DEER HUNT RESULTS ON ALABAMA WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREAS ANNUAL REPORT, CHRISTOPHER W. COOK STUDY LEADER MAY, 2006

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1 DEER HUNT RESULTS ON ALABAMA WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREAS ANNUAL REPORT, CHRISTOPHER W. COOK STUDY LEADER MAY, 2006 ALABAMA DIVISION OF WILDLIFE AND FRESHWATER FISHERIES Federal Aid Project funded by your purchase of hunting licenses and equipment WILDLIFE RESTORATION PROGRAM Grant Number W-35, Study 2.

2 Annual Report, Job II-A: Kill Studies of Deer on Alabama Wildlife Management Areas Study Leader: Christopher W. Cook Objective: To measure, record, and evaluate the deer harvest on Alabama Wildlife Management Areas. Procedures: Project personnel recorded hunter participation and success on each of the 35 wildlife management areas (WMAs) having deer hunting during the season. Deer were examined and records were made of their sex, age, weight, and antler development when possible. Portions of this information were compiled and computed by project cooperators and submitted to the project leader for further analysis. Discussion: Hunter Participation and Success: The number of deer killed on each WMA, the hunting method, and the man-days of participation are compared in Table I. The figures in Tables I through IX are considered estimates since season permits are issued on many of the areas. Hunter participation and success may vary due to weather, date of hunt, and length of the season. To better understand overall trends, Table II and Tables IV through VII compare this past season s participation and success with an average of prior years, as well as last year. Participation in stalk hunts decreased slightly (571 man-days) from last year s totals. Fifteen of the 27 WMAs offering stalk hunts had decreases in hunter man-

3 days for those hunts. Hunter success improved, dropping from 20 man-days per deer killed in to 18 man-days per deer killed in This success rate was better than the average of 23 man-days per deer killed for the period of (Table II). Seventeen WMAs scheduled either-sex deer hunts for youth hunters during the hunting season. Each hunter participating on one of these special hunts had to be less than 16 years of age and had to be accompanied by a non-hunting, licensed adult 25 years of age or older. Total participation on these hunts decreased from last year s total of 1,096 hunters to 906 hunters for The decrease probably resulted from the recent initiation of an early statewide youth deer hunting day for private land and open permit-public land in Alabama on the Saturday preceeding opening day of the general gun deer season. In the past, the WMAs were the only areas in Alabama with special early youth deer hunts. Additional hunting opportunities on other lands resulted in less hunter participation during youth deer hunts on WMAs. The number of deer killed on these hunts increased from 51 in to 79 for These totals (hunters and deer killed) are included in the stalk hunt totals in the following tables. The numbers for these hunts also are listed in Table III. The primary purpose of the youth hunts is to acquaint young hunters with deer hunting. These hunts will continue on WMAs where there is sufficient interest. Twenty-two WMAs offered a total of 174 days of hunter s choice hunts (Table III). One hundred seventy-two days of the 174 days of hunter s choice hunts were stalk hunt days. The remaining two days were dog hunt days. All of the hunter s choice hunts for the hunting season offered 100% either-sex opportunities. The chance to kill antlerless deer on the hunter s choice hunts greatly influences the hunter participation, number of deer killed, and hunter success levels shown in the stalk hunt totals. Participation in hunter s choice stalk hunts was 47% of the total stalk hunt hunting effort and represented 62% of the total stalk hunt deer kill. The

