~ I \ 1 i. tl"l \' \' I) i l \ ~ 1 wl'i""ht, Ih. III all rll\'\'t) \\: I ~,t l'l' W,",,,,ill.lh. 1)1','""1"1-( IH',','pnt:lJ!,'n 40 Itl.-I 1111 fiu,7 H~ 1: ~ IIII.~ 1<>:1 LrlO II~. J "_~~ r' Shmghtcl' tehttl Il<HT hcen carried out Oll Ngnni :-;1l\('I'S hrett ill thl) experimelltltl herd of tlw Yetm'irULry Iahoraiol'ieH at Oll(lel't-lt;epo()l"t and reared on the farm of the IllHtitutu. ~I'he l'ohldth of thl1ko 'to"th are Hnmnutl'izecl in ']'ahle 7!1. 'l'he tina! grollp of Il Kit'!'I'H (of avemgp a.ge 56 months) were slaughtered nl'tel' 107 dayh poil-fonding. TIH:Y were, however, vel'y wild WhCll brought ill frolll Ute void and, nevor really settling dowll to stull-feeding condit.ioml, gi.liill'd Oil the ltvemge only juflt over 1 lb. per head pci' day, On dcholling, the eal'e<tsht't:! 171)

184 of the pen-fed steers yielded 87.:3 percent of beef and 12.7 percent of bone. A t,ahtiug and judging panel found that rib roasts from the p cn-fod Nguni steers 'were superior in grain and tenderness to roasts from Africander I-Jteorfl of' t.he S!Ulle age which had been stall-fed since weaning, although there wat-; no difference hetween the respective roasts in juiciness and flavor (Bisschop, J. H. R., Per80nal Communication). Tihe hides from 12 Ngulli steers of average age and live weight, 5a months lond ~)il8 lh., had a mean wet weight of 69 lb. and a mean surf~tce areo, of 4D.71 square feet (Bisschop, J. n.r., Per80nal Cmnrn:unication). The Union of South Africa Committee on Indigenous Livestock Typos (Union of South Africa, 1950) observed that Nguni cattle do wdl in tho eastern coastld area, which is regarded as being one of the most. ul1h0!~lthy for cattle in South Africa. They suggested that there might he, in Nguni m.t.tle, hereditary physical characters which give a degree of l'ec;iilbnce t{) diseases including heartwater, redwater, t.l'ypauosomiafds, and opthalmia. Among these characters are the short con,t; ttlltl tough skin, which give somc IJl'otectioll [Lgainr-;t tick-bite, and the pigmented rmrround to the eye, which appears to be ll factor toward ii.'eedom from ol)thahnia. At Mpisi Research StatiOll it was ollserved tll<lt the reristance of NgUlli cattle t,o the loen.lly prevalent diseases uppem'ed to be snperior to tlmt of the Africander herd. BonsmlL et Ill. (ld58) found, howevel', that in a Rcmi-arid SUlltropical cllvironment in the Northern Transvaal Nguni m.ttle were lchfl Imcc:esl'lful than Afi:icanclers and required 5.2 lh. of total digestihle nutrients ILbove t.heir maintenance requirement to achieve a 1 lh. liveweight gain, as opposed to a total digestible nutrients requirement of a.o lb. per 1 lh. live weight gain fol' Africanclers. Crosses with other hl'cclls of cattle NgUlli e<lt.tle n.rc used extensively on fm'ms managed by Europeans in southeastern Afrioa for crossing and grading up to European beef breeds and especially to the Aberdeen-Angus and Shorthorn. It has bcen obscrved that, too large a proportion of exotic cattle in an animal's ancestry leads to a deteriomtioll in its adaptation to the environment. An attempt if! oommonly made to correct thit; effect by putting t,he crosi::ilrecl cows to Africander hnlls. Sources of hrce(ling stock auli information regarding the breed The m.ttle populat;ioll of the Nguni area has Leen given Hi:I 1,173,032 head. It WlLS estimated that in this total 420,000 head were breeding eowf-:, of which approximately 84,000 were likely to be free of the presence of exotic Cltttle in their ancestry (Union of South Africa, 1950). 117

185 Herds of Nguni cattlc arc maintained at the Mpisi Cattle Breedillg Statiou, Swaziland, and at the Bl),rtlow Combine Breeding Station of the Department of Native AtfairH in t,}lb Ubomho dihtriet of Zululalld in the Union of South Africa. Further information regarding t,hc Nguni cattle C11n be obtn,inecl from: The Veterinary Depltrtmen(" Bremersdorp, Swttziland. The Director of Bantu Agriculture, Department. of Native AffairH, Pretoria, Union of South Africa. Origin NILOTIC Nilotic cattle include thoro of' the Shilluk, Nner and Dilllm tribe:,; of Nilote peoples who live in the flood pla,in of tho Nile syt4telll of rivers in the southerll provinces of the Repuhlic of the SuchtI1. The cattle type appem's to be of great a,ntiqnity and ih gcncmlly supposed to hane lwmlted from n,n intermixture of the migillh,1 wil<l longhorned Cl1ttle of. Africa (BOB africa.nn8) with la,t,or iucul'l-~iollh of Asiatic zelnlh (BOB indic.u8). There is no tl'<)'ditjoll nllloug the 1)(]ople of their having entered t.he,.rea from elsewherc, 01' of t.lu'ii Imving obtained their cattle from unrehtted tribes. On the northel'll and southerll border:,; of the Nilotie ltnm thero has been some admixture with neighboring cattle types; llotably in the Shilluk and northern Dinlm herds hy t.he Nile llorth of Mnl!dml where the influence of the Northern Sudan Rhol'thorncd zebu is dearly apparent, and in the south and southeaj-it whore Nilotm~ eollle in c:ontad with tl'iher; owning the small East Ati'iclLn zebu n,nd the llymllli(bi humped Topmm-Murle eattle. Within the!wen, raiding in tho paht, and llml'l'inge exdmllger and, to (1, small ext,ent;, purchaaer in tho prohe1l1" have mitigated agninst the development, of the dosed breeding groups which eoulrl bcoollw dihtinct breedr or val'ietieh and, in gene1'l11, Aueh loc:nl difflll't)ncor in conforma.tioll fmel Hize ar exist ttppcttl' to he very litl'gely of enviroumental origin. "While there is sufficieut rerclublance within the cattle }WIHllaj,ioll of the area to justify ita consideration tth a single type, the degl'ee of val'iation between individlmls j:,; sufficient,ly high to malw it illtldvi~mble to refcr to it hy the more Rpcciiic term" hreed." 17~

186 Location, t0110graphy and 8oil8 The dhltrilmtion of the Nilotic cattle is confined to the Beasonally inundated flood plain of the Nile system in the Provinces of Upper Nile and Bahr el Ghazal and part of Equatorial Province. The northernmost limit if> sct by the BI.Lhr el Arah where the Baggara Arabs of Darfur nro encountered a,nd further to the east, where the Ahialallg Dinkl\ to the north of Bontiu hane their villa.ge)"l on thg 110rt11 h>mk of the Bn,hl' el Ghaml, by the bounda,ry of Upper Nile Province, which confines the ttrea occupied by the Shilluk and northern Dinlm who extend on both hanks of the White Nile as far ah appl'oximately latitude 12 0 N. Emlt of Malalml, the Eastern Nuer have their villages to the north of the River Sobat; as far as the Ethiopian border. The spread of Niiotic cattle to the west and southwest is prevented by the presence of tsethe fly in the wooded irollhtone country which, very ltpproximately, follows the line Aweil-Wl1u-Tonj-Rumbek-Jubft. The Houthern limit to the Nilotic area is indefinite, hut the cattle become predominantly of the snu1ll ElLst African zebu type between Terakeka and Julm on the Bahr el Jebel (White Nile). To the east of the Bahr el Jebel there are htrge areas of country which, although flooded during [md after t,lw min:;, arc waterless during the dry Hel1son and in which it ih, therefore, jmpossible to maintain cattle. The whole of the area is a flttt olay plain sloping very gently from southeast and southwest towards the main river ohannels. During t,he rains a combination of river spill and accumuhttion of rain water re:;ults in the whole area being inund[tted, with the exception of low islands and ric1gm; on which the inhabitants have established their homesteads I1nd where they carry out their orop cultivation. This flood water clem's by drainage to the rivers and by eva)jo-tmnspi. rat;lon as the dry season advances, the lnst parts to be exposed being the low-lying areas neal' the rivers known as toich. Tho soils of the plain 11re predominantly heavy atka,line clays and Iomm;. The higher areas are generally of sandy material, while the tnic7t8, which nrc waterlogged for the greater part of'the year and mity never dry out, are of mainly clayey material (McLanghlin, E. A., Pe)'- sonnl Oommnnic(dion).,> Climate The climate is that of a tropical continental area. The dry season, which if; of eight months' duration n,t Henk in the extreme northern extension of the Nilotic cattle down the Nile, shortens towards the Konth and, at Bot', towards the south of'the area, is five months long. Average ili111unl miufltll at Henk is 525 l1lm. while tlt HoI' it is m. l7h

187 Precipita tit III i,.. at i {.R higllc',.;t in the fiollt!t west of t.he an'a. TeulJl('ratures "",ldul)j va!'y lllore thall GO C. froll1 one plat'l' to ltnotlwr OIl (.iw pia ill,.... Climatological data for J\falalml in Uppcr Nlln Pl'OVlllC:O al1fl \VUlI in Bltlu el 011n7.1\1 Pl'Ovinct' are given ill Tabll'1' flo and Ill. 'raili,1'; sn. - CLBL\TOLnCirr'AI. l>a 7'A )!'OH l\l~l,\i\.. \l... tll'.pel! N ll~g (AHl'l'l'lTl1J'; :)110 M.) -~~I, 1~~I~J;T;I~1 1ltHlll luhxllhuih tmnrlf,'l'atul't'. (II '. :-Hl",,", ~Iellll IltiuilU1l111 tellj_[it~l'litun:. u( '. 1tleull l'l'ln tiyt ltulllitlit~ at '1~.fl'l hi'h.. ~:I.... IHcall r t' 1 a t i \" t' it11luitlil'y,,1 '1 1.11" lll'''i., 11 1 \' ~ 1\lflLlll... d 11 fa II, I I 17 " II ",Hi til, ii ;-':-1 ~I,,", ~.~:! rl:! U I 1\., ;",,", Jill [17il L'-i;j nil /./() l'nuy1nc'i'; l\lt'i_l[j l\iilxillhllll telllljel'lltut'l'.!i( '. Muttll l'l'lll(iv"!tumidity "t OH.. OO hl'''l. I!u MeitH r,dal in' lllllu I (li t~ II t t... OIl ;.. I"'j 1t[('an l'l! in full. IllllI '"'-"'~"...". I ~ -I ~'I ~ I ~'T-~-I.f ;,,,:,, l,j." -.:~ ~.~ l\h~lljl luiniiulllll tmupcl'htnl'e.,,( '. ]7.0 HI..1 ~1.1 :..!1. I :!I), 7 ~(I. fl :!II. Ii,) 1 ;l,~) I!ll ~~(l! I Ii. J' egetalion The greater part of t.he Jiood plain if-! covol'('d h:_y lippll gl'1\i'~.;]alld with ciif;pel'sed!ueaf:l of woodland. 'The dominant. gl'hhh io}j(,ciek an' Hyparrhenia 1'u/a in ilreas of greater flooding awl 8e[m ia inc)'(.i,~8at(( where slightly drier condit-iolla prevail. 'rhc woudland in mainly COlll ])()Hed of Acacia 8eyal and Balanites aerillpt'i((cu; ] Hll'(' f'\nndk or Acada l~o

188 FWlIlm fll. Niloti(: { (Ittln. " ninlm,. (,(IUle l/rct,:inu on toieh ne(/r.jongld IJost. Upper NilI' T'mvinc(I, lln1ji.tiilic of til(', Swlun. ('llln'l'.'h) IIf,}. I), M. Jar'lt 8eyrtl nl'c> ft'cq1h. nt., and t.here atl' large Hl'CltH of pnrldhlld ill which Bltlflnitel< aey!lpti({cii is the true H]>ec:je~. Oll the higher laud there is woodland of Awcin H]1p. nnd Baht-niles lip(lypf1:al.'l/, mld, OIl sauel.r soils, t.he palms Hyphftene lhebaiccl and BO/'((88118 /l(r[lell fer Linn. val'. mthiopium together with, in thn Ilorth, the short lllll1unl grah~()s, EI'CtIl'rosti8 fjpp, and Aristidn Ap]1., and further Houth, ill dense woodl!l!1d, t!111!hllllml~ Hueh as RoUi)(lpllia, e::caltata, Le1Jtm:hloll chinen-s'is and Hyparrhenia HP};l. '}'he toichs (Figure (n) are open gl:assl!lllds domimtted by different gl'!\sh species according to the degree to which inundation is complete and t,hc period over which it is extended. Where inuncln.tion is cojllplete and prolonged Echinochlou Hpp. dominate the plant population; where inundation is sporadic Phragrnites comm1l.n'is or H?Jparrhenia t'1lf(j, tend to be the domirhtllt speeies (SDIT, 191)5). A form of ~hift,illg cultivation u8ing hand ill1l)jcmcnt~ i8 practiced ill (,he area. Tho main crop i~ dum (Sor(fl!1Jrtl 1"lf,lgare) for local consumption. Maize (Zen '/IW}/s) is grown in HOllle districts, as well as IHmLll crops of He~l,ltle, cur curb its lind pulheh. Tohacco ib cujt,ivated hy Jllost of the il1hn,)jitnnts on it very slllall scale for their own consumption. It. is tended with grerlt CM'C and tlppenl's to be the only crop tlll1t they nt-tempt to \I"1,t('1 ill timc'r of drought. Man tgernent pmctice8 Livestook play au import.ant anti integral IJart in the primitive subsistence ecollomy of the area. The people rely on milk and meat to supplement their otherwise inadequate diet. Cattle play It predolllilhlllt part in the,~ocial and l'hnallife of the people and, as the CUI'-

189 mney of the" hride woi1ith," are esrollthtl to the eolltinm,tiou of the prosen t socia,] ~ystelll. 1'he pel'lnanent home~tea.ds are sit.nated on the reltttively ~m,,11 areas of higher land which remain ahove the level of the ~ensonal inundation. During the middle H.nd late rain~ t.he catoe gmze tho~e parts of the higher land which <1re not occllllied by the gmin crop, its well as the more ~hallowly flooded laud nea,rby. Dlll'ing t.his l)eriocl the necessity for remaining near the grain crol', together with the exteimive flooding, restricts the movement of the peoplo, and grazing witihin rel,ch of the home"teac1~ may become inadequate, so that IOK,~es mnong ('au.le which >He weakened by undernutrit.ioll fond exposlu'c to flooding and storms ml1y be ~evere. After the rains flooding uolltillne,~ for ficveral weeks, during which the ca.ttle continue to grn,ze IlefU' the home~teadh. When t,he hi\i've~t is over, the straw of the grain Croll is grazed in situ. In ea,dy December the wll,ter hn,h f!1l1cn Rufficiently for the gl'ftss to he hurnt RO thitt a young green rcgrowth becomen lwailable [or grazing. Whell t,he harvest is completed the people move with their herds toward the rivers, where they burn the gntrn Oil tho toich and grllze their cattle on the rcgl'owth. The cattle remain on the toich frolll January until the early l'<1.ills in April 01: May when a return is made to the h0ll1estc[\(1~ which [WO 1'00whcd ill June ltud pmpllrations for the grain crop hegllll. 'rhe distn,nce;; moved from the permanent homebteads to the t(jic!. seldom exceed 120 kill. (SIlT'!" 10M) and [l,re uslmlly considerably lerr. J:<'IGUltE 62. N ilotic onule. "Din1m 80nrl b!lll".steer, Ea.1' d (i:hrmll ].J,rot'inl'fJ, Rep'ubl C oj the SulirHt. 1'/W slrl.wi1tre8 in the /Jackgl'O'Ilnd a1'c Im,!tg 01' Clttllt: shelters.

190 Ji'lGurm 63. A naule camp in BClhr el Ghnznl Pr01Jince., Republir 0/ the Sudan. (iohl'tcsr of K A. McLJt1I«hlin Biting thetl (Ta\mnidl1 and StotnO:l;YS SP}).) during the day flud lllo~quitoes at. night prey upon both cattle and JUan when the herd::; nrc grazillg n0m' the homestead~. The cat,tle me hou~ed ltt night in l'l!a/c8, 1l1rge oil'culo.l.' gmsb.thatchcd shelters (FigUl'c (2), A dung ilre is m in the center of the lualc ltt dusk and is kept burning throughout the nighl, so that. its smoke will!-\erve as a det.errent against mofl(jllltoes. When the herds are 8.way from tho villl1ges during the dry season, the cttttle nrc tethered in brge groups during the night and dung fires are pbced among them lth an insect deterrent (Figure 63). During t,he mins cattle are t11ken out to graze at between and 10,00 hl's. flud remain ont. until Ill'S. If biting iiicfi are tmuhlosom6 1;he mttle may be brought back to the camp for be. tween olle tlnd two houl's at mic1d"y. In the dry Seltson grazing hours are mt.hel' longer: the cattle are tnken out at between and OD.OO hi's. llnd do not returll until or IS.OO hi's" shortly before sunset. During the rains the cattle, if they 11re not grazing in 01' nell,r water, are taken to drink ulloily at midday. In the dry season watering is twice daily. NOl'm1111y the cattle have access to green growing grass throughout the year. In gcneml. the cattle gmze for only five or six hours 11 day in the rains and eight or nino hours in the dry SO(l.son, while between 16 and II) hours are spent stu.ndiug tethered in the luak or camp. During i,his Mme no GIlt or preserved feed is given to the cattle. In spite of this long fttsting period it has lleell observed that cattle do not appei1l' lsa

191 to he excessively hungry or thirsty when they are l'elcitiied in t,]l0 lllom' ing. Night gl'ltzing is never practiced. Normally, grazing is sufficient at ~dl times of j,he.rolli', ltlt;hottgh there Illay he tempomry localo:hol't,ageh if the fa,i! of'the river ih delayed OJ' if it o:hould rihc unexpectedly. In llluc:h of the Mea, huwevci', tl10l'f} may be ~hol'tage;; during ltlld immc(liately niter the mimi nnd, in 1,lle we~t, in pltl't.ielliu, the il~oreare in cllt.tle 1l1l111hen; eoi1:-;equl'ut upon the success of dise!1so control measnres has resulted ill overerowding of the toic.h in the dry :-;eason. Bulls are ltllowecl to 1'nn wit,}l the eowr. Although t,jlel'e mny he sufficient ImIls to clteet, the sel'viec of' n,]i the oows as Uwy come in hoat, it hn.'! bcen observed thn,t one Jmll will establish it"elf mi tho ;, mastnl' " (If the herd and,,,iii prevent, youngei' ur weaker bulb frolll serving cow,,; even if their numberr are beyond Hl'l own o<1p<wity. "Then the cattle return t,o the camp, It hull may lie allowed to Wltlle among the COWR fur.t short t,ill10 nho!' they have been j,ot;hel'cd. Hulls a ee Raid t.o be Relected on the hnsil'l (If t.heir dams' lllilk'p]'()dilc,illg reputation, but a degree of negative selection is dl'eetecl by tho prnutice Iii' nn,stratillg exeepticlnnlly \roll-grown.nnmg hulls nj, 1)(\1;we011 1 and :l,yon!.'s of agl' so that, Oley IllHy 1JeeUllle the lllet, "i'iimg hulbi " of 1oI1O young \\'Hl'l'iors (Figure 62). Calves RllCkle their dam:.; Hllrl nre.1liowed n.1i tho milk. [01' (;110 Jimt 15 days, 1rhen milk is considered to he., lliwlean " for human e(illkulliption. After thik, the calf is perlllitted to tluekle ill order to HtilllllhLto milk ejection llllll [,gain nt, the e01nl)letion of milking. rl'he young oa11' renhtiw; in the emnp tet.hered t,o n peg unt.il iij ih 8 1,0 4- lllonths old, when it cutorf> R ealf he1'(l in which it l'el\ll~im\ unt.l1 it i.; we,\llcd on the completion of itf; llam'f.l laotation. After weltlling, the c:a.lvcl'i join the mnin herd ns /:loon as they are considered to he Hlrfl:ieiontly well grown, Milking ir carried out bwiee d,lily Itt about OH.OO hrs. and UU10 hl'k. It. ih cllstomary for the gourds in which milk is collo(it.ud to he l'ini-led ill cow's urine hefore milking, and the cow's udder is frequently phtstered with fi'csh eow's dung nfter milking i:; C:Olllpleted, p)'olmhly with the intention of deterring the calf from suckling. It ih bolieved that in111ttion of the eow'r YfLgilm stimulater milk ejeot.ioll. IJiquid milk is consumed hy the cnttle-nwning tl'illen oiblwl' fl'ohh 01', prefera,hly, slightly sour, and forms t.iw )litki::; of (;he diot at; j,}10 dry :,;easoll camps. When sufficient mille is!tv~1iluhle it Hmy be churned in,1 gourd and mieu for l1utking clarifiod hutter whio11 if! cullsmnod locally. It is very rare for milk 01' milk products to be di:qj)osed of outside the illul1cdinte f!tmily eirde. In times uf gmin fl\luine the ca,ttle may be bled from the jllgubr vein ~mcl the blood mixed with milk which is boiled to form n "porridge" (McLn,nghlin, m. A., Pel' Banal Camrnwnication). 184

192 FH1UHN ().j., Ni/atil' "Nw31''' bull, Nastr-I')!,VIIM' di8triet, UPJ! 'I' Nile PI'(l1!inc,'c, RCllUblie of the 81.(drtn, FlCHJI{}] Gil, NU()til' "Xtw,r" (:ow, Hastett' N'l(er Di8lrict, UPl)/,/, ~Vile P.rovince, Republic of the,"'!.ulan, COUl'tC'R.r of 1~.. :\. :\It"IJHnghlin

193 Pbysical characteristics of the 'breed Nilotic caule (]'igures 64 and (5) are of an undifferentiated type which ha:; developed as a J'mmlt of a form of natural selectioil under the difficult conditions imposed by an environment dominated hy seasonal!md prolonged flooding and the Ijrevn,lellce of' insect pests. They are of medium size, long in the leg and generally tend to be lacking in spriug uf rill and depth of' eheflt. There is a tendency for ettttle in the e<:11olt of thc area to be of gmater size and fluperiol' confornu.tion than tho:;e in the west. ThiR diffel'cntial has been associated with superior fertility of the pastures in the eastpl'll districts and a more level supply of grnzing throughout the yeat'. The head is of moderate length. The face is lean and the profile is normally straight with a variation between slightly convex and slightly concave. The horns spring from 11 concave poll on welldeveloped pedestals, and are lyre-shaped, grow.ing ill nn outward and backward, then upward, inward, and forward direction, with the tips inclined backwards. The size of 1;he horns varies greatly. In the southern parts of the area _- in Bar district and the Ali~Lb vauey - horns tend to be hnmense, with the diameter of the horn at it;h Imse 20 cm. and its length up to 152 cm.; ellolewherc hol:118 tend to be of medium length and do not nurmally exceed :30 to 4() em. in length. 'rhe largest horns appeal' to occur in the CI1Rtrated malo, u,ltllough cows with very large horns can be seen in the!:louth. Bull:; genemlly hlwe horns of mcdium length which often terminat.e ill very slmrp points. Polled a,nimals occur throughout the Nilotio t11'0l\. In the northern part of the area loose unattached horns are Heell. Ii; is note. worthy that this anomaly is common among Northerll Sudnn shor1; horned zebus and its occurrence among Nilotic cnttle ill places contiguous with districts in which the Northern Sudan HhOl'thornod zehu is the cattle type lui'y he due to an exchange of genetic ma;lol'ittl lwl'ofih the type boundary. The e(l,r8 are of' Illodemt,(l Hize and are held horizontally. '1'he hump is muscular and cervimtl to cel'vioo-thol'l1cic in pohitiojl. It is of small to moderate size in the fel111tle and castrated. male, but in the bull it is sometimes of eonsiclera,ble Hize ltud limy Im1ll OVDr slightly to one side. The 1;oplille rises from the withers to the rump ltnd tends to bo more or less sharply ridged. The rump is of lllodend;e lc'llgth nnd slope and the sacrum is lesi; accentuated than in Northern Sudan ze)nlh. The dewlap is fttirly well developed and may he about 21) em. deep, while the umbilical fold in the female is aboul 25 to a() om. long and up to 23 cm. deep (SDIT, 1955). IH6

194 Coat coloration shows great variation and includes almost every possible combination of colors, including white, gray, dun, brindle roans, whole reds, browns and blacks and patterns of these colors, singly or in combination, on a white ground. Lighter areas al'ouml t,he eyes and muzzle are common. Whites and grays ate most common in the extreme south of the area ill the Bor and Aliab districts, while in the northeast, in the Eastern NneI' district, red spotting on the flanks of an otherwise white animal occurs. The skin is moderately loose. Its pigmentation is generally fairly dark but tends to he intensified in ~tllimals of light coat coloration. ~'he average liveweight of 52 mature cows at Malakal Government Dairy in 1954 WitS 254 kg. and the avern.ge liveweight of 10 steers, approximntely 3 years old, was 240 kg. The n.verage birthweight of Cltlves is reported to be about 30 kg. The average height at withers and heart girth measurement of Nilotic cows at Malakal Dairy in 1954 were ll5 em. and 162 cm. resilectively (SDIT, 1955; McLaughlin, E.A., Personal Oomm.nnication). Liveweights and measurements of Nilotic eattle are given in Tables 82, 83!Lnd 84. Fnnetional characteristics of thc hree(l Nilotic heifers calve for the first time at between 8 l),nd 4lh years of age. The calving interval hetween suhsequent calves under tribal conditions is estimated to be between 1 and 3 years, and the productive life of a cow is variously estimated to he between 4 and 12 lactations. A bull is first used for breeding at about 3 years of age and the period during which it remains in the herd is reported to be about 4 to 6 years. While some calves are born in every month of the year, the majority of cn.lvings are reported to take place Letween October and early January from services when the cows are grazing on the taica between.january and April. Nilotic COWH arc capable of only sll1all milk yields. It has been estill1ated that under tribal conditions average daily yields [1re in the neighborhood of 4 to 5 lb. of milk from a cow that is Buclding her c[1,lf twice dll.. ily at milking time. Very exceptional cows are said to give 11 to 14 lb. during the first 20 du,yi> aft,er calving as well as feeding,t calf. At Ma;la,kal Government Dairy, in 1H53-54, the n,verage yield of 47 cows, which were also suckling their calves was 896 liters in 263 days (SDIT, IH55). In the average yield of all cows at the dairy was 1,230 lb. of milk in 37 weeks with calf suckling (Sudan Vetel' illltl'y Servic:(', ID51). ls7 1:\ -- Aj,'iw" cattlo.

195 TAU.LT' ::12. - AVEHAUE MEASUHEJlmN'J'S OF NILOTIO OATTLE IN Ul'P.E1.H N u,e PltOVINOJ'J ====-=-=----_=='-=----.-=-. Male I li'emllle I.-. ~~\"r \~. ycar+uature 1 yom' \ 2 Y"'lr8\~~at~Il'~~ : Weight, kg.... Length from ~ILOnl(I!ll' point to pinbone, "ro Height at witherr, "Ill,,,, Deptll nf cllcst, em,... ',' WirUh of hips, em.,.,.,.., Heart girth, em.,...,.,.". fir. 1:1Il 5:l 'i1j :3 11; :!:1 89 J3~ a"l) 55 IIJ ria 1')" ~] 3U 15 1(lfi ~n _ '----.-'----' ' SotlIWE: Jack,,r. D. ~I., Pt'I'.'WIU1Z al)lhutnnh~(lli(}n. 1:10 2:!f, \ lo~ JI)~ :!!) :1Il 1:12 1!;5 :lbo!ill 1:11 a,~ 17!1 TABLE 8a. - AVERAGE J\'[EASUI-tEMEWL'H 0]' Nu,o'rm OA~L"l'.LI~ IN EASTERN BAHR Ef, GHAZAJ, PrWVINOE Weight, kg..,... ".., i Length from shoull1el' IJllillt! to pinbone, em..,...,.' Height llt withel's, em,... Depth of chest., em Wirlth of hills, em....,.,. lien rt girth, em...., i'n 011 ~H jh 21 11)4 7 1 Hl2 110 :300 ~20 lll~ un [, iri 7:1 H :Jt! Hli 1,m :1lI M ~:l fir. li'r, 801]nom: Jack, J. D. :M., Personnl (Jo/l!IILUnication. TABLE AVERAGE MEASUItEMENl'S Olr NU,OTW OAT~rJ,r~ P IN W:mST.E1RN DAHa EL GHAZAL PltOV!N(lE ---, ;'\_r_n_ll_\_-:- \_~~~~ =I--~ ~~ - 1 year '2 yl~tl,l'~ I roaturo mll,bn'4.~ I-----;------' ~- - _ Estimatou,vejght, kg.., '" Lengtll froill shoultlol' lloiut to pinbone, cm.... lieight at withera, ('Ill.... Depth of (lhest, em,... Width of hips, CIll....,. Heart girth, em.... ". III) Ii:l uri ~ it) 11]~ [il) 20 12:J loll 1:J" _--...:._--..!_---'--_. _ SounCE: Jank, J. D. lil, Per8rlilaZ Oommunication. l~ HiG 1~1) ~~(I,Y l ItH 110 Iall fill O:l :lii,ill J.l~ HIO _: ----_..._...._-_.. 188

196 The meat from Nilotic m.ttle is genemlly considereu. til be superior to that of Northern Rudttn cattle. Considerable quantities of meat, are consumed by the Nilotes, and it is pl'olmhle that almost every heast is eventually eaten. The drersing percentage of Nilotic steers ir reported to he about 50 percent. Nilotie hulls and BteCI'8 mm he trained for dmft work in which they nrc docile but slow. On n, government station ~where they are used they are fil'ilt put to work B"t 6 years of age, hase (I, useful working life of a1jout eight years and are not llormally required to work for more than foul' hour;,; it day. Nilotio cltttle are suflceptible to. the main epizootic diseases of the lll'e!l - rinderpest!tl1d contagiow:l hovine pleuro-pneumonia - ~which in the pttst luwe been an effective meaml of preventing any suustantial increllse in the cn,ttle population. Rinderpest has heen effectively controlled by pro})hyih,ctic vaecina,tion, hut conto.giuus hovine pleuropneumonin Rtill caw-les quite large lm.;ses. The cattle arc tolemnt of the locally pl'evnlcnt Iltmins of foot-and-mouth disease, although a. chronic form exiflh, which Cl1uses the affected animal to develop a rough, thick com, and a chamcteristio form of' respiration, and is re~pomlible for the na,me of "pa,ntel's" which is <1pplied to t1uimals with thi., condition. Anthmx occurs sporadically. Trypanosomiasis is wide!'ipread, particularly in Baht' el Ghazal Province where the cattle gmze in the wooded ironstone country during the rains, but ha,8 been successfully eont'l~olled in much of the aren 1>y the veterinary authorities (Jack, J. D. M., Per.sonal Oommunication; McLn,ughlin, E. A., Per.sonal Oomm1tniclltion). Performance in other areas Nilotic cattle hnve been tf1ken into the wooded tsethe country in t.he southwestern. Sudml where t1 herd of :;;h1ughtel' cattle has been maintained at Nzara ill EqmttoritL Province. \'Vhen protected by a t.rypanocidal drug they l'enminecl in good he!1lth for the short period that elapsed beforc their shtughtel'. Somes of breeding stock ami infnrmlltion regarding the breed It has been chtim<lted (SDIT, IHo5) that there were <1bout 2,UO(.),000 cattle of this type in the thl'ee provinces of the southern Sudan in Government c1i11ry herds, hwgely composed of Nilotic cattle have been ll1ltintained at Malakal in Upper Nile Province, and at vvan and Yinol in BahI' el GhllZiJ,l Province. Fnl'ther iufonnntion regarding Nilotic catt,ie cu,n be obtained from thc Director, Department of Animftl Pl'oduction, Ministry of Animal.H.esoul'ces, Khartoum. Republic of the Sudml.

