Bushidō in Transformation: Japanese Warrior Culture and Martiality

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Bushidō in Transformation: Japanese Warrior Culture and Martiality"

Transcription

1 Bushidō in Transformation: Japanese Warrior Culture and Martiality PROGRAMME AND BOOK OF ABSTRACTS International Symposium of the Department of Asian Studies August 25-26, 2017

2

3 Bushidō in Transformation: Japanese Warrior Culture and Martiality PROGRAMME AND BOOK OF ABSTRACTS International Symposium of the Department of Asian Studies August 25-26, 2017 Venue: National Museum of Slovenia, Maistrova Street 1, Ljubljana

4 Bushidō in Transformation: Japanese Warrior Culture and Martiality Programme and Book of Abstracts Organising committee: Nataša VISOČNIK (University of Ljubljana) Tinka DELAKORDA KAWASHIMA (Yamaguchi Prefectural University) Klara HRVATIN (University of Ljubljana) Luka CULIBERG (University of Ljubljana) Editor: Nataša Visočnik Layout: Jure Preglau Cover photography: Sora, Adobe Stock University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts, All rights reserved. Published and issued by: Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani (Ljubljana University Press, Faculty of Arts) Issued by: Department of Asian Studies and Centre for Japanese Studies For the publisher: Branka Kalenić Ramšak, Dean of the Faculty of Arts Ljubljana, 2017 First Edition. Number of copies printed: 60 Publication is free of charge. Supported by Department of Asian Studies, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana Centre for Japanese Studies, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana National Museum of Slovenia Embassy of Japan in Slovenia Endorsed by Kashima-Shinryû Federation of Martial Sciences CIP - Kataložni zapis o publikaciji (520)(082) INTERNATIONAL Symposium of the Department of Asian Studies (2017 ; Ljubljana) Bushido in transformation : Japanese warrior culture and martiality : programme and book of abstracts / International Symposium of the Department of Asian Studies, August 25-26, 2017, National Museum, Ljubljana ; [editor Nataša Visočnik]. - 1st ed. - Ljubljana : Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete = University Press, Faculty of Arts, 2017 ISBN Visočnik, Nataša

5 Welcome Address We would like to express a warm welcome to all participants of the International Symposium of the Department of Asian Studies, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, in cooperation with the Centre for Japanese Studies on Bushidō in Transformation: Japanese Warrior Culture and Martiality. It is a great honour to have so many scholars from different countries and research fields contribute their research results to this broad topic. Thus, we are convinced this symposium will be successful in forming some new interdisciplinary approaches, as well as in establishing new professional academic connections and friendships. This international symposium is part of a larger project of the Department of Asian Studies, called Japan in Our Midst (JAPOM), accompanying the exhibition Paths of the Samurai, Japanese Arms and Martial Culture in Slovenia of the National Museum of Slovenia. The project takes place from May to October this year and connects different academic and educational institutions. Jointly, we have organised a number of activities throughout Slovenia to bring various aspects of Japanese culture closer to the wider Slovenian public. Being part of this larger project, our symposium aims to create an opportunity for a meeting and discussion between expert researchers from various fields on historical issues that bear a high significance also for this day and age. Bushidō, the way of the warrior, also known as the the soul of Japan, is said to be one of the most essential elements of Japanese culture, but rich in various stereotypes and distorted images that the general public holds about Japan and through which it understands contemporary Japanese society. This international symposium aims to bring fresh perspectives on the role and relevance of the traditional Japanese ideology of bushidō in the contemporary world. The concept of bushidō will be critically presented and thoroughly examined by renowned Slovenian and international symposium participants from the fields of Japanese history, archaeology, religion, sociology, anthropology, arts, etc. They will unveil their views on the ideology of bushidō, the warriors way of life, religious traditions in bushidō, the transformation of bushidō through centuries, spreading from Japan to the world, the invention of tradition and the impact of bushidō on different segments of the contemporary Japanese society. We will also discuss the influence of bushidō in contemporary martial arts, the development of martial arts in Japan and their expansion worldwide. 5

6 In the end, we would also like to thank everyone for all the support from the Faculty of Arts, National Museum of Slovenia, the Embassy of Japan in Slovenia, Kashima-Shinryû Federation of Martial Sciences to other institutions and individuals that made this symposium possible. Special gratitude goes to our colleague and member of Kashima-Shinryû, dr. Tinka Delakorda Kawashima, for her help in establishing the necessary connections and communication with distinguished lecturers in the symposium. We wish the participants a lively and highly stimulating exchange of opinions during the next two days of debate, both on and off the floor. Nataša Visočnik Tinka Delakorda Kawashima Organising Committee 6