4 two days of hunter s choice dog hunts were 12% of the total dog hunt hunting effort and represented 32% of the total dog hunt deer kill. The hunter success rate for all hunter s choice hunts was one deer per 13 man-days of hunter effort, which was two times higher than the success rate for the bucks only stalk hunts (one deer per 26 man-days of effort). Fifty-nine percent of the deer killed on the hunter s choice hunts were antlerless deer. Participation in managed dog hunts increased from the totals (Table IV). Hunter success also increased from last year s 31 man-days of hunting per deer killed to 23 man-days of hunter per deer killed for the hunting season. Dog hunting participation was 5% of the total deer hunting effort on WMAs during the season and accounted for 4% of the total deer kill. Archery hunting participation decreased by nearly 2,000 man-days from last year s totals. Hunter success was 20 man-days per deer killed, which is the same as the season (Table V). The success rate for was higher than the average of 31 man-days per deer killed. Most of this increase is due to the change in how deer kill is calculated on the WMAs. Archery harvest was reported using estimated deer killed on all WMAs for the and hunting seasons. This is a change from previous years when reports from some WMAs used known deer killed, while others used estimated deer killed. The change makes comparisons of deer kill and hunter success rates between and among WMAs more equitable, but makes comparisons with previous years data difficult. Archery hunting continues to provide a large portion of the hunting recreation on WMAs, representing 30% of the total deer hunting effort and 27% of the total deer kill. Participation in primitive weapons (PW) hunts during the season (4,423 man-days) remained stable when compared to the season (4,473 man-days). The success rate on PW hunts increased, going from 18 man-days per deer killed during the season to 16 man-days per deer killed for (Table VI).

5 Participation on PW hunts represented 5% of the total deer hunting effort and 5% of the total deer killed on WMAs during the season. The total hunting effort, as shown in Table VII, showed a minor decrease of just over 1,700 man-days from the totals. This year s hunting effort was slightly less than 8,100 man-days below the average of the previous five years ( through ). This year s hunter success ratio of one deer killed per 19 man-days of effort for all deer hunts was higher than last year s (20 man-days per deer killed) and the average for the previous five years (25 man-days per deer killed). Hunting Pressure and Kill Per Square Mile: Total man-days of deer hunting per square mile, as shown in Table VIII, was highest on St. Clair, Lowndes, Little River, Barbour, Autauga, Blue Spring, West Jefferson, and Freedom Hills WMAs, respectively. Total man-days of hunting per square mile was lowest on Seven-Mile Island (archery only), the Jackson County Waterfowl Areas (archery only), Black Warrior, William L. Holland & Mobile- Tensaw Delta, Upper Delta, Coosa, and Choccolocco WMAs, respectively. Stalk hunting made up the largest portion of total use per square mile on most areas (21 of 30). Archery hunts made up the largest portion of use per square mile on Demopolis, Freedom Hills, the Jackson County Waterfowl Areas (archery only), Kinterbish, Swan Creek & Mallard-Fox Creek (archery only), Seven-Mile Island (archery only), and Upper Delta WMAs. Dog hunts made up the largest portion of use on Frank W. & Rob M. Boykin and Scotch WMAs. Most areas of Alabama can support a balanced harvest (bucks and does) of ten or more deer per square mile annually, depending on habitat quality. Only two WMAs achieved this level during the hunting season, mainly because of the limited opportunity to kill antlerless deer with firearms and low hunting pressure

6 on most WMAs (Table IX). St. Clair had the highest estimated number of deer killed per square mile (22.84), followed by Lowndes (14.16), Sam R. Murphy (8.89), Lauderdale (8.88), Little River (8.88), Blue Spring (7.80), and Barbour (7.46). William L. Holland & Mobile-Tensaw Delta had the lowest estimated number of deer killed per square mile (0.39), followed by Black Warrior (1.48), the Jackson County Waterfowl Areas (1.73), Seven-Mile Island (1.78), Swan Creek & Mallard- Fox Creek (1.95), and Upper Delta (2.02). Weights and Condition of Deer: Average weights of deer within specific age classes are one of the best indicators of overall herd condition (Table X). An average live weight under 95 pounds for 1-½ years old males (i.e., yearlings) can be an indicator of poor physical condition caused by insufficient nutrition, either from poor habitat, heavy competition for food from other deer, or both. Where the yearling males have an average body weight of 95 to 105 pounds on areas with good soils, there should be concern the deer population exceeds the capacity of the land to support the herd in good condition. The deer population should be reduced to a more healthy level in any situation where competition for food is the cause of low body weights in deer. Areas in Alabama with yearling males averaging above 110 pounds live weight usually are not carrying an excess of deer and efforts should be made to keep those populations at current levels. Average yearling male body weights among all WMAs averaged 99 pounds for the hunting season. This is slightly lower than the average for the season (102 pounds). Black Warrior (113 pounds), Autauga (111 pounds), and Wolf Creek WMAs (111 pounds) were the only WMAs with average yearling male body weights that exceeded 110 pounds. Eight other WMAs reported average yearling male body weights between 100 and 110 pounds. Frank W. and Rob M. Boykin (83 pounds), Choccolocco (88 pounds), and Kinterbish WMAs (88 pounds) had average yearling male body weights less than 90 pounds.