197 NIOKA Origin The Niolm cattle have developed from the interbreeding of the AIllwle (Bahima, Sa,nglt type) and the LugWttre zehu. 'J'hey are reported to 1e au estanished t,ype. Conditions ill thc native home of thc ))rccd Location, topo(fj'[ phy (t'juz Boils The type is localized in the 1r01l:en ph1tea,u 11ret1 of t.he Hant.Ituri, Nioka, Mahagi, and DjUgll regions in the Eastern Province of the Belgian Congo. The n.ltitudc of the aren, vlwieh from 5,000 to 6,000 feet. Nioka Station, where the Belgian Congo authorities maintnili 11 breeding herd of Niokn. cattle, ha::; an ele'vation of 5,500 feet Etud ih situat,ed at ' east longitude and 20 2' north luiiituclo. The Hoils in the area are of granitic origin. They Itre geuernlly clayey snnd and rocky in t,exture and are of pool' fer tili tiy. Olimate The climate is characterized by two miny :-;oason~. In :-;pit,e of the relatively high altitude maximum tempemtures throughout iihe yeltr are above 30 0 C. The nights are cool and at timeh chilly llnd foggy. The variation between day and night tempera.tures it; great. NovcmhCl' to January are comparatively dry months. Humidit.y is high t.hl'(lllgh. out the year. Some meteorological da,t,fi, rot' Niolm Stllt.iOll t1.1:(' :-;um ll1f1,rized in Table Ro. TABLE GLIl\fATOLOGICAL DATA J!'UOM nm INEAC f:l~~a'pwn A~~ NlOKA Mean nutximum tcmllel atul'o,oc. 34 :14 :12 34 ~~ 'Jl :lo ~O a2 aa all :1Il :II.H Mean luinimnm tempol'l1tnl'c, lic. 7 7 l.l 0 H 1< l'\ \l 111 H 8.11 Mean tempel''' turc, oc S ,2 10. (i \) lb.:!.1h.ll ). ~ to ~ Meall rainfall, mm ] :J HR un lui -..,- fi~.i lila...-'~~-" BouRm,;: VcterillH1')" Sel1viec of the Belgian COllgo, Persol/al Oommuliic"Uorl. 1\:10

198 Vegetation Hyparrhenict cymbctria, Loudetia (It'undinacea and Digitcw'in abys Si1W(G are among the more important grazing grasses, as well as species of Cymbopogon and Afrona1'dus. The grasses grow rttpidly during the r!1iny se!1sons hut become woody during the drier months. liianagement practices The m.ttle are maintained on pastures throughout the year. DUl'lllg the rainy seasons when grass is abundant the cattle thrive well, but during the drier months when there is scarcity of feed they lose weight. There nre no extensive movements of cattle in search of better pastures. The cattle are grazed during the day, but are kept in an enclosure d1l1'ing the night for l)l'otection against wild animals. Physical charactcl'istics of the breed Variation in the general eonfol'uhttion ofthe Niolm mtttle (Figures 66 and 67) is due to the mixture of two distinct parental types; the Sanga type Ankale and the Zehu type Lugware. The formation of the hump, for inst!1nce, varies fronl the rudimentary to a prominence similar to that of the zebu. They are, on an average, compact mediumsized a,nimak The bones are dense and tho hoof~ (1]:e strong. The formation of the horns varies considerably. The usual coat colors arc brown, brown and white, and black. The skin is soft and pliltble. The pigmentation of the skin is clltrk The dewlap is fairly well devel oped. The hairy coat is short and of medium softness. Dai,a, on certain body measurements are sulllmarized in Table 86. TABLE DATA ON CERTAIN BODY MEASU!{E:MBN~rS OF NWKA CATTLE MAINTAINED AT THE INEAC STATION, NIOKA, BELCUAN CONGO 1 yenr 2 yeurs :\1atul'e Weight, mules, kg Wolght, fmunlos. kg FEMALES Height ltt withors, ero DCllth of [Jlw~t, em Wi(lth Itt 111p8, em UearL girt.ll, ero U.20 ~tlulum: VeterillUl'Y Servino o! tho Uelgltm Congo, Personal OornmunicaHolL. un

199 FreWItT<] 66. Niolw b ull. C(lUl'il'AY (lr It. Ul'llot

200 Functional charactcristics of the hrced Niolm cattle are utilized for the production of milk aud moat. They thrive well on the pastureh available in the [trea and produee excellent beef. The females calve for the first time at from 41 to 48 months of age. The average calving interval is ahout one year. The average number of lactations during a normal lifetime is 9. The average daily milk production in a lactation period of 24(l days has been 2.98 liters. The males are IJUt to service when they are 32 to 36 months old. They are fairly quick at service. The Nioka cattle show good adaptability to fattening on grasslands. They are genernlly slaughtered at about 3 years of age when they weigh about 33(l kg. The dressing percentage is al)out 50. Sourccs of brecding stock and information rcgarding the breed It is est,imated that there are over 45,000 Nioka cattle in the region. Further information regarding the type may be obtnined from: 'The Provincial Director of Veterinary Services, Eastern Province, Sta1l1eyville, Belgian Oongo. The Director of INEAO (Institut, national pour l'etude agl'onomique du Oongo helge), Nioka Station, Nioka, Belgian Congo. Origin NGANDA The Nwmda cattle had their origin in the cl'osl>ing of the Sanga type Ankole and the Bukedi zebu of Uganda. Crossbred Htrains occur alongside the pure parent l;ypef:l in those areas where the parent types exist. The Ci~ttle type is not, sti~bilized 011 account of constant inter mixtures with either of the parent types, and it may, t,herefol'e, not yet be sufficiently well established to justify classification as a breed. Strains are observed in which either the Ankole or the Bukedi zebu dmracteristics are predominant. The crosses in which the Ankole Htmin predominates have a very rudimentary hump. It il:l reported by the Director of Veterinary Services, Uganda, that the mnjority of these cattle 11reoc1 reasonably true to type, although exact data nre not nvailahle. On account of itr producing qualities, which are higher than those of other local types, it is liked by the farmers. Ngandn cattle Me Humerous in Buganda Province and in central Uganda. Hl3

201 -,-._".,-_ ,,~.~ Location, topography and 8oil8 The,Welt occupied by the Ngttnda cattle lielol Oll the northern side of Lake Victoria in U gandn,. It, is part of the hlke lmhill and is oharncterized by flat-topped hills of uniform heigh~. The average elevation varies from 3,000 to 6,000 feet above sen, lovel. 'fhe valley hottoms are occupied by swampy streams. The soils on the top of the hills tore gray in color awl well supplied with nut,l'ients. The soils on the sloper are red Cl1ol'ths. 'fhese rod soils grade into sandy soils around the edge::; of the swnm] 1:'1. The swamps usually have bin,ck soils of poor draina,gc, Climate The area occupied by the Ngallda cttttic is situttted on tho equai;or. The climate is, on the whole, equnhle mlcl plm,sanl. 'rhere are two rainfall periods, one ii'om March to M.loy toncl the other from Oetohcr to December. The high plnteau land l1ucl hill l'anges ah well as tho valleys and swamps locil.lly modi(y the clillwtin conditiiolls. Average climo,tological data for Entchbe nro snllulll1rize<l in ~[\tble H7, Figures illustrating the degree of clond lot ]~ntebho in the different months of the year are given in Tlbhle 88. TABLE OLIMAToLoaIOAr, DATA J!'OIt ENT.lilHlm (Am'I~['lJlJ];J I'i... I.0 I '" " "",;,; j ~ ~ -~=='=--=r--~'i ~ I I I ~. I ~ I i I ~ ~ ;;;J M.....j r~ 8 7, :1,H7H l!ul'.) Moan tempe rature, maximum OF : , RO.l 71l liiean tempe rature, minimtull OF Ga ' (1, Ill.!) 02.1 O!l.n 0:1.0 mi.!! I 12.0 Oil.4 Humid ity at llra., %... sa HO 81l sr, 8l 81 Humidt ty at 14.\\0 llrr., (Yo., M 01) 71 7l GO 07 GG (\7 (\~.2 Avel'ag 0!llonthlym :35! (l7 '! : j'ainfnl I, GO OlOUllOB; 'Vall~r, 11).10. 'rable FUltTHER CLII>lATOLOmOAL DA'l'A FOJt 1IJNT.mBDE -.. '. '.rimo of ilay ci ~... - ~- I.g,; I "" M<Htll cloud (tentll~ nf Uw Hky ('OVI']'" II) I..: il I 0) ~ ~ "', ~ <l) -"1 M "" Ui _~.JJJ I ~I!I I ~_ OS !l fj H OTmom Kou(lI'ow,

202 Vegetation Uudor the prevailing clinmtic and ~oil conditions grasses grow mpicuy and luxuriantly. Elepha.. nt grass (Penniset um purpureum) is the dominant species in the grazing areas. Spear grass (Imperata, cylindric(6) and Digitaria swlal'um occur when there is overgxazing. Hypc6rrhenia 8pp. and Oymbopo{/on afronard1t8 are COlUUlon on dry rocky hillsides in this zone. On very swampy ground, where elephant grass does not flourish, it is replaced by Eragmstis spp. It has been reported that farmers in Buganda Province readily adopt improved pasture management practices. Supplementary feeding of cattle includes l'aw cassa.. va, banana peelings and leaves, sweet potatoes, maize, millet, cottonseed a.. nd beans. JJImwgement pmctices The normal farmer's herd in Bugallda Province includes from 20 to 50 cattle. Nowadays cattle sejdom tl'avellong disbllces to pasture but utilize whatever grazing is available in the vicinity ohhe homestead. Bit.ing fliefl (Stomoxys spp.) are the cause of great distress to the cattle in the grazing H.. reas. As a protective measure, the cattle the gcnemlly kraaled during most of the clay, only being tlllowed out to pasture for short periods in the morlling and evening, so that the daily grazing time teuda to be restricted below that which would be necessary for an adequate intake of nutrients by the animals. The calves, which are housed separately, receive besides grazing, chopped elephant grass and a.. ny other feeds which 1l1lty be availal)le on the farm. 1'he cl11ves are not weaned from their dams, hut on account of the cush value of milk, are often almost starved. This greatly retards their growth and the mortality among thc calver is very high. Physical characteristics of the hreed The Nganda cattle (Figure 68) arc medium-sized and compact, with deep bodies. The hump is rudimentary except in those animals which may lu1ve a greltter proportion of zebu breeding. The coat colors usually found are reds of va.. eying shades, red and white, black and white, and gray. Both horned and polled cattle occur in the herds. The hoofs are strong. The dewlap is fairly well developed but the umbilical fold and sheath are not strongly ma.. rked. The skin is of mediulll thickness and the coat is smooth. Avera..ge weights of cattle born during the years 1948-H152 n.. t the Livestock Experimental Station, Entehbe, where a herd of polled Nganda catt]o is maintained, arc given in Table

203 FIGURI~ 68. N(Irmda cattle. [l\bove] Bull. Bh thweiyht, 41 lb., lillcwnight (l.t 7,'! m nnths, lll; [below] Oow. Average mille yield of (J lacluuons, 38.1 (/(lllon8 milk, contrrin1:ng lb. [mtte'l'lal. COUl'(:(lHY of H. N. S{lllii<H'R

204 'l'abll!j vveights 01" NGANDA CATTU] IN DIFFERENT Acm Gnoups Functional characteristics of the breed NgILlldn. cattle nre used for the production of both milk unci beef. Ct,strated males are used for drn.ft purposes. The Nganda hl reported to show superior productivity to either the Allkole 01' the Bukedi zebu. Nganda heifers calve for the first time at an average age of 45 months. Avemge milk produotion reoords of Nganda oows maintained at the Livestock ExperimentuJ Station, Entebbe, are Rummnrized in Table QO. TABLE RECORDS OF MILK YIELDS OF NGANDA CO'\VS A'.r EN TEBBE -_.. (' l' I Hungc in ~Ilk -- No. of No. of No. of "OUl- Milk Ll VlDg yield Year cows 111<. tc(] I.yiehl, day' in t,]l(i lad,,,- III. in i~ :;r I I )101'(1 tiona milk day~ min' J lb. IUitX. J Ih. I S 1 Iii 2 10(1 :..l4j :j;si) :]0 l!j~o :n 1 i! 2 a4f1 208 ai )051 2; I: ~i"il ;;jg 1 4~O :J fio ((101 ~I :l 1\1 2 H ~~ 272!fI f'09 JlHi:! an ~ ~t\ 1 \_\~j 2{l~ :1';.1 5fi1 4 lu~ ]01):1 I~ 3 III ~ 70;, :!72 ant; 1 o(lu 311lXl 1 C(JW~ mllke(l with ('alve~ HllCklin~ awl COWB coluil\otely mlllwc1.; ~oo lb. 11(1<10<1 as tho milk oal,imato(1 to b(1 tuken by tlw (mit. COW" "nth'l'ly milkoc\ without oillve~, (Jow~ suckling clllvo~ at milking; 000 1l.J. II(ltlcll tn (',)111 yi"lll. SounoEl: Ugltuilll Pl'llt cetor:lt.e, Sources of bl'cetling stock ami infol'lllation l'eganliug the bl'cell Information rcgarding the Nganda cattle type can be obtained. from t,11e Director of Veterinal'Y Services, U gandn Protectorn te, Entebbe, Uganda. 197

205 Origin TONGA The TonglL cattle are of the Sanga type llud ~"ppcill' to he similar to the smajler lvlashona cattle of Southern H,hodesia and the Nguni of Swaziland and Zululand (Walker, C.A., Pe1'sona,l Oornrnunication). They are also known as Baila or Mashu Kulumhwe. They are slufi,ller in tlize and have shoder horns than some other Ell,nga cattle typer. Conditions in the native home of the breed Location, topography a,nrz soils Tonga cattle nre found in t, ronghly J eetl1llgullll.' ared, following the railw<l.y from Livingstone to Broken Hill, extending on the south ~LlHl southwest to the Southern Rhodesian border from Nyarulmmm to Kazllllgula, and on the northwest to a line running from Broken.Hill through Namwah1 to Kazunguln,. The area is situn,ted approximately between 2150 and 30 0 east 101lgi1iude and between 15 0 and ISO Routh latitude. The altitude varies from 2,000 to 4,000 feet. above sea level. 'The main soil types prevailing in the nrca are derived from gmllit.ic IHtl'Ont ma,terial with a prepondemnco of K(Lhthftl'i HC"Lnd. Meau maximum tejllpel'aturc~ 1? R1.B 7llA RO.7 8::l.~ iu.. 1 n.n A!1.5 U~.S 1l7.1 H5.ti H2.a Mean minimum 1iem1>crntul'e~ ufo io.4 UU.U n~.n lii. l 57.7 Gr..1 GUI r)7.~ G:l.:l (1.1 GR.:! 11:1.4 0.' Humidity... Ofi \IJ 8(1 SU 8:1 m R:l R7 87 fill U:l ~7.(\ Ri I :() Haillfnll, in.... a ,fil O.~.J (I,OJ !i lui-! ag.] SnUIWB: l\feteol'{)iogical Department of Nnl'Lhel"ll RhollL\Mill. Avern~o fo!' 1U YCHl'R ~-.-- Olimate Temperature rises mpidly during the months of 'September and October and even the nights are sometime:'! Wltl'll1 l1,nd. oppressive. 'The heat is occasionally relieved during the month of Novemhol' by thunderstorms, whioh hecome more frequent HS j,}w miny l:iouson 198

206 approaches. Novemher to April are rainy months. During winter lllonthh night temperatures are ILpt to be low. Frosts occur quite frcquently in the vttllcy areas of the Z,\mbesi and Kafue. The climates of Rhodesia and Nyas(tland, according to the Thornthwaite classification, have been reported by Howe (1953), who luay be referred to for furthor details. Climatological data for Mazabulm are summarized in Table 91. Vegetation More thml half of the total land,mrface is covered wi1,h open woodland and savannah, imporj-"lnt.to the native inhahitants as the basis of val'iotlr systellll:l of shifting cultivation. The main agricultural crops in these areas are lll(tize, millets, gl'oundnuts, cowpeas, beans and casstwa. By-products from these tue utilized for stock feeding. In the riverine grazing areas species of Pa81xllurn and Em(fl'ostis are common. Other important grasses are species of HYP(l1'rlienia, Setaria and Ur'ochloa (Trapnell et al., H)47). JY/ anagement 2)1'(tctices Oattle hus]xmdry in thih arelt if; seldom closely related to the growing of crops. The herds are semi-nomadic. During the wet I:!CaflOl1 (from December to July) when the cattle are near the villages, the Bntonga t;ribesmen keep thcm closely herded to prevent t,hcir trespass. ing on food crops. On the conclusion of the rains the cattle move n,w",y from the vi1lage8 ~tlld cultivated land, following the receding flood of the Kafne river, When on the exposed flood plain 1;hey are not closely herded hut. are allowed to graze freely on t.he open range. The cattle remain on the dry season gr~tzing from August to December. As is usual in much of Africa, the number of cattlc possesscd by a man is regarded as the outward Hign of his wealth and standing in sooiety. Oalves arc I),llowed to suckle their dams throughout the lactation, [md only It few COWR are milked to provide t,he family with its requirements of fref;h milk l\nd its products, such:!\s fermented mille Physical chal'lletel'isties of the breed Tonga cattlc (FigurcR 60 and 70) axe medium-sized, relatively straight Imcked animals of " Sanga "conformation. The head is long and the profile straight. The slight prominence of the orbital arches lends a degrec of concavit.y to t.he forehe[\d. The neck is short and the dewlap ih of only moclernte development. The cervico-thol'acic, muhcular hump IH9

207 ') 1 J FHWJU'] Hn. 'l'on(jrt IJ1l11. Fwmn<:: 70. :i'o'hfjn now. 2(]O

208 ih ves[,iginal ill the fem!tle hut of medium size in the nmle. The topline is rebtively straight from the withers to the hindquarters, which are of only nlodera,te slope. The S!1Cl'U111 is slightly pl'olllinent. The body i:; of moctemt,e depth a,nd the underline tends to rise from front to rem'. The In,ck of depth of the botly together with the l'ch1tively long limbs give,~ the ttuimn,l an <),ppeclrance of lcggillefls. The hoofs have heen reported to he very dul'ablo. The most mnml COltt colors are red, black, and pied with red or ljhlck. Whole,I')lite is nne. The skin is darkly pigmented, ]oo,;e and of medium thicknehs. The Ilair i~ short Hnd clore. Average liveweights of T611ga cattle in the Mazalmlm herd, the foundation animals of which had heen drctwll from t,he NI1ll1waia district, were: male and female calves l1t hirth, 48 and 40 lb. respectively; l-yem'-olclmn,leh, 2451b.; 2 yoal'-olunut]es, ficio lb.; llu1ture hulls, 1,100 lb.;,tnd mature oxen, 1,050 lb. (,ValkoI', C. A., Pe1'8onal Uornrnun'icat'ion). Some livcweighth and measurementr of Tong1\, cattio <1,1'0 given in Trthle 02. TAHLl~ AVEI{A(1.E LIVEWI';WH~I~H AN]) ji[!,jasllre11ent::l all' TONGA CA.r'l'Ll~ 1. Y(~HI' JJivl.'wtlight, I h IJcmgt.ll fl'oi11,~holli!ioi' point to pin hollo, ('Ill. H'''Il'L l1'il'th. ('1\1.,, ----.~-.----,, -,- SOUHog: 131Helc, J. O.t Pf'}'l~jl1/'(l1 (}(Jlnw,uai('tltilJu. FUllctional Chll1'lIctel'istic9 of Lhe hreed The Tonga i;; ureel n~,1 geneml-pul'pohe,milllhi,mel i~ rejlol'tecl to IJe barely ~tllcl to hn,ve high heat tolerance. The COWH!we OCC<1SiOllttlly milked hy t.ho native triijmnnen, ltlthough lisul1lly the C<l.lveK are allowed all the milk. 'rhey are not useu extensively for heef production, only t.he old and deorepit animals being shtughtered. The females calve for the first time when they f'tre a little over :3 YClWH old. There ifl110 fixed hreeding sel'\,ron and Cl1lvings occur through (Jut, tho year,,t]t;hongh the largest drop of calver is from August to IVltwoh. The a,verage calving percentage in the hreeding herd. at Maza, Imlm has been about 139, The lllu.lefl ;1,1'0 allowed to serve. fl'oll1 about ~ 2 yeal's of age; only nl1~les which M'O Ufled for work are CHfllr_tted. Tong!t 201

209 ~ Cl1t1ile ltl'(' slow hut ::;teudy dmft liuimnls and arc used for all kinds of hnulugo, llsing fileds or carts. as wen:as for field work. Prom limited data reported from the experimontal herd ftt MaZltbnlm it hft::; heen observed tlmt ut 5 years of ftgc (,hey weigh (thoui; 1,100 Ib, and!ire ready for slaughtcr, The dressing perceni,ago has been reported to be 53.6, the proportion of bone in i;lw Cat'OttHS being 15,2 percent. The type is reported to Le moderately I:lusceptible to Licks and lico infestation ltud to foo1i-and-mouth dirc1tr-;e (Walker, C, A., P(l1'sonal Onm,m1mication). ltecords of performance of the TOllg!, herd Itt Mall.ahuka Govel'llment Experimental Station are sulllmariwd in Tahle n:~. ~r"\bl]~ Pl~Rl!'OR!VIAN(IE f{eoollds 01" 'J~l:lE 'rong,\. HERD AT MMIADUKA COVEHNMENT EXPERI)V[ENTAL S:t'ATION No. of "('WB in hori! at heginning of mlcll broecling Reason I I 'rota! 'l'ota! progeny pl'og'cny il'rocll1c, mortal ml, ity U low 10li119r'~i 1I147 li2 ' ~J 29 1 : ml 1 [iii HI 2f1 ';OtTrtCH':: NOl'j-,]Wl'll HhodeHin., 1\152, lu "-.. ~ COl.'l'ccted llv owo!ght of heef prot luetlc] III 0 ('ow unit '_" - in 1 in f) in [i ycnl's, YCIIJ'S J yeal'h, Ih. Ih. lb, 32'm121 lid ~(I AVl,1rag-e wolgllt or ealves, llhl.lc8 and femulos. Ih. SOllrces of breeding stock ami information regarding the bt'ccll It is estima.ted thelt t.here are ttbout 400,000 Tongn eat.tie in Northam Bhodesia. Further information may be obtained from the Director, Vl,teriwlt'y Serviees, Mazahnka, Northern Rhodesia.. 202

210 Group VI ANGONI Origin Cursan ~md 'l'hornton (19:36) place the Angoni cattle of Northern R,hodesi~t in the Shorthorncd Zebu group and Mason (1951b) classifies them as East Afric!tll Shorthorned Zebus. Faulkner (Personal C'ornmuniwtion) recordr that, while Angoni cattle in Nyasaland may have some Sangtt ancestry, those in Northern Rhodesia appeal' to be a more pure form of East African zebu. The name Angoni is taken from th~1t of the tribe, the members of which are the principal breeders of this t,ype of cattle. Conditions in the native home of the breed Lowtion, topography and 8oi/"s The native home of the Angoni cattle is in the Eastern Province of Northern H,hodesia, roughly within the area, bounded by the Luangwa river on the west, Lake Nyasa on the east and the border with Portuguese Eltst Africa on the south. The northern border of the type are'a ext~ends into the Northern Province of Northern Rhodesia. The altitude varies from 2,000 to 5,000 feet a,bove sea level The main soil types are sandy B,nd sandy loams. Olimate Temperatures vary with altitude and only the Luangwa valley area may be called truly tropical. Rainfall occurs in a single Heason which begins in November and continues through the middle of ApriL Tempera,tures are moderate in the early rains. The rainfall is sporadic and occurs in heavy showers. During the winter months night temperatures are low and necessitate the sheltering of livestock. The low winter night temperatures, the long dry season and the consequent lack of grazing, result in conditions for livestock bein'g severe. 203 H --.,tid""" ca.ttle.