7 Programme of Symposium FRIDAY, 25 th August TIME SUBJECT 8:00-9:00 Registration Welcome Addresses: Nataša VISOČNIK, Assist. Professor, University of Ljubljana, Barbara RAVNIK, M.A., Director of National Museum of Slovenia Andrej BEKEŠ, Professor Emeritus, Guest of Honour: His Excellency FUKUDA Keiji, Embassy of Japan in Slovenia 9:45-10:15 Guest of Honour: SEKI Humitake, Professor Emeritus (University of Tsukuba, Japan): Authentic Etymology of Japanese Chivalry Bushidō and Its Martiality 10:15-11:00 Keynote Lecture 1: William BODIFORD (University of California, Los Angeles, USA): Lives and Afterlives of Bushidō: A Perspective from Overseas 11:00-11:15 Coffee Break 11:15-12:30 SECTION 1: Bushidō Tradition (Chair: AKINAGA Hiroyuki) G. Björn CHRISTIANSON (UCL, Consultants Ltd, United Kingdom), Mikko VILENIUS (Instructor, Martial Training Bureau of the Kashima-Shinryû Federation of Martial Sciences, UK) and SEKI Humitake (University of Tsukuba, Japan): Role of the Sword Futsunomitama-no-tsurugi in the Origin of the Japanese Bushidō Tradition AKINAGA Hiroyuki (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) and SEKI Humitake (University of Tsukuba, Japan): Phenomenology of Genuine Martiality in Bushidō Physical Description of the Embodied Cognition KAWASHIMA Takamune (Yamaguchi University, Japan): Pre- and Proto-Historic Background of Martial Arts in Eastern Japan 7

8 TIME SUBJECT 12:30-14:00 Lunch Break 14:00-16:00 SECTION 2: Martial Arts in Practice Measuring and Transmitting (Chair: Tinka DELAKORDA KAWASHIMA) Jernej SEVER (Premik Centre, Ljubljana, Slovenia): Researching and Measuring Basic Principles of Chinese and Japanese Martial Arts Jari Matti RENKO (Oy Apotti Ab, Finland): Takemikazuchi-no- Mikoto and Väinämöinen: A Case Example of Utilizing Pre- Christian Fenno-Ugric Myth Pattern as a Cultural Bridge in Transmission of Koryū Bugei Nataša VISOČNIK (University of Ljubljana, Slovenia): Samurai in Slovenia: Cultural Influences and Transmission of the Japanese Martial Arts to Slovenia Ari YLINIEMELÄ (Tamro Oyj, Finland): Kashima-Shinryū Instruction in Finland: The Challenges and the Rewards Ryan JEPSON (University of Vienna, Austria): Aikido: A Report on Ki No Kenkyukai (Ki-Aikido) Developments in Europe 16:15-17:30 SECTION 3: Bushidō s Influence in Modern and Contemporary Japan and Europe (Chair: Andrej BEKEŠ) Dinner M. Teresa RODRÍGUEZ-NAVARRO (University of Granada, Spain): The Reception of Bushidō. The Soul of Japan by Nitobe in Modern and Contemporary Spain Andrew HORVAT (Josai International University, Japan): Bushidō Seen and Unseen: the Lasting Influence of Samurai-inspired Moral Values in Modern Japan Mikko VILENIUS (Instructor, Martial Training Bureau of the Kashima-Shinryû Federation of Martial Sciences, UK): Traditional Warrior Education in Modern Organisational Context: A Case Study of the Kashima-Shinryû Federation of Martial Sciences 8

9 SATURDAY, 26 th August TIME SUBJECT 8:00-9:00 Registration 9:00-10:00 Keynote Lecture 2: Karl FRIDAY (Saitama University, Japan): Way of What Warriors? Bushidō & the Samurai in Historical Perspective 10:00-11:40 SECTION 4: Invented Histories - Meiji (Chair: Nataša VISOČNIK) Luka CULIBERG (University of Ljubljana, Slovenia): Discipline and Punishment: Honourable Death as Mechanism of Political Control Nathan LEDBETTER (Princeton University, USA): Invented Histories: The Nihon Senshi of the Meiji Imperial Japanese Army Simona LUKMINAITĖ (Osaka University, Japan): Bushidō in the Meiji Education of Women Danny ORBACH (Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel): A Mysterious Ideal : Bushidō and the Leniency to Right-wing Terrorists in Prewar Japan 11:40-14:00 Martial Arts Day at the National Museum & Lunch Break 14:00-15:15 SECTION 5: Samurai Ideal: History, Religion (Chair: Klara HR- VATIN) 15:15-15:30 Coffee Break Aldo TOLLINI (Ca Foscari University Venice, Italy): The Formation of the Ideal of the Samurai. From Kakun to Bushidō Tinka DELAKORDA KAWASHIMA (Yamaguchi Prefectural University, Japan): Kirishitan Samurai and the Christian Heritage in Nagasaki Claudia MARRA (Nagasaki University of Foreign Studies, Japan): Bureiuchi Facts and Fiction 9