7 Antler Development: Antler development (number of points, main beam length, and inside spread) for all age classes of bucks was very good on some areas, such as Autauga, Barbour, Black Warrior, Cahaba River, Coosa, Covington, Freedom Hills, Lauderdale, Mulberry Fork, Sam R. Murphy, and Wolf Creek, but remains poor on others (Tables XI and XII). In most situations, a high percentage of spikes in the one-year age class and a significant occurrence of spikes in the older age classes are a reflection of poor habitat conditions and/or an overcrowded population. The heavy harvest of yearling bucks on many WMAs prevents significant numbers of bucks from reaching the older age classes. This alone continues to limit the harvest of bucks 2-½ years old and older on these WMAs. Corrections to both nutritional deficiencies and buck age structure are necessary in order to bring about improvements in the quality of bucks harvested. However, on areas with poor soil fertility and/or habitat quality, reducing competition for food by reducing deer populations may require the removal of more deer than may be acceptable to many WMA hunters. On very poor quality sites, even a significant reduction in deer numbers may not produce improvements in deer quality. For this reason, some areas may not be suited for this type of management. Five WMAs were under quality deer management (QDM) guidelines for the hunting season. These included Barbour, Covington, Freedom Hills, Lauderdale, and Lowndes WMAs. On all five of these WMAs, bucks must have at least 3-points on one antler to be legal for harvest. Hunters also have more opportunity to kill antlerless deer on gun deer hunts on these WMAs than is available on most other WMA s. All five WMAs have shown considerable improvements in the age structure of the antlered buck harvest since initiation of the QDM programs. This was the primary reason for implementing the antler restriction. Prior to the implementation of the antler restrictions, 1-½ year olds were the largest single age

8 class in the annual buck harvest on all of the current QDM areas. For the hunting season, the overwhelming majority of the reported antlered buck harvest on these five areas was comprised of 2-½ years old and older deer (Barbour 86%, Covington 88%, Freedom Hills 83%, Lauderdale 91%, Lowndes 96%). The current management strategies on all five areas also continues to produce a higher percentage of adult bucks (2-½ years old and older) in the population, as well as a more balanced adult sex ratio, more intense rutting behavior, and many other traits characteristic of a healthy, balanced deer herd managed under QDM. Biologists on these areas continue to collect biological data, as well as public opinion data, to monitor the status of the deer herd and the hunters using these five WMAs. These data are used to evaluate the effectiveness of current management practices used on the areas and aid biologists in making decisions to help achieve their long-term management objectives. As the public s demand for more WMAs managed for better quality deer becomes stronger, the Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries may decide to initiate QDM programs on other public hunting areas in the future. The majority of Alabama s WMAs will continue to be managed for maximum opportunity for buck harvest until that time. Remarks: Wildlife management areas provide a significant proportion of the deer hunting opportunity in Alabama. This year a 51% sample of the total deer harvest on WMAs was used in Tables X, XI, and XII. Project cooperators entered check station data on age, sex, weight, and antler development on bucks harvested from WMAs on computer and submitted a copy of these data to the project leader for analysis. Table XIII represents the number of male and female deer by age class used in the 51% sample collected from the various management areas. WMA totals, District totals, Statewide totals, and individual hunt results are listed in Appendices I, II, and III. Efforts to improve the accuracy of the tables and to expand our survey will continue when necessary to better manage the resource.

9 This study was a contribution of the Alabama Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries supported in part by funding from the Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Program, Project W-35, Study 2. The Department of Conservation and Natural Resources does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, age, gender, national origin, or disability in its hiring or employment practices nor in admission to, access to, or operations of its programs, services, or activities. This publication is available in alternative formats upon request.