211 Climatological {lata for Fort Jameson, looa,ted in the district of that name, in which Angol1i eat,t.je are extensively hred, are sllmmarized in Tahle 94. TABLE CLIJlfATOLOGIOAI, DA~~A J!'OR FORT.TA]\I]lSON, N ORTH:EltN R:a:ODESIA M mill tempol'flhn:e, 'F , , [} U'!.B : il 74.1 Hl1mltlity, GO,0 G5 ~\l a7 :17,17 r,o Rainfull, in ,;] a g,! H.2t ::;OUROE: Meteorological Depurtauont, of Nor("bol'Il Hho!leAia. Avornge for HI yelll'". The following climatological dali!l!tre reported for MazldlUlm, at latitude 16 0 south and longitude 28 0 east, and with an altiiiude of 3,400 feet above sea level, where 1111 experimcnt!tl breeding herd. of Angoni caule is established. The!werage rainfall has heen 28 inches pel' year, the milly I'mason being from December to March. 'rhe mean maximum f:llmde temperature is 80 0 F. and the mean minimum shade tempemtul'e ifl 55 0 F. The mean maximum and minimum :;hade tomperatures for summer are F. and 60 0 F. respectively. The mean maximum and minimum shade temperatures for winter are 80 0 F. and 30 0 F. respectively. Vegetation There are extensive grazing al'eas, although the avaihthility of herhage is restricted by the length of the dry,~eason and the hwk of All:ffieicnt moiflture in the soil to suatain plant growth. The following grass genera are important: HYPctr1'henia, Brachim'irt, Setc(1'in and Urochloa. Characteristic tree gcnera are B1'achystegin ttnd Isoherlinirt. Sorghum and maize are grown extensively. ]III anagement practices The Al1goni 11re used as geneml-purpose milk and beef production cattle., As is common in Africa,l1 territories, the cattlo StlI've as " bride wealth" and are slaughtered on ceremonial occasions. As crop production is not always feasible in the grell,ter part of the area, an exton. :WJ

212 JTrGtTRB 7.1. Anr;IJni /Jull. Jllatm'p, lil.'mi'ci(lht, 1,480 Ill. (~oll1'1"<l' of J, U. Black FrtHTJ{E 72. AU(Joni tljl.o, XWt8ulU1ul. COUl't""l" of D. E. Faulkner

213 sive pastoral system of farming ir practiced. Group herding is COlllIllon in the area. On account of the very cold nights during the winter, the l!n,ttje are generally Hbeltered in COrl'l.dH [md taken out for graziug late in the morning. Physical characteristics of the IIl'cell The Angoni cattle (Figures 71 t1nci 72) nre medium-sized, Iightlyboned [tnimals, with smooth compact frames. 'rhe hump is wei! developed in both sexes. The dewlap is large and deep and the Bkin is thin a,nd loose and of dark pigmentation. nw hair is short and of medium softness. The ears are medium-sized. The hoofr> are hard and very durable. The horns are Rhort and thick at the base. '}'ho usun.l coat colors are red, browll, dull, black, brokcn red and white, and black and white. Typical" line" brindle colorh of fawn, hlack and brown are also commonly seen. Average liveweights and body rnealmremellts of Angoni eattle at the Government Experimental Farm, Mazabuka, No['thern H.hocLeHia, are summarized in Tablc {)5. The birthweights of male and femaitl calves at this station were 60 and 55 lb. respectively. TABLE AVERAGE MEASUREMENTS O~' ANOONI ()A~I'TJ,l~ AT MAZABUKA, NOItTlIEItN B){ODBSIA Weight, lb.... 2UB.O G05.O 12f>O,O :!K'1.0 ',KI).() Leng~h from shonldor Jloint to pinbone, em ).1.:1 12:J.n Heigh~ at withers, em !.1! l~.1) Delltll of chert, em ti.3 HO.t!iH.O oa.a Width of hips, em U 42.0,1\),1 :l0.0,iij.o Heart girth, em l:lo,o 1&0.0 1 OliO.\) n W9.0 ::lounoe:,valko!', C. IT., PCI'.~()nal aommwl'icatfol~. --,~~--~.----~-- Functional characteristics of the brecd. In their native area Angoni cattle arc used as general-purpose milk, beef, a,nd work animals, but at the Mazabulm IUxperimentll.l Station their beef qualities are being developed. The females generally calve for the first time when they are a little over 3 years of age. No particular breeding season has been reported. 206

214 They are stated to be fairly regular breeders. The ma.1es are first mjed for service at 2 yea1'8 of f1ge, or slightly later, and IHwe lin [Lctive breeding life of' about 12 years. They lire reported to he shy la'ceders. Although the Angoui herd at lviazabuka Experimcntal Station lu1fl not been developed for milk production, Faulkner fond Brown (Colonial Office, Hl53) 1'el101't that the heht milkers i.n the Angoni hercl are ca,pftble of' giving Imlf a gf11lon of milk pel' day at the height of lactation, ill addition to feeding it (laif. It hi1!'; been reported that Angoni cattle rehpond to <1 high plane of' nutrit.ion, avcmging 2.0 lh. of Iiveweight gain per day. The lwemge ~laughter weight at 4 yefti'h is ahout 1,100 lb., <1lthongh selected!111imaih have ntt,ained to 1,120 lh. liveweight at about 400 dlo.y8. It har been reported that the proportion het,ween i,he forequl1l'ters and hindqunrters is in the l'l1tio of' 48:52 and thnt the lwomge dl'e,~fling pereentu,ge is 54.2, the figures for selected llall1ples heing 50 pcl'eont. The percentage of bone in the C,Hcass hl1r been given ItS 18.5 (WlJ,lker, C. H., Pe1'8ona,l Oommunication). Records of perforlllllilce of the Angoni herd at Mazalmka Govern. ment ExperimentnI Station (Hl52, 1952) are summarized in Table 96. TABLE H6. - l'erji'ormance RgCOUDS OF ANllONI CATTLE AT MAZABUKA --- -_ AVCl'1\g(\ No. of COWH in her!! a't COJ'l'lletc(1 live1l'oiglit. boginlling of caeh of b"cf producllrl wdght of ~lllver. h1'oo(1i nil' Sellson 'l'otal 100 cow unit, males lmd ~J '"tal fcmo,les. lb. progeny 1'1'0 geny - proune- m ortalcd~ lty in 4 tn 5 ill () ; I'l ~ j'l I'l cd ol )48 1D U ycnrs, years, Y(lal'f-!. '" h h " h '" lh. Jb. lh. '" h h '" 2H~~12:_140 1,J:j I ~H 1H7 11 ali n iloo 034,., 01 '"., '. 27"1'1~oI6251 1) Agcmi. cattle ttl'e very little 11[',e(l for draft, hut whenever they have heen uhecl fo1' t,hb llurposc they hft.ve been reported to be even-tempered and ac:tivc workers. Sources of brec(ling stock and information regarding the breell It ir estimllted that there are over 108,000 head of Angoni cattle 111 N ortherll H,hodesia. Flll'ther information may he obtained from the Directol' uf'veterinary Service~, Mazabnka, Northern HhodesifL. 207

215 BORAN Origin 'The Boran eat( Ie nl'!~ iuuigew l[ls to the :Lilmn llln! {'tnf ill,~()lit1wl'll l'ijthiopia and the adjoining parts of Somalia 1tlH.l uorthem.i\l'llya. In the secolld and third dcehr[cs of thih eontul'y H01'1tll eau.le \\'01'(:1 intl'ociucrd into tlw drier ]Hlrt,s (Jf I\:l1ny11 whel'p tlw.y havn beell soloetcd for beef (!1mlitie:; (Ill the properties of EUl'opllan H(it,tlel',~ until t.he "impl'oved Blll'llll " lw:-; becollw all 1111imal of vory ditfl,n'nt eonfol' matioll to that of til(' tl'ibal eah1e frolil whidt it is d(~l'ived. :Frtlnch, lvi. H. (Per8v'lut! C'mnmum:clltion) hah furthbr l:ntggested. t.hm Lho " improved BOl'itn., lllay often 1)c dc:'ieended from B [)l'h Wi which WOl'O crossed with EUl'Olll'i111 typer, I'mch a:-; Ute Ht.'nd'ol'tL so that, hej'dh ill the European nhlching meltr in all pruhahility c()lltaill a tiul;~lt pl'opol' tion of Enropei.n ancestry_ Conditions in the nativc home of the 11l'ccd Location, topography and 8oil8 The origilll~l environment of thero cattle WaI:I Uw add (!()UlIj,I'Y ill Rout,hern Ethiopit. which, in the Lilmn plateau, the celli,n' of sonial life of the Bomn t1'iljc, has an altitude of 3,000 Lo 4,000 Ji'd. In Kenya, Bora.n catt;lo are maintained very 1m'gely in the plnteau area to the wert of J\{ount Kenya with an altitude genemlly exceeding 5,000 feet. The soil:'l are descl'ibetl by Milne (I!laO) HI' IJoillg g(']wl'nlly red earths 01' black OJ' gray cla.ys (" oott,on :'lobi> "). Faullmel' (1951) rd'el',~ to Imil defiden(lio,~ ill plw.~pll11l lis Itm[ Hodilllll ~l.s well ns. to tl lesser extent;, chlorine allel. ill lilllit!.'11 areal'l,!.'olmlt. Climate In the original homo 0[' Lhe breed Ut() millf'ajl, whieh i>i lilllited to ft short Heason in the year, is low (HI to If) inehcr a ypl\l'),\ml lllu'olinbh, 80 thltt, prolonged droughts extelhlillg ovor sev:m'a1 yo,ws Hilt)' ()COUl'. The dimate of the arm. in KenYlt iu whieh Ow mn:iol'itiy of Horan herds are now mailltnilled in chamctel'ized by t.jw divisioll I)J' Uw yph.r into foul' ~en,solll3. Jnlluary and February are the cil'ieht. alld Wt1l'llwsti months with tdte1'l1(1on temperatures rising t\hove ::10 0 V. and iil811f. ficient minfltll for plant growth, The'; long rainn," in whidl about 208

216 .~'" half the total anllual rainfall occurs, fall in l\-ial'ch, April and May_ During this season the day temperaturcs are lower than in the first two months of t.he year, hut the nights are warm and sultry. June to OetoLer colllpric;es t.he vool winter season, with cold nights ~Lnd a considerable amount of cloud, sometimes with rain, in the day. Day telllllel'u,ture rises in September a,nct continues high through the" short mins " which extend from mid-october to December and give about, hnlf the precipitation of the "long rains." Anllual rainfall ir generally about 20 to 25 inches but ir erratic and ll11c(';;l'tain both seasonally and from year to year and it is ljossible for a whole rainy season to Ilass with very little rain. The 111N111 annual temperature is ill the neighborhood of 60 0 or 70 0 :F. The diunml range is considerahle and at Nakuru in the east Rift valley is 24 0 F. in July and 35 0 F. in Fchl'ual'Y. The air is clear in the rainy senrons, but in the drier months virihility {it reduced by dust storlus and haze as well as the smoke from bush firer and the mirage induced hy the afternoon heat (Kendrew, H15H). Climn,tulogicl\,l data fol' Garissa, where conditions Me similar to those under which the tribal herds are maintained, and for Nakmu and BumuruH, which are reprchentntive of the country in which the Europenn Boran mnchcs are situated, arc given in 'rable ~l7. (-/aris,'ul -.,.- M can tr~illijcl'ntlu'e, nil'. I,,, Mean lnnxim.ulll tomp{ll'lltllre, 1,'. Mtl(ln minljuuro t(jidpm'atnre, Illl". ~'["\m mlnfhu, lu. 'I'ABLE CLIMATOLOGIOAL DATA FOE GAltISSA, NAKURU <i.., OJ j --. H:l.H \12,(\ n.n n.g:? AND RU~!u.RUTJ IN KENYA.0 ~..: ;;J j -<j I "" '" I R5.6 fl7.1 HO.4 \17.4 \)8.1 1ll1.S ~ i»..; '" 100 ~ Of 1'1 j ;; P ;; j ' j t , M -<! W 0 I I Z "" I I R,1.3 81,: SO , D1.0 Ill. 4 SO.\) DO,r. 02.fl " _'--- 7a.!'i ,0 7:-LO i !J 71, ,33 1,117 U~j"2 (1.37 u,ao [J.t3 O~ '2, I... c.i oj OJ <II I=l l>< 83, Nakw'lI Moau tlllilj'l"'iit1u'''' If....,... Mnau I'll infnll, in. UW1!11 "II Ii: Mmm t"'llllicl'u\.\ll"', 1i\...,... MOlin millfnll. in. liii.o l flo.o Ll,l,.O 03.a 0;).0 ( !.O 4.5 :L3 4.-l 4, ~ nul 0:\.7 O:l.:! 04.1l (lui n~, II 0:1, r. fll.s ,3 0:1, O.S~ U!7 U,OB :..{.~o l.sfi :1,(12 :I.5:l ,92 1.1H 25,:; H(HJllOl~: NukUl'u; Kondrcw, 1 %3, GUl'iH8(1, Hnmnl'uti; Hm"'''Lt., M. A., i'er.<ijjjili Cllmm,lIllicatioll. 209

217 V p.(jetation In the original habitl1t of the Boran en,(",tle i;ho eluwae(;()l'ihtic vegetation i8 desert gmss and (l1'y bu~h wit-,ll trees (EdwH,l'ds, H)5I), in which the dominant tree and bw:lh gellet'ft 11l'O Ornnmipho}'(t 1tud Am(;i(( while the mort, prevalent grasn in C'hl'l/80})(}IIOn (/''Ilrli,;,I'I: V,tI. qninqlwpznmis, which OCClll'R thronghout the area in aksocin,t,ion with othol' svtwic,~ (including Arisl'idrt Rpp., Chl(Jris myl'io8t({.chyrt, (!enchl'/('s sp.. lllh 1 A Ilril'lJ. po(jon SIl.) which lllay [tchieve domin;llwo in specific looalities. Thwllgh the gren,ter part, of the year the ihu;)l is ItmtlesH n,nri j,lw gmss is. dry and brittle. The vegetll,tioll of that p,wt of Kenya in whioh llhlkt, of tho Bomn herds are today hllh been doscribed by :EdWlLrdK (1\)51) ltk 8clltte.red Tree Urasslani (tnd Open Cim88Znnd (Ac(,wilt-Tlw'IIu,rl,a) awl if! c:imm.(' terizecl by the occurrence of wiciely-spaec<l /lat-lopped A cllcia i I'ope; varying from 13 or R feet to 50 feet in height in OpOll gl'ltf:;shm(1 in whi(:]\ the individua,l plant!:; nre a to 4, feet high. Among the t,i'n'h, A CI{.(:irr heber,ladoidp.8, A. spyal and A. sene(jrtl arc eollllnoll. The dmni IInnt gmsr species ir '!'hemecirb t'l'inndm which!tppenl'h ill flssoeiaj,ioll with Pe-nniseturn Rpp., JEmlll'()8t'i8 f!pp., llypa1'1'7wm:n Hpp.. 8etll1'irt sp]>.,llld otherr. The!lRsoeilttion of spocier in the vogebtioll of tho Imm is inhllolloecl hy first, the occurrence of largo tra,ctr of open gl'lthslan(l whoro, owing to. impeded draina.ge, keer are UlULhic to grow, [l,nd Koooll(lly, by the seasonal occurrence of grn.sr fires which ltppeltl' to fa VOl' '/'herner//(. at the expense of other gmsses. The nrea is well suited to extensive cntue gmzillg, and only Itt, it,s fringe where it bordei'll higher minfftll areas is crop 111'O(illOj-,ioll pohsiblo (Edwttrds, 1951). Faulkner (1\)51) refers to invortigntiolls which IHwe indimto(l t.h,tt. tho gmsslnnds are senromtl1y deficient in proteill. Mnnagement practices The Bomn cattle in the 1mnch; of the tribcrlllllll of soilt.hm'll ]!Jthiopia a.nd Somalia exist. uucler the exiguous oouditiollk of llomadie 01.' smui. nomadic hurbandry in which the 5'ear is Ilpent. ill ll10volll(',nt ill Hm~l'eh of grazing 01', more fl'equently, w!tter, hoth of whioh may, in ]>oriudh of drought, beoome insufficient to :-mpply the needs of [-.}w horrir. In the higher min fall al'cltk in which they luwe heen Illaint,ainod in Kenya. for the past. 20 or more years, hol'df! are [lollllllollly kept for beef production under l'itl1ohillg (]ouditiollfl on propertios nudor European management (Figure n) whieh nu~y be I\f-i l<tl'gl~ ita NO,oon acrer. Nutritionally the ca,ttle arc st.ili almort coluvletely dopolldollt 210

218 Ji'lllllrlB n. B()ran mttle on (1- Tt'lll'o}Jean-vU.'ner!. mnch h. Ken,lja_ ('Ol11't"sy 01 J)C]Jt,. or Infol'mlltion, Nnil'olli. Klm,ll 011 gn'~hland aj1(1 the ullreliability (If the rainfall can lead to grazing shortages which, while IeHs severe than those occurring in the northern pastmtti country, can be the cause of con~idemble deterioration in the condition of the animnk Mmlii of the areas in Kenya in which BOJ'an mlttie are kept m'e comparatively free of t.ick~. Some EllrOpe,1,n-owned hel'(l~ al'e never dipped in an acaricide while others are dipped fortnightly or monthly. Owing to the RparHity of the tick population, adult African-owned Boran oa,tuc in the NortheJ'n Frontiel' district are fully flusceptible to "IJ:ast Africa,n fever. All Em:ope,~n-owncd herds are inocula,ted ngai;1st rinderpcst (FmllImcl', 1951; Barrett. M. A., Per80nal Com.m.unication), Physical characteristics of the breed Borml cftttle (FigureH 74, 75 and 76) have been de~cl'ibed by Faulkner (1951), They are, hy comrmrison with many other Afl'icrm types, Im'ge cnttle which are capable of producing, in the imllroved ranch Ktmil1H, a beef on,rcass of good quality as well HH having, ag,dll by African standal'dh, it superior c"pacity for milk productioll. The head is long and tends to be coffin-shaped, with the greatest widt.h between the supra-orbital proceriles. The f!l(!e ir long f1nd lean 211

219 I<'WlJItE 74. A 4 1 / 3 ycm.old Bomn bull lnwz by.11;[1.. M/lc.q Pletr']!!W at H(/obit, Kenya. Thi,9 is the tyz)l; of bulliul'ing 8clectl'll /(11' h,1l lill'. Bo mn Oatttll Hrcerle rs A.\woniat ';()'II,. ltnd the profile is generally collvex. The lllllzzlo b In'U<Hl hy eolil}lariwll with the faoe. The llol'llh al'c llnually short Itnd orect, ljut. individuals with longer horns and with hornh of vm.'ying direction of gruwth may be seen. Typically, the tcl'minl1tioll of tho hol'll ih hlunt.. Polled caule are fairly common, The neck is fairly short.' The llluhc:ulo-tlttty hump ix l.llol'lteio in position and varieh considerahly in size and shape hetwc'cn inclividuttlf-l. It is prominent in tho and lllay tend to be PYI'lUllidl\! in :-llmllo 01' 111/1,y lean over to the rear, In the femalo t.here ix v!u'iatioll between a smull, b[trel~r applh'ont. hump, tmtl one which ('Olllpltl'C>H ill fliz(i with thnt of the hull. The toplillc risco; to the hindquarler,; and ix wide and. well III IU:leled, The slopc of the rump varies c(lllxidcl'al,ly Imt~, J>o: u.:ihly ax It result. of a small proportion of European ancertl'y, ih generally lefl:-l in (;110 improved Bomn of the EUl'opcan-nHLlllcged much thfm in i;ribal CJ!~ttle. The upper thigh can be thick and rounded. 'rhe taij i:-; long Imd Het on low, The dewlap is wdl developed, an are tht' liuj,iji('al fold and Ute sheath.

220 FrGITRE 75. ijoran Imll oi 'l'u>1(lrt Dah'Y, TrmgaIl1},ika. FWUltE 76. Em'an cow CIt l'(lnga V(!i?'Y, Trmr;anyiJ;u. COllrtesy of H. G.. RlltchiROIt

221 The most COllllllon COll,t cnlomtion is white, whieh freqnently, and esjleeially in hulls, merges illto lbrk gray or blaek or, in HOllie (ja~eh, fl1wn, on the ~houldel''', neck nnd hond lmel clown the thighs. Thi:; coloratioll if-; tlu,t of the majority of the cattle ill SOllmli~, Hwl the cast ern pa,rt of t.he Northern :F'l'outier Province of Kenya. In southern l~thi[)pht the cftt.tle al'c ehctmcteristict\lly of n coat liolomtion which call runge frujll pale biscuit to medium-rod, with light f:1wll It:; its lll{illt usual shacle. The reel eolol'at;ioll mny he vnried with patterning or spot,ting with white. 'Vhole libck coat color also OC:CIll'H but is lehh ii'e(lueut. The Hkin, especially ill IlH8oeintioll with n white conti, is UBlH1lly darkly pigmented hut, in thc (bib l~ol'(\,n on,t.t,lo of t.he nurt.hel'll desert a,reas Gattle are frcflucntl,l' SC(jll whinh hnve whit.e coloratioll hut lloll-ijigment,etl Hkim; :111d hoofl:l. F!1l1lknel' (H):,H) has givcn 1,200 to 1,GOO Ib, as the livcweight of the Boran bull and 8GO to 1,Of)() lb. as that of the enw, 'rhe I'\lUUG author reported thnt the live weight and meil,~iil'om(iilt.h uf n single Bm'an bull which was typicnl of the hreed wore: liveweight UH Ii Ib,; lengt.h from HhouldeI' point to pinbone 60.5 inehos; height: :d-, withel'~ -W inches; width at hipr H),[) inehe::;; heart girt.h H L5 inehos; depth of chest 28 inchcr. Mea,llfl ILnci range for livewnighlh 1111(1 IlWnSnl'OHl(mt.H of Boro,n cows und oxen are given in Tall]e OK, TABLE AVE.uAm~ LrVEWEWHTS AND 1\:bMKlllmIlUCN'l'K l)lo' MA~r\lHl!l HORAN CN[,1'J~1i] Maturo (low Mat.ul'o ox ijiveweigllt., lh..... Length fl'lhn Hhou](ll1l' point to pinbolw, ill., Height n L withm'h, in,. i)"pth of (~Il(\st, ill.... Width of hipr, In. """ Heart girt.h, in.,.,... 7U4--02() 5: IH.~ lot.~-hl5 no.5-oh,o M.1l 1,7.ft ~!4.1i 10,1)!I UI I lh~-:1.t.lo ann ;i7.1i-,(iri,r; H:.!. r, i)~.!)-{i~,u r)!'i,(1 :!ll.(~ a:!..n all.l ~().!i--~2.() ~1.1I ill.h-hiij, :-t~.(1 ::;()UllOl~: F!lulI{ll(,I', 1 (15J. Functional charactcristics of thc brccd Faulkner (1951) l'eport~ ranch hcifol'h in Kenya m; t:hlvillg clown at 45 monthh and subsequently at I1n iutervnl of 14 JllOnj',h8. Young bulls ha,ve been used for service from the ttge of' 30 to :{fllllo)lt,}ls. C111viug rates under mnge conditioufl ill Keny~1 lllwo extplldod from 75 ]>e1'- 21,1.

222 ccnt to 100 percent. On one ranch a rate of over 70 percent was maintltilled for 18 yeltrs. The same author reported the milk performance of Boran cows under extensive management without supplementary feeding on a ranch in Kenya. Milking was once dltily and a standard figure of 6 lh. of milk was added to each cow's daily yicld as an allowttllce for the suckling calf. The average daily yield (including the additional 6 lb. for the cl11f) Wits 12.5 lb. over a mean bctation period of 295 dayr, which would give a total lactation yield of 3,688 lb. Four selected cows glwe n, mean yield of 4,833 lb. in 362 days. The average butterfat content of the milk was rc-ported to be 5 -percent. These meam without the arbitrary addition for the suckling calf would have been 1,918 lb. in 295 da,ys and 2,661 lb. in 362 days respectively. Baran herds are maintained primarily for meat produotion. li'auikner (1951) states that Boran steers killed at 4 years, 5 years and 6 yel1rs of age oan he expected to give cold deadweights of 480 lb., 600 lb., Hnd 700 to 750 lb. respeotively. He observes that on one ranch where ma.nn,gement methods have heen improved, the slaughter weight of steers killed at 5 yea.rs has increafied from fih3 lb. in 1943 to 672 lb. in 1950 a,nd that a group of 50 cattle at the latter part of the period averaged 712 lb. oold deadweight. Six steers, of avemge liveweight off grass of 1,283 lb., a.nd after two months supplementary feeding, 1,327 lb., killed out at 57.3-percent. It was suggested that the average dressing percentage of Boran steers tllaughtered off grass could be expected to be 54 to 56 percent. The meat is of good quality, but Boran catt,le when in high condition tend to accumulate fat in the hump, the subcutaneous tissues and the abdominal cavity, while there is an absence of both the interand intramusoular fat which is desirable in high-quality beef. Performance in other areas Baran oattle have been suocessful under a wide range of climatic conditions in Tangitnyilm. Herds have been established at Tanga in the hot humid coastal belt at sea level, on a hot humid flood plain in the Ea,ste1'll Province at about 1,500 feet elevation, under hot conditions with moderate rainfall in Sulmmaland, and in the coolel' arid highlands of Northern Province at an elevation of about 4,250 feet. Climatological data for Tanga on the coast and Mpwapwa in Central Province are given in Tables 99 and 100. Bontns are usually ranched for meat production, maturing under local conditions at about 5 years of age with a liveweight of 850 to 950 lb., although individuals under superior environmental conditions 215

223 'l'aflle!)!l. - CUMATO.LOlllf'AL DATA FOR 'l'anua, TANUANYlKA (.K :m" I)', N. ii-:n ~.~~ -~-----~~-I~~-i~~O-I-~ j--;ri-i~~~i~it-~ I ;. I ~ l-jt~oi-f',mt'an lulixiulnnl tt~lnpel'atnl't'l (ll~'..liean t(lillijuultl tl~mlh..'.l'atlll't!1 flf. i'fi. ;~ l\i<-an rdaun, 11nlllid-lt,yw at us. ;JO i~ lira.,,il \-1'-1 -'---, \) -':0.1 1I). j 70 I --- HtI.1I S7.. ~ 8,1,., 7;1.4- HI 1 7U 7:.!.:-; h:\,u 'io, j' 1 "'~'4 '~, l ~:l.~ K".~ ~Ii., t~.~ 7 Sf. 1l (j!).,~ n~.ti 00,0 70.,1 i;i.o 'i L~ 7!!, t. 7ll 'it 110 J.IIO (I0.:ll SOURCE: HuteiliwlU, 1115;;. TABLE CLDIA'N')LOGlfJAL DA'l'A ~'nrt 1I1pWAPWA. CJm.I~HA.L I'IWI'fNCE, TANGANYIKA (R :{o 3()', N. 6" 20') =~~=~--r;r;r~r;r;,ti~r;':~i=it~~-l~j _~:I~~I--j_' 1[(';tn luaxiluulll tj~jnijc1'atul'l~~ uf. 1\-[can llliul1nuul tmnpcl'at.l1r'o. (IF. 1\1UI111 1'"lIlI j I'e Im.midit.y ai, 118,all 111'f3., ~;l.... Mean l'l:llltiv,' Immiflity at 14,lIf) I ;;.,~ 77, :j.11.1 I"" ~ I. l M. ~ 1'\:1. 7,H. l ~ 1. 1 Ill.!! (i~.l (\~.s 'I1.J fj!l.4 (',.7 ('" ;,11.'1 07,11 no,k Ii',,I 11O.() I ~f) S+ Sf) H:l 7H ia 7[1' 171i il} fir; 1\\1 70 ;7 hr s. ~:, tin 0:) 00 fir. IHI ri~!j~ GO Ji') 11.W 5\1 [J t M"llll 1',dnfnll, in. full r,.:!~ (l,fl'~1 ~.' I 1.1~ O. t:l O,O~ 1I.0:l ~f1 (J.n:! 4.:11. 27,411 C;OUI\Cg: Hnkhisoll, 1U:;ii. ofteil att!.ill liveweight:s exceeding 1,000 lb, I-IuLehitioll (Hlri6) hm; stilted that unhelcctcd Bomn COWH ~mve becn found to he llkllh,hy I-luperior to the Imtive Tallg,myilm Cltttle in milk produc(.ioll [1lld a. few intem,ive dairy herds ftre maintained. ~onte average livewoight.s and mensnl'cmenth for Boran cattle on stat.iollk in Tltngn,llyilm arc given in Tables lol, 102 mid 103, :Hutchison (H)55) giver some information on (;ho plll'fonnn,nce of Boran COWf-1' in Ta.nganyiln.. Boran heifers lllwe calved for the.first time at [tbont 3 years of age, and have 8uuseqnellt.Iy c:n,]vml l'f'gulltrly

224 TABLE HH. - AVEUAGE LIVEWElGHTS OF BOItAN UA1~TI,g! 'J.:MAl.EM AT. Dn'FEREN'l' STAG-ES OF GllOWTH I I Mlllya (Illilr~' 1"1'111) :~7 rrallg'a (tlllil'y fih'iu) :l~ West. Kllimanj!ll'O (J'lmnll(]d) 01 MlLtlUlloncl 0 (l'hnehed)..,\ge of Cnttle IN T.1NGAN'inKA 1.~_-_- l _-Ji~]'~tl~I~~~~-I_-_-_l~.'-_-I_l-lc-0_;I~t-l_l-,_-~_-~';)-I-ll-,,,-,t-II'-8-._- [--I:ltnn-'- I UO. Ill Ih. no. 1 Ih. I 1l~~li~- 51.\\.!,:.! 5~. 7 ~ ;j~.li [.17 I j, [10!J I ')~ I 1\77 a:l 77'/ _._ i.\lcljo:s Mulyn (dairy fnrlll) 1'nnga, (dull'y fm'ffi) \'{cst Kilimanjn,l'I) (ri111ehec1) Mntn.molHlo (ralwhoil) OXEN l\:lulya (dnlry farm) 'rallg(~ «luil'y fnl'm) West KiliIllulljlll'O (ranched) MatamOIl(lo (r.lilchell) :n' 5a.5 ]S 5'L~!l2 5,!. ~I _ 7:m Oil} :2a 4HI I, 118ti S411 4~() tl4:! 17 5:!5 lilij GBIl 2 1 noo _ " :113 nuu ;) SMi :Ii 5U ;lll tl51 :j 854- I'i.. 50 ;.!o ;);tj 4(i UljIj._ _----_" Liv()1Veights at Malya, 1'allgfl anil 'Vest Kilimallj!\,l'o were estimated il'om a mollo' graph l'(,lo.tlng height, y:ll'th anel weight, OOl\~t'l'ucteil from 'rangallylklt [lata. SOUROr.: Hut()hlson, TABLE AVEUA(m 'LIVE\VEIGH'rS AND :MEASUREMENTS' OF BORAN (1ATTI.E IN 'l'anganyika )faln Felnl1h~ I YI'LU' 2 YlJars \ U:Ul.t,Ul'1l 1 y',ii1' 2 yeal's mntul'<j IJiV01Volght, Ill (0) Hoight at withers, in,... 1\7,3 (7) Depth ef ohost, in ,7 (2) Width of hips, ill.... 1:.1.0 (5) HORl't girth, In,...,15.11 (7) :;84 (5) 43.8 (7) :l0.7 (2) ]6.0 (5) 5U.5 (7) 814 ([,) 252 (i\) 664 (5) 47,1 (7) a7,(1 (10) 4".0«(1) 45.1(10) 35.2 (2) (5) 25.5 (1) 20,3 (5) 10.2 (5) 12.5 (5) 15.0 (il) 15,0 (5) 60.0 (7) 45.0 (10) 5S,H (6) 50.2 (10) NUllllierR salullloil [n lll'l\c]wih. SOURCE: J-IutehI90n, 1955, 217

225 TABLE 10:1. - AVEftAGE l\1f.asltm~mgnts OF BemAN CATTLE IN TANGANYIKA Number nf ( "t.ti".... Age, d<lyr H1Jight ~It. with"r., ill..... Heart gll"th, 111,. ~j'.tj as ~J iiflo luiltlll'(' 4n.:1 5J.~ ;)a.:! 71.8 ali I.~ HU 2 r, u; mathl'" ~.j,.;; 4G.G 4K.7 26.:1 51.~ O:LO ::':OUltlm: HlItnilison, lu;;ri. every year. The mean of 97 lactations of an um:elected Rample of 24 Boran cows at Tanga was 1,879 lb. of milk in 208 days. The calving interval WllS 359 days. The best 5 cows in thir herd had a lactation mean (14 lactations) of 3,897 lh. of milk in 303 days. These cow~ were completely milked and calves were pttil-fed. Another group of 7 Boran COWR at Mpwapwn hu,d it lttctation mean (22 lactationi:\) of 2,355 lh, of milk, containing 'U percent of butterfat, in a09 da,y". and the best individual gave 3,470 lb. of milk containing 5.6 percent butterfat in H79 days (3 lactations). Calves were suckled at Mpwapwa and no corrections were made for the amount of milk taken. Baran cattle have also been imported into partr of the Belgian Congo. Sources of breeding stock and information regarding the breed A Baran breed society has been established in Kenya which has maintained a herd book for some five yean:, into which animals a.re admitted a,fter inspection by a panel of judges. At prcsent attention is being concentrated on the improvement and stltudardization of the beef qualities of the cattle. but it is hoped that it will be possible at a later date to open a subsection of the herdbook for the registmtioll of animals in which the dairy qualities are well developed. Furt-her information on the Baran cattle can be obtained from: The Department uf Veterinary Services, Kabete, Kenya. The Secretary, The Baran Cattle Breeders Society, P.O. Ngobit, Kenya. 2ll:!

