THREE LEVELS OF CLASSIFICATION

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1 ENDANGERED SPECIES

2 THREE LEVELS OF CLASSIFICATION 1.THREATENED: POPULATION IS LOW OR HABITAT CRITICAL & COULD BECOME ENDANGERED IN THE NEAR FUTURE Ex: Polar Bear, Sea Otter

3 2. ENDANGERED POPULATION IS VERY LOW & COULD BECOME EXTINCT IN THE NEAR FUTURE Ex: Red Wolf, Panda, Manatee

4 3. EXTINCT ALL INDIVIDUALS OF A SPECIES ARE GONE. EXTINCTION IS FOREVER. EXTINCT IN THE WILD MEANS A FEW ARE ALIVE ONLY IN ZOOS Ex: Dodo Bird, Passenger Pigeon

5 5 CAUSES OF ENDANGERMENT H. I. P. P. O. Habitat Loss Invasive Species Pollution Pet Trade Over Hunting/Harvesting

6 5 CAUSES OF ENDANGERMENT 1. HABITAT LOSS = 50% HUMAN ENCROACHMENT DEFORESTATION FARMING MINING ROADWAYS

7 Mountain top mining and deforestation eliminate habitat

8 MIGRATORY ANIMALS ARE AT A HIGHER RISK THESE ANIMALS NEED SECURE HABITAT IN 2 PLACES & ALONG THE MIGRATION ROUTE TO STOP, REST & GET FOOD. Ex: Whales, Sea Turtles, Songbirds

9 North America Migration Flyways

10 5 CAUSES OF ENDANGERMENT 2. INVASIVE SPECIES = 16% ORGANISMS WHICH ARE NOT NATURAL TO THE ENVIRONMENT. THEY HAVE NO NATURAL PREDATORS, FIND LOTS OF FOOD & REPRODUCE QUICKLY. THEY OUT COMPETE NATURAL SPECIES

11 Kudzu from Japan brought to US as an ornamental plant Zebra Mussels from Asia brought to US in ship ballast Cane Toad from S & C America brought to Australia for insect control

12 5 CAUSES OF ENDANGERMENT 3. POLLUTION = 16% POLLUTANTS HAVE A NEGATIVE EFFECT ON THE HEALTH OF MOST ORGANISMS

13 Oiled sea bird, turtle ingested plastic bag, fish killed from sulfates in water

14 BIOACCUMULATION a process of chemicals increasing their concentration in an animal s body. ex: mercury accumulates in brain tissue causing brain damage

15 BIOMAGNIFICATION a process of a chemical increasing in concentration as it moves up the food chain.

16 DDT IS A PESTICIDE. BIRDS OF PREY (HAWKS, EAGLES) HAVE SOFT EGGS AND DEFORMED YOUNG DUE TO THIS CHEMICAL PCB S, MERCURY & OTHER TOXINS EFFECT THE IMMUNE, ENDOCRINE & REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS OF ANIMALS THIS OFTEN CAUSES PROBLEMS WITH REPRODUCTION

17 5 CAUSES OF ENDANGERMENT 4. PET TRADE =?% 80% of animals collected in the wild will die before they are sold as pets. Ex: tropical birds, reptiles (snakes, lizards, turtles), mammals (wild cats, monkeys), and salt water fish

18 5 CAUSES OF ENDANGERMENT 5. OVER HARVESTING = 18% FOR SPORT/FUN FOR FOOD (bushmeat trade), FOR SKINS/FUR, TROPHIES HUMAN FEAR PREDATORS WERE WIPED OUT (WOLF, COUGAR, BEAR)

19 5 CAUSES OF ENDANGERMENT POACHING the illegal hunting or capture of animals/plants hunting without a license hunting out of season taking undersized fish taking too many fish

20 variety of poached animal products

21 A poached black bear is missing gall bladder and paws

22 Elephant with tusks removed

23 Rhino with horn removed

24 BUSHMEAT: meat of wild animals caught for food by individuals or in large amounts to be sold for food.

25

26

27 BLACK MARKET SALES - THE ILLEGAL SALE OF ENDANGERED SPECIES OR PARTS OF THEM FOR MONEY ANIMALS ARE COMMONLY CAUGHT IN 2 nd AND 3 rd WORLD COUNTRIES AND ARE SOLD IN 1 ST WORLD COUNTRIES. EX: TUSKS, HORNS, SKINS, PET TRADE

28 WHY ANIMALS ARE POACHED MONEY thousands of dollars are often paid for poached horns, tusks, fur, etc. SURVIVAL bushmeat trade PET TRADE remember! 80% of animals collected in the wild will die before they are sold as pets

29 Black Market trade in Myanmar 6min 1. Why are most animals illegally traded? To be used in Chinese traditional medicines Souvenirs Eaten in exotic restaurants 2. Why are Asian bears kept in cages? They are used to produce bile for Asian medicine

30 Elephant Orphanage 14min ntentbody;storymediabox 1. Why are the baby elephants brought to the orphanage? How long do most of them stay? 2. What do the Keepers do with the elephants each day? List as many things as you can. 3. Before the elephants are released back into the wild what happens to them?