10 TABLE I. Deer Harvest on Alabama Wildlife Management Areas, Season. AREA HUNTING SEASON STALK HUNTS GUN DOG HUNTS ARCHERY PRIMITIVE WEAPONS TOTAL HARVEST MAN-DAYS HARVEST MAN-DAYS HARVEST MAN-DAYS HARVEST MAN-DAYS HARVEST MAN-DAYS AUTAUGA , , , , , , , , , , , , ,384 BARBOUR , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,664 BLACK WARRIOR , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,324 BLUE SPRING , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,584 FRANK W. & ROB M. BOYKIN , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,650

11 TABLE I continued. AREA HUNTING SEASON GUN STALK HUNTS DOG HUNTS ARCHERY PRIMITIVE WEAPONS TOTAL HARVEST MAN-DAYS HARVEST MAN-DAYS HARVEST MAN-DAYS HARVEST MAN-DAYS HARVEST MAN-DAYS CAHABA RIVER , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,474 CHOCCOLOCCO , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,295 COOSA , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,741 COVINGTON , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,392 DEMOPOLIS , , , , , , , , ,130

12 TABLE I continued. AREA HUNTING SEASON GUN STALK HUNTS DOG HUNTS ARCHERY PRIMITIVE WEAPONS TOTAL HARVEST MAN-DAYS HARVEST MAN-DAYS HARVEST MAN-DAYS HARVEST MAN-DAYS HARVEST MAN-DAYS ESCAMBIA CREEK , , , , , , , , , , ,231 FREEDOM HILLS , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,576 WILLIAM L. HOLLAND & , ,970 MOBILE-TENSAW DELTA , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,835 HOLLINS , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,264 JACKSON COUNTY , ,205 WATERFOWL AREAS , , KINTERBISH , , , , , , , , , ,041

13 TABLE I continued. AREA HUNTING SEASON STALK HUNTS GUN DOG HUNTS ARCHERY PRIMITIVE WEAPONS TOTAL HARVEST MAN-DAYS HARVEST MAN-DAYS HARVEST MAN-DAYS HARVEST MAN-DAYS HARVEST MAN-DAYS LAUDERDALE , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,077 LITTLE RIVER , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,226 LOWNDES , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,886 JAMES D. MARTIN-SKYLINE , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,977 MULBERRY FORK , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,714

14 TABLE I continued. AREA HUNTING SEASON GUN STALK HUNTS DOG HUNTS ARCHERY PRIMITIVE WEAPONS TOTAL HARVEST MAN-DAYS HARVEST MAN-DAYS HARVEST MAN-DAYS HARVEST MAN-DAYS HARVEST MAN-DAYS SAM R. MURPHY , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,074 OAKMULGEE , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,003 ST. CLAIR , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,560 SCOTCH , , , , , , , , , ,516 SEVEN-MILE ISLAND SWAN CREEK & , ,160 MALLARD-FOX CREEK

15 TABLE I continued. AREA HUNTING SEASON GUN STALK HUNTS DOG HUNTS ARCHERY PRIMITIVE WEAPONS TOTAL HARVEST MAN-DAYS HARVEST MAN-DAYS HARVEST MAN-DAYS HARVEST MAN-DAYS HARVEST MAN-DAYS UPPER DELTA , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,655 WEST JEFFERSON , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,235 WOLF CREEK , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,743 TOTALS ,623 57, ,636 1,041 31, ,200 4,234 99, ,476 54, , , ,533 3,898 91, ,843 61, , , ,655 4,376 99, ,931 67, , , ,792 4, , ,744 72, , , ,769 4, , ,861 57, ,885 1,482 30, ,473 4,711 95, ,195 56, ,699 1,374 28, ,423 5,049 93,951 Note: The statistics for gun stalk hunts include data from youth hunts.

