Lead Ammunition Survey Summary

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1 Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Lead Ammunition Survey Summary Concern and scrutiny over the use of lead ammunition in regards to human health and wildlife has increased in recent years. California s 13 legislative action to phase out all lead ammunition has brought heightened attention to lead ammunition use in Oregon and other states. This concern and attention prompted the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife to partner with Oregon State University s Survey Research Center and Wildlife Extension to design and conduct a public opinion survey on lead ammunition use and related issues. The results of the 14 survey are currently being analyzed by Oregon State University for publication in a scientific journal. The knowledge gained from this survey will inform decision makers of perceptions about the use of lead ammunition and the perceived impacts on humans and wildlife by both the hunting community and the general public. Separate surveys were designed and conducted for hunters and the general public. The hunter survey included 33 questions in order to get more specific details on current firearm and ammunition usage for big game and unprotected mammal & furbearer hunts. Therefore the general public survey consisted of fewer questions. Both groups responded to a subset of questions that allowed comparison of opinions, knowledge, and preferences between the two groups. The following provides a basic summary of the findings; and in some cases hunter and public responses to questions were displayed side by side in order to best present the data. All tables and charts were generated from survey responses and created by Oregon State University s Survey Research Center. Due to differences in response rate to individual questions, percentage may not total exactly percent. For more information about the survey and to see the survey questions you can go to:

2 Response Information Hunter - All Mail and Web/Mail Response Rate by Mode 4% 35% % 25% % 15% 35% 15% Web Paper % 5% 16% % All Mail Web/Mail Conducted solely by mail. Hunter - Response Rates for each Region by Survey Mode, with a consistent Response Rate across Regions 4.% 35.%.% 25.% 7.4% 6.3% 8.1% 8.1%.% 15.%.% 24.2% 26.8% 26.6% 24.3% Web Paper 5.%.% Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e 2

3 Hunting Experience (Hunter & ) Q2: Have you ever hunted using a firearm? Percent of Respondents () 2% 42% 56% Random sample of public showed a relatively high percentage of people who had hunted at some time in the past. Hunter Q3: Did you hunt in Oregon anytime from January 1, 13 to December 31, 13? Percent of Respondents (Hunters) Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e 3

4 Hunter Q4: For 13, did you use a bow, firearms, or both bow and firearms to hunt? Percent of Respondents Using Bow, Firearms, or Both to Hunt in Oregon in 13 Firearms users (shotgun and/or rifle) comprise the bulk of hunters surveyed. Hunter Q5: About how many total days did you spend hunting with a firearm in Oregon during 13? Number of Days in 13 Respondents Hunted 22% 22% 12% 14% 13% 17% % 1-3 days 4-6 days 7-9 days -13 days 14- days 21 or more days No response Firearms hunters include upland birds, waterfowl, big game, furbearers and unprotected mammals. Number of days hunted may reflect hunting multiple species and seasons. Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e 4

5 Hunter Q6-9: Did you hunt migratory game birds, waterfowl, upland game birds, turkey, or big game in Oregon in 13? 82% 21% 17% 15% Q6. Migratory game birds and waterfowl Q7. Upland game birds or wild turkey with non-lead Q8. Big game with non-lead Q9. Big game with lead Some hunters are already hunting with non-lead ammunition. Until now, we have not had any solid information on use of non-lead ammunition in Oregon. Migratory game birds includes dove and band-tailed pigeon. Hunter Q: When hunting big game using ammunition that contains lead do you mostly use ammunition off-the-shelf/mail order, reloaded, or an equal combination of both? 16% 1% Mostly off-the-shelf/mail order Mostly reloaded 24% 6% Equal combination of offthe-shelf/mail order and reloaded No response Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e 5

6 Hunter Q11: Type of firearm used for hunting big game in Oregon in 13? 92% 32% 18% 9% 5% Centerfire rifle Handgun Shotgun Muzzleloader Other Hunter Q12: What are the reasons, if any, that would influence you to switch to non-lead ammunition for hunting big game in Oregon? Among hunters, use of non-lead ammunition is affected by questions about performance, the science behind the issue, availability and cost. Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e 6