226 BUKEDI Origin The Bukedi, or N'kedi, cattle are small East African short horned zebus. On account of the concentrations of these cattle in the Teso, Lango and Kyoga areas of the Eastern and Northern Provinces of Uganda, they are occasionally referred to by the names of these districts. The Director of Veterinary Services, Uganda (Personal Communication), states that it is probable that the shorthorned zebus were established in Uganda before the arrival of the Ankole longhorned cattle, although other authorities (French, M. R., Pe1'sonal Communication) mahltain t,he contrary. It has been stated that there are as many as six varieties of these zebus in Uganda but French (Personal Comrn1tnication) maintains that this variation is predominantly It consequence of local differences in the nutritional environment. Conditions in the native borne of the ]lrecd Location, topography and 80U/j The Bukedi cattle show their highest concentration in the Eastern and Northern Provinces of Uganda, except in the Karamoja district of Eastern Province. They are also prevalent in the Buganda Province and "Western Province. The type area is situated roughly bet'ween ' and 35 0 east longitude and Letween 0 0 and 4 0 north latitude. Most of Uganda consists of undulating plateau varying from 3,000 to 6,000 feet above sea level. The whole area from the northern shore of Lalm Victoria slopes towards the northwest. Bukedi cattle are found in the has ins of Lake Kioga and the surround of the northern portion of Lake Victoria. The whole of the Kioga basin consists of low, shell-backed hillocks sloping gradually to intervening swamps, many of which dry up during the dry season and are used for pasturage. The Lake Victoria basin is characterized by flat-topped hills of uniform height and the valley bottoms are occupied by swampy streams choked with papyrus, grasses and sedges. The country toward the east and north has a gently rolling character. The soils on the slopes are non-laterized red earths. When first opened up for cultiv!ttion they have good texture and fertility, hut the organic reserves are soon depleted unless the land is carefully treated. These red soils grade into sandy soils around the edges of swamps which, when dried, reveal a black soil of poor drainage Aj";crtn ealtle.

227 TABLE CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA FOB LIRA, EN'rEBBE AND MBAL!;: ; T==c=[ ==-~-"C"C"=-~----~~ I ~~ I ~~i IN UGANDA ~ I ==p=~ I ~=y==-- r ~ Iii ~-'r~ I ~ --l------~l--~~-+- Lira (Altit.ude: :l til2 feet) Menn maxinlll111 remperaj.ul'e, of. 1'1.7 \JI_; S8.,~ ~ Hl.S 8:1.0 R5.+ SO.!! 87.0 ~".H Mean n:linimum wmperat:l1rp. OF. no.n 6~.:1 0:1.., ~ !l.4 ()~.2 Humlditv at OR. :JO hrs., ~~... 5,! 58 -.,, - 83 Sil Humidity at : 11 3",., 4U 61 no '10 in.2 hrb.~ %... ":1::0.1 Rainfall, in : ,1.23 :;.:J" :1.~5 2.: Entebbe. (Altlt.ude: 3 8,8 feet) Mean maximum temperature, of. Meau minimum tempel'ature, F. Humidity at OR. 30 hi's., ~~.... Humidity at 'R, old Rainfall, in. 80.!l (\3.S 83 6: ().~ M.1l ;].1\8 7R. i 78. fl 77.. J Ga. i fi4.7 M.1l 84 ~5 Xli l :1 77. ~ 7:;.. J 79,01 8U.l 7!:1.1l 7S.1i 0: (12.1 U~.!) (J3.() 0:1.:\ :1. ~ n a till ;;.2 4.7li : HlI.2,U2 :1.02 LBO Mhale (Altitude: :1 763 feot.) Mean maximum temperature, of. Mean minimum temporature, of. Humidity at Ill'S., %.... Humidity at hi's., %.... Rainfall, in (\ ro 0.99 SOURON: TothiIl, SU.7 61.~ tl:l ml.l : :! 82.ll 80.B Sll H L2 8U.~ :1 61.: IIIl 61l Ui Of> 110 [13 4(; :11 5.flR 't.42 :1.: » Climate The region occupied by the Bnkedi cattle is situated on itnu near the equator. The high plateau land and mountain range::; intersected by valleys result ill varying clima,tic conditions ils do the extensive lakes and swamps. Large diurnal temperature variations occur so that lllean temperatures alone are a poor indication of the climlttic conditions of the area,. The peaks of the rainfall periods coincide roughly with the equinoxes. The first occur::; ill March to May and the second in September to October. The two dry seas~m; vttry in 220

228 length according to geographica,l position and extend one or t.wo months before and after January and,junc respectively. Average climatological data a!> reported by the BritiRh East African Meteorological Spl"vice are summarized in Table 104. Vegetation Except where tsetse infm;tation render!> Cftttle keeping impm;hi ble, catt.le densities Vftry from 30 t.o 40 head per square mile in the ljastoral area:;; in the northeast and west, to H,S high!ts nearly 200 head persqnare mile in the stock-reai'ing districts of E~tstern Province, where a, highlydeveloped bahtnce between stock keeping and agriculture exists. In obtaining [1,11 over-~tll picture of the nutjor gmsshmd zones in the region, the Veterinary Department (Uganda Pl'oteoiol'ate, 1953) repurt:.; five such zones, each characterized by a serieh of grasses. Regions where the rainfall is more than 45 inches per annum are described as Long Grass zones. Elephant gl'aas (Pennisetu'm purpureum.) is the dominant gra8s in this area. Spear grass (Imperata cylindricf[) is an early invader where overgrazing has occurred, as is the even mol'e perniciouh couch grass (Digita,ria 8cala1 um). Areas of less than 45 inches anlluall'ainfall are described ItS Short Graiols zones. Hypa,j'rhenia ii> the dominant genus in these regions. Brachictria species are oommon "bottom grasses." Setnria splutcelata (md Chlori8 gayann are widely distributed, while Panicum maximum, Sporobobts spp. and Andropogon spp.!1re also seen in some localities. Imperata cylindj"ica, Oynodon d(1ctylon and Eragrostis spp, are among the most common weeel grarses of the zone. The Eastern Province pastlll'es occupied by zebu stock in greatest concentration are low-lying Oombretltm Ravannahs: Hypnrrhenia, spp. and Panirnm maximum },re the typical gntrses. Management practices Hamitic and Nilotic tribes form the bulk of the native cattle owners in the Eastern and Northern Provinces of Uganda, while Bantu tribes inhabit Buganda Province (Uganda Pl'oteetorate, 1934). Cattle play a signifieant role in the soeial eustoms of these tribes. Besides mille, meat and blood form the main items in their diets. It is estimated that the mtttio eommmption averages over a five-year period about II percent of the total Cttttle population (Uganda Protectorate, 1949). Cattle are also used for draft purposes. The majority of the cattle owners arc,tlso cultivf\tors. 'rhere are few areas where ranching is a major means of livelihood. The vast majorit.y of catt,ie live on unimproved llatural grar.;slandr, although 221

229 conditionr are eija,nging. For iu>,;tance, it is reported (Williams and Bung0, IH52) tlmt in the Teso district of Eastern Province only about 3 acres of lund per head of cat,tle [1re av11ilable in resting ley, pernutnent pasture and gmzeahle SW1"Lmp. DeRpite this helwy stock density, there is no overstocking under existing methuds of pasture control. The resting ley is extensively grazed and it is believed that this is largely responsible for the soil regeneratiun in the area. The cattle are usually grazed for a short period during the day on account of worry by StornoxY8 flies. During the noon hours they are usually kept in dark, sheltered places, a practice which tends to unduly restrict the grazing time!wailable to the cattle. During the night they are confined in open corrals or barnas. Young calves are usually housed. The conditioll of these structures is far from being hygienic. Stock of all age groups, both male and female, are grazed together, thus making control of mating impossible. The calves are permitted to suckle their dams before and after hand milking. The temptation to overmilk the dams is on the increase on account of t,he cash sale of milk, so that the calves are often underfed and t.heir development period is prolonged. Physical characteristics of the breed Bukedi cattle (Figures 77 and 78) are small in Hize tlnd stocky in appearance. The horns are short, thick at the base and curve slightly outwards and inwards. The musculo.fatty hump is prominent and thoracic in position. The dewlap and umbilical fold are strongly developed. Tlle ears ttre medium-sized and directed outvmrds. Coat coloration v!lries and includes gray, gray-white, light red, black, and TABLE l05. - LrVEWEIGHTS OF lvl'\.le AND FEMAI,E BUKEDI CAT~r.LE SEREnE EXPEHIMENT STATION AT Age in month~ ruhii:~ at birth!(j L~.~ lit ~ 84 fi:10 il R05 :H I 15:1 5~O 570 SOURCE: "\Villiams and Bunge,

230 FIGURE 77. Bulcedi cnttle. [above] Bull; [below] Cow.,-. ~,.~ Courtesy of Dept" of IllfOl IUa.tion, Ul\'tul<la Protectorate 223

231 FIGURE 78. A. herd of Bukacz.i eattle. C'1)1ll't"HY of D,'pt, of Infol'Hu,Lillll, U~'Il.IHIu. Pl'otuctul'll\;<' black and white, The skin ik of medium th.ickness and the hail'r a.re short and slllooth. The ho() ~ arc mediul1l-,qized and hard. Liveweights of male and female cattle froul the records of the Bukedi herd maintained at Sel'el'e Experiment Stat.ion by the Department of Agriculture are given ill Table 105, The average hirthweight of calves at Sererc Experiment Station has been 35 lb. The heaviest calf recorded weighed 61 lh. at birth. TABLE LIVEWEIGIiTS OF BVKEDT ZEBU CA'l'TU~ BOHN DURING THE YEARS AT THE LIVES'rO(lK EXPElUMJ.NT S'CATlON, ENTEBDIll Age in months In[Lle~ r,lvewoighl ill Ill, f.elni'tlc~ at bij'lh SOUROE: Uganda Protectorate. 1953, 40, B7,3 314,0 ~\lu io:l.g 566,r, ),1 167,1) :!4tl. U :1l4, ,:l G ,8 224

232 'The heaviest hull in the herd ill 1954 weighed 1,200 lb., and work oxen have weighed up to 1,000 lb. (Uganda Protectorate, 1955). Liveweights of Bukedi cattle at the Veterinary Department':'! Livestock Experiment Station, Entehbe, are summarized in Tahle 106. Functional characteristics of the hl'ced Bllkedi cattle are ulled fol' prodllcing heer" and for draft purposcs ail,veil as for milk production. Some of the re~ults obtained in devel oping a Bukedi cattle herd at Serere in the Eastern Province of Uganda, are reported by Williams and Bunge (1952); these, and reports on the Bukec1i herd established at the Veterinary Department's Livestock Experiment Stat.ion at Entebbe ill Buganda Province, are summarized below. TABLE AVERAGE MILK YIELDS OF BURED! COWS AT HEREM (OOMPLETED LACTATIONS WITH CALVES A'.r I;'OOT) Year No. of ('ows liijik yield. lb. No. of days in muk U1m :li)u ;~ ~O'j' ], : ; ;34 1 OO:J 2aa 19,J,7-4" :J :n lu4u ~ :'louror: Williams and Bnllgc J At S erere, hoifer~ reaching a liveweight of 450 lb. at about 32 months of age are put in the breeding pen. Of 76 heifers which have calved, the age at first calving has varied from 25 months to 52 months, the mean being 41 months. It is est.imated that the average yield of milk of Bukedi cows in farmers' herds is about 500 lb. after feeding the calf. l\twk yields of cows in the Serere herd are summarized in Tables 107 and 108. Six cows in the group yielded over 3,000 lb. The average butterfat percentage from cows completely milked was 5.8 'The highest yield obtained in 1953 (Uganda Protectorate, 1955) was t.hat of a cow that yielded 4,280 lb. of' milk in a 305-day lactation. It was estimated that the average calving interval was 14 months. 225

233 TABLE AVERAGE MILK YIELDS OF BUKED! COWS AT SERERE (COJIIPLE'rEL Y li'iilked) No. of cows Milk yield, lb. No. of days in milk ! U l\) SOUROE: Williams and Bunge Average milk records of Bukedi cows ma,intained at the Veterinary Department's Uvestock Experiment Station at Entebbe ttre summarized in Table 109. TABLE REOORDS OF MILK YIELDS* OF BUKED! COWS AT ENTE'BBE.-.. ".._. Year Runge in milk No. No. Calving No. yield. lb. oieom Milk of duys intoi'- of cows pleted lac- yields, lb, in val. in the herd t(ttions milk days min. max. I _ G8S ' G ' 14 ] 770 2,( tiO 3BO G U G No'ms: I Cows milked with calvcs suckling anel cows completely roillred, '1'0 the yield of cows suckling calves 30 gallons wore a(ldecl as the milk estimated to be tairon by tho calf. o Cows entirely roill,eel. 3 Cows Buckling calves. 00 gallons added to tho yield. SOUROE: Uganda Protectorate, 1953_ The beef-producing qualities of Bukedi cattle have been studied by Williams and Bunge (1952) at Serere Experiment Station, Aspects of this work are summarized in Tables no and 111. Grazing habits of Bukedi cattle have been studied and reported on by Harker, Taylor and Rollinson (1954) at the Livestock Experiment Station at Entebbe. Under tropical conditions, Bukedi cattle spent between seven and eight hours each day grazing and between four 226

234 -.----~-- TABLE llo. - CAIWASS PEROENTAGES BY AGE GROUPS OF BUKEDI COWS AND HEIFERS AT SERERE Years of age No. of mws I I AVerage liveweight] lb. _A.. vcrnge Ill'es~:led. ('arp,n~s weight, Ill. Carcass percentage 4 2 R Ii ]I) S 2!l k7!)U7 th~ [jig [iio ti:!o ;,fi5 ~2f) ~{l;~ ~1~O ~8D :WH :J~~ ~~(J BounCE: Williams and Bunge, lu5~. 'L'ABLE Ill. - CARCASS PERCENTAGES OF BUKEDI OXEN AT SEHERE Years ot age No. of oxon Avel'Oge livuweight, Ih. Average dressed Urtl'CUf;S woight, Ill. ClUCUSS jlercentage HI tl U G:l ON 'j' U8 flo5 709 'j' :) ti42 37~1 M:J W2 :180 a'~7 :lio :l~7 a:lo :1:12 :15~ U 50.S I.a 40.!! H.O SOUlWE: Wllllamq and Bunge, lug:!. and one-half to six hours ruminating. The remainder of the time was spent in standing and lying without ruminating, walking when not in search of food, drinking and licking minerals. During days with 12 hours daylight, on an average 7.7 hours were spent in grazing within a 24-hour period, 93 percent of this being during the hours of daylight. Rumination oocupied 5.2 hours, only 23 percent of this being during 227

235 di.1ylight hours. Animals Rtarted grazing at daylight and Rtopped at :mn:>et. The period before sunset showed greater intensity of grazing. There were seven or eight peaks of intense rumination, a.lmost a,ll of which were during the night. Alternate periods of grazing and resting during chtylight and nlternate periods of ruminating and reflt.ing were observed. 'Vith regard to uraft qualitie;.;, the animals arc even-tempored and steady hut slow workers. The animuls are put to work when they :tre about 2 to 3 years of age. Sources of breeding stock aiiii information regarding the bl'eed It has been estimat.ed t]ul,t there arc about fl million head of Bukedi cattle in Uganda. There lue declared Livestock Improvement Areas in the Protectomte, where locally established Cattle Breed(:'rs AHROeiations ha,ndle the v{1,rious asl)ects of breed improvemont. Any further information may he obtained from: The Director of Veterinary Service", UglLnda Entebbe, Uganda. Protectorate, The Director of Agriculture, Uganda Protectorate, Entehbe, Uganda. Origin GALLA, JIDDU AND TUNI Jiddu cattle originated in the urid and semi-arid areas of Somalia. Faulkner (H)51) mentions all unconfirmed account of Europeo,n Shorthorn cattle which, put ashore in Somalia after a shipwreck, nllty have contributed to the ancestry of the Jiddu. The Tuni and the Galla have been regarded by some antjllorities (Milne, 1955; East African Specinlist Committee on Animal Industry, 19.54) as distinct cattle types and it has been suggested (Hntchison, H. G., Pe?'sonal Oornm~Lnication; East African Specialist Committee on Animal Industry, 1954) that the Jiddu may be derived from crosses between them. Faulkner (1951) suggested that the Tnni and Galla might be considered as ::mbtypes of tho Jiddu, but more recently (Pe1'sonal Oommunication) has expressed the opinion that it may be more accurate to speak of the Galla as being a variety of the Boran, 228

236 FWURlll 79. Jidclu bull at Tanrla Dairy, Tanganyika. Courtesy of H. G. Ullt(!JLisou FJGFRE 80..hddu now. Court.esy of JleIlt. of Information. Nail'ohi. KmlYu 229

237 a possibility thn,t was not rejected by the East Africnn Specialist Oommittee on Animal Industry (1954), while French, M. H. (Pe?'sonal COffl,municat'ion) considered that, while the Tnni should not be thought of as ~,t subtype of the Jiddu, the reverse might be true. Jiddu cattle were introduced into Konya during the Wit!', both as slaughter cat,tle and as breeding stock Most of the cows were put to bulls of imported European breeds. Importatiolls have also been made into TanganyilG1. The environment in the original home of these cattle types and the a.rens in which they 111'e maintained in Kenya and Tanga.nyika tue similar to those which have been descl'1bed in the section on the Boran (p. 208). Physi(:ul characteristics of the hreell Although generally similar in confol'l1mtion to the Boran, the Jiddll (Figures 79 and 80) is a rather lighter and sllmller a,nimal with a body which is longer in proportion to its height and with a hump which is, in the female, less prominent than t.hat of specimens of the former type. The horns are fine, round in cross section, and spring from the poll in an upward and outward dil ection. In the cow they may be Ull to 12 inches in length. TABLE AVERAGE LIVEWEIGlrrS AND MEASUREMENTS -- "<- -.- OF JIDDU OATTLE IN KENYA,.- Mulo Female, no. suroplell I 110. Ill('tUl ~umj)letl I l":tug" I roean...:. Livewcight, Ib l10-77fj 707 Length il'uiu shoulder point to pinbone, in U [i-ti5, 2 G3.l! Height, at with~rs, in [j ,10... Wi<lth of hips, in f) Heart girth, in ;g.0 " (l2.0-0n.2 0(1.0 Depth of chebt, iu. I ;) <1,.B 24.0 SOUROE: Fllul1mer, The coat coloration is a principal lueans of distinguishing the tiu'ee types. In the Jiddu it is typically n, mottled pattern in which patches of varying shades of fawns and reds are superimposed on a white or 230

238 fawn ground, with the darker areas usually on the fore and hindquarters and on the underline. It is usual for there to be a white or light-colored ring round the muzzle as well as whi.te-flecked eyelashes and a white fringe inside the ear. The Turri is characteristically of a whole darkred coat coloration, while the Galla are white cattle with pigmented skins and longer horns than either the Tuni or the Jiddu (East Mrican Specialist Committee on Animal Industry, 1954; Faulkner, 1951; Hutclrison, 1955). Hutchison, H. G. (Personal Communication) reported the following average body measurements made on 10 mature Jiddu cows in the Tanga, herd, Tanganyilm: length from shoulder point, to pinbone, inches; height at hooks, ± 1.65 inches; width of hips, ± 0.56 inches; heart girth, J 1.67 inches; and depth of chest, ± 0.56 inches. Some liveweights and measurements of Jicldu cattle in Kenya are given in Table 112, Functional chal'actcl'istics of the breed From 25 Jiddu cow:'! and heifer;; in thc Tallga herd, Tanganyika, which had been subject,ed to very light selection pressure and were, completely milked without the calf suckling, 125 Inctations gave an average yield of 2,246 lb. of milk in 252 clays. Thc average dry period between lactations was 167 days. The average calving interval was 420 days, but it was suggested that it would ha.ve probably approximated to 365 days if there had not been some contagious abortioil cases in the herd. In an "elite" herd of zebus (including Boran, Jiddu and various orossbred zebus) t.he highest yielder was a Boran x Jiddu cow averaging 4,3()3 lb. of mill{, and the second best was 11 Jidclu cow averaging 4,280 1h. l'he average yield of the "elite" zebu herd of 31 animals W!1S 3,154 lb. and that of a less strongly selected zebu herd (comprising the same types) Wt~s 2,138 lb. (Hutchison, H. G., Personal Coml1mnication)_ FUl,thel' information regarding the breed Further information on the Galla, Jiddu and Tuni types of cattle can be obtained from the Department of Veterinary Services, Kabete, Kenya. 231

239 LUGWARE Origin The Lugwal'e e,lttle are of the En.st African shol'thol'llecl zebu type. Belgian aut.horities report that a,bout two centl1l'iefl ago trih!:'r (Lugware) from the Nile valley carne south to the wooded plfttean of Aru t,ogether with t.heir herd!'! of cattle. ThE>fie ca,ule WE're the ancertors (If the existing Lugware stock. Conditions in the native home of the breed L(Jwtion. top0[j1'ilphy and.soils Lugware cattle are nmintained in the Eastern Province of the Belgian Congo in the Kibali-Ituri district of the Am region, and pa,rticulady in the basin of the Rivers Aru. Ognie, Lowa and Nzoro. Small numbers rtre found in the Yei district in Equatoria Province ill the Republic of the Sudan. The wooded savannah of the area, is intersected by ga.llery forest, in stream valleys and infmlted 1J.Y ttletsc fly. The ~oils is shallow s<hldy clay, overlying granite. Climate The climate it; characterized hy the alterlultion of it rainy season, when t.he temperature vn,ries from 18 0 to 23 0 C., anel it dry season, when the temperature reaches 28 0 to 33 0 C. The average annuall'ainfall is about 1,486 nllll. (lh44-hl47 avcl'c1ge), with a range between 1,143 mill. n,lld },834 llllu. The lllouthly distri Imtion of rainfall is shown in Tahle 1l:3. TABLE 118. ~ MONTHLY D ls'l'l{ibu'j:ron OF I~AINl>'ALL IN Tng KABAJoI- h'uju DIH~~RICT, BELmAN CONOO Maximlllll rainrall HUll :~4.1l f)(i :;.7:! 1O.7;WtI.l :Hl,'j:101.ilH7.52fit\.51[) Lll -to.7hi8,it Mininllllll I'uillfnll, mid I -_ O.U ~1l,'1 :;l.ll\.1o.~ lii~,;j 11J7.. ~ l~i).llll)",r, 4[).:l ~~.\1 1~ Mf'an rainf"ll,_:~n~~~;:.(), ~:1.2, ~u Hti~~~:U l.'~~ln~: l_:!4_l_,u 11l::~IjI~~~:o 1(~7._~.~I:jl:!R"1

240 FIGURE 81. A he!'(z 01 L1 (II()[ll'e cattle. Com'te'j' or.~, Fali>6 (DlgAL' l,hato) Vegetation The herbage of the savannah is the only feed avh,ilable to the cattle (Figure 81), The production of forage crops, and pa~ture impl'oy,ement by planting of seed, are rarely practiced, 'rhe grasses springing up during the early rainy season are in almndant Rupply and of good quality, but as the season advances they soon become fibroui:; and woody. The tribesmen restore the herbage by burning the old vegetation in December and January, Crop production is quite independent of stockraising. Management practices Lugware cattle are utilized for milk, meat, and draft pul'po~es, As indicated above, they mainly depend on natural grassland8 and gru,zing. Additional or reserve feed supplies are rarely provided. During the daytime the cattle are allowed to graze in the forest flteas and at night are corralled in an uncovered enclosure for protection against wild beasts, As t'he chief purpose for which t.he cattle are kept is to serve as the bride wealth which is exclumged when a young lllan wishes to acquire a wife, specialized economic qualities me nol emphasized by their owners,

241 Physical characteristics of the hrecd The Lugware (Figures 82 and 8:3) is a small fine-boned zebu with a 'well-developed hump. The hel1d is of medium length and breadth and the profile is straight or slightly concave. The prominence of the orbital arches gives a degree of concavity to the forehead. The horns are short and spring from the level poll sideways and upwards in a crescent shape, the direction of growth of which, when viewed from the side, is often approximately a continuation of the line of the profile. The hump, alt.hough well developed in both sexes, is brger in the male than the female and often tends to hang over to the rear or to one side. The topline, the well-sprung barrel, the moderately sloping hindqml,rtel's and the upper thighs nre well muscled and rounded. The dewlap is of only moderate size and the umbilical fold is not usually apparent. The limhs are lightly honed and of medium length as compared to the depth of the body. The hoofs are hard and durable. The darkly pigmented skin is of medium thickness and shows a tendency to be loose and slightly folded. Although the most usual coat FWURE 82. Lugware bull. Comlc~y (If Un)Jg"oprcss: H. GoW~teill

242 coloration ii\ one of black patterning on white, brown and white, grn,ys and duns are common. Birthweights of Lugwm:e calves are normally in the rn,nge of 15 to 22 kg. Some avel'age measul'ements of I"ugware cat.tle are given in Tahles 114 and 115. TABLE AVllll~A(lFl PHYSICAL lmjijasultements OF LLTOWAltE CATTLE I:N THE Anu RFlGION, Oxen 'Woight, 1'1,1' Length [!'om Ahouldol' point to pinbono, cm.....,'... HOight nt witlwl's, em 'Vi(lth of "host, em.....,vidth of hi]ls, om,..... Heart glpth, em _-_-_ _-_-_-- ~6-1(lO I no 95 t30urob.: 8('l'Ytee Y(lt,bl.'innirc flu Congo beige. 115 US 10; ~O-~ \28' 1M 11\) a~ :m 150 lih A,./'rit (01 cuttle.