16 TABLE II. Comparison of Hunting Pressure and Hunting Success on Alabama's Wildlife Management Areas: STALK DEER HUNTS AREA HUNTING PRESSURE Through Average MAN-DAYS PER KILL Through Average Black Warrior 4,307 4,458 3, Freedom Hills 3,088 2,019 3, Lauderdale 1,568 1,844 1, Sam R. Murphy 2,729 2,349 2, Wolf Creek 1,313 1,560 1, Choccolocco 4,163 4,196 3, James D. Martin-Skyline 5,086 4,362 4, Little River 1,717 2,045 1, St. Clair 1,350 1,900 2, Cahaba River 1,478 1,733 1, Demopolis Mulberry Fork 2,085 2,384 2, Oakmulgee 2,742 2,408 2, West Jefferson 7,610 7,000 6, Autauga 1,204 1,263 1, Coosa 2,092 1,750 1, Hollins 2,783 1,438 1, Lowndes 1,546 1,382 2, Frank W. & Rob M. Boykin 1,357 1, Escambia Creek 1, William L. Holland & M-T Delta 1,406 1,585 1, Kinterbish 1, Scotch Upper Delta 1, Barbour 3,149 4,036 3, Blue Spring 1,728 1,173 1, Covington 2,384 2,066 2, All Areas Combined 62,558 57,244 56,

17 TABLE III. Results of Drawing Deer Hunts Held on Alabama's Wildlife Management Areas, Season. PERMITS ISSUED SUCCESSFUL HUNTERS DEER HARVESTED % H/C HUNTER'S CHOICE BUCKS ONLY AREA DATE HUNTER'S BUCKS PERMITS TOTAL N % N % CHOICE ONLY IN BOX ANTLERED BUCKS UNANTLERED BUCKS DOES TOTAL Black Warrior - Zone A 11/ % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% /26-01/ % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% Black Warrior - Zone B 12/ % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% /26-01/ % 0 0% Freedom Hills 11/12* % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% Lauderdale 11/ % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% /02-01/ % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% Sam R. Murphy 11/12* % 0 0% /19-11/ % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% /21-12/ % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0%

18 TABLE III continued. PERMITS ISSUED SUCCESSFUL HUNTERS DEER HARVESTED % H/C HUNTER'S CHOICE BUCKS ONLY AREA DATE HUNTER'S BUCKS PERMITS TOTAL N % N % CHOICE ONLY IN BOX ANTLERED BUCKS UNANTLERED BUCKS DOES TOTAL Wolf Creek 11/12* % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% Choccolocco 11/12* % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% Little River 11/ % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% James D. Martin-Skyline 11/12* % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% Cahaba River 11/12* % 0% / % 0% / % 0% Mulberry Fork 11/12* % 0% / % 0% / % 0% Oakmulgee 11/12* % 0% / % 0% Autauga 11/12* % 0% Coosa 12/ % 0%

19 TABLE III continued. PERMITS ISSUED SUCCESSFUL HUNTERS DEER HARVESTED % H/C HUNTER'S CHOICE BUCKS ONLY AREA DATE HUNTER'S BUCKS PERMITS TOTAL N % N % CHOICE ONLY IN BOX ANTLERED BUCKS UNANTLERED BUCKS DOES TOTAL Lowndes 11/12* % 0% / % 0% / % 0% / % 0% / % 0% / % 0% / % 0% / % 0% / % 0% Frank W. & Rob M. Boykin 11/12* % 0% /06** % 0% /07** % 0% / % 0% / % 0% Escambia Creek 11/12* % 0% / % 0% / % 0% / % 0% / % 0% / % 0% / % 0% Kinterbish 01/ % 0% / % 0% / % 0% / % 0% Scotch 11/12* % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% Upper Delta - Zone A 11/12* % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% Upper Delta - Zone B 11/12* % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0%

20 TABLE III continued. PERMITS ISSUED SUCCESSFUL HUNTERS HARVESTED % H/C HUNTER'S CHOICE BUCKS ONLY AREA DATE HUNTER'S BUCKS PERMITS TOTAL N % N % CHOICE ONLY IN BOX ANTLERED BUCKS UNANTLERED BUCKS DOES TOTAL Barbour 11/12* % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% Blue Spring 11/12* % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% Covington 11/12* % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% / % 0 0% Totals 27, ,383 2,057 8% 0 0% ,044 2,053 *Indicates youth hunt. **Indicates dog hunt.