7 Hunter Q15: When hunting unprotected mammals or furbearers using ammunition that contains lead do you mostly use ammunition off-the-shelf/mail order, reloaded, or an equal combination of both? Hunter Q16: Type of firearm used for hunting unprotected mammals or furbearers in Oregon in 13? 8% 76% 43% 45% 7% 3% Centerfire rifle Rimfire rifle Handgun Shotgun Muzzleloader Other Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e 7

8 Hunter Q17: What are the reasons, if any, that would influence you to switch to non-lead ammunition for hunting unprotected mammals or furbearers in Oregon? i. Under no circumstances would I switch to non-lead ammunition. c. If I knew non-lead ammunition performance (e.g., accuracy, killing b. If I knew there were negative health effects of lead on Oregon s wildlife d. If there were greater local availability of non-lead ammunition. a. If I knew there were negative health effects of lead on people. h. If I received a coupon that would offset the additional cost of purchasing e. If there were greater availability of non-lead ammunition online. j. Other g. If the cost was no more than 25% higher than lead-based ammunition. f. If the cost was 25% - 5% higher than lead-based ammunition. % 5% % 15% % 25% % 35% 4% These responses provide insights to the factors respondents would consider in making a switch to non-lead ammunition when hunting unprotected mammals and furbearers. Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e 8

9 Hunter Q19: Which of the following have been sources of information for you regarding the effects of ammunition that contains lead? % % 4% 6% 8% h. Sportsmen's magazine i. Mass media d. Other hunters f. NRA or other k. Hunting organization b. ODFW printed materials a. ODFW website j. Federal agency l. Conservation/Environmental c. ODFW employee(s) g. Health provider/doctor e. OSU Extension service m. Other Hunter Q: Of those that have been a source of information for you (as stated in Q19), which 3 do you feel are the most reliable sources. % % % % 4% 5% h. Sportsmen's magazine f. NRA or other k. Hunting organization d. Other hunters b. ODFW printed materials a. ODFW website i. Mass media j. Federal agency m. Other l. Conservation/Environmental g. Health provider/doctor c. ODFW employee(s) e. OSU Extension service Sports magazines, NRA, and hunters are the preferred sources of information on this issue. Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e 9

10 COMPARISON Source vs Credibility (Hunters) m. Other e. OSU Extension service g. Health provider/doctor c. ODFW employee(s) l. Conservation/Environmental j. Federal agency a. ODFW website b. ODFW printed materials k. Hunting organization f. NRA or other d. Other hunters i. Mass media h. Sportsmen's magazine Source Credibility % % % % 4% 5% 6% 7% Identifies various sources hunters use to gather information and provides insights into the credibility of each of these sources. Hunter Q22: Information about ammunition choices and lead effects can be delivered to hunters in many ways. Which 2 of these do you most prefer? % % % % 4% 5% 6% Printed materials (newsletters, magazines, ODFW hunting regulations Online Personal contact TV or radio Other Social media Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e

11 INFORMATION SOURCES GENERAL PUBLIC Q4: Which of the following have been sources of information for you regarding the effects of ammunition that contains lead? The public looks for information from different sources than hunters. Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e 11

12 Q5: Of those that have been a source of information for you, which 3 do you feel are the most reliable sources. For the public, mass media, known hunters and conservation groups are most reliable sources of information. COMPARISON Source vs Credibility Comparison: Mass media is the preferred method of providing credible information to the general public. Outreach through hunters (considering the preferred, credible method source of information for hunters) is also an appropriate strategy for reaching the public. Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e 12

13 COMPARISON Source vs Credibility (Hunters & ) There is a difference in opinion between hunters and the public regarding the reliability of various sources of information. While mass media was considered an effective and reliable source of information by the public respondents, it was not considered reliable by the hunter respondents. While the NRA was considered more reliable by hunters, it was considered less reliable by the public. Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e 13