243 TAIlL,": 115. HOME PHYSWAL MEASUltEMEN'.rS OJ), LU(lWAR1~ CA1~1,'r"1': I~BOOltD.Fm A'I' THE INEAC HTATION, NIOKA Height at. witht'i's~ nul ,'pth of ' Iwot. ' Ill....,,' \"'i<lth of hip". 10m. """, IJ t'ill'~ ~ il"th. 1'1\1., IIlI 11);. i 14" -',, Functional chara('tel'isti~~s of the breed Lugware cattle llre poor milk producers, hut Oil.thundallL feed Hhow quite good fa1;tcming qualities. 'rhey HI'P l't'pol'ted to he fairly good drn.ft mum!tls. The heifers cn.lve for the first time when tlwy [H'e,~)Jout, a Y2 YCtWIl old. Tho mmal ealvillg seafololl is from J'!ulua,ry to Or-toller. On all ltvel'age they produce ahout 6 calves iu a lifetime. The males are first used for l:!el'vice when they are about ;l to 4, yeltl':-\ old 11nd the n,(,tive breeding life of bull:; i1'l estima.ted to be 12 yearh. They are mmally lazy in disposition and are :-laid to 1)(, Hlly hreeders. Bullocki; are put t,() work when they an' <~bollt :~ years old and weigh about 230 to 250 kg. They f,tre cloeile nud, are l'iteady and willing workerr. A pair of ImllockR elm haul (t cl1rt with It load of 700 to 800 kg. ttt, an IWBmge speed of ahout 4 km. per houl' over l~ distance of 15 kill. in a four-hour working day. In the field 1;hey work fot' nhout. foul' hours pel' day. ReportH of the veterinary staff in the Aru region of the Belgian Congo indimtte that no systematic records are ltvailable froid the nativeowned h(lt'd:-l. These herds are, however, periodically inllpectecl and it is efltiillh,ted from these obrervatioils that Lugware ()OWH, ltftpl' feeding their e(tivek, yield about 250 to HOO liter1'l of milk, testing!tijout f) to 6,1) percent butterfat in It lact!~tion period of 7 to 8 lllouths. McLaughlin (1952) reported tlutt ]~ugwal'e cows in the herd maillta.inecl by the Societe dn Raut-Dele et du Nil a,t Aim produced between 2 and :{ literr a day from a, once-daily milking, The fwerage cnjving interval has been «bout 18 months. A few specific data, are available from the Nioklt StatiOll of INEAC in the Belgian Congo, where it was ohserved tlw,t the heifers calved 236

244 a.t,tll Itvera.ge age of 45.3 monthel The aventge milk production pel' day WItS 1.6 liters of milk testing 4.7 percent butterfat in a. lactation period of 260 dcty". The average citlving intervltl was 12 month!' loud t,he cows wprp. observed t,o he fairly regular breeders. It was al:;o o\)sprvt'd that tht' avemgp numbel' of lactations during a lifetime wa,s 10, 'I'll(' Lugwm'(' ('llt,tit' flltteu etlsily (Ill gl'11s;.;land, the carcass is well mwlc!t>d <lnd tht, llropol't.iol1 of bone in said to be slui111. At the age of 5 yearf!,daught,er llnim<ll~ attain to It liveweight of about 280 to aoo kg, ThE' ('ltrt'ah~ yield ih nbollt 50 to 55 percent. From the data,wailahlp at; t.he Niolm fjtatioll it hak been ObHel'ved t.hat the hullorks Itt.tain. at t.he age of :~ % yem'k. to,1 slaughter weight of abont 280 kg., \,Iw (lrehhing pel'('entnge heing 55. At Aba" Lligware Ht,eel''' have been killed at, l)et.weell 2 llud :{ yea I''_; of ctge when t,hey have l'eltched a Iiveweight of about :300 kg, Cow:> of t.he same,tge hnve had /til cwel'llgt" live weight, of 220 to 230 kg. (MeLaughlill, 19(2), 'Phil" t.ype' of Pi1tt.le ih Naid to h(, I'esi:,;tant. to t,iekhol'n dinea::;ck and }IH'('<l.r;ites, Sources of bn e!ling st~)ck ami infol'matioll regal'lling the hreed INEAC '(In:,;tit.ut llntional poul' retude ngl'ollomiqne <iu Congo helge) maintains (L Lugwnre herd l1t Nioka StlLtion ILnd tlw Vet.erinary Depa,l'tment of the Belgi<tll Congo maint,iins It breeding e~tltljlihhment Itt. Ararl1 nefti' Aru for breeding bulla for dist,ribnt,ion, Additional inforhlll,{;ioll may he obtained from the Pl'lIvincil11 Vet(ll' illf1ry Offi('(,r (If En;;tc1'Il Prnvince at Shmleyvill(', Belgian Congo, Origin NANDI In HJilI (\at,tie wert' o;eleeted from tlw herds of the N ancii tribe tv provide t.)w fonndflt,ioll stoek fnr the Bu.raton Livestock Improvement mid Animal IJldust,l'Y Center, These local oattle were representative of th " In,l'ge cattle population of generally similar type whioh is found in the I11:Of.1i ~tu'l'()1uiding Lake Victoria and Mount Kenya and which il:l a part of the Shorthorned East African Zebu group. The name " Nandi" hns been 11pplied t.o the cattle in the J3araton herd and oall be given lllore g!:'11erally t,o t,he looal cahl!;' type, but the high degree 237

245 "~.~- _._-_-_ of variation pl'esent in the tl'ilml herds llwlwh it ill1110ssiljle to speak of il Nalldi «breed)) as exirting (HIt-Hide the BIlL'l.ton Iwnl (Faulkner, 1051:; Colonial OI11c(1, 1(53), ComlitioDS in the native home of the.breed LowMan, topoytaphy and soas On,ttle of the Nandi and similar types ih'c found in the country arouud Mount Kenya, Nynllza PI'OVillee, Kenya, and in neighboring areas in Ugmld,L and Tanganyilm. The area is essentially a plateau with an Itltitude of about 4,000 feet above Hen level. The soils are generally partially laterized red ea,rtlm of local igneous origin and are often deep awl fertile (Milne, 1036), The hllman population is among the densest in Africa south of the Sahara and a very considerable part of the land is subjected to shifting euitivation, Olimate The rainfall, which is between :35 and 60 inchof; It year in moat of the are,t, falls in two periods. Almost half the year'h min occurs in the t.hl'ee months of March, April and. May, while there is a second minor peak in November and December. January und JFelll'lmry are the hottest months and, together with Septernher nnd Octoher, the driest, The temperature range is small t.iu'(hlghont tho year. Climatological cla,ta for Kisumll are given in Tlthle 116, TABLE 116. CLli\fATOLOGIOAL DATA ]'Olt KlsUlvnr IN ' HB NARIlI.AlmA.. ~--~ ,-"_ _._- I ~ I ~ I ~ I ~ I ~-rj I~Tihl-il-~1 ~ Ti :'I1t.->LlI tumpw flt.ul l', IlF." ~...,. ". 'Iii 'In 7: :.~ (1 74 M.. ~tll l'tiinfttll. in. 1.1I :1.2 n.r n.n :1 2.4.J.] 2.4 ],0 4.:1 :1.2.i7.~, ---_._... ~ _-_._ Vegetation The typioal vegetation of the area is scatitered tree gl'asslltnd (low tree/high grass). The general appearance is often that of cultivated orchard land. The tl:ees are charactcristically deciduous

246 and hrol1dleaved with Cmnbre,tum as the clomim\ut genera. 'rhe 1ll0Ht common grasses are Hypa1'l'henia spp. and Cymbopo(/on spp. The tendency for thicket to replace the tall grass between tho trees is prevented very largely by the frequency of bush fires. The nabive population practice :;hifting cultivatioll which, in so densely populated an,wen, produces a rapid deterioration of the plaut, popuin,tion. The. l'i1infall in much of the a1'cl1 i.~ high enough to permit of grass }t,nd improvement by the encourn,gement of stoloniferous and morc pl'ost;mte grasses such as Di(/itnri(~ spp.!tnd Ghlori8 gayana (Edwards, 1951). Jl{nnagement' practices The majority of the indigenous cattle, in the Nnllcli al'ea are subject to n,n illaclequ<tte llutritive ellvironmellt as a rei'mlt of ()ver:-;toeking and 1111 ahhence of iulj proper conservation of fodder. O"ttle, as elsewhere ill Afdcn" play a very [a,rge part. in the social life of' the people I\ud their ownership if; commonly distributed among t.he val'iom; members of a fmnily. Numbers are of predominant interest, to the CI\t,tIe owners ana little 11\;tentiOll i;; paid to the productive c,tp"hility of the cattle. Improved mltue1gemellt mm effect very striking and rapid improvement:-;: Ft,ulkner (HUll), for instance, comments on the contrast; between the muc!),ss weights of Masai cattle (240 to 300 lb.) and t.ho,;e of Hilllilnr cat.tle under European mam,gement (450 to 500 Ill.). Liquid milk is only used in the household of the cetttle owner, hut clarified butter is prepared for sale. At the Bamton Hvestock Improveme.nt Station the cattle rcmain on l)asture throughout t,he yei1l'. All cows receive 1. lb. a day of t1 COllcentl'o,te mixture and thore prodncing over three quarterr of i1 gallon of milk dltily nre given JIb. of tho ration for each gallon in excess of th,1t amount. On,Ivol{ nrc removed from the cows at birth and are hanel-fed and gren,t care is tnj;:en to train heiferk to hand-milking. Physicul churactel'istics of the bl'eell Nltndi cattle (Figures 84 nnd s5) as described hy Faulkner (HI5l) me small, fine-boiled animals. The head is long and has a tendency to he coffin-khaped with the grm,test width between the i:lupl'a-orbitt,1 proce8:-:es. The face in part,icular ih long ttnd lean.. The profile is straight or slightly c:onvex. The horns nrc: round in cross section and n.rc mmally short and pointecl at the ext,l'emitieh. The direction of

247 growth tends j o be httcrally ii'olll the pull with <1 slight eurve upwaruh ;;.nd forwards. Cattle 'with loose hornh and polled animals occur. 'rjw hump is ecrvico-thoracic in position and ik usually com~idemhly I1lO1'e pi'ominent ill t.he male than in the fmllllje. wherl' it may he ~o slllall!if! to hc barely apparent. It!'! Klopp is genemlly ti'om frout to renr with, in hulls, It marked lltwkward fall. 'I'he topjill(, if; of moderate width anel slopes ~lightly upwar(l,; frolll the withth'k to the hindquarter;.:. The 1'l1l1lP, which is lif moderate length, ha,; a mnrked slope to the rcal'. The hind legs are upright ill pojodt.ioll and teud to be lean. The tnil is long llnd slellder. The ndd!w tends to he "mall nnd tjw tenth arc lihunlly e10re together. The pendulous dewlap starts uuder the (~hill alld uontinue;; to the breasthone bet:ween the forelegti. The umbilical fold is only l'iomet,imcs 'lpparent. CU!lt coloration varies eollsiderably through a rauge including 'full black, reel, fawn, white and gray, and combillat,ioilh in which hlack,tmi reel. predominate. I:jome liveweights and llleahul'elllellth of typical NtUldi cattle are shown in 'ruhle 117. Fl!WJtl!: i'l4. Nandi COli'. 240

248 C'oude"y of Halpl' W. Pblllil'. 'I'ABLE 117,. AD) 1<.1. "g L1 V}lW}JHlllT;; AND i\!lir.asuju1ments O}' N ANDl (!ATTL1~ ],iv<lwoiglit, JIJ.. 0 o. 00' I -- ::...-_-=-=- ;.--,";::.;;:..::-=:::;:.:~.:::.::=.:~.~.- ) I,~-~~~== =;"T:;;,-I-:"-f~"" H47 17 IlI:!1I 1+ 71~1 Length from sllolil<l!w poi!,l to -pinb[)ne hi... ~...,... :1-1, [4 th.u H"ight at \\'i(h<,,", in. no:!,1_-,' Ii 14.1,Jj 4 1.') Ptljlth (]f dll'ht. in..., ;!!i,t,!!:i.a 14 :?4.~ ;~:~~;' ~~~ll~~:~.~:_:_: _". ".. ~._~::: ~ ~ :~: ~J... ~.._..:.:_ ~()PllOJll: "FaUkJlPI'. ] llf) I. Functional charactel'istics of the lll'eed Nandi heifers at Harat.on Imve calved for t,he first time a.t lill averagp. age of 3 years lind 7 monthr, The average calving intervals of varioul-i groups of cows have been: foundni,iolt cows 13,0 months (311 calvingl:l);.'leleoted progeny 11.7 months (355); unseleoted progeny 11,5 mollthl4. l~ive percent of the foundation COWl' and 2,6 percent of the Ullselected progeny wel'(\ Hterile, 241

249 The average gest.ation pel'iud of Nandi eow:,; wa.:; 28'1 dnys with it range of.:370 to :300 day,,;. A considerablc val'intioll ()f 1 to 2U houl's ill the clumtion of' E'~tl'US hn:; been observed (FrLulkncr, Ulfi I). ' The average of :llilactationl'ccords of fouudation cows was 1,27~ lb. of milk containing 15.6 percent of butterfat in 182 days. The Iwerage production of n, group of t.heir Relected progeny (J 00 records) was 2,282 lh. of milk containing G.l verccnt of huttcrfat in 275 days. Two individufli Inct,tt,ion yield::; of over 4,000 lh. of milk in 2715 and 322 day" were reeordecl tlt the BI1,rn,t,oll 8trLtion, with butterfat at i5.8 percellt and H.l 11orcont l'e~pectively. A number of t,he cows have continned hroeding tu tm advanced age: one, after 12 htct.1ltions in which :16,471l lb. of milk,tud 2,U54 lb. of lmt.tcl'f,1,t wcre produced, died [1,t, the age of l!) 'yean:. Another which produced :35,621 lb. of milk and 2,048 lb. of butterfat ill 14 lactations, died when 18 yem':'; old (Colonial Office, UI(3). The NmlCli ox,tt ;j yean; of ltge ir capable of pl'oducing n ftlir IJeef ClLrcnAS of nljout 850 to 400 lb. euid deadweight (Fmdlmer, l!)i3l). 'While no informatioll i.~,wnilahle a,~ to the working ahility of Nandi ettttle, it lm~ heen Hot,ecl (]]\mlknm, H)51) tllat Nandi oxen have been in denhulcl it'; dn1,ft animals on farms lllttllaged lly EUl'OIletHl settlers. Nltndi cn,ttle arc susceptible to rinderpest ltud pleuro-lmcumollitt, :t;; well,1,s, to,1, lesser extent, to foot.i1,nd-lllouth diroilse, which is generally only It Jlroblem in improved herdk and in he1'cl;; of Khtughtel' cm,tle. Tick-horue diseases ttl'e prevalent in t,he n1'ea Itlld Nandi C'ltttle, if they sui'vive the iuitial clllfhoocl infection, develojl 1m imlllunity which prot,ects them nga,imlt fmb~oqucllt infect.ion. Cl'osse~ with other breeds of cattle A 8tthiwal bill! wn~ introduced Itt the BltI'ntoll Livt'O!1"oek Improvelllent Station "hortly hofo1'e t,lle \J45 Wltr. '1'he 111'st genern,t.ioll (Fd Cl'OSS fenmle~ gane an avemge yield of :3,O!JD lb. of milk eontnining 5,1 percent butterfat in 275 tlayh. Theil' calving intel'vnl W,1,S 1~.4 mollthll (lhmllmer, J H51). Sources (If bl'cc(lillg stock and infol'luation regarding the bl'cc{l Further information concerning the Nfwc1i cn.ttle ean IJC obtained from t,lw DeI),tl'tmcnt (If Vet,m'iwwy 8el'vieeK, Knhc1.e, Kenya,

250 SOUTHERN SUDAN HILL ZEBU Origin The~e cl\ule, which have also Leen referred to a~ the Mongalia, Ol' Bast African zebu, are owned by It number of tribeh of mainly Nilo Hamitic origin, which lllwe entered their present 1mbitn,t in Equatoria Province in the l~epublic of the SUdltll from territories further to the east, and which include the Didinga, the Latulm-Lltllgo group and the Bad on the east of the Nile ItS well a~ the Kuku loud Lugware on the we:-;t. Their Himilarity in phyhimtl conformation suggests a common origin for thehe cattle, the Lugwm'e cltttle of the Belgiltll Congo lwd t.he Bukedi zebus of Uganda. There is inhufficiellt unifol'mity within the cl),ttle population of the area to justify its being refel'l'cd to as It " broed. " COllllitions ill the native home of the In'eell Location, topography and soils Thet-m cattle M'C found in the hilly ItHd lllountainous country in the Yei, Moru, Juun, Torit and Eastern districtr of Equatoria Province. The Didinga have their villages ou the higher >doper of the hill::; of that, nume, the Llttulm-Lango group of tribes are grouped aronnd the rocky foothills of the Lafit, Imntong, Ilnd DongotOlHt lllountllins, and the BIH'i livc nminly to the eil.rt of the Nile in thc Julm al ea. The Kuku inlulhit the Rajo Kaji howl on the Ugmlcilt horder to t.he weht, of the Nile ml(l the LUgWIWC I1re to be found in elt$tern Yoi district, In the pm;~ lllueh of the eoulltry to the west of Juba. in the MOl'll and Yei distrieth supported It leu'ge el\ttlc population, but thc depl'ecbtiolul of the Dervishes in thc nineteenth century, and more recently of epizootic disenscr, have result ed in its reduction to ft few RlllaH fmrviviug horcls, a.nd most of the arell has heeome overgrowll with lmrh and infested with tset.se fly. The M'en is mountainous Hnd much eroded!tnd the floil~ show gl'(:i/l.ij. vllrilttioll. In the hillb the]'(:1 are tnmeated and llkeletal Roil:,: on the slope:,; and Homc deep fertile lomn:; in thc valley::;: elsewhel'e t.here 111'e mainly Hhallow lateritic :-;()ils or rlcid lomuh (SDIT, J 955).

251 Olimate The climate is characterized by the,dternatioll of It dry and a miny ;.;eason eonscquent upon the north-houth mov!:'lllent with the!':lull of the intert,ropical convergence: The mountainous nature of the couutry, however, causes some orographic minfall even in the dry season. There is eollsiderahle variation in the duration of tho dry S(\ll.1l0Il from "West, to east. At;.Kajo Kaji, for instance, it oenupif'h the months of December,.January and Febr1lary. whilf1 at. TOl'it it extends from November to the end of Februal'Y. The rainfall on the tlithtern and northern slopes of the mountains (tild hillr to thp ea~t of the Nile ih not only less than t,hn,t of the lllore westerly Yei and Kajo Kaji dist.ricts, but is badly dirtl'ihuted wit.h long, dry intervals evon in the rainy season. Temperature~ can be high during the dry Se1lHOll wuh a eollsiderabl" diurnal variat.ion hut during the rains generally tend 1;0 he more equable. Climatological data fol' Torit in t.he Latuka-Laugo ttrea!tl'e given in Table 118 and t.1w distribution of minfall at Kajo Knji ir shown ill Ta,hle 11!l. TABU: lib. -- CLIMA'rOr,OGIO,U, DA'rA FOlt 'l.'oh1'i' (ALTITUDE 625 ~I.) ~~I~iT;~1~CI-m~T~~[~'-I-~J_~ I ~ I~ lit~ ~\:loan Jlluxj ! II t.emp<ll'ature, C :17.,1 :lii.i> :1;'.5 :1:1.5!l~.;ll' ;11).5 :IO.M 3~.\) :l.l.j ali.g ali.n 3.i.4 :.ruan minimum tolnpcraturo, 0(\ lx.h :!o.a :!I,I :.!O.7 20,1 li),;i 19, IM.1i 1;>.1,7 LH.4 lk.~ Hl.4: ~l"'lti J'(lllLtiv" 1mmi(Uty, nt, I)~.on }lrh., % :m 1:5 ria lii 7:J 7r1 79 7~t 7 t 7!! 02 I' 0:1 04 Meaa rainfnll~:~~~ ~_~I_t ~~~2a_15~_~~~ ~~ UK ~~_: ~~~... SIlUIlUI'! 'l'ompumturll allol l'lllutlnl hlllllldjt.y; fl'e]'lllfl, 1I1iH. It,tinrllU: "T)1'I', 191;;;' TAllI,g lu). _-.\(ON'rlff.Y ANJ) ANNUAL.H.AINl"ALI. AVJ'lRAU['j:-l AT K".JO KA.fl (Ar!l'l'rFIH<l I,OaO M.) ~(I['ltI'I':: ~{)prj 10fio.

252 l' ('iib."atio II On the slope~ of the 8outheu::!tel'll hills the vegetil>tioll!'!lnges frolll broa.dlenved woodland, including OomfJl'(>,t1l1n 8P" Vitex sp. and Fir-u.s sp., t.hrough thoi'll wood.la.ml, including Awcia spp., Albizzia. 8crioccphala and E~~pltor'bi(( l.'i!.?tenifi_cea, to grn~sland nnd Kcruh which is Jargely the reflu!t. of overgrazing Itnd ~()il deteriomtion. The dominant grafllil iivc(,ies are perennialf.: - e.g. HYP(l1'rhenia spp. llnd mlloris (Jayana - and, in old cultivation.area>: and where the soil jf; eroded. thp short annuals Al'istida uij,8ce.nsioni8 and Erag1'08tis Hpp. In the Kajo K!tji area, west of the Nile 11nd nett!' the Ugnllda border there ik open g.rhkrlu.nd including Hyparrlwn'iu ::Ipp., Ohlol'i,~ yayu'iul, Seiar ia. 8phctcelta, Panicntn -rlulxi?num and Oynodon dactylol1. There m'e a few river pasture A dominated lly Phr(/(/1nites flpp. HmI. to a leshel' t'xhmt, oy Echinochlo(l HPP, A >:ystel11 of ::Ihift.ing (!ultivnt.ion using hand implenwilts i~ followed throughout the area.. The vegetation il:i everywhere much I1lnrliiied hy the effect:; of TIre!:!, past cultivation undo outf.lidf' the t~('tfl(' l\i'phk hy grazing {RDIT, I ~)fi5). Jf (/nagement pm~~tice" The triheh maintaining thih type of tatt.le arc sedenl,ll.ry and do not make extenkiyt' HeaFlonalmovements in scarch of grazing!tnd Witter. In the Rout.heaAtel'll hilla and in the Bari area the cattle graze neal' the village", on the hill 'Hlopes during the rains and are taken either into t,lle 10wt'1' l'iv('1' and strehm vnlleys or higher up the hill,.; in the dry HCftHon. This D\m'(>lllent 1;; macl~\ very largely to bring the (m,ttle claan' to 'Wat,er. In the K.!tju Kn;ii area the ('nale remain ill Ow vidnit.y of the villa.ge., throughout tlw yen!'. Cattle are watered dldl." at midday. No fodder ih pl'e;;el'ved. Th(! ealves IL1'e kept in 1;he vilhtges until they m'e w()!tned on the drying-oft' of t.he dams after a,pproximately ten months, when they join the main h(1rd, Cows are milked once daily in t.he evening, Itud the milk h ( onsumed in its liquid fonn. Meat ir eaten by the tribes. Oa,ttle ltl'o ~laught.el'ed on fe::!tival:4 and meat. from nninmlr which die from rliflease or othei' camms ill (mten. The castration of nmlc (mttle, except!llllong the Didinga, ih rm'e (Mc'Laughlin, E. A.. Pp.1'8onrt/ t'mnm.. unicat ion).

253 Ji'r(H: 1m lift. ''''''()litj/(~i'/i.,""'w/iui Hill zebu "LII/,uku " bllll. C!lnl'LpH.~r of J. '1),1\1..lad;:: J<'WUltE li7.,';"v'lithern S'urilln Hill ZC/)'/l. " ljidin[/(i," ('ow. ('Ulll'lIlH)" or J';. A. ;\[(llliup;hlin

254 Physical characteristics of the 1u'ccll 'rho cattle (Figure:> 8fl and 87) are!'mall, sfocky allimall:i. well fleshed <md with good qnarters. The head is short and the muzzle broad. The profile is straight D], rllight1.v con caw. The orhitnl a.reheh are ljronouneed nnd the forehead is COllcave. The horns are generally short nnd curved, lleldolll exceeding 20 to ao cm. in length, Hnd gl'()w in an {JUt wu,l'cl!tnd upward directiun. forward of the lille of t.he profile. The Immp is cervico-thomcic to thol'!t<,ic: in position and ik of 1':II11a11 or modemtc size in the female, but is ('ompnratively hu'ge in the male.and nu1y lutng ove!' to the re111' or to one side. The dewla11 is of mediulll -development and the umbilical fold is small. 'The t()pline is hroad ~ind well muscled and riser gently to the hindquarterr. The rump is of medium length and slope ttnd is wide over the pinb(jlle,~. The hindqu(u'tel's and thighs!trc strong and well fleshed. There is a wide range of coat colorntion. Light colo[,s, including grays and duns are common, but other colors and lmtterns on while {lceur. Combinations of black and white are common among the Lugwal'e cattle in Yei dirtriet. The hair is soft and shor1; and the skin is darkly pigmented. There have been no observatioll!; of the liveweight of these cat.tle hut a very tent,ative estimation has been of alllwerage of 150 kg. The height at withers has been given as 100 to 105 em. and the heat t girth as 135 cm. (SDIT, 1955). The average birthweight has been estimated to be about 5 kg. Some measurements of the cattle are given in Tahle 120. TABLE AVEltACU1 MEASURElIIENTR OF ~;\lali, IN 'l'he HOUTHEASTERN ~UDAN HILL ZEBUS No. of (I"ttl() I 1 Y[,Hl" _..,.----_._-_._---- FII~:\UJ.E8 ]foight to top of hump, In.... Hcnrt girth, in ~!II 10 3~.H 3';.4,j 4!l,4!1 W.5 M.L i\lu,gs Height to top Df hump, in. '".... Heart, girth, in to :U.fi 10 :.14.9;' :l1l.or. 42,H ----'.. _. C-._...,..-'-_ 4U.rl5

255 Functional l~h<\l'aelt'i'istics (If the breed Heifer:; mhudly CHive. for tho nrl:lt time ::looll ;t,fter the >lc{'(lnd pel' mmwnt inei:;or lu,", been cnt, at between 2 and :l year" of age, (1ow" whinlly calve ftt, yenrly interval" ilnd it is thought lllay have a Pl'o<illct.ivH life ri7 to 10 lacta.tiollk. 1'he majority of calvingr ocenr during N (n-em. her to JallUltl'Y ill the dry season. Milk yields a,ro l:\llml1; daily yields (lr 1.1) lit,or:;!~llll 4- to li pilltl'l htlve been repol'tt\(l. An llverage yield of 582 UterH in 300 dayh with calves l:hjcldillg hits been reported from La,tulm cows (SDIT, l!)[j5), Meat frolll these cnttle C!Ul be of good quality, It. hils lipell e~timated t,hn,i, It dre:;sed ehrcai::ls llluy weigh frolll 60 to 70 kg. 'l'hetlt> eat.tle me reported to he to some extellt, l'eristallt to tl'ypftlll) HOlllia:;;iH. PerfOl'IIlIUWe in othm' ItI'cas Hmltll mttle of it similar type to t,lutt of the tllllltll zebu of the Hout,heJ'1l Hlluall l~re found ill the possehrion of the pngan t,ribes in n slllltll area of t.he Nuh," luonntaillr in the ndghborhood of DelIaroi in Km:dofnll Prnvince in thc northern Sudan. ThiH m'e!, if< an il;oli,ted pocket of t.hctse-infested countl'y ltnel the apparent t,olemlw(\ of thih type of cat,tie to trylmlhltlomiat'lih has contributed lop their eollt.iullted Hlll'vival in ciohe proximity to t.he large hel'd~ of Northern Suehn 8hortho1'ned zeh~li; which graze the IJlaiu:-~ in the viuinit,y of bhe lllountaii1h. Similar ~mall ('Itt.t.Ie were formerly owned hy the pagitu Ingesscn:t trihe who Iuwe their villages in the IllgeHscna hills in the flouthern pl1rt of Bhw Nile Province, but the settled couditiollh which prevailed during the Oonuo. minium llllcl which c1li1hled the tribehmen to graze t.h!'ir catt,lt; in the plain:; through which the nomadic ArabK graze their O!Lttlp IHwe led 1.0 crol>khreeding with t.he Northerll Sudan zehu to Hlleh an extent that 1,he Hl111t11 hill cattle lmve heeu almost ellt,il'ely l'epllt(wd hy m:oshhred HllimltlR (MillH, lfl53; McLaughlin, Ii:,A" P(>'I'8o'nol ('(/tnm'lini(~(di(m,). Sources of hi'ce(ling stock Hnd infoi'mation regarding the llj'eell It is estillmted thttt, t,here are appl'oxin1lttely 111,000 ('a.ttle of tlli~ lype in the Imutherll Sudml. Herds of these cattle have been nmintailled ill gol'el'nl1wllt, herds at Yei and Torit. Further informatioll may he obtained from Lhe,Director of Animal Product,ion, Ministry of Animal I{e80Ul'CeR, Khltrtoulll, RE'pu IIlic of thn Sudan,

256 TANGANYIKA SHORTHORNED ZEBU Origin Cattle of thi:; type :;how 80 much variation thltt there may be somt' doubt as to whether they can be legitimately referred to as comprising a "breed." The cl.ttie type appears to have been present in the area for 11 considerable time and is thought to be derived from importations which penetrated to East Africa at t.he t.ime of Islamic' expansion (FrC'nch, M. H., Pei'8ona7 Oorntnu.nicaiinn). {;onditions in the native home of the hreed Loco tion, fopo!jmphy fl.n.d 8nilR This type of cattle OC(m1'8 t,hroughotlt 'l'angttnyikl1, in t,he hot humid ()oastitl area ItS well as in the dry and cool highlands. The greatest numbers a,re, however, found in the arid and semi-arid area,s of the mmtral plateau in It triangle between La,ke Victoria, Mount Kilimanjaro, nnd Iriuga in the Southern Highlands Province, while there are smaller lloncentrations in Houthern Tanganyika from Njom be to Abel'col'll, near 'rabora in "Vestern Province and between Sa,mo Ilud Korogwe in Tanga Province. Considel'a.ble areas in Tangltnyika. arc' infested with t,hetse fly and in much of the Southern, Eastern and West,ern Provinces!l.S well as the western parts of Lake and SouthN'n HighlanclR Province:; (;here are very few cattle' (Hutchison, 1955). The central pla,teau is, very generally, a gently undulating peneplain, showing in some places renewed dissection and broken by occasion!11 remnant hill ranges largely compm;ed of gneisse~. The elevation of the platea,u is fairly uniform at about 4,000 feet!tbove sea level, but there is an elevated rim on the east, west and.sout,h where it reaches, in places, 9,000 fect. Among the isolated elevationr on the plateau Mount Kilimanjaro, with all elevation of 19,000 feet, is by far the most I:onsiderable. The soils arc for the most part red earths (well-drained dod-structured neutral SOilB, free of calcium carbonate and with It low clu.y fraction) Imd plateau soils (poorly-drained, light-colored soils which are frce of calcium carbonate but often have ironst,one concretions in the subsoil) on the slopes of the hills with plains soils (semi-arid, hard-surfaced soils) elsewhere except in JepressioIls where there are mtlcareous black 01' gray cracking ciays (cottol1 soils). Catenary ~n(\cessions of red earths, plateau Boils, plains soils, and black or gray

257 Roils OCWI' where the phtteau i'hmvs Nigns of dissection. There is of tell advmlce(l soil crosi.on where there has been prolonged cultivation (Milne, 1936; Gillmltl1, lilin; Kenclrew, 1(3). Climate The central plateau has a low and often unreliable rainfall which is concentrated in the period hetween October mid April with the peak in Jal11lUl'Y and Febnml'Y. The rain falls in hem'}' showers, often accompanied by tlllulder, which occuj' on ahout half the days during the rainy seuson. There is collsidel'ltble cloud, [1,ncl humidity, espe. dally,tt. night, is high. The 'wind is light and chrterly during the day;,lt night there ir calm. TABLg CLnIATOI.OGICAL DA'l'A Fon UrcIHWlTRA, SnKUMALAND, :LAKE PIWVINCE, TANGANYIKA Meun Tllaximlllll teiup~l"llj,"re, 011'. ~a.4 il:l.2 i>t.o Ra.(1 st.,. 8a.~ Ra I SIl.l X7.:I x:t.ri HI.S ~:;.7 :Mean min im ielnpcrnttuc, "F. r.. : Ii-l. r~ n:lfi n:1,:) t10.0 5H. ~ (]5.0 n(>.11 11,1. J O:I,r. l\[ean relative 1m mi(lity at 118.~0 hrs.. ~:).,... o. Sl W' :--tl H~ ~o I" (in!l a liielln rcllltin' humidity lit I.1. ~lii :JS :\7 Wi" fi1 fii) 47 lilean '" rainfall, in. a.77 :},20.i.2i fi.2:l 2.85 O.'IR O.M o.n" lI:1 :1.4:1 3l,Rf> ----~----- B()uR(~lt:: HutohiAOIl, ,.. --_... _---,-_-- TABLE CLIMATOLOGICAT. DATA ]i'oit J)OJ)()MA, UnO(W, CEN'.rRAL l'rovince, TANGANYIKA. '---~~-----'~ -~~- --- ~-I ~ I ~ I ~-I~' I-~ I-~-I~~--I ~I ~-I i I ~Ti -, --~--! --I ,~'- ltluhll lnnx{n,l.ultl tmnpel'atnl'l~, nlr, Sfl.2 ~2.n :-;1.7 xo.5 71).2 80,4 S:l,H 86.(, H:L:1 SH.O S3.a ~Iean minilnulu temperature, 0]>' In.4 ii7.: GO.n ( Ol.(' lilelln relatiye Immidity at OS.30 hi's., % :3 8~ 8~ ]\[ean relatiyo Imwdity at 1<1.30 hl'r., I::..... ~ Men n rainfall" in I!l 45 1:1 42 as ao au 4H '1 IH ' fi _~ _0.00 O~~O ~:.:~.77 2il,']j, 250

258 Fwuru; ~K. Tllnll'lJI!}ilm :,TuII'lhomeri.:r{,11!l1"lJ'lill(l'< lit l{vli[jwlt Ranch. The dry Kl:<tKOn hlst,; frolll ~by to October. The \\'ind if; frelih frolll the east 01' Ronthe!IRt,md there is lit.tle cloud and no min. The ~til' i,~ dry loud tempemtureh art' high at midday. The diumal mnge ir ('OIlHidel'aLle l'li1d the nights art' much cooler than during the mins (Kendrew, 1953). Glillllltologicni data fol' two HtaticHlK in Tanganyika are giwn ill Table,. 121 <tun 122. Vp.(fMntion Much of Lhe are,\ in whieh (he Tanganyika shol'thol'ned zebu is found i~ oovered ljy gl'n~~land with decidl10ur shrubs lind Hlllall trees {llll'gely ()ornijret'nm. spp.) often covering 50 percent or more of the ground CFig11l't' l:lr). L!H'ge (,reek in elumps 01' singly are often present JtIld ill 1llaceH t.he Bllobab (Adanson'ir( rligilttla) occurs in large number;;, In areas with 11 Hedelltary poljullltjoll the original phmt popuhltion lms been ljlodified by the effeets of cont.inned cultivation until it preheat.s (,he appclu'ftllci' of bl'ing ~e{)[)nu,tl'y grassland in which Baobah trees,\-['12 oft,en col1spi(;uous reulll!luts of the ol'iginal vegetation, A ('01111>1. natio]l of vegetation t,ypek which has been referred to as the" min-pond oaimhl" oeems in fmd sl11'l'ounding deprel:lsions. The depl'es8ion itself is covered ljj r gmshhlud which is surrounded 011 tile rim by a nan-ow fringe of woodland which quickly gives way to the surrounding thornlnl~h, NeM' Lake Vici;ori<l grasrland with hushes is replaced by grasslflild with sc1ltternl1rees whieh include, IIlllong other Rpecies. ACilCia i'rpp. 2/H 17.-lfl'il'uJi ('(IUlf'.