10 TIME SUBJECT 15:30-16:15 SECTION 6: Bushidō and Arts (Chair: Luka CULIBERG) Klara HRVATIN (University of Ljubljana, Slovenia): The Creation of Modern Fighting Force and the Arrival of Western Music in Japan Bakumatsu Marching Bands Naama EISENSTEIN (SOAS, University of London, United Kingdom): The Art of Deception: Trickery on the Battlefield and Its Representation in Early Modern Japanese Art 16:15-16:45 Closing Remarks (Asian Studies Journal, Special Issue, Guest Editors) 17:00-18:00 Practical/Interactive Demonstration of Kashima-Shinryû Martial Arts School 18:30 Dinner POSTER PRESENTATIONS Jérémie BRIDE (University of Tsukuba, Japan): Intercultural Genealogy of Karate Practices from a Cultural Perspective Mateja ŽABJEK (University of Tsukuba, Japan): Making of Sacred Sites in Japanese Martial Arts: Case Study of Mt. Mitsumine and Kyokushin Karate 10

11 Abstracts

12

13 GUEST OF HONOUR Authentic Etymology of Japanese Chivalry Bushido and Its Martiality SEKI Humitake The authentic etymology of Japanese chivalry bushidō and its martiality are shown and discussed, mainly based on the three most important historical records of the mythological age of Japan, i.e., Kojiki ( 古事記 ), Nihonshoki ( 日本書紀 ), and Sendaikujihonki ( 先代旧事本紀 ), summarized as follows: From the time of its creation by the 1st generation deity Ame-no-Minakanushino-Mikoto ( 天之御中主尊 ) until the present day, the universe has continuously evolved. Because the divine intent (shin i 神意 ) that guides this evolution and the divine dynamics that propel it have placed humankind in control of this biosphere, the greatest Martial Might of Heaven, the deity Takemikazuchino-Mikoto ( 武甕槌尊 ), acting in his role as a divinity for the practical application of creative energies (musubi 産 ) revealed the divine martiality (shinbu 神武 ) to human beings. This divine martiality of Takemikazuchi-no-Mikoto has been transmitted as the real Martiality of Bushidō amongst academic researchers and scholars in Shintoism from generation to generation. 13

14 KEYNOTE LECTURE 1 Lives and Afterlives of Bushido: A Perspective from Overseas William BODIFORD Bushido is an elusive concept. Since the early twentieth century, when it first became a topic of public discourse among social critics, journalists, politicians, religious leaders, historians, and the general public, bushido has been praised, blamed, and debated in a bewilderingly wide array of contexts: Christian thought, Buddhist thought, Shinto ideology, cultural identity, nationalist discourse, military policy, warrior ethos, physical and psychological training, group socialization, war crimes, sports, economic organization, invention of tradition, and so forth. A brief survey of just a few of these contexts reveals that bushido has had many different lives. The many legacies of these persist as a series of afterlives that, in a surprising number of cases, have followed rather different trajectories within Japan and overseas, even if they are never completely unrelated. These transformations and afterlives constitute valuable witnesses that offer competing narratives of Japan s modern development and of the country s changing roles in the world. Beyond Japan they speak to the multiple ways that the nation both inspires and (sometimes) displeases the world. These lives and afterlives also contribute to a larger story. Bushido serves to illustrate the myriad ways that intersections of the local and translocal, the past and present, refract perspectives. Bushido is not unique in its ability to assume divergent connotations and implications in accordance with the contours of the contexts within which it is placed. Its elusiveness exemplifies the amorphous characteristics of our global world s nomadic lexicon, not just in the humanities, but also in sciences and social sciences. From this perspective bushido raises useful questions about how we study and translate Japan. 14

15 KEYNOTE LECTURE 2 Way of What Warriors? Bushido & the Samurai in Historical Perspective Karl FRIDAY The role of the samurai in modern Japan is analogous to that of the cowboy in contemporary America: He is at once an entertaining, romantic figure and a fundamental representative, a symbol, of the national character. The influence of these warriors and the tradition they represented remain vigorous and widespread today, as can be seen in the ever-increasing popularity of such martial arts and sports as kendō, and in the pervasiveness of samurai images in films