14 Agree/Dis with various statements: Q6: How much do you or with the following statements regarding management of wildlife? nor Don't know No response a. Whether or not I get outdoors to see wildlife, it's important to know they exist in Oregon. b. It is important for humans to manage populations of wildlife animals so future generations can enjoy them. c. The loss of some individual wild animals is acceptable if the population of animals is not jeopardized. d. Hunting is a valid tool in management of wildlife populations. e. Hunting is cruel and inhumane. f. All Oregonians should be responsible for funding wildlife management in Oregon. The public highly values wildlife and believes wildlife should be managed to ensure continued survival. A large percentage of the public believe all Oregonians should be responsible for funding wildlife management in Oregon. Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e 14

15 COMPARISION HUNTER Q23 / PUBLIC Q7 How much do you or with the following statements concerning hunting in Oregon? a. Oregon's hunters are valuable stewards of our wildlife resources Hunters nor Don't know No response b. Oregon hunters contribute to the stewardship of wildlife resources by using non-lead ammunition nor Don't know No response Hunters Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e 15

16 6 5 4 c. Lead is a naturally occurring element that is toxic when consumed by living animals. nor Don't know No response Hunters d. Hunters lack information about the effects of lead-based ammunition on wildlife. nor Don't know Hunters and the public that hunters are good stewards of wildlife resources. No response Hunters Both groups that lead is toxic although more of the general public are in strong ment on this point. A similar percentage of both hunters and the public think that hunters lack information on the effects of lead ammunition. Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e 16

17 COMPARISION HUNTER Q24 / PUBLIC Q8 How much do you or with the following statements concerning the use of ammunition that contains lead for hunting and its effects on humans? a. Lead effects on humans can include developmental disabilities, neurological disorders, cancer and death Hunters nor Don't know No response b. Some lead effects on humans can occur by inhalation (breathing) Hunters 5 nor Don't know No response Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e 17

18 c. Some lead effects on humans can occur by ingestion (swallowing). nor Don't know No response Hunters d. Lead ingestion could be a health risk to humans who consume game harvested with lead-based ammunition nor Don't know No response Hunters Both groups that lead affects human health and exposure can come from various methods. Concern about exposure to lead via game meat is much stronger with the public than hunters. Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e 18

19 COMPARISION HUNTER Q25 / PUBLIC Q9 How much do you or with the following statements concerning the use of ammunition that contains lead for hunting and its effects on animals? a. Lead ingestion is a source of mortality for birds that scavenge dead animals nor Don't know No response Hunter Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e 19

20 6 c. Ingestion of lead can be fatal to animals. 5 4 Hunter nor Don't know No response d. Lead projectiles break into tiny pieces as they travel through a game animal's body, resulting in lead microfragments being lodged in the carcass. nor Don't know No response Hunter e. Lead microfragments pose a risk to animals that eat remains left in the field nor Don't know No response Hunter Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e

21 6 f. Wildlife managers should be concerned about effects of lead microfragments on wildlife populations. 5 4 Hunter nor Don't know No response Both groups that lead can be toxic to scavengers but a larger percentage of the public strongly that it is toxic. Hunter Q27: How much do you or with the following statement: If I learned that lead was having negative effects on wildlife populations in Oregon, I would consider using non-lead ammunition for hunting. I strongly with this strategy 7 3 I somewhat with this strategy I neither nor with this strategy I somewhat with this strategy 8 I strongly with this strategy Question missing No response Hunters indicated they would consider using non-lead ammunition if they learned that lead was having a negative effect on wildlife populations. Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e 21

22 COMPARISION HUNTER Q28 / PUBLIC Q12 If a program to reduce human and wildlife exposure to lead in Oregon was started, to what degree would you or each of the following options? a. Regulations to prohibit lead-based ammunition only in regions with demonstrated wildlife lead ingestion concerns. nor Don't know No response Hunter b. Statewide regulation to prohibit use of lead-based ammunition. nor Don't know No response Hunter Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e 22