21 TABLE IV. Comparison of Hunting Pressure and Hunting Success on Alabama's Wildlife Management Areas: DOG DEER HUNTS AREA HUNTING PRESSURE Through Average MAN-DAYS PER KILL Through Average Frank W. & Rob M. Boykin , Scotch 589 1,462 1, Upper Delta Blue Spring 1,478 1,020 1, All Areas Combined 3,244 3,885 4,

22 TABLE V. Comparison of Hunting Pressure and Hunting Success on Alabama's Wildlife Management Areas: ARCHERY DEER HUNTS AREA HUNTING PRESSURE MAN-DAYS PER KILL Through Through Average Average Black Warrior 1,358 1,560 1, Freedom Hills 2,174 4,350 3, Lauderdale Sam R. Murphy Seven-Mile Island Swan Creek & Mallard-Fox Creek -- 1, Wolf Creek Choccolocco Jackson County Waterfowl Areas 2,205 1, Little River 1,525 1, James D. Martin-Skyline 1,871 1, St. Clair 898 1,200 1, Cahaba River , Demopolis Mulberry Fork Oakmulgee 1,745 1,400 1, West Jefferson 1,250 1,650 1, Autauga Coosa Hollins 1,315 1,000 1, Lowndes 1, Frank W. & Rob M. Boykin 1, Escambia Creek William L. Holland & M-T Delta , Kinterbish Scotch Upper Delta 1, , Barbour Blue Spring 1,768 1,250 1, Covington 1,571 1,335 1, All Areas Combined 29,217 30,089 28,

23 TABLE VI. Comparison of Hunting Pressure and Hunting Success on Alabama's Wildlife Management Area's: PRIMITIVE WEAPONS DEER HUNTS AREA Through Average HUNTING PRESSURE Through Average MAN-DAYS PER KILL Black Warrior Choccolocco Little River James D. Martin-Skyline Cahaba River Demopolis Mulberry Fork Oakmulgee West Jefferson Autauga Coosa Hollins Frank W. & Rob M. Boykin Escambia Creek Kinterbish Scotch Upper Delta Barbour Blue Spring Covington All Areas Combined 6,790 4,473 4,

24 TABLE VII. Comparison of Hunting Pressure and Hunting Success on Alabama's Wildlife Management Areas: ALL DEER HUNTS AREA Through Average HUNTING PRESSURE Through Average MAN-DAYS PER KILL Black Warrior 5,909 6,154 5, Freedom Hills 5,386 6,369 6, Lauderdale 2,353 2,124 2, Sam R. Murphy 3,530 3,099 3, Seven-Mile Island Swan Creek & Mallard-Fox Creek -- 1, Wolf Creek 2,041 2,510 1, Choccolocco 5,725 5,181 4, Jackson County Waterfowl Areas 2,205 1, Little River 3,778 3,695 3, James D. Martin-Skyline 7,895 6,026 5, St. Clair 2,248 3,100 3, Cahaba River 2,052 2,794 3, Demopolis 1,945 1,070 1, Mulberry Fork 3,164 3,404 3, Oakmulgee 5,044 4,402 4, West Jefferson 9,455 9,150 8, Autauga 1,566 1,530 1, Coosa 2,811 2,567 2, Hollins 4,399 2,618 3, Lowndes 2,905 2,332 2, Frank W. & Rob M. Boykin 3,503 2,991 2, Escambia Creek 1,925 1,222 1, William L. Holland & M-T Delta 2,369 2,375 2, Kinterbish 1,856 1,064 1, Scotch 2,010 2,523 2, Upper Delta 4,137 2,030 2, Barbour 4,341 5,073 4, Blue Spring 4,965 3,647 4, Covington 4,112 3,456 3, All Areas Combined 102,110 95,691 93,

25 TABLE VIII. Man-Days of Deer Hunting Pressure Per Square Mile Hunted on Alabama's Wildlife Management Areas During the Season. AREA STALK DOG ARCHERY PRIMITIVE HUNTS HUNTS HUNTS WEAPONS TOTAL HUNTS Black Warrior Freedom Hills Lauderdale Sam R. Murphy Seven-Mile Island Swan Creek & Mallard-Fox Creek Wolf Creek Choccolocco Jackson County Waterfowl Areas Little River James D. Martin-Skyline St. Clair Cahaba River Demopolis Mulberry Fork Oakmulgee West Jefferson Autauga Coosa Hollins Lowndes Frank W. & Rob M. Boykin Escambia Creek William L. Holland & M-T Delta Kinterbish Scotch Upper Delta Barbour Blue Spring Covington All Areas