259 :LIld til(' P(thll~ RO}"((S8118 and Hyplutene. III the center of the,trea thert' are pat.ahe;; of Bmchy,qtef/ia wnorlln-ne! whieh a.r(' often inferte(i by t,,.;et)<p- (GillmalL Ul4!J). Jl1fl.nayeml'nt Jll'lIrtil:I'oI' The lll!ljol'itr of thl' (''It:tle kept, I,y the IllLtivp peoples of'l'angall.vilm, 'except thoi'll' in slllall areah when, "mixed fal'luill(!'" ik prhct,iced, IL1'(o' maintained,,-hon~r on gmzing ",hioh tend:,; to hi' :'IeH~ollltlly limited in '_upply_ Large a,i'ens ill till' mor(' arid parts of t.)w territory ar(' utilized hy I1ol1lILciic tl'ihl.';. Ga,ttle.Ire intinuttely honnd up in the soeil11 ol ganiz!1t.ioll of the people, lla.l'tienlhrl~' in tildl' C'npaeity lts the (nll'rency of tht' In'ide \n~ltlth sy~t{,1l1 Hnd the qulmtity of t,ile cattle tompofling the hent,.; it' generally given prem'dence (lver their quality h~, their ()wner~. Milking ir heooming 1ll()J'f' U(Jlll111 Oll: when it. iii pmeticed t,he calf ih alwf1.yi\ allmwd to suckle fit. the follhlle t.ime. Meat, i" l'!~tell in the al'ea but French (1 nao) hal' ohrerved that in t,he part, people during t,il11es of famine Imve died of Htal'vatioll mth(~l' than kill tiwil' C()W~. In Lake Pl'()vinet' the 'V!lkl1l'ia and other tribes hltve adopted l,he pmctiir:{' of uhing pattlc :t:< tlmft Hni!llftil; foi' tillagt' pm po,.;es (Hlltehisoll, 1!1;),I). PhYMicnl (~hal'aclcl'isli(~s tlf tlw breed (~!ttt.le of thi~ t~'lw (Figure:,; sn,!hi.md Ill) mit (:()Il:'lidcl'n.hiv ill :'Iize and in eonfol'l11ftt,ion. The lal'gfjf;t nncl IIeHt, gr'own are l'ep(;l'ted t,() 1,e tho~e ill the lw.llth; of t,he Plv<tol'ld ~ra~mi in t-.lw :-.igol'oil,!!(li'() ftlhi. 1"r(l1rrtB tin. '1'rl'''Ha:n,l(ika. /lortlwl'j/,fjri.;.;/iu (J/(l8ui) "'flo. (.'olll'i'c~y oj' n. u. HuL( jjl';()j'

260 j<'hrjjt.j<; n I. '/'((fll/({)/.yiku.~//(}j'tl"'/,fl.ljd z('iii/ (Lflk(j 1'/"fJ'I:iw',',) "011'. Cm.lrte~y of II. t:. 1l1L1t:hlr.ioll

261 Ba] bal nrens and t: hose' in the M ll"oma area on the eao:tel'll Hhore of Litke Vil'tori:t. TIll' head tend" to hi' long with a cunvex profile. The orhital arche:.; nee (lnly "lightly aeeellhmted, lending n small degree of concavit,y to t.he forehtlnd. The ear::: are ahout 6 inchch long and are carried horizont,.lly. The hol"ml grow from the pull in a lnternl and upwftrd dil'cetioll. tul'lling: UIIW:\,tds itt the extremities.. mel with the line of growth ill line with or slightl:v forwtltd of t,he line of the head profile. The horns arc it full o\'al in m'os" ~ecti()ll ll,nd often Harrow abruptly to the tip which ik ( ontinued los It short narrow pl'o;jeetiou. Except,ionnlly horll~ Jlwy hend clownwi"nh:! anellie along the cheeki;;, or hut'lls of,t naitow oval in cross section may occur which g)'ow laterally from the poll ill a slight spiml. ' The hump is l'clittively large both ill the uhtle aud the fem!.le ilud is tlwmcic in position (Milne, IH55). The sl011e from the front and rehl~nhty he ltpproximntel.\' equid so that the hump 1m,; ll decided pynunidal appem'ance (bei"tl"illg a Atrong resemblance to that of the Toposn Mnrle Ci1ttle of the Routhe:m Sudan). or the genoml direction of sialic ma~' he to the rea,r. In the male there nuty he Kome overhang to the ~ide. Milne (HI55) concluded from a serier of diskccti()w; of Cltttle of this type tlutt the hump WftS musculo-fntl;.v in Rtruct.lll'e <tucl tlmt it repl'e>lellted n,n lteeumulatiun of re::;erve food llhttel'htl. The topline riser to the hindquarter::;, the slope of which varies considemhly frolll OIle individual to another. '['he RitCl'Um is only slightly prominent in the majority of eal:les. The tail ih of medium length. The depth of chest tends to ue small and the underline riser from the front to the rem'. The dewlap find umhilien,l fold nrc of moderate fullness. The limhs are lelth llncl lightly boned n,nd often give the api)cln'ttn<:e of being long iul'elation to the depth and length of the body. The Akin is of medium thieknesh and the hnirs of the ccmt are KilOrt and lie Rll1oothly. Cont coloratioll show::; a wide mnge: full colon; including white, fawn, red and black occur as well as patterned color comi)inatiol1s and roans. '1'he live weight of mature cattle in the Mlmlu district in the highland area, of N ol'thel'll ])L'ovinee seldom exceedr 400 to 450 lb., but t,lutt of milture lviasni cattle is HOllletimes over ). It has been ~mggested, however, that this cliiference is of environmental origin ak, when YOUlI!!: cattle from a number of areas, including Mbulu, httve been roared together, they have ueen indistinguishahle at mnturity (Hutchison, 1955, Pe1'sonrtl Oornrnnniclltion). This environmental effect 011 growth is further illust.rated uy a seriefl of measul'ellleilt,~ made by Hutchison (Pe1'8onal Gmnrnuni('((tion) 254

262 in May H)5fj at the Kougm\ Rauch of' the Tanganyika Agricultuml Corporation and which are sullll11lu'ized ill Tahle 123. The measurements were made on foul' groups of Tanganyika shorthorned zebus. Three group;; were of steers brought in from tribal herds a,t age;.; represented hy no-pel'lllanent-teeth to 4-to-6-pel'llmuent-teeth (estimated to include groups of cattle from 1 to :~ yem's of age). The fourt.jl group was of ;.;teers which lutd 1)ee11 purchased fro111 tri1ml hel'dk as yearlings a,nd sinee maintained on the ranch fol. three yenrs. The ca.ttle on the ra.nch were maintained 011 nnimproved local pasture under good :>tanrlards of hygiene and grazing control hut were given no suljplementary feedingstuff.~. The samples 'Yere obtained by meafluring the first ten animals of tihe type required. whir:h p<trsed through,t " r:l'uhh " as large herds were heing clipped. 'L\BL:g 12a. - COl\!l'"UUSON Db' TANGANYIKA SHORTHOHNED ZEBF 8'l'EERS FJtOlII THInAL AREAS AND AF~'.FJH THREE YEARH OF RANCH MANAGEMENT '.rrlbuj cllull' RHlIch "nttle I,nngth frolll Rhollltlel' JlOlnt tn ]linhllllc. in. Height at. wlthel'r. In... Height Itt hockr. in.... Depth or <'licht, in..... Wiclt.ll of billa. in Hellrt girth. lit :10. Gil ± 1.131!:6.80 ± I :HI.17 :1:: O,UG Jr. \11 :!: O.(lB ± :111.\11) ± 1.2:? ;;i.:!h ± I.U8 ;19.0. oj: ~(i ± 0.; ± ± l.!ih :l!.:l87 ± U.!l'i' 41.i; ± 1.1{j ± O.JG j: (UIS ± 1.Hll.((I.Rl ± U.S! 4S.1:l4 ± U Uil :1:: 1. 5n lil.oo ± (J.OS 4n.~!i ±_~_:~ ~8:=.~~~_L5().37 ± 1.7:1._Ill_l.:.~_~_~ "' II mealls dcrlvad from "'tllllllca of 10 OllBOl'VlltiollS. :--:OPIW1U: HutehiRon, Ii, (1-., P"'1' i(}tlm OmnmuHication. TABLE AVEltAGE :.\feasurements OF TANGANYIKA 8RORTRORNED ZEBUS AT VAUIOUS RTAHJ<JS OF GUOWTH ---.-~~ "-~-----=--~-,--. Male Female No. (If (."at.tl.... AVPL'age Hg'l~. duss.... AVl'l'agn Iwig!J(', ut, hil,a. Ill. A Y(H'age Iwa pt gll th, Ill... III!i57 4~ G 21 IlJlttm'c' 45.7" :!1.0 23,~ 111 ~O.:! ll mtl.ture 5t}' '; :-:;()PH.('E: IInt.I'lJisIIJl J IHi;" Tn the ca:,:e of the whole serif'14 of body meahul'ementl4 the difference between the {)bservatio~ls recorded for the 2 Yz to 3-yeM-old group and the 4 to o-year-olcl gronp is considernbly grentel' than could he account,ecl for hy the diffel't'lwe in l\ge and mm he I\ssu1\:wcl to he a, 255

263 retlectiojl of t,he differential {,ff['(~l ilhhweu hy till' ~upel'io!' Illltritional ~tatus of j,he cattle whieh had hepii llluintllincrl Oil the mudt for thret' Years., OUler llll1l1';ul'elllt'nt,,,; and Ii vewdghts of Tanganyika "hol'thorned zebus at various :;;tages of g:w\\'t;h are given in Taliles 124, 125 and 12(i. '!',UIl.l!J 12ii... AVgH.-I.uB LIVBWEIUH'l'l> AND.MB,\S[fI{EMBN'rH OF' 'I'AN(lANYIKt\ NHOHTHflH'mD Z~~lnTi4 -~:'''~~:~:F"",,:I ~:;.'" i: '~:f",,~~ I '"'~,:'" Lh ('wl'ight. Ih.....,... 1:~~(~)I"!I;':(J (,11 OK,i,:l(:~i~I:~:1 :lkii,.((~ I,:~~:--:~:'I" ll"igbt.atwlth"i'~, in. """ I ;W.O(;' ~~.;(") ~;j'i(tl)i' :H.H~) :IR.O(O) 11,0(10) 1:1.-< lll'pth nt' du'"t, ill...,..,.. I ~1.11 (2) 2';.11 (I) 20,0 (:I) (1) ~7.:< (f,)!!1l.2 '\'Illth 01' hips, ill... "',. '111.,; (7) 1:1.2 (u) t:i.i' (II):!l.1I (1;) (ll) 1:l.11 (10) I:I,H [{""l't g-il'lh, (~! 00.2 (:,) 11:1.1\ (Ill) ~2. 7 (~) ii:i.~ (Ii) "';,() (111) 'ih.1i ,,-.-~---~ ,,--~ " Numhf'l'>! B!LIIlllll1cl III lh'liekel;;. KOFHCI':: Ifllt.(~hiAon, 1 n;;fi. TABLE 126. AVlmAUB LIYEWEWHTS OJ!' TAN(JANYIKA SHOH'rHOHNJm ZEBUS FHOlVT THREJo} AlIEAS,1.1' DIFE'EREN'l' :::1'.rAGES OF GIWWTH AI'ellr nud t "l'nlllh'nt Mt\Balh~~I~~L\~;):, ----(;h~. -- -'~U(JJlthH -1-;-:I~IIt1~~--'--';;;;~~'~:--'. Ito. I ;1:.- -'-11-' ," ':~T~:~ -- :,~ '-G- --r--t _... (runched) :1I ~(J:I,~.! ;'';:1 :":ukululllajl(1 (ru-lwlll'cl) Puwflgn (far'jlwtl) ;\UT.I,:,..\[lIslliluuu. Ugogo (l'llllelled) ::;ll!,l1ululltiltl (l'iulelwd I" I)nwng:n (fnl'rtl{'(i) OXI,:=--: )Ia~ailllHtl, ltg-og"l) (rllll('licll) ;:iukunutlnnd (rllllellca).!"lwhgn (flll'mea) -_--_... _--._--- :W :!!) :m.,~ ill :t~i H,!l 'l:~ ;1 W ,~ i' :H~l 4il. Iii :111\1 13 flog 411:: fu ~H~ I. ~'1.~n(1.' 71jH 1 1 :,:\:J 1172 l:~ 4:11 0!lUll :! (l~~ 7:10 17 : ';1)0 Liveweighcs wore cstimllte(l frolu II monograph I'f)\!1ting lloig-ht, I!'ll'tJI anri Wl)i1:hl;, eonhtrllcted from 'l'l1nganyika flata, :-lmhlm,:: Ifutd,1ROIl, 19"".

264 . In 'Titble 127 arc ~UlllllllLl'izetl liveweight,,, and men,;ul'elllent~ of mature Tanganyika, HllOrthorned zebus whieh were obt.ained at }'Ipwapwa. These figurer W0rc derived from ll1elt:'llll'ements made of Hnimal:-; whieh were in poor (!onditiol] at the end of a had dry ;;ea,.ojl. TAB JAG AVEltAtIlG LIVEWEIOH'J'S AN]) l\1ea;;uhem]~n'j'h SHoHTHon-r-'lTID ZJi~BUS NT ::\IIpwAPWA. 'l'anfunyika 01" TANGANYI KA.\["tm" Illlll", :-H("('I'~ ;1 t (I.j. ~'(,IU'~ old : L1Yt'wel~ht, lh.... ;J:;7.~W ;l;l 1:-; :lu:!. io :.!::!.,,,,:-, ~nk.;t(j :I1l.:lI Length fi'olil slwlild!,,' (0 Illn ll(hw~ In, t +7.:;(' "," 1 ~IK 4 1. ~4 I,lili +h. ;~" :t:: Height" lit wft,h{~rh. In,... -l:j, 1U fill :J..: 1I,Iill H.s2 r l.lii [lepth of dll'st, ill.... ~~:? :! , t(j.: J~ -j _h :..!n.5~ " II.1:!i, 1:\.211 -I O,;l" t:!. i5 -" 0.41 "~ WItIt 1t IIf hilth. ill.."... 1:-I.u2 Henrt. girth. Ill....,')i.7'-, - lao.;~.vo :1. 1, II :)4.05 :: Functional characteristics of thc bl'eed Heifers of this type of cattlc which are maintained on government farms in Tanganyika have calved for t.he first time at between 36 and 42 mont.hs of age and the n. verage calving interv"l between subsequent (,nlves has been 340 to 390 days. Cows have a produetive life of t:l t,o 10 lactn.tions, and several cows have been reeorded t.hat have pl'o- Jll(~ed more thn'll 12 calves (Hutchison, 1(55).. The Rame author gave detl1ils of the milk yielclr from the 476 lactntion l'ecordt; of 144 founclcttion T!tnganyilm shorthorned zebu cows at the Centml Breeding Station, Mpwapwa, which had been obtained from a, number of different IOCltlities. The yield figures were exclusive of the milk t'1.ken by it suckling calf, The average lactation yield was 1,343,3 lb. of mille containing 4.9 percent of butt.erfat in days. The mean il1,tel'va1 between calvings (data from 471 lactation records) WaS 373,3 days, The 113 lactation records outained from 21 superior cows gave an average yield of 2,058.4 lh. of milk containing 4.9 percent butterfat in 273,5 days, An earlier account stated that the cows at the Central Breeding I:ltation, Mpwapwa, Tanganyika, gave an average yield of 70 gallons of mille in 150 days, When, in addition to grazing, hay!tnd 1 lb. a 257

265 11('<I,d nf " eolh'(>lltn1te mixture were feel, <til averhge yield,,'as obtained of 121 ga.lions of milk containing 5.a pcrcent of butterfat in 221:) days. A group of ten cow::; wilieh, when given ~upplemelltm'y feed during the dry :'lm1hon, had given [1,11 lwemge yield of 150 g,tllolls of milk in 200 d,:vh without losing condition, gave nnly an l1vemge of 07 gallons of mill~ in 121 days in 1'1 subsequent htdation WhOll the extm feed was withcln1wll. All t,lu; above yieldh were f1dditionnl to the milk taken hy a Huekling ealf (T,tnganyilm Territory, l[l4n). Fl'C'neb (19afi) hah recorded that mitt,uj'e T,mgan,yilm zebus with iln,werage live weight. of MO lh. dreflsell out at 51.1 percent, giving an avel"<1ge mu'c!1ss wcight of 2()OA Ill.; cattle of 1111,tvf"l'age Ih'eweight of 700 lb. drel:ll:led (Jut Itt percent, giving a meml Cal'Cl1RR \\'eight of :i81.1 lb. In the lighter ll,nimair the hump weighed Ii.n Ill. and in the heavier, 12.0 lb., or 1.7 percent, of the lueah livcweight. The quality of tlw me~1t, ~lh COlllP1Ll'cd to that, of' Hpeeiali?:ed Eul'o IJean beef hrced", is poor, with very little intl'il-illuscu111l' fat and little internal fat. The alllount of fat in t,he Cfn'eaSH ShOWH eomidemhle variation l1ceol'ding to the l1ge of' the animal and t.he searoll in whieh it is killed (French, loan). Tallgtollyilm :;IlOrtllOl"ned r,ebm; l11'e exposed t,o, a.nd lore :mseeptililc to. rinderpest, t.rypanosomiasis, and contagious bovine pleuro-pneulli!mi!t. Fout-and-mouth disease and!jovinc tnilcl'cnlof:;jk al~(} oocnl' but nrc of less relative import!1llce thton the fol'egoing dihenkeh. rrheflo C11ttle are report,cd to show HOllle l'ehifltance to epivaginitis. Ail a I'eflult~ of t!ht, univenml infection of young cnlvel:l with EaRt COHst fever III llll,ch of the area" these cattle generally :>how t1 Ilaj;llml imillunity to. 1',hiH.tlisCl~;:c. SOl;r~~s of breeding stock Hud information regm:lling the bl'cell 'rhe Tang!tnyilm VcterinH.ry Department llln.int~lills a herd. of thebe ei1t,t]e nt t.he Veterinary ReHearch.Laboratol'Y, l\iipwl1pw<\, and. a proj ('ct. if; re})ol'ted in which herd,.; of ahout Lim tn 200 C()WH of each of eight local Yariet.ioH will he (,Ht"hli,;l1('(.1 at. Mlotta Hflllch. BaRtel'll Pl'IJVillU('>. It lias he en estinmted. tll<1t there llmy be llettrl,), (j million (:<1ttl(' of this t~'l)e in l'a,nganyilm t.erritol'y (HlltehiHOll, IB55). Flll'ther information on t.he Tanganyika Hhol'thol'lled zehu (\lul be obt'hilled :from the Director, Depttrt.ment of Vete)'in!1l'Y Science and Animal Hushandry, 'l'anganyilm Territ.ory. 25H

266 TOPOSA-MURLE Ol'igin These cattle heat a close resemblance to thm;e of the Kumrnajong: in northeastern Ugmldf1 and the Turkana in northwestern Kenya. They are owned by the Murle (sometimei' called Beir) in the Pillor Post district in Upper Nile Province and by the Toposa group of trihes and the 'InUtileI' Boyll, (Longn,rim) trihe in the l~astel'll dirtrict of Equatoria Province in the Repuhlie of the Sudan. Of Nilo-Hamitic origin, these tril)e>s have entered their present habit<tt from the ~mutheast; the Murle, for instance, hlwing It tradition of movement from the Maji arelt in Houthwostern Ethiopia. It seems probable tha,t. the en,ttle were introduced. into the area with the trib~tl movement". vvherevcl' there has been contfwt with the neighhoring Nilotic ltnd s1l11tll hill zehu cattle there hasiheen crosshreeding and a consequent hlending of type characterist.ies. Although ft recogniz!tble type can he distinguished, there is too eonsiderahle!t degree of vari~ttion uetween individuals to justify the description of the cattle populntion of the ltrea as It,. hreed'1 (McLaughlin, ]i.:.a., P('.1'8onal ()ommnnication). Conditions in the native home of the breed Location, topogmphy and.goi.~r The ~tl'e>1 over which cttttle of this t.yi)e >1re distributed can be con Ilidel'ed in two Pltl'tll. First, the Murle tribal area in the country watered by the group of rivers including the Veveno, Lotilla, Pibol' and Khor Geni which join ncltr Akoho p(j~t cl()~e to the Hurlnn-Ethiopia horder; nud flecondly, the undulnting count.ry i.n the eastern pm t of Equatorilt Provinee in the Knpoetit m'en which is oecupied h~' the 'ToPW-l<t group of triheh. The Hoya tribe have their villages on It group of hill" of t,he H11lne name to the west of Kapoetll. To the west of each section there a.1'e lnrge arem: which arc wat.erlells ill the dry sea::;on and flooded during the l'<timl and so are not utilized for gl'l1zillg. Contact with other cattle t.yper is made in t.lw extreme flout.henst where the Turkana of nol't.hwest.el'll KenYlt ltl'e encountered, in the vicinity of t.he Didinglt ltnd DongotolUt hills south a,nd :,:outh west of!capaeta, where the small hill' zebu is found, in the Pengko area east of Bor where the Murle meet. the Bar Dillka in the dry season [l.nd to the south of Akobo where the Nuer ~mcl the MUl'le are in contltct. 25H

267 The t'ylw area ik houndcd to the CILHt by the Abyssinian highland:-; and to the Kont,h hy the Jllountain,.; Oil the.':lldan-uganda horder, hoth of which 11I'e!.Hcl'KC infested. The Mmle,1rca is It ftl1t plain. While therc lllay be local Hooding dlu'ing the raim;, the al'el1 is not inundated as ih much of the Nilotic area to t,he west. The Toposa secti.on is made up of two components: in the Houthcrn Hnd carterll parth the eountl'y in undulating 11ml i~ not :.;uhjcct to flooding. while the northern pill't ih composed of an extensive lliain much of which lilay be innndat,ed during the raillfl The HoilH of the pillin Me 111<1i111,)' crackling ChtYH!),nd heavy loamh, while in the undulating TOpOSi1 country, a serim; of stl'uct,ureles!:!, prob- 11bly acid Im1lUH, often contl1ining h.tcritic uollcretions, is found Oil the slopes. with dark alluvial alkaline loams in the valleys with a clay cont.ent of 50 to 70 per<lent,,l well-developed snrface grailular struej-,me, and vel'tical cl'aekillg in the dry HeaRon (SDIT, 19515; McLaughlin, 1. A., Per.90nnl (}ormn'll'nicnf'ion). (!limute The climate of the lviurle area i:-; similar to that of the Nilotic phtins to the west, with It well-defined dry sea,son of about five months. In the TopOfm clihtrict the rainfa.ll, which ir both lighter!1ud more evenly distributed, hat; two distinet maxima, in May and in.july to August. East of Kapoeta the rainfall climini:,:heh until, near Lake H,udolf, Bemi-arid condition::; prevail. No temperature ditta, 111'e lwaiiable for these areas but they can be tn,ken as being generally similar to those of the neighboring Nilotiu Imel Southerll Sudl1n Hill Zebu 111'eafl. :Rainfall, and for Kapoett1, cvapomt,ion da,tit are given in '1'111>le 12H. '!'ABL.!il CLIlIIATOLOUWAL lja'l'a l'oit ~rim 'l'oposa-l\{uhli~ AJUilA Pi/WI' Poxl (AI(,ltu(le: 1411 IlJ.) ~lo!ln rainfall. ltilu. Kapoe.ta (Alti!'ullu: (170 ltj.) Mmm miufull, mlll. Moan l,vap(jl'atioll, mru III :1, I 77 I 55 I,5 1> (1 1~tI lit7 1,12 l:lh I~O IUH :w 17 HHII : ~o III 14: l 2 J.7 2 OO~ ~()FRllI'~: ~nit, lufiil. 260

268 }<'WFIlF. 92, A. lien! of TOp08rt ('(Ittle il1 the dr!l 8eU,WIi!, Ve(letatlon The Murle area i~ composed of open gra~b plains with Hoattered woodland, The dominant grass Hpecies is Hypflrl'henia l'u/a, and mnch of the woodland lh of Oombreturn app, The TopoRa M'ea is largely gra.~sland with scattered trees. The principal grllss species are short perennials, including Sporobvl,1t8 mcr.rginatu8, Oymbopogon sp. and BotMiochlon in,~cu,lpta. 'ehe woodland and ~cattered scrub is mainly composed of Acacia spp. (Figure 92). The Mnrle only engltge in ~\grieulture in a very HllH1.11 way, cllltivating ~mall gal'dej1~ of dum (Sorglmm vulga.l'e) and lm1ize (Zw 'IIU~y,~), The 'l'oposa and Boya grow considerahle "I.'eaR of dura Ill'ound their permanent vilh,ge!; (SDTT, H)55), JV1nnagernent practi0p.8 With the exception of the ]30Ylt tribe, the OWnCl'R of this type of cattle migrate over considerable distanoes in search of dry-season pasture, The J\lIudc, who have their permanent villages olofle to the banks of the Rivers Veveno, Lot-illa and Pibor.. remain in them during the rains, After the rains the ca,ttle are moved in sta,ges over the ~ul'l'oundillg plains and to rivercourse grazing as much as 180 kill. from the permanent habitations. The plainr!(rass is hurnt and the 261

269 eatitle gmzc the green regrowth of liyp(j;l'rhenia I'Uf(( m; well l1i-i the EchinochZon-dominant pastures burdering the wate]'cou]"se~. It if; the practice for the yout.hs and girl:,; of t,he trihe to move in Deeemhet with the male cat.tle lmd a few eows to provide them with mille tl) nell1'by pasture by mill~ pools. The remainder of the trihe move witll t,he oows and calyes in January ltnd, in :Fehruary, the main move to the mol'('. dihtant. dry-season pltrt.ureh is made. The returll to the pcl'1l11tllent Yillage~ if; begun in April and is completed hy JUlle. The Toposlt trioe:';, who spond the rllins near fmc! to the north of Kapoeta" ahio move over long tlistl1llceh during the dr.\' season. It is theil' praet,ice on the completion of the mins, t() i,alee their cattll:' to the limit of their Clmtolluu'y "e11s movemellth and t,hejl t.o walk them hack ~lowly, gmzillg the dry hut palnt,[lble pl:'j'cullial grasflek, and arriving at their villager in time to carry (JUt. t,he cultivationi'! for next 'yea,r'>; grain crop. The BO,'lm nutke shorter seltkotlal movemeni,h, Jlloving their cattll'c from their hillside villages to t.ih' nelwhy fltremm ill the dry seasoj\ and retul'l1ing to t.heir vilt.gos in the mink. Grazing is mmally >lllfficient for the neen" of both Murle imd TOpOHlt c,tttle, but loon'! shortages mlloy occur in senkollk following light 1'[,ln,,_ In hoth cases the amonnt of grazing that mm hc ut.ilized if! limited lly the lwailability of dl'y-seakoll Wlttel'. 'rhe Murle (Lre [tcouhtomod to graze their cat.t.le fol' long holl1';; and frequently tl,ke them out at night. They inntl'iahly hring the cattle in to the camp between l 1.()O hi's. f"nd lh.oo 1m;. for H, rest aft.er 'tllowin~ them to drink. \~'hen the e,tttle graze at night they nre taken t.o water in the early morning and agnill at sumlet, unlers they Me grazing fat from water, in which mtse the catue are only watel'ecl once (laily. The Toposa normally water their cat,tle onee daily, in t.ho evening_ It has been observed that, during the dry He!~S()Il when wilter is BeltrCn, cltttle may he bronght to wn,tel' at It "'ell in I'C)!,YR t.hroughout, the night, the mell colltinuol1hly Hcuoping water from the Hlmllow well t.o fill troughs made front hollowed tree tnlllkf.; at. whidl the eattle drink. III times of drought the TOpOHlt cattlc llllt.)' ljc wlltered. only 01lce in two c!1tys. Neither group of t.ribes t.ether theil' OItiit,le. 'rhe MUt'le allow the mllf to take the dmn'~ full yield for the [ii'ht fortnight of ith life, nftej' which the cow's owner beginh to Litke hih stutl'e. Calves are' suckled at least three timeh daily, at the morning and evening milkingh and at the midday rest period. DUl'ing thu ilj'ht few lllonths of a c,dfs life it is lumltll~' allowed an ndclitional feed during the night. Both groups of tl'ioe;; consume liquid milk both [done mtd mixed wit.h blood. Olarified hutier is made for home comnlluptioll when milk is plentifnl. C~.t.t;le a,re hied 1>,'1' piercing t.lw jugular vein with 2(i2

