Mountain Gorillas. International Gorilla Conservation Program (IGCP) Mr. Stephen Asuma, IGCP Country Representative,Uganda.

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1 The Future of Great Apes in Uganda: Mountain Gorillas International Gorilla Conservation Program (IGCP) Mr. Stephen Asuma, IGCP Country Representative,Uganda

2 Gorilla beringei beringei Mountain gorilla Critically Endangered according to the IUCN Current total population is Estimated at 780 intwo populations Not known to survive in zoos

3 Distribution of mountain gorillas

4 The Pluses Population increasing Increasing awareness on the plight Has demonstrated economic significance Increasing support for its conservation at different levels Regional collaboration for NRM incl: Gorilla Conservation

5 Virunga Pop trends

6 Bwindi: Pop trends

7 Threats to survival of Mt. Gorillas Poaching Disease Habitat loss and degradation Climate change Conflict and civil unrest Disenfranchisement of local community Insufficient regional collaboration

8 1. Habitat Loss and Degradation Conversion for agriculture Competition for limited natural resources Access to water Timber Charcoal

9 2. Poaching Poaching continues to jeopardize the gorillas survival. Poaching of mountain gorillas for food is extremely rare. Largely the result of unselective hunting with snares

10 Poaching-Contd In the 60s and 70s gorillas were poached for sale to foreigners as trophies and captive specimens. None survived in captivity Hunting of mountain gorillas in order to Hunting of mountain gorillas in order to capture babies commissioned by unscrupulous dealers remains a very real threat.

11 Poaching trend Everyday poaching threat from snares left for antelope Direct poaching of gorillas Civil unrest 1995 : 4 gorillas in Bwindi- Community reprisal 2002: An attempt thwarted in Nkuringo 2007 : 10 gorillas in Virunga NP Human-wildlife conflict 2009 : 1 gorilla killed by stone

12 Records of Gorilla death

13 3. Disease transmission Disease most dramatic threat Gorillas: closely related to humans, vulnerable to many of the same diseases. have not developed necessary immunities. live in small groups that may never recover from a sudden pop fall due to disease.

14 Disease transmission-contd Any human contact is potentially harmful, even life-threatening. Debris left behind in the park Contact with surrounding community and their livelihood activities-high pop density, malaria, respiratory and diarrheal diseases-majority diseases amongst adults and deaths amongst children

15 Climate change Reduction in habitable lands Change in community production systems and approaches

16 4. Success of Gorilla Tourism Gorilla Tourism universally accepted, supported and lucrative tool for Gorilla conservation: Has raised conservation funding Has generated publicity for the range states Created employment Earned national governments taxes Made money for the private sector BUT:

17 Success of Gorilla Tourism-CONT Success is leading to constant pressure to: Habituate more Lower safe guards for Gorilla health Bringing thousands of people from all over the world into proximity with ( 15,360ple for BINP at 80% occupancy) Behavioral disturbance and stress leading to immunosuppresiion

18 5. Conflict and civil unrest Killing of gorillas Abandonment or downscaling of management Drop in Tourism Exploitation of habitat Quality of habitat- garbage

19 6. A feeling of disenfranchisement among local communities, Crop raiding Gorillas on community land Annual losses around BINP 0.9m $

20 A feeling of disenfranchisement among local communities Limited benefits from Tourism 2% 15% 4% 28% International Tourists( Consumer surplus International revenue National( non local) 17% 13% Park fees National Income( non local Impact) 13% 8% Govt tax Local Revenue Local income impact

21 7. Insufficient regional collaboration

22 Recommendations 1. Increase community stake in conservation through related and dependant interventions 2. Review penalties for poaching 3. Strengthen relationship and collaboration with police, judiciary and media 4. Research into and routinely monitor their habitat and use information for adapting

23 Recommendations-Contd 1. Rationalize land use around habitats 2. Implement recommendations to minimize disease spread: 1. Proper Garbage, and fecal matter disposal 2. Improving health status of local communities 3. Active sensitization campaign-create a gorilla conscious tourism movement

24 Recommendations-Contd Continued sensitization on the danger to and need and benefits of gorilla conservation Awareness raising of tour operators and continued training of PA staff in health issues Investigate reasons for exits Explore incentives and disincentives for good Gorilla conservation practice for communities, private sector

25 Recommendations-Contd Ratify treaty for regional collaboration Implement /roll out strategies for climate change adaptation

26 What we can do together WHAT FROM HERE

27 Website and blog: or Find us on Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, and YouTube

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