31 Gorillas of the Congo 14min 1. Why are the gorillas in the Republic of Congo endangered? 2. Why are the gorillas in Rwanda and Uganda protected so well? 3. For what reasons was the family of gorillas shot and killed? carousel dl2

32 Gorillas of Bwindi Park 6min What is your opinion of the interaction between the gorillas and the tourists? Why is Eco-tourism important to many countries? Eco-tourism brings in money, creates jobs and protects the environment and wildlife. Total International Tourism Arrivals Nature Tourists Wildlife-related Tourists million million million million million million Total International Direct Economic Impact * Nature Tourists Wildlife-related Tourists US$388 billion US$ billion US$ billion US$416 billion US$ billion US$ billion * Total International Direct Economic Impact = money spent on travel by tourists traveling abroad.

33 LOCAL & INTERNATIONAL LAWS 1. LACEY ACT 1900 ONE OF THE FIRST LAWS REGARDING TRADE OF BIRD SPECIES BETWEEN STATES. PROTECTED MIGRATORY BIRD SPECIES FROM FEATHER COLLECTING

34 LOCAL & INTERNATIONAL LAWS 1. LACEY ACT NOW AMENDED TO MAKE IT ILLEGAL TO IMPORT, EXPORT, TRANSPORT, BUY OR SELL FISH, WILDLIFE AND PLANTS TAKEN OR POSSESSED IN VIOLATION OF STATE, FEDERAL OR FOREIGN LAWS.

35 LOCAL & INTERNATIONAL LAWS 2. MIGRATORY BIRD TREATY ACT 1918 M.B.T.A. US Law between US, Canada, Mexico, Japan and Russia to protect migratory birds. Law makes it illegal to hunt, capture, kill or sell birds or possess bird parts including feathers, eggs, & nests of birds listed. Over 800 species are listed

36 LOCAL & INTERNATIONAL LAWS 3. INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR THE CONSERVATION OF NATURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES - I.U.C.N (BEGAN AS UNESCO ) lists species covered. MEMBER NATIONS ESTABLISH LAWS THEY ABIDE TO. COUNTRIES DO NOT HAVE TO JOIN & DO NOT HAVE TO FOLLOW THE LAWS.

37 LOCAL & INTERNATIONAL LAWS 4. MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT MMPA LAW ENACTED TO PROTECT ALL MARINE MAMMALS (whales, seals, otters) FROM BEING HUNTED, CAPTURED OR HARASSED.

38 LOCAL & INTERNATIONAL LAWS 5. ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT - E.S.A RUN BY THE US FISH & WILDLIFE SERVICE PROVIDES THAT SPECIES ON THE LIST BE GIVEN PROTECTION

39 4 PROVISIONS OF THE ESA MAINTAIN A LIST OF ENDANGERED SPECIES PROTECT THESE SPECIES FROM HARM CAUSED BY HUMANS PREVENT INDUSTRY FROM HARMING PROTECTED HABITAT PLAN & CARRY OUT A RECOVERY PLAN FOR EACH SPECIES

40 LOCAL & INTERNATIONAL LAWS 6. CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE OF ENDANGERED SPECIES C.I.T.E.S INTERNATIONAL LAW GOVERNING TRADE OF ENDANGERED & THREATENED SPECIES

41 C.I.T.E.S. 140 COUNTRIES BELONG, THEY MEET EVERY 2 YEARS TO REVIEW & MODIFY THE LAWS COUNTRIES DO NOT HAVE TO JOIN & DO NOT HAVE TO FOLLOW THE LAWS.

42 LOCAL & INTERNATIONAL LAWS 7. CONVENTION ON MIGRATORY SPECIES C.M.S. Migratory species threatened with extinction are listed on Appendix 1 of the IUCN Red List. Members of CMS work to strictly protect animals by conserving & restoring places they live, removing obstacles to migration and other factors that affect them.