270 ,\ miniature arrow released fl'om a sjllall how which is only used for thir purpose. The Murle slaughter cattle by cluhhing them on the "ide of' the neck after the head has 1)een dmwn Imek tomtl'ds the tail. "When the animal fnllr the skin is opened and. as it rci;ult of the fup.. ture of the blood ves>;cb, j:,; found to he full of hloorl whiph is fl'equently <lmnk undiluted while Ht,ill war111. Meat is con,qumed ill eollsidemhle qnantitie". Animals are slaught. ered only its ~mcrificeh Oil festive occaf:lioj1r or in times of famine, hut all animals dying from natural t:au~es are ellten unless they are excmulively emaciated. Losses among the human population have resulted from cnting meat from e,ttt]e Il'hich have died from ftnthrax. A hull is Helected for bl'eecling on the bmli" of its own size and fatness and on the repntat.ion of the da,m; t.he :Murle l'et{11iring from her a good c:onst,itution [tnd a succession of disease-resistant oalveh, while the Top()fm look for high milking ahilit~r. Male catt.le not ]'cquired for breeding are mlstratecl with tho aim of inducing fattening a,bility. Castration is com111only carried out by brniring the Hperllllttic c()]'d or h~t cntt,illg nut t.he tertieles with It knife or Rpear. The Toposa, on finding thttt, the first terticle to he removed f!'olll It heakt is except,jonally fat, commolll~r leave the other in its place and use the bull for breeding. Cattle are intimately bound up with the l;oeial organization of the t.ribeh, particularly a~ the currency of the " bride wealth," and the tribesmen ltre very reluctant to part with thelll (McLaughlin, E. A., Personal Oornmunication). Physical cha~'actcristics of the hree!l The Toposa-lV[urle cattle al'e nnimal~ of a fairly long hody of Illt'dium depth. rrill' head is of mediulll length with it hroad muzzle. and a straight to Hlightly convex profile. The orbital n,rcher are pronounced,mel the forehe,\cl is conmwe. The h01'ns al'e of mcdium lengt.h, Rpringing fro.m thc poll on distinct pedestals in an upward [md outward direction and tending to grow inw!lrdh and forwards I~t the tiph, 'I'his tendency i",\ccentun,ted h~' the triheflmen who tntin the horn:; ill\l'!1rd until they meet in n " laurel wreat,h" :;hape. The hul1lp ih more thomcic than cervico-thoraeic in position and is (If n, chftl"acteriktic I)yramidlt] shl\])e. It ea1'1'ie" a huge "mount of f"nt and when an aninlltl ik in high condition the hump mny hecome almost rectanguhu' in Hlul,IJt> and of It considerable size. The topline j'ises slightly frum the withers to the rump. The pelvis is of moderate length and slope and the fmcnun is generally not greatly accentuated. The depth of the chest is uhlmlly!tdequate but there lllay t,end to be,;nme le!hlllekh of the hindqultl'wl!;;, ']'he dewlap is ()f lllodemte ~ize,

271 Fr(:{Tm, Il-!, J/I/J'ie. ('Oil' ((t,un/ii"al fio'li('i'/1,iii(ln/ /)nil'l/, (~Olld(1:o1r ur IlJ. A. MtiLH,ll~hlili

272 FIfH r 1m!Ii). 'l'i}}lusu.~ie(w.. FwnllE IlO. TOp081~ bull. ('l'lw ciecoratille brand mltrkin.{/b can lit' seen on a nu,mbe,r of ftia ratttl' ownr-c] 111{ ttdll I.l'ibr..) ('UllrtCl'lr of.1. Il. ~L.htok

273 F'WJ1HE [17, 'l'op080 ('f/1/'8 lit thp, heillht 0/ the Ill'!1.. crimm, but the umbilical fold has no gr{;!lt, del'elopmont, Tho ~he,lth ill tlw male is seldom pendulous. III both Murle ltnd Top OS!. hel'dh there ik II great vlil'iety of OOtlt coloration, including full reds fmd blaeler, whites, grayh, duns, and 1'oan<l, as well a~.plttterns of red and blaek, together 0[' Hepamtely, on a white ground. Among the MUl'le the lighter color8 are predominant, \vhile in Toposa herds thoro is some pl'epondel'flljce of reds, whiteh, and patterns com l)ining t,hc,9c two color,~, Tho lutir.i~ Rhurt and elohc and the Hkin loose. The hoofs are of go[)d durability. Murle C!1tt.le (Figures H3 and 94) lire 'LPIJreciably 8llu.ller t,jmn thohc in the Toposl> "rea (Figures 05, 06!1Ilc[!l7). 'I'he avcnlge Hvewcight of inaturc Murle cow;; hi1h!jeen ehtimltte(l ah being between 2:{O anri 2FiO kg. An estimated weight for a 'l'oporh, ox hits been given UH il50 to,koo kg. Reported mouhnrements for Murle O!,tt.le ltl'e: shoulder point to pinljollc, fw em.; height at wither,~, 10f) CIll.; width of hipr, 3:~ em.; heart girt,h, 152 em, The avemge height lit wither,~ and heart girth of Murle COWH at Malalml Dairy in 1\)54 were appl'oxillhttely 115 and 160 CIll. respectively (Sl)1'1', HIM). FUllctional chal'llcteristics ()f the breed It ih thought tlult heifero rlllve for the fir"t time nt about 3 12 yearh of <lge,\lid that the calving interval is approximcltely 12 months, The avcmge llumljer of lactlltionc; in a lifet.ime ha~ been estillllltcd a,~ ljeing R. 266

274 '1'hel'e are no available recordh of the milk yield of cows under tribal conditions, but a report suggests that the average yield of Murle cows may be about 3 pints daily and that lactation may continue fot' 8 to U month;;. An unconfirmed report suggests that the milk yield of Toposa cattle may be greater and that yields of 2 gallons at morning and night milldngs may be obtained. The average yield of 15 Murle cows at Mnlakal Government Dn.iry in H wah HIS litert! in 255 days in addition to the amount taken hy a suckling calf. The meut frum these cattle i~ reported to be of good quality. A mature Murle steer is reported to yield about 124 kg. of meat, while the dressed carcass of a TOpOMt beast weighs from 150 to 200 kg, Toposa oxen have been trained and have proved to be suitable for draft work. The cattle are susceptible to rinderpeflt and contagious bovine pleuro~pneumonia, which have been together, in the past, the principal factors limiting expansion of the herds. Bovine trypanosomiasis occurs along the south and east of the area. The local strains of foot-andmouth disease are tolerated by the cattle. Other diseasek, such as anthrax, nre of spol'ndic importance (SDI'l', 1955; Jaok, J. D. M., Personal Cmmmlnication; McLaughlin, E. A., Personal Cornm?tnication). Sources of hl ccding stock and information rcgarding the breed It is estimated that there are approximately 226,000 cattle of this type in the southern Sudan (SDIT, 1955). A number of Murle cows have been ll1u.intained 'at t,he Malakal Government Dairy and a few Toposa males have been kept at the Torit Government Dairy in Equatoria Province. In genera1 the people are extremely reluctant to part with their cattle. Further information regarding the cattle Cltn he ohtained from the Director, Department of Animal Production, Ministry of Animal I~esoul'ces, Khartoum, Republic of the Sudan c1fric:un r.attl(',

275 Group VII AFRICANDER Origin The Africander breed has been developed from the luttive Hottentot cattle of the Cape of Good Hope, The derivation of these cattle is not known with!1uy certainty, although n, number of authors have developed theories to account for their origin, Bosman lllaintained that the Hottentot cattle Were purebred B08 indiw8 in 110 way reln,ted to the Bantu cattle of southern Africa, Epstein (1933) WelS also of the opinion that these cattle wore pure B08 indicu8 of t,he t,ype 'with long lateral hams of anti cross section and with muscular cervico. thoracic hump~. He suggested tlmt their forebcan; wore brought Ly Semitic triber from ABin, via the former land isthmus at,the Kouthern end of the Red Sea to Aby:,;sinia and. thence to the Grea,t Lakes moea where, in hib opinion, interbreeding between the Somi.te,; and the Bush. men produced. the progenitors of the Hottentots. As the Bushmen possessed no cl1ttle, the latern.l hoi'lled B08 indigu8 stock is assumed to have remn.illed pure. Curs on n.nd rl'hornton (U)36) suggested n. course for their migration from the Great Lakes '\vel:ltward toward the west coast of the continent and then southwards to the Cape of Good Hope. During this migration no cattle-owning tribes would h!1ve heen encountered and so there wuuld have been no adultemtion of the herds. Cattle were observed in the possession of the Hottcntots llt the Cape of Good Hope by the Portuguese nn.viga,tol's in the late fifteenth century and h1rge herds of the local cattle were acquired by the Dutch when they founded their Rcttlement there in 1652, Suggestions have been put forward (Baughman, 191)1; Mn.rtinho, 1955) thn.t genetic mn.terin.l both from European cattle imported by the Dutch n.nd Portuguese, and Indian cn.ttle introduced through Mozambique and the Cape, may be present in the Africander, but Bisschop, J, H. R. (Pel'8onal Communication), bttsing his objections on the difficulty of transporting anything but vory small numbers of cattle in the etlrly colonial days, has suggested that these specllln.tions should be disregarded. He has further pointed out that cattle introduced 2BH

276 through Mozambique would have come in contact with the progenitors of the Nguni rather than of those of the Africander cattle. Slijper (1951) concluded, from (I, consideration of the position, structure and insertion of the hump, that the Africander was llot a purebred zebu, but a cross between a zehu and another type of cattle. A considerable amount of crossing undoubtedly took place between the Hottentot cattle and European cattle which were introduced into the more thickly populated parts of the Cape of Good Hope in the latter part, of the eighteenth century, but it was found that oxen with a degree of European ancestry were inferior in draft qualities to the native cattle, and herds of the indigenous cattle were maintained, especially in the more remote districts, for the provision of the trek oxen which were the only means of tmnsport throughout the greater part of southern Africa. During the Great Trek ( ) Africander cattle accompanied the "vool'trckkers" northwards. There can be no doubt that C1'OSIlbreeding took place whenever they came in contact with Bantu cattle but many of the" vdortrekkel's," preferring their own cattle, appear to luwe kept their herds pure. During the rinderpest outbrea,ks of 1896 and 1899 and again during the Anglo-Boer W~\l' ( ) the l1umbei'1l of Africandel' cattle were muoh reduced, but it few herds, notably that of Mr. Josef du Plessis of Theunissen in the Orange River Colony, remained intact. After the end of the war the Africander, largely on account of itf! excellent draft qualities, remained popular, and numbcrr increttsed rapidly until the appearance of alternative means of transport, together with a renewal of the importation of cattle from Europe which resulted in a,n incl'case in crossbreeding for the production of beef cattle, a.gain thre(~telled the continued existence of this type of cattle (Opperman, 1950). A movement for their preservation was, however, initiated and the " Africander Cattle Brecders Society" WM founded in Registrations rose rapidly nntil, in 1936, the herdbook of the Society was closed. In 1951 almost 30 percent of the cattle owned by Europeans in the Union of South Mrica were of Africander type (Joubert, 1953). Comlitions in the native home of the breed Location, topography (tnd,mils According to Joubert (1953): "The breed is at present largely concentrated in three distinct parts of the country, viz. the northern ranching region, the Cape Midlands and eastern districts, and the western pa.rts of the Transvaal ltnd Orange Frce State. The latter 269

277 two regions may be considered to have been the home of stud-breeding of Africander cattle aud it is in these parts in particular that the development of the breed took place prior to the establishment of the Breed Society. But the area in which the Mricander has its greatest role to fulfil from a commercial standpoint includes the savannah country of Bechuanaland and the northern Transvaal together with a strip of low veld bordering the Limpopo in the north." These regions are part of the inland plateaus of the Union of South Africa, which vary :in altitude from approximately 500 to 4,000 feet and are characterized by their general lack of mountain ranges and their open flat to slightly undulating plains. The soils of the" Lowveld Bushveld " are usually heavy and derived from volcanic rocks. Olimctte The interior of South Mdca has a subtropical climate modified by the proximity of the ocean and the altitude of the central plateau. In winter an anticyclone associated with. the subtropical high pressures is centered over the Orange Free State and the plateau has dry cold weather with clear skies, light winds and frequent frosts. The depressions of the westerlies which pass south of the Cape of Good Hope may, however, affect the interior as far north lts Pretoria, producing temporarily very cold weather with heavy l'flin and occasional snow. In the summer the intertropical convergence moves j,louth over the Transvaal and pressures are low over the rcmainder of South Africa. Although this is the season during which the greater part of the precipitation occurs, the skies are generally clcar over the plateau and day temperatures are high with mean maxima generally in excess of 80 0 F.,, while the diurnal range may be as much as F. (Kendrew, 1953). Climatological data for several stations representative of the Mricander cattle areal> in the Union, of South Africa are presented in Table 129. Vegetation Those parts of the Union of South Africa which are most suitable for the Mricander cattle are included in the so-called bushveld regions, which have been described by Acocks (1953) as "tropical bush and savannah country" and subdivided hy him as follows: a) Lowveld Bushveld. This is the characteristic open Acacia nigriscens-sclerocarya-themeda savannah of the I.. owveld, developed at altitudes of between 500 and 2,000 feet on soils which are usually heavy and derived from volcanio rocks. 270

278 TABLE CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA FOR FrV:E STATIONS IN THE AFRICANDER AREA \ \ ~I I,ci '"... ~ I ---_._ ==."" _ " -,.-~~- =====. -,._ r-~t_r:-~-i-t'f ~ '" ;:: ~ ;:: := - c.. ~ 0 ;JJ t:.l " "..., I':<...-: '"...,..., :;:,,15 0 z A 1>< LOUIS 'l'r1c:iiariit (MARA) (Narlll 'l,'ra II Si."rull) Mean mtlximl1m tcmpcl'nturc, of. 81 ~O <1. 7(J 70 7~ 71' ~ 77.2 Menn minimum wmperaturc, 11'~ 6:1 02 U(i 5(\ 49 'W :1 58 Ull B M eetn t(~ml)el'o,turp, of fit MeAn rainfall, in :l,: n. : ZEIDRUST (We,qt Tranal:aal) Mean maximum t.omp(\raturc, 0p. 87 Bo 83 7{l 74, ) 80 Sf) M ean mitlimnm t{)mperature, of all : Mean tempel'ature, OF.... 7f> tl4 57 fi1 (il :1 7G 65.2 Mean!'>Iiutoll, in , o.au lus 23. i VRlJBU.HG (A.rmoer1s1lUlkte) (N. W, OaJ,e) M Ban mllximnm tempel'ature, OF R~ 80.2 M can minimum t<lmperaturcl. of. 6J ,:1 52 5fl 60 4R.2 M C8Jl wmpemture, of... ~ J M can rainfall, In I j 0.31 ~.OR HOOPSTAD (WesterJl, O.F.B.) M call maximum t<lmilcrature, of R M Carl miilimnm tmnpcl'l1tul'o OF. flo 50 f)5 47 :)0 :12 31 ao Mean tempcl'at.iu (), OF n 68 f,2 r,5 ~n fit\ 117 BY Mellll rainfall, in. a.os 2.87 ~.G l QUEJ':NBTOWN (EaB!ern Oarw) Mean lnuxhnulll t.oml)oratnro, of. sr, e SO Si 76.1 Mellll III i ]lim lun temperatur~, 0]'. 5!l ' Mellll t.emperl1tul'e, of Melln ralnja]], in U J '1'empcrl\tureR: Lonls l'rlcharclt, 44 ycal' means; Zeerust, 46-year men.lls; Vrljburg, al-yellr mcans; lioopstlld, lo'year means; Queenstown, 77'ye!w mealls. Rainfall:.All stations, 30-year menns. SOUROr.:: DiviSion of Metoorology, Pretorilt (BIAR"]lOP, J. H. R., PersonClI Oommuni cation). 271

279 b) Arid Loumeld Bushveld. This n,ssoch.tion occurs at the!mme altitudetl and is similar tu LowvelJ Bushveld, except tlmt :rhernerza is replnced UH the dominant gl'afls by Digit((''fia spp. c) Spn:ngbok Flats '['UI'! Thornveld. This vegetation type OCCurs on very fiflt htnd and varies from the basic opcn thol'llveld to, with overgrazing, dense thornvelcl. In the more OpOll type the densc, coarse, tufted grassland includes Iscltrternu'til glullgostachywm, Sehirnct iwlpinii, Setm'ia woo(zii, 'l'herneda l1'imulm, Elionunl8 ((.1 genteu.s, Digitwl'ia spp., Em(/1'Osti.s spp. and Pnnicllrn spp, with sob,ttercel tree8 of i1 cacin karoo, A. (tmbica, n,nd ZiZ1:phu<~ rn1lcmnatll. The domimmt tree species in the dense thornvelcl are Acaein helerocant7ul, A. (tmbica., A. gem']'(li-i, IJichostachys glmnerala, Ziziphu8 'm'llcronrda, and Ol'ewia /lava, with, betw'een them, gl'l1rhe::; of mixed typcfl domim~tecl hy 'l'hernerzcl spp. and Oyrnbopoyon pl'll1 I:nO(U8. (Z) 1I1opnni Bltshveld. rrlle chief occllrcllce of t,his vegetation type is in the Limpopo valley a::; well as oast of the Dmkellsberg in the nol'the1'll Tr!tI1SvallJ towarus Port.nguese East Afl'iCi~. Typically there is t, low, f~1irly dense growth of serubby Oopai/el'(l. mopani, l1ssoeinted with Awcill Rpp. (including A. hetemcantha), Cornvretuu?, apiculaturn lmel Sele 'l'oc(lrya cct/ira, and with gmsses Imeh as Anthephom puve8cens, Brachin1'in nigroperlata, Bothl'iochlo(l i1l8c'/l.zpta, Erag1'O.~ti8 supel'ba anel Schmidtin bulljo80. e) J{alahm'i 'l'hornvelrl, III the western 'rl'ftllrvhl11, wchtel'll Omuge Free State and adjoining parts of tjw Cape Province and Beclllmllaland, this tylle of bushveld ir found on deep, loose sandy soils overlying ealcal'e01ul tufa. The trees }1nd shrubs consist of Accwia uira(ja,e, nnd other Acacia. ::;pp., 'P([.1'chonantlms camphomtu8, (/I'ewia /la,va, oi,e. Hnd the more important gmhses include 'Therneda tria.ndm, Era(I'I'08ti8 ::;pp., A1'istida spp., Cymbopogen spp. 11nd Uynodon :-;pp. f) False Bnsh'IJeld. In tho midlands [md clilstel'll dil'ltrictfi of the Cape Province the originl.l Easterll Province Gl'u,Htdand hm! become invaded by t.hol'lltl'ees. 'l'ypical trees and fill1'uhfi (\,1'e Acacin kamo, SC1ttia myrtina, Coppwl'ill r,itdfolin!~lld Oymnosp0l'ia pozyacrtntha, a,nd the uominant. grnfisetl nre Sporobolu8 {irnbriat'u8, IJigitclri(t e'l'iantha, EragTOstis C1trvnln, O];rnbopogon pbl1'1:nodis, Themed({. tri((.ndra, etc. 272

280 Physical characteristics of the bl'eed The original Hottentot cattle fwill which the Africander breed is derived,ippehi' t.o have shown /1, considerable variation in type and color. ]~arly accountll refer to these cattle as being lean and gaunt in appearance and Pl'illtR dating from c"rly colonial times show tall, long.legged cattle repl'ehented as being humplehs but with heads and hol'flll Kimilar to those of the Africander cattle of the present day. Since the forma,tion of the Africander Cattle Breeders Society selection has been directed towards obt,aining uniformity of conformation t.nd coi<)l'atiou, and only HnimalR meeting the type reqnirementshayc heen regii:ltered by the South African Studbook ASflociatiun. Selection for a powerfnl, fl'ee-~triding type of trek ox has been superseded by :-;election for beef production under the prevctiling open range oollditionh of the natnrnl habitttt of the cattle. The modern Afl'icf,nder as admitted to the herdbook (Figures 9H and H9) is a strongly built, long. bodied. animal wit,h a good spring of dbl-l, fair dept.h of chest f1lld. strong, well-phloed limbh. The head is coffin shaped when viewed from the front, with the greatest width oyer the eyes l1nd with the forehead and face measuring respectively two nnd three-fifths of its length. The supra-orbital arches are well develdped, especia1ly in hulls, giving the eyes an ltppearance of i'lmallnes~. Thc forehe<td is flat and diminishes in width to a fairly narrow, rounded poll. The profile of the head is convex with the highest point ovcr the eyes and with the poll lying well baek. The faoe diminishek only slightly in width to the strong, hroad luld deep muzzle. The hurns, in their clftssic111 form, eome from the skull direct without pedestalh 11Ud grow spirally in H dowllward;; and backwards direction, then turn upwards and forew!li'd~ culd finally, in m,.tul'e anilmtl::;, again backward. The liiw of growth of snch clnrsical horns ih I:!iueways and downwards below the linc of the poll and behind t.he plane of t.he forehead. Horns, t,he direction of growth of which is more upright are, however, quite common, 11,S nre t.hose which do not i{how the spiral twist. There is ;.lome indim,tioll tll1tt the hor11s tend to become shorter and lighter with improved feeding nnd management. All Africander horns arc smooth and dense of fiber, oval in cross flection and usually show a dir;tinct IloflteJ'iol' ridge. The cars are relatively small and are plaoed hol'izontf.lly below and slightly hehilld the horns. The neck ir Rtl'Ong, of medium length and is u8lmlly carried hori zontally or lower, The lunscuhti' ccrvico"thoracic hump is mnssive in the lllltle but. less so in the feautle. Its profile rum! Up\I'luds ltud IlltckWH,rds,1t an itugle of 30 to 85 degrees and drops on to the withers Itt an angle of n,hout 45 degrees. The dewlap is well dcveloped. 1t 273

281 Fwmm [lh, AJdNtluilw 11Il1l. ]<'LGUJU,; Ill), A/l'il'cl'/!rlll'l' C(Jl/.'. t:illll'((:,~y of HUl'l/wl"s fveelcll1 274

282 st.arts as a double folel just behind the chin but within a few inches he comes a single fold and then, after a slight notch in the TOgion of the throat runs deep, bnt without fulness or mnch tendency to show folds, t,o terminate between the front legr without joining the umbilical fold. The shoulders l~re of goocl length "nd slope, well muscled "nd very well attached to the neck, withers and chest. Shallow cropr are not often seen. In general the body is sufficiently wide and deep but the length of the legs of ml1ny animl11h gives them an <~ppeal'ance of shallownei:ls. There is a distinct contrast in the conformation of the body between the old dmft type flnd the more recently developed beef type of Africander. In the former the well developed thoracic vertebral spines produce fl mther narrow roofy back, running upward and forward to the hump while the loin, which [1,180 tends to he roofy, slopes llpwardr to the rump, so that the topline is hollow ar seen from the side and htcks development of the " eye" (longissimus dorsi) muscle::;. In the latter the thoracic vertebral spines are not prominent and the topline is straight, wide and full with well developed "eye" muscles, particularly in the loins. The ribs, too, al'e well ::;prung so that the chest, as compared to the older type, is considerably rounder in cross section. In both types the abdomen is well developed. In bulls and steers there is a moderate development of the umbilici,1 fold. The hindqmj,l'ters tend to be light. As a consequence of the promi. nence of the sacrum, the rump is roofy, rather lean of musculature, of fair length but considerable slope. In some individuals the hook. bones tend to he too wide and high set, and this, combined with the tendency of the pinbones to be excessively close together, results in the rump being triangular so that thete is a cow hocked stance and gflit of the hind limbs, The buttocks are full and round hut the outer t,highs tend to be overlean, There is a characteristic notch in the sacrum just in front of the ttl,il-setting which is relatively high. The tail is long and slender with the vertebrae visible down to the hocks. The legs, which are well placed, smltll l.nd clean of joints and light but dense of bone, are compamtively long in the old trek type but shorter in the modern beef a.nimals. The feet tend to he large and are of very dense, hard horn. The gait is free and active. The hairy coat consists of both outer (medullated) 1L1ld inner (nonmedullated or woolly) coats. Although the inner coat is seldom in evidence, it can be thrown up quickly when climatic conditions demand its extra protection. The coat coloration includes, in different individuals, the whole l'!1nge between reel, through golden. yellow and yellow, to gray. For purposes of registration, only the various shades of red are recognized, although white is permitted on the udder and scrotum a.nd on t,he underline. Black in the coat or on the h01'l1s or hoofs 275

283 eonstituteh a, disqualification. The hide is fully pigmented and ii:l amber or Lrown ill culor. The horns are flesh-colored to creamy white, with amber tips. The hoofs are,tm her-colored. 'L'he muzzle varies lwtweell flesll 00101' and light amber (BiHHohop, J. R.n,., PC1"80nnZ C'omrnll- 1!'ication). TABLE A'l~ AVERAUE MEASURffiWIENTS OF AFRICANDER (JATTI.:E AHMOJDD8Vr,AKTE REREARCH S'l'ATlON ]2 2.1J H7 ] :11 1::,1 44 1M:l I:!.t.~ 1M 14ll L2 1Il n. I ]f)!) J;JfJ Jail,r,:! :)10 M.l 17:1 HI HI fi~ ~[(I 8] 10.1 I(iB ;1 fa :!lh R(I _ _ ~fi I.:! \1, :u ;1 :!:i :.!.I 1: n.~:! 107 iii ~:) ;L:! I:Ji1 l~f) 120 j.ii ITO 04 (I~ 00 so 25 -I " 1H 128 1:J:l 4.{j 1 ill lill :JIl li.n 'j.j" J2'i l:ll IS ISO oj ~;i K t!k l:l~ 4~ lh4 0,., 2:l ".),." 140 1:)11 la~ <Ill 1" 1 Illl ~.) i1 [:11 1:12 4H lrl tlll ----_ _ ---- _... _.,_--_-_. _- Ox('n :!r, 1.) 11,~ Il'~ 120 :1:1 Btl iji'i :m 2.2 1: ;JS HI5 Iii ~ii :1.1 HII ]:12 1:1, 4'1 t8ri 1i H,7 l:m l l~ f,:i G.=! l(i4 L I:l l Hi "(I 20; 7ri rlm71we: JJutu Jll'ovllled JJ~' t.lw llil'c'i'iol' ill' VOLlll'lIlltlT C;lJl'viceH, OnderHtllIH){)rt" PI'c~t(lria (BiH80hoJ),.r. If. n., pc,., wllal (f(l/iiiiii"llt~((tiu'tl). The average hide thickne8fl, taken behind the Olhoulclcr in linn wilh the tuhel'o~ity of the HCllpulaI' spine, of HIO COWH [md heifers al t,he Al'lUocdsvl!d,te Research Station was 0.5U cm., that. of 112 oxen, 0.62 em., and that of 42 bullfl, 0.67 cm. (13isClchop, J. H. n., Pe1'sorutl C'ornmJllnication). Bonsma (1949) reported a mean Kkillfold thie-lmers of foul' oattle as boing on the Khouldol' Mld l.fio om. ovor tho t,hil'teenth rib. ITIight Africander cows of!werage live weight of 1,104 lb. 11.t an average a,ge of fi.6 yenrs gave wel hidoh of a mean RUl'face area 276

284 of 5(:i.67 squltl'e feet, and mean weight of 84 lb. Twent,y-three steers, of Itvcrage age and fasting liveweight of 3.3 years and 1,031 lb., gn.ve hidefl of llleml weight and surface area of 08 Ih. and square feet, while cight I:!teers of an average age of 5.9 ym1rfl and livewcight of 1,493 lb. gave hides of mean weight and surface area of 106 lb. and sqna,re feet. A group of 12 older steers (mean age, about l::l year::!), with nn avemge liveweight of 1,430 IIJ., gave hides, the average 'weight nnd surface area of which were 111 lb. and square feet (Bisschop, J. H. R., Per801Utl Communication). Bonsma (1949) measured the diameters of hairs from the coats of Africandcrs and exotic cattle, and found that Afdcander h,lirs measured on the average 53 It as compared with :30 I' for animals of the British beef breecia. 1'ABLE AVEltAGE LrVEWEWHTS AND BODY MEASlJREl'tmN'l.'S OF AFRICANDER CAT'I'LE AT THE MARA HE SEARCH STATION AgE'.'- CheRt I Dcvt,h I wl~ight~ of ljolly-. withcl'~t at hip:;, lh. ( tn. ('Ill. (,.\1]. en). olll. Live- I Length I Hl1ight.ttl Height I glrtll, of 01W8t, I F('lll!tleA 1 yl"ft.l' 18~ llf, 11:1 l(ik lao 4t~.,!l yeal's i7u 1.tO l:jo l:.!ti 1fI! 61 Ilvttlll'e If. 1 1;1! 1"') Jki (i~ " ;YIal", nulitu'o ~ nun li5 142 Hll 2~4 i'n ::iolffioe: BOTl8lllU cl al., 105;]. I.. ~ I - 'nle average bil'thweight of 246 male calves at Al'moedsvlakte Resel1rch Station wets 66.7 lb., [llld tlu1t of 267 female cnives, 60.5 ll. (Bisschop, J. H. R. Personnl Oommu,nicntion). BOl1sma (194:9) glwe tl7 pounds 118 the avemge hidhweight of Africander calves at the Messilm Experimental Stat;ion. The So.111e author (W55) has given the following live weights for Afl'imlllders at different stages of growth: at 1 year, 440 lb.;!tt 2 years, 815 IIJ.; and Itt 2 ~ years, R75 lb. (menm; of 4 ohservl\;tions). He glwe the average weight of l1, mature Africander cow its being 1,188 lb., with an average height at; the withers of about 130 to 140 cm. Average meaf:;urements of Africander cattle at i,he Armoedsvlnkte J{eKc<trch Stntion are given in Table 130, and average liveweights and mctlsul'ements obtained at the Mnra Research Station in Table 181. Bonsma (U)55) found tha,t the average body temperature of Africander ce\;ttle E\;t the Messina Research Station at. aboui; an hour before Kunrise was F. _1_ '1.77