23 c. Region-specific regulations to allow use of lead-based ammunition but require removal of gut pile from hunting field. nor Don't know No response Hunter d. Statewide regulations to allow use of lead-based ammunition but require removal of gut pile from hunting field. nor Don't know No response Hunter When considering regulations to prohibit lead-based ammunition only in regions with demonstrated wildlife lead ingestion concerns, hunters and the public were in general ment with each other, but overall there was a very mixed reaction for that management option. When considering the option of having a statewide regulation to prohibit use of lead-based ammunition, there was a clear divide between hunters who strongly d that option and members of the general public who strongly ed it. When asked about an option in which region-specific regulations would allow use of lead-based ammunition but require gut pile removal from the hunting field, there was general ment between general public and hunter respondents, although strong opposition was greater among hunters. A similar pattern of opposition by both groups was observed when posed with the statewide option to allow use of lead-based ammunition in conjunction with removal of gut piles from the hunting field. Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e 23

24 e. Voluntary coupon incentive program only in regions with demonstrated wildlife lead ingestion concerns. nor Don't know No response Hunter f. Voluntary coupon incentive program statewide Hunter nor Don't know No response Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e 24

25 35 25 g, h, i. Voluntary coupon incentive for hunting... - certain types of game Hunter - big game 15 5 Hunter - upland birds, turkey, and w gray sqirrel nor Don't know No response Hunter - unprotected mammals and furbearers When considering a prospective voluntary coupon incentive program (to offset cost of non-lead-based ammunition) only in regions with demonstrated concerns for wildlife lead ingestion, hunters and general public respondents were in relatively close ment, however reactions were mixed. The statewide voluntary coupon option drew greater "strongly " reactions from public respondents, but the overall pattern of mixed reaction was very similar by both groups to the regional coupon option. respondents were asked their level of of a coupon program that would affect hunts for "certain types of game," without further detail. The responses were mixed, similar to other patterns of public response for this type of program. Hunters were asked to respond to a more detailed subset of questions, including big game only, upland birds, turkey and squirrel, and unprotected mammals and furbearers. Hunters responded with varied levels of for coupon programs in each of those three options, but strongest opposition to such programs for big game and unprotected mammals & furbearers. Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e 25

26 Phase out: Comparison hunter versus public: Q: If Oregon were forced, such as by legislation or regulations, to phase out use of ammunition that contains lead, by which year do you believe it would be realistic for the state and its hunters to adopt the change? (Hunter Q. Q11) 45% 4% Hunters General Population 42% 35% 36% % 25% 25% % 15% % 5% % 9% 12% 17% 15% 4% 1% Under a forced phase out of lead ammunition use, the general public s an earlier or more immediate phase out. Hunters prefer longer term phase out. 15% 15% No response 8% Hunter Q: 31: If a program to reduce use of or eliminate ammunition that contains lead were created in Oregon, how would your participation in hunting change, if at all? 45% 14% 13% 8% 1% % 16% 2% Quit hunting altogether in Oregon Greatly reduce hunting activities Slightly reduce hunting activities Not change hunting activities Slightly increase hunting activities Greatly increase hunting activities Don't know No response This question gained a mixed response from hunters on how a non-lead program would impact participation, but the majority of respondents would not change their participation in hunting. Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e 26

27 Hunter Q21: In which ways has your knowledge about the effects of lead affected your consumption or use of game meat harvested with ammunition that contains lead? (Select True For Me or Not True For Me for each statement.) 86% 88% 8% True for me 64% Not true for me No response % 11% 3% 11% 7% 4% 7% 9% a. It has not affected my consumption of game meat. b. I serve and eat game meat but try to minimize exposure to lead fragments by trimming the meat first. c. I no longer serve or eat game meat. d. I hunt using nonlead ammunition only, so there is no effect on my consumption or use. Most hunters have not stopped consuming game meat because of what they have learned about lead. Others are minimizing their exposure by trimming meat or using non-lead ammunition.. Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife P a g e 27

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