43 LOCAL & INTERNATIONAL LAWS 8. INTERNATIONAL WHALING COMMISSION - I.W.C PLACED A MORATORIUM (NO HUNTING) ON ALL WHALE SPECIES IN 1986.

44 I.W.C. HAVE ESTABLISHED SEVERAL SANCTUARIES AROUND THE WORLD WHERE WHALE HUNTING IS ILLEGAL MEMBER COUNTRIES MEET ANNUALLY TO REVIEW LAWS. COUNTRIES DO NOT HAVE TO JOIN & DO NOT HAVE TO FOLLOW THE LAWS.

45 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENTS 1. D.E.C. DEPT. OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION 2. E.P.A. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 3. F.W.S. FISH & WILDLIFE SERVICE

46 HOW ARE ORGANISMS CLASSIFIED AS ENDANGERED? 1. WHAT IS THE CAUSE OF THE ENDANGERMENT? A. HABITAT DESTRUCTION: CAN IT BE STOPPED/CONTROLLED? CAN THE REMAINDER BE SAVED? IS THERE ENOUGH FOOD? IS THERE ENOUGH CLEAN WATER?

47 HOW ARE ORGANISMS CLASSIFIED AS ENDANGERED? 1. WHAT IS THE CAUSE OF THE B. HUNTING: ENDANGERMENT? CAN IT BE REGULATED/STOPPED? CAN THE ORGANISM BE HARVESTED IN A RENEWABLE MANNER? ex: TAKE FEATHERS FROM NEST NOT THE BIRD ex: HARVEST FRUIT/NUT NOT THE WHOLE TREE

48 HOW ARE ORGANISMS CLASSIFIED AS ENDANGERED? 2. BREEDING CYCLE/LIFE SPAN HOW MANY MATURE/BREEDING AGED ANIMALS ARE LEFT? WHAT IS THE RATIO OF MALE/FEMALE? (NEED MORE FEMALES) AGE TO BREEDING AGE? (YOUNGER IS BETTER) NUMBER OF YOUNG (MORE IS BETTER)

49 HOW ARE ORGANISMS CLASSIFIED AS ENDANGERED? 2. BREEDING CYCLE/LIFE SPAN HOW OFTEN DO THEY BREED? SUCCESS RATE OF YOUNG? (WHAT % MAKE IT TO ADULTHOOD?) LIFE SPAN IN YEARS COMPARED TO NUMBER OF BREEDING YEARS?

50 HOW ARE ORGANISMS CLASSIFIED AS ENDANGERED? 3. ABILITY TO EVOLVE OR ADAPT TO CHANGES IN THE ENVIRONMENT THE FASTER YOU CAN REPRODUCE THE BETTER YOU CAN EVOLVE. VARIATIONS IN THE GENES CREATE VARIATIONS IN THE ORGANISM, WHICH MAY MAKE IT BETTER SUITED FOR ITS ENVIRONMENT.

51 ELEPHANT REPRODUTION Assuming all offspring are female and survive to reproduce GENERATION 1 GENERATION 2 GENERATION 3 GENERATION 4 GENERATION 5 1 FEMALE X 3 YOUNG 15 YEARS 3 FEMALES X 3 YOUNG 15 YEARS 9 FEMALES X 3 YOUNG 15 YEARS 27 FEMALES X 3 YOUNG 15 YEARS 81 Elephants TOTAL TIME = 60 YEARS

52 COCKROACH REPRODUTION Assuming all offspring are female and survive to reproduce GENERATION 1 GENERATION 2 GENERATION 3 GENERATION 4 GENERATION 5 1 FEMALE X 80 YOUNG 6 MONTHS 80 FEMALES X 80 YOUNG 6 MONTHS 6,400 FEMALES X 80 YOUNG 6 MONTHS 512,000 FEMALES X 80 YOUNG 6 MONTHS 40,960,000 Cockroaches! TOTAL TIME = 2 YEARS

53 HOW ARE ORGANISMS CLASSIFIED AS ENDANGERED? 4. FUTURE OUTLOOK FOR THE SPECIES IS THERE STILL A POTENTIAL PROBLEM THAT CAN NOT BE SOLVED? ex: uncontrolled poaching lack of government support pollutants that do not decompose

54 SUMMARY OF ENDANGERED SPECIES EVERY SPECIES IS UNIQUE EVERY SPECIES MUST BE PROTECTED IN A DIFFERENT MANNER EVERY SPECIES IS NECESSARY IN ITS ENVIRONMENT

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