26 TABLE IX. Deer Killed Per Square Mile Hunted on Alabama's Wildlife Management Areas During the Season. AREA STALK DOG ARCHERY PRIMITIVE HUNTS HUNTS HUNTS WEAPONS TOTAL HUNTS Black Warrior Freedom Hills Lauderdale Sam R. Murphy Seven-Mile Island Swan Creek & Mallard-Fox Creek Wolf Creek Choccolocco Jackson County Waterfowl Areas Little River James D. Martin-Skyline St. Clair Cahaba River Demopolis Mulberry Fork Oakmulgee West Jefferson Autauga Coosa Hollins Lowndes Frank W. & Rob M. Boykin Escambia Creek William L. Holland & M-T Delta Kinterbish Scotch Upper Delta Barbour Blue Spring Covington All Areas

27 TABLE X. Average Live Weights of Deer on Alabama's Wildlife Management Areas Compared to Average Live Weights of Deer From Herds in Good Condition, Season. AREA MALE FEMALE AGE CLASS 0.5 year 1.5 years 2.5 years >3.5 years 0.5 year 1.5 years 2.5 years >3.5 years Black Warrior Freedom Hills Lauderdale Sam R. Murphy Swan Creek & Mallard-Fox Creek Wolf Creek Choccolocco Little River James D. Martin-Skyline Cahaba River Mulberry Fork Oakmulgee Autauga Coosa Hollins Lowndes Frank W. & Rob M. Boykin Escambia Creek Kinterbish Scotch Barbour Blue Spring Covington All Areas Average Live Weights of Deer From Herds in Good Condition > >110

28 TABLE XI. Antler Development of Bucks on Alabama's Wildlife Management Areas, Season. AREA AVERAGE NUMBER OF POINTS PERCENT SPIKES PERCENT OF ANTLERED BUCKS WITH 8 OR MORE POINTS AGE CLASS 1.5 years 2.5 years >3.5 years 1.5 years >2.5 years >1.5 years Black Warrior Freedom Hills Lauderdale Sam R. Murphy Swan Creek & Mallard-Fox Creek Wolf Creek Choccolocco Little River James D. Martin-Skyline Cahaba River Mulberry Fork Oakmulgee Autauga Coosa Hollins Lowndes Frank W. & Rob M. Boykin Escambia Creek Kinterbish Scotch Barbour Blue Spring Covington All Areas Average Numbers From Deer Herds in Good Condition <50 0 >50

29 TABLE XII. Average Main Beam Length and Inside Spread for Bucks on Alabama's Wildlife Management Areas, Season. AREA AVERAGE LENGTH OF MAIN BEAMS (inches) AVERAGE INSIDE SPREAD (inches) AGE CLASS 1.5 years 2.5 years >3.5 years 1.5 years 2.5 years >3.5 years Black Warrior Freedom Hills Lauderdale Sam R. Murphy Swan Creek & Mallard-Fox Creek Wolf Creek Choccolocco Little River James D. Martin-Skyline Cahaba River Mulberry Fork Oakmulgee Autauga Coosa Hollins Lowndes Frank W. & Rob M. Boykin Escambia Creek Kinterbish Scotch Barbour Blue Spring Covington All Areas Average Numbers From Deer Herds in Good Condition

30 TABLE XIII. Sample Sizes for Deer Checked on Alabama's Wildlife Management Areas During the Season AREA MALE FEMALE AGE CLASS 0.5 year 1.5 years 2.5 years >3.5 years 0.5 year 1.5 years 2.5 years >3.5 years TOTALS Black Warrior Freedom Hills Lauderdale Sam R. Murphy Swan Creek & Mallard-Fox Creek Wolf Creek Choccolocco Little River James D. Martin-Skyline Cahaba River Mulberry Fork Oakmulgee Autauga Coosa Hollins Lowndes Frank W. & Rob M. Boykin Escambia Creek Kinterbish Scotch Barbour Blue Spring Covington Totals ,554