285 Functional characteristics of the hreed Heifers at AI'IllOedflvlakte Research Station calved for the first time at about :{ years of age. The average duration of 566 gestations at, the Rame station \vas 291 days with a range of 283 to 299 days. At Armoeclsvlakte, 92 heifer calves were horn to every 100 1mll calves (Bissohop, J. H. R, Persona.l Oormn'nniwtion). Joubert (1952) reported a t,winning percentage of from data obtained from the Afl'ica,ncler herd book, while at the Mara Research Station, during the period , percent of 2,093 births were twin calves. At, Armoedsvlakte, 0.47 percent of the Africander calves born in the period were twins, 11S compared with 0.48, 0.82, and 0.18 for the Friesian, Red Poll and Sussex births at the station, 01' 0.51 pel'cent for the exotic breeds taken together (Bissohop, J. H. R., Pe~'sonal Oomrn'Unication). BonS1111t (l!hh) has reported that Africander bullr l~t the Mara Research Station had an average service!~ble life of H yeltrs and 10 month". Africander cows normally giye ~uffi(lient milk to ren!' their calves well. Cows haye been known to give 4 to 5 gallons of mllk daily for a few weeks after freshening, but these are exceptiour. AH it rule production is low a,nd lactatiollr l,rt,l'cly htflt more than n months. Bonsm[~ (1949) gave >. [,s the average daily milk yield of Africander cows oyer 10 months. The flame author (1955) found the mean daily milk production of 83 Afric[tndcr cows to he 11.7 lb. over a 23-week periocl He also reported t,hat~ at the Mara Research Sttttion (in Northern 'l'ranflvll,al), 50 Africander COWF: weighed 1,297 lh. on the average at the beginning of lactation (Lnd 1,003 lb. 11t its conclmdon; a weight loss of 22.7 lb. as collllmred with 23.8 percent 1'01' the whole experimental group which included Hereford and Africander x Hereford crossbred cows. The latter percenbge would prohably have been higher if the calf mortn.lity amongst the Herefords had not been approximately 10 percent greater tlull1 mnong the Africander and crossbred ClOWS, so that It 11u111ber of Herefords dried up Hoon after calving and lost less weight than t.hey would have done if t,heir calves had lived to weaning age. Butterfat percentages of!) and () have heen obtained. Bousmlt (1949) found t,hat Africander cattle were!lble to walk at lenht 16 miles aud, on one occasion, 40 miles in 12 hours with the maxilllulll atmospheric temperatme reaching 940 F. and that they were very much hetter able to do without wat,er over periods of 24 to 48 hours than were cattle of the exotic beef breeds. Africander cattle are today maintained prinutrily for heef' produe" tion. Joubert (1953) eomliders the breed particularly suited for this 27K

286 purpose in low rainfall subtropioal savannah areas where their ability to withstand high air temperatures and droughts makes them more sucoessful than imported European breeds. At the Johannesburg Fat Stock Show in 1948, 12 Mricallder steerh averaged 60 percent dressed weight and in 1950, 8 two-tooth steers of an average liveweight of 812 lb. dressed out at 58.1 percent. FOUl' steers, of which three showed 4 teeth and a fourth only 2 teeth, were fattened at the Potchefstroem College of Agriculture in They averaged 1,150 lb. liveweight and dressed out at 64 percent (Opperman, 1950). Fifteen Mricander steers of approximately 3 years and 4 month.s of age which had been maintained on natural grazing at Armoedsvlakte were slaughtered at Onderstepoort at the end of the summer of 1956, after a 60-hour train journey. The average liveweights of the cattle at the farm and the abattoir were 1,183 lb. and 1,056 lb. respectively, representing a loss dming transit of 127 lb., or 10.7 percent of the farm weight. The Itverage warm carcass weight was 609 lb., 01' 57.7 percent of the liveweight on arrival at the abattoir. Seven of the carcasses were graded" Super," seven" Prime," one I, and none in the grades II or III (Bisschop, J. H. R, Per,~onal Communication). When five Mricander sides of beef were analyzed into fo1'e- and hindquarters, the following mean data were obtained: weight of side, 298 lb., weight of beef, 258 lb.; percentage of beef, 87; weight of bone, 40 lb.; percentage of bone, 13; weight of forequarter, 162 lb., or 54.5 percent of beefside; weight of beef in forequarter, 138 lb. (85 percent of forequarter weight); weight of bone in forequarter, 24 lb. (15 percent of forequarter weight); weight of hindquarter, 136 lb. (45.5 percent of weight of beefside); weight of beef in hindquarter, 120 lb. (88 percent of' weight of hindquarter); weight of bone in hindquarter, 161b. (12 percent of weight of hindquarter) (Bisschop, J. H. H,., Per80nal Comm'unication). Bonsma (1938) has demonfltrated that whole coat colors ill the Africander are inherited epistatically, the darker being dominant over the lighter. The same authority (1956) has drawn!ittention to the occurrence of hereditary faults in the breed including testitular hypoplasia, straight hooks, pigeon toes, wry tail, and coarse hair. Crosses with other breeds of cattle The Africander has been used extensively in southern Mrica (Le. in tho Union of South Mrica, the Rhodesias and, to a lesser extent, Nyasaland) both for grading up inferior types of undifferentiated native cattle and for crossbreeding to European beef breeds. The 279

287 crossbred EUl'ope~tn x Afrimtnder cattle have shown llmrked hybrid vigor in the first gcneration, hut higher grades by European hulls have fn,iled to withstand the adverse environmental influences of the ranching area,s und have tended to show negative adl),ptatory changes in growth, production and reproduction. 'Vork is in progress at the Mara Reseat'ch Station on a long-term project of fixing 11 Hew breed of beef cattle, to which the tentative name of Bonsnutra has been given, the individuals in which have '/. Africander ltlld 3{. Shorthorn in their ltllcestl'y. These cattle, which show the superior beefing ahilitieo: of the Shorthorn while retaining the ha,rdinoss and resistance necessary to withstand the climatic, nutritional, disease and management condition:; found in the mnchillg areas of :;outhe1'l1 Africa, have done very well [\'t Mara, and [\l'e now being tested in other ranching areas of the Union and Southern Hhodesin,. The average liveweight of yearlings in the herd at Mara haa becn490ih., and 40 percent of R-month-old animals had liveweight of' GOO lb. off l1h,tuml pastnre. A calving percel1ta,ge of 87 w~ts obtained from about. 800 cows on open range. Cows in this herd IJl'ociuccd, on iwerage, appreciably lllore milk in an 8-mol1th lactation period t,han either purebred Africanders or Herefurd;; (Farmer's Weekly, Hlr;6; Bommm, 191)6; Bisschop, J.H.R., Per80nnZ Cornmunicntion), Rhoad et al. (1945) reported an experiment tlt the IbCl'i~t Livestock Experiment Farm, Jeanerette, Louisiana, in which Africander x Aberdeen-Angus calves were compared with Aberdeen-Angus, Zebu, and Zebu x Angus. The Zebu bullr were of Kanluej breeding, The average birth and 6-lllonth. weights for the Africander x Angus calveh were 70.S lh. (46 observatiolls) and lb. (39 observations) as compaeed with 60.1 and 324,5 lb. for Aberdeen-Angus, 78.1 and lb. for Zebu, and 72.8 and lb. for Zchu x Angus calves. The mean birth and.6 month weights for the whole group were 72.3 and lb. l'ehpectively. PerrOl'mance in other areas Mricandel' cattle were exported to the United States in 1931 ftud to the Philippine:; in The results of the crossbreeding in the United States have been given above. 'rhe second world war caused the loss of the Africanders bought by the Philippine GoveI'llment.. A few bullr were also imported into the " White Highlands" of Kenya where their crosses with. the Boran cattle proved to be no better than the purebred Borans. Four bulls and two cows ~tl'e maintained for experimental crossbreeding at the Nat.ional Cat.tle Breeding St.ation, Belmont, Queensland, Australia (CSIRO, 1956). 280

288 Sources of breeding stock and information regarding the breed In 1951, rather more than 37 percent of the 109,542 purebred cattle registered by the South African Studbook Association (about 40,550) were Africanders, while close to 30 percent of the cattle owned by Europeans in the Union of South Africa were of Africander type. The Economic and Statistical Review of Southerlt Rhoctesia repol'ted that, in 1952, no less than 24,272, or almost half, of the purebred cattle of Southern Rhodesia were Africanders, while 300,571 of the 488,798 cattle were Africander grades. Further information on the Africander hreed can be obtained from: The Africander Oattle Breeders Society of South Africa, 17 Hill Street, Bloemfontein. The Director of the Division of Animal Husbandry and Dairying, Department of Agriculture, P.O. Vallis, Pretoria, Union of South Africa. 281

289 Group VIII MADAGASCAR ZEBU Origin While the absence of fossil remains indicates that cattle were introduced into Madagascar in recent times, the early navigators, from the time of Tristan d'acunha, who discovered the island in 1506, refer to very extensive herds of cattle which were maintained, particularly in the west and southwest, by the indigenous inhabitants. It ih considered that these cattle were derived from stocks introduced from India (Lalanne, A., Personal Gmnrnnnication). Conditions in the native home of the breed Location, topograpjvy and soils Madagascar, the third largest island in the world, has a superficial area of 590,000 sq. km. It is situated in the Indian Ocean between 12 0 S. and 26 0 S. and is separated from the coast of Mrica by the Mozambique channel, which has an average width of 400 km. The island is extremely mountttinous with It ceutml plateau of all average elevation of 1,200 m. above sea level, and is mueh dissected by streams and river valleys. The central plateau drops to the east coast in an almost perpendicular cliff which extends down nearly the entire length of the island while, in the west, it falls more gmdually to the coast and is penetrated by wide valleys. The soils of the central and eastern part of the islimd ate derived from granitic material and, with the exception of the alluvif1.1 soils, are of low fertility. In the west the Boils are well drained and deep, while on the high plateaus lateritic clay ovel'lies a subsoil derived from crystalline rocks. In the Bouthern part of the island sands overlie permeable calcareous material. Madagascar is well watered with numerous rivers ~111d streams which assist in minimizing the very considerable climatic variations

290 bet,ween the different pltrt," of t,}w ihlaud. hi the l'ltst the riverh art-' generally short, and torrential wit.h broad, fertile alluvial valleys. 'rhos ' in the west are longer I~nd Hlnwer. with f1 more irregular flow, and ti'iwerse fertile alluvial plains. In the south tile flow of the torr~nts i;: often lost in the 8!mdy ;:oil befm'e it l'ell,ehes the ;ma, with the rehult that the low minfitll eotthtnl arid zone receiver lithe otlwr surflh'(' wa.tm' (Lalnnne. A.. Pe')',~mutl Omnmu ll ication). Olimatl! TIlE' tropi('a! dimn.te of Madagascar is mueh modified by the mouu tainouh 1U~ture of its relief. In winter the whole island is ail'eeted by the southeast trade windb which persist south of 15 0 IS. during th~ "ummel' m.ont.hs, when northwesterly!1nd varia.hle winds influence the remainder of the island. During the day a sea breeze modifies the effect. of tho tmde wind OIl both en-st. and west coaflts, hut, t.he ni~ht land wind is weaker in tll<' east. than in the west.. Precipitation varies bot.h in amount nnd distribution fl'oll1 one pm'!, of the? island to another. The minfall on the east coast is the heaviellt I~ncl most evenly distrihuted throughout the yelw. Over much of thil'l coast there has heen ovor 2, m. a year, and Tamatave, in the northern hnlf of the lh'el~, har had B,l In the remainder of the island there ia 11 distinct wintel' dry :-;eason, which is prolonged in the semi-arid southwest and south. The north and west of the island have I.he highest, temperatures. rrhose on the east, as!1 consequence of Uw greater cloud cover, are lower, as are those of the central plateau, the alt.itucle of which is sufficient to effect, a substantial reduction, Bet/ween December and April the island experiences violent tropical oyclones, which are capahle of causing considerable damage (Ken drew, 1953). Climatologieal data fur seven statiolls in Madagascar are presented in TaNe 132. Vegetat'ion On t.he east. of the island there IH t~ dense forest. which ii:l, however, in spite of the almndo,llt rl1.in1'<111, slow to regenel'n.trc itself on the gra nitic soils. In the west the vegetation, although including nuidberl:! of tall forest trees which flourish on the deep soils, is not dense owing to the <Hidity of the dry season, which inhibits seed germinl1tioll. Many of the gl'eltt pla,teans, plains and valleys carry a luxuriant grass covel' composed of quick. growing species which are able to come to full development during the short hot rainy I:leason. The vegetation cover on the luteritic soilh of the eentel' of the island is stunted and composed 2tl3

291 'L\ m~g l:l~. " CLDIA'I'Or.UUIOAl~ D""l'A OF Nl';VJiJIS I"~I'A'I'I()NH [1'.:vIADAGAHC1Alt I I n;4i,,-hi'.\i'ei. I }-~ ~il'l111 luaxituui1i 1 1t'lIlIJl'I"Utlll'l'. Ur',. :\t..~ :11,0 :J:!.I :10, -; '.W,; ~U.!j 'W.O :;O,B :::!,!I ;::!,7 ::t.,i ).Lt'HU l"uiuilllulll 1 f'lnpl~l'ntnl'l'.!lf~.. :!:L Ii.!:~. ~I :!,::,U :!. t.:~ :!!I,;I :?O,(l!O.ll ~t.1,i :!:~,Ii ~laxilll\llll hlllldd it),., U;I _.'.... 'I ".,,... r; Minilllllll lllllljl(i-1 it",!', ',';,.,'...,.,_,. j.j,., ~kllll mlninll, tlllll... '... ~7:1 1.,,4,I flo 11 '" III;; ~:I 11~ i;;.k \foho:o\ih.\',\ :\[('itll IllHXllUlllll t\l.lfllh'l'lit \11'(', II( '. I:;:!. I :I:!..II I I :Hl.tli ::1. :lo,ll l\lea 11 lllillihllllll tl'lnl~t'l'llt,nl'p. II( t, :!:~.Ii :.!:i.;; ~[axillll1ll1 humidity. n,; ;-.;s!iii 1finhulllll hlllllidij,y. I);).... {Hi Menll I'.tillfllil. nlln... ~tlk :!:to :!O.~ 11.1 \)0 Uti llii til If, 1l.K l-l:l l:i.n ji,;; ~~().(i ~II :,)0 0] II'; 1:1 HI HI Iili i I J~ lh,s SIl.1 (l~. 'j 7~1\ iui!hii HHlXilllll1Tl t()lnjll1l'at111'(\~ IJU" :\~.7 :l2.ti :ll.h ;m.7 :!,-\,ii ~tj.a :.m.g :17,2 ~~.Ii :.W,O :m,il :n, ~ :W.i Menll luinilulllu t(~jl111f~l'htlll'e, u( '.. :.!2.rl ' :2:2,.t. :11.:1 1>1.9 I.;.,~ I::. i l~. 7 la.n l j.:! ii.1i 1!l u i\'[uximum humldit.;\~, (![,.,... l) t H~ SI) K!I Minimum humi.iity, lin 01 lucan nnn. III :17 l~ II ;io III l~'< IHT-I ).\ 1 '1'111:-:. j.:\le.. 1l1 HHtxiUl11l11 t.mulic I'Htlll'P,Il('... :W.0 :!I),4 :!li.-l :!7,H :2r).;) :!.f..:! :.!:I,1I 2 1,0 :!4-.d :lh,:! ~L",I :!s,u :,!ti,7 ~[eull tllilliluulll tcrrli)pl'at.lll't', lie.. :!l.o :!2.t :!1.5 :!O.;) I,I.{.:I \.B,i 1:).11 In,,l Hi,\) 1~,4 :.!O,l :.!I.L JO.1 ;ljnximlllll humi(\- i1iy~ %.,',.".. s'i' Sli 0'4:) Hli.! ~n~; i,nl~~111. ~1~I,U,I~(,I'-11 7:! 71 I" 71 )oft an ":lill rilll, 111 Ill..,.,.... :111;1 ~1" ~1!1 11(1 711 ill (i\) ';'() 1Il1. S 1,",:: 511

292 T.USLE 1;~:Z.._ ('LIMATOJ,OrW.'AL DAT,\ ~'Olt SEVJ<JN H'l'A'rWNS IX ~L-\J)ACfASOAH (l'ontinlleti) :UNtn xi Ul1I III I I' tclnllpl'atul't'j o(_' i :.W,~ ~'[(~flll I!!O,IJ lr.:li HLa luiniluuh1\ temperatnre~ \1(',. ~laxinl1l1l1 humid-! it,y, u() 1 n-t un,! ~r,.til ~,1.:,12~.1! ~Il.'i i H\.\)I H.I 11.\1 gj'" HI" Hi 11, \l.~ I!I.l :!I,l 2:!.7 :!fi.r) jj, ;) 211. f, 11.;1 u.~ 11), i U"j J.I. i ] ;', n 97 ~li no n~ lj:! H~ MinilllUIll itr,..!.".il.n, 1.',1,- 1',.', 11;1 H:; li+ :)K 5:; IS t-} IH :;7!iii,7 Me"l> ""ill[ii\!'1 flull :~o~ :.!4i" 15G 10 1, ~;: '!;j 1:!, :!~1I11 :!;', I HETBtJK.\ I!!H.:l lila U;'i.3 ~1"" llXiUllllU tt~111111'!'llt,nl'i'1 (J(,( ;Io.r, :m.2 :.!fl.7 2,~,:"; :!:I.I) ~,l.:l 2:1.S :!;).. ~ 2~.1 ;3:!.:! :11.'7 :lu.~ Ml'ltll Illjlljmll111 tmn)ipi'ahll'l', Il( ~. ls.n ls.4 Ill.'J 1~.:! III I 111,0 11. I J:l':, Li.n 1,"\, i.:\luxilllll1h hlllllill- I i1.;\', % ; n t'l:! M ~'. Mil :-;i ~~,,' 75 7\1 " " ~lilljllllllll hllllliftily, " fit rl~ ~n ~lr; ;w III :)'i," ;;7 II :!f.! :," -17,\lolln I'nillfall,.. linu. 0_, I., :!:!7 U;,!lI} ~7 li JtJ!I II I~! ;;.111 ;!K,,~ 15.~,~o.., ~l.(1 "UJ 'P.\~.\X UUVE I.:\JCHll llhlximulll t,l'luth't'utlll'l', 11(',. :.!O.G ~tl.11 21\,11 :m.j ~:I. { :H.:! ~".:! ~1, 7 :!{,'I :!i,t ~,t :!7,it Ml'1I1l minillllllll t(~lu1h~l lltlll'p. lie, Hi.H lr). ~ 1,;1,,, H.i tl,8 :-\.1 K,ll l{l,:!. It." l:ls 1;;.1) 1,1 ill fllil ~ m U'2 III II;:' I, I '.-~--~ ~ _. I ~rn.xilllllm hlllllj(l-!ty, ", /0 \la II,! \I:! IH II! U ~ ~\\ ~7 ::.\i' ~~o :\liniml1lll h11l1l!'iil,~. (I'n II~ 711 Ilx :\Illitll :,;-l. :"):,! 48 :,:\ llhl Bin ~i;\ lit) 1m li III x "\ 14 [,.l-,10 3IJi 1 111: ~.G 111." 1]1l.9 ~\'jh of,rpec:ie,; whieh hueome woody <md of l'eduee(l feeding vnlue as soon at'! t.l18y reach full development, The morc arid Houth :mpports only a,n ephemeral graflh (Jover, t.ogethel' with xerophytic trees and shrubs, inclnding flpilly f:lpecies. Among t,he more lmport.lhlt }l(1flture gl'l\sflci:l arc And1'(ipOflon 1"1C,tU8, Hetempo{fon contortu8. A1'i8tidlt (ulscensionw, hnpentta, Mundinacea" and Anrl1'()p()(Jo'll. inte1'1nedi'll8. OYl1od()n dactjllon, which appears in asbo- 281i

293 ciation wit.h specie;; of Pani(:u.1il, Diyitlll'ia Clwl Seta'ria, is pre-eminent among t,lle grasres giving' dry-fieflkon grazing in depressions, valley bot.toidr nud river hanks. LegumeH m'e ral'(\ in Madagascan pastures (Litlanne. A., PM'8ona/ ()o?n1nunication). vvith few exeeptions, the cattle ;;uhsirt entirely on natural pastures. During the millh the herds are maintained on upland and other grazing,hvay from the l'ivel'h. During the dry season they are moved down to depmssions, 'mlley bottoms and river banks where the higher soil! IYater StlbtU8 11el'mits of a more prolonged Sea<lOIl of plant growth. In general, the cattle remain on the dry season pastures from June 01' Jul~Y to Novemher or Decemher, and OIl the rain season grazing grounds from November 01' December until the following May 01' JUlle. In the neighhorhood of the larger population centers where there is a market for milk, COWH IHC milked once d!tily aft,el' the calves have suckled, the quantity of milk allowed to the calf being lihually insufficient for its full requirements, Elsewhere there if! little opportunity fo!' the commercial disposal of milk 01' milk products and it is only where tribes, HtlCh as the Bam a,nd the AntaJ1(ll'o~' in the south of the j,l1und, includl' milk in their FIGURE 100. J.vlaclag(/,~(,'("!1' zebu buu. Uourt-o~y ot A, Lalnlluil

294 FIGURE 101. Madaga.~CI:1il' Zf./Ht, bull and cow, gouthwest Madagascar. Oourt~sy of,a. Le.lnono diet, tlmt Illilk "ullicienj; ft)l' the Kltlltlllleerl~ of the people ik taken from t,he bettel' yielding COWH at t,he pe!lk of t,lle laetu,tioll while the remainder of the OOWIl l'elllftin unmilkecl. In other arp'ih, whem milk HndR no v1ace in t,ho diet of t,he people, milking ik not regularly practiced (Lil!mlUe,. A., Pt'.l'wnal (!mnm,ll,llicrttion). Physical Chlll'I\(lt~ri9tics of the bl'eed The Madn,gl'Kcilt: zebu (Figures loo and loll ik II thickset animal of less th!tl1 medium height, The head i:-l Ilhort ltnd the profile straight. The horn~ IL1'(1 lyi'e., Ol' more often, cl'ehcent shaped and are of ciroular oruhb section. IndividtmlH occur which [we poned or the hol'lls of which are loose Itllll unftttaohed t,o the honch of t.he Hknll. 'fhe neck ih light and the. dewhtp, ltltllough snmller thlhl tht\t of many Indin,n zebus, is stl'ougly developed, The hump c1ii'1'ies it oomdderahle I\!llount of fatty tissue when the anillutl ih in high ('oudition, is cervico thomoic in position ttnd ih placed vel'ti(mlly. The body i~ short and t.he hind quarters m'o poorly developed. The limhs '1.re co(tl'se and the hoofs :L1'e of ade!jlmtc dumhility on HOft, ground, 1'he udder and ten.ts ttre ~mall. The lmil'y o(mt itl HOft, and,~holt and the Hkill i~,~llpple and fine :1nd of light pigmentilt.io'ji, Thero i8 II wide range of coat eoloratioll; black, red, fawn, ~r011ow,mel white, pied wit.h black 01' red on white, 11Ud gray with bhwk pointh OOCUI'. Muzzle, tongue and the BUI']'oLmd of the ey(jh, Btl'. llmy he black (usually with bltwk or red CUllJ colmation) ur light"colored (with light,el' (\Ql'lt coloration) (LnlmUle, A., Perli(lM~1 OO'lnrml1l?:c(/.tl:on). 2X7

295 The birthweight of calve:; i,; ill t,he range of 12 to 20 kg. Avel'ltg(~ liveweightr and J1Wltilurement:;; of lviaclaguhcnl' zebu,; at different :itage::; of growt.h which wpre ohtained at the Centre de reehel'eheh zooteeiiniqnch at IGanjasoa, Mnrlftgascar. arc given ill Tlthle 1:18. T'I.BLB VI:). -- Ani] ItAl:.~; _LIVEwEJ(IH~rH AN1J.i\[K,\,sITmDi\lI';N'I':; 0]' MADACLI.f;C'o\lt ZI<;BUR 1=_~I;'le _=_\'. _=-=-l':~;:'~~l~'-=-=:]~_):. 1 I )"t'i11' I ~ rphi's imalm't'll,n'"r I ~ ~'''II1'" ill1l1t'lil'"iillht'ili''' I,-~,-,---~,-,---, ' I i'.~1 Livewoigh1. l-=g Il(li~'ht at. wit.hl'l'", "111. "'" (1,-:!I(I 7(1 ~;~ :":1 I ::~:: \)(1 :HI 1:1,\Vldtlt (If hills,,'m,.., ", '11 10 Ift1tl},t girth. NIl i{l I:I,~ _ ,, \U HU Itl:) -w : ~ ~. :Functionnl c1ull'actcristics of the bre(~tl The Mndagasm1!' zebu i::: kept primarily Ii II' meat production. Heifers u>.lve down for t,he first time at abnut B or -Ie yean; of age. The cnlving interval of cow:,; under ('xtemdv0 management ih llornul-lly ~ yem'h. Most uows ltl'(, served hy the hull in the period Novemuer tu March. The avernge product.ive life of It (low extends over 4: htot,ttioll:i. Bulls are first used for I:lerviue lot hetween I HlId l.ii yel1l'k of age. 'J~h(ly are quick to l:lel'vic(j a.nd have,.11 aotive La'ceding: life of 10 to 12 years..milk product,ion is Hll1,tll. Tlw,wert.ge t,mount pl'odueecl h; l50 to 250 litel's in n htctl1tion extending over (j month". The lmttertltt eontcnt of the milk hils beon givbll It::; 4.5 pc1:cent, Superior COWl:; have pl'oduced 2 to il litei'~ of milk <t cllty in udditioll to feeding a calf. n,nd oxp.eptional illdiviclmtis, under improved management and feeding, llltve given up t,o f) iitorh II clay. Mndagm;car '1.ebus ±~ltten weli at, IJH.stuJ'e, which ir the usual method followed in the island, bnt. in the province of 1',UHtnar'ive Htnl i fattcningir also IJl'twticed. Animal,; ltl'e,;lnughtcl'cd at Ii tu 12 yoan: of nge, with It livcwoight of about B50 kg. The dt'ohsing pereclltitge ir l1hwtlly ill the rango 4H to 56. It has heen repol't.ed that n typical dreflsccl carea:is contains 72 percent musele, ;) llel'ccllt fat, 20 percent. bone', and :l pc'l'eellt nerves

296 FIt:I:llJ<l 11)2, A Hrlll(1 herd to the 8ol.lfhu'cst ()f 'l'ananm'ive, Jladagrt8CUI'. r '[JUI'('l\S~' of A. Lalullue and flp0110nl'wie>l, and that the meltt (lon;;l;;;ts of.j,(j penoll t fil'st-, 2ii pet' cent ser:on(l, and :lii pereent third-quality ontk. Cl~ttl(' lire employed widely flll' the IJt'eparfltioll of burl fol' the rille crop hy tl'llll1pjilll,( before the ric:e plant,; [we set out" The u~c of OXCll-clmwll plows ilnd other tillage implements is increasing rapidly,.a~ t;!l(l road ~;ystelll of the island improves there ir 11 wide'i' nhc of oxen lis draft,minutia fol' tl'unhi10l'ta,tioll work 'rhe oxen are t.mined. 1'0" WOI'le a.t 4 yom's of age, when they have i1uhieved I, liveweight. of ahout :loo kg. 'I'hey are docile lind can be trained for lmubgo work in II few day:;, Two oxen hal'l1ehsed to i\ CfU't. ltl'(\!ible til) uraw!\ load l)f :35() to 50n kg, at 4 km, an hour, 'I'lle dirtltllco oov81'ed in the OOUl'se of' II working day i~ ahollt ilo Inll,.Hauln,go oxen llm'uu111y work \50 01' mol'e days a yea!', Flmployed ill tillage work 11 team of,~ix oxen can plow to half hectare in It five-hour woddng d,\y. It ih 1Ulllslml for tillage oxen to lvork 1110):0 t,hnn 50 or no clttyh ill n year. Gattle in Ma,dI\~!'SCM',\1'0 not cxpored to rindl.)l'pe:;t, foot. [l,lldmonth diheahc, 0)' colltllgiouh ahortion, Mf!,dag!.l8C1t1' zelmr luwe shown "\ modet'l\t,e HlUmelltibility lio Imcmol'l'hagic tlcpticltemht mul I-ltreptol;hricosiH. Hlll'dH which haw!lot pmvioubly been expohecl't.o tuber <mlo~ih luwe heon Found t.o he ilo percent KUKceptible, while in those which hnvo beon Hnhjoctod to prolonged exposure the mihceptillility IU,K heen l'edu(:od t.o L(I or :W pereent, ThiH type of catt.ie is I'eported (;0 he I'CKiHtnnt, to ImhcsielloKis, am'plt~slllo~i~. hl'u,j'twltt.l'!', Hnd nm~titih, They!H'C ~Ilbject to lumpy-kldn dirolthc., While them ik BOlntl HUHoept,iliilit.y to tick ltttaek, there i>1 l'esistallce t.o that of lice and biting flioh, Amoug internal pal'f1.rites, A8caridili. lomi)1"/:o{)'itle8 ltllll, (it) t, lek~('r extciut, Htrongyle~, have lleen troul.jle Homo, V!II t.icnillwly ill young: O!\t(-.le, 111llong whi.ch they canse a oollsider

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