31 APPENDICES

32 APPENDIX I: ALABAMA WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA DEER HARVEST SUMMARY BY AREA, HUNTING SEASON. Type Legal Man-Days Area Hunt Man-Days Kill Per Kill Autauga Youth Stalk 1, Primitive Weapons Archery Season Totals 1, Barbour Youth Stalk 3, Primitive Weapons Archery Season Totals 4, Black Warrior - Zone A Stalk 2, Primitive Weapons Archery Season Totals 3, Black Warrior - Zone B Stalk 1, Primitive Weapons Archery Season Totals 2, Blue Spring Youth Stalk 1, Primitive Weapons Dog 1, Archery 1, Season Totals 4, Frank W. & Rob M. Boykin Youth Stalk Primitive Weapons Dog 1, Archery Season Totals 2,

33 Type Legal Man-Days Area Hunt Man-Days Kill Per Kill Cahaba River Youth Stalk 1, Primitive Weapons Archery 1, Season Totals 3, Choccolocco Youth Stalk 3, Primitive Weapons Archery Season Totals 4, Coosa Stalk 1, Primitive Weapons Archery Season Totals 2, Covington Youth Stalk 2, Archery 1, Season Totals 3, Demopolis Stalk Primitive Weapons Archery Season Totals 1, Escambia Creek Youth Stalk Primitive Weapons Archery Season Totals 1, Freedom Hills - North Zone Stalk Archery Season Totals 1,

34 Type Legal Man-Days Area Hunt Man-Days Kill Per Kill Freedom Hills - South Zone Youth Stalk 2, Archery 2, Season Totals 4, W. L. Holland & Mobile-Tensaw Delta Stalk 1, Archery 1, Season Totals 2, Hollins Stalk 1, Primitive Weapons Archery 1, Season Totals 3, Jackson County Waterfowl Areas Archery Season Totals Kinterbish Stalk Primitive Weapons Archery Season Totals 1, Lauderdale Stalk 1, Archery Season Totals 2, Little River Stalk 1, Primitive Weapons Archery Season Totals 3, Lowndes Youth Stalk 1, Archery Season Totals 2,

35 Type Legal Man-Days Area Hunt Man-Days Kill Per Kill James D. Martin-Skyline Youth Stalk 4, Primitive Weapons Archery Season Totals 5, Mulberry Fork Youth Stalk 2, Primitive Weapons Archery Season Totals 3, Sam R. Murphy Youth Stalk 2, Archery Season Totals 3, Oakmulgee Youth Stalk 2, Primitive Weapons Archery 1, Season Totals 4, St. Clair Stalk 2, Archery 1, Season Totals 3, Scotch Youth Stalk Primitive Weapons Dog 1, Archery Season Totals 2, Seven-Mile Island Archery Season Totals

36 Type Legal Man-Days Area Hunt Man-Days Kill Per Kill Swan Creek & Mallard-Fox Creek Archery Season Totals Upper Delta - Zone A Youth Stalk Primitive Weapons Dog Archery Season Totals 1, Upper Delta - Zone B Youth Stalk Primitive Weapons Dog Archery Season Totals 1, West Jefferson - Zone A Stalk 6, Archery 1, Season Totals 7, West Jefferson - Zone B Primitive Weapons Archery Season Totals Wolf Creek Youth Stalk 1, Archery Season Totals 1, Statewide Youth Stalk 55,767 3, Primitive Weapons 4, Dog 4, Archery 28,156 1, Season Totals 93,951 5,049 19

37 APPENDIX II: ALABAMA WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA DEER HARVEST SUMMARY BY DISTRICT, HUNTING SEASON. Type Legal Man-Days District Hunt Man-Days Kill Per Kill District I Youth Stalk 12, Primitive Weapons Archery 7, Season Totals 19,594 1, District II Youth Stalk 11, Primitive Weapons 1, Archery 4, Season Totals 17,958 1, District III Youth Stalk 12, Primitive Weapons 1, Archery 5, Season Totals 20, District IV Youth Stalk 6, Primitive Weapons Archery 3, Season Totals 10, District V Youth Stalk 4, Primitive Weapons Dog 3, Archery 4, Season Totals 12, District VI Youth Stalk 7, Primitive Weapons Dog 1, Archery 3, Season Totals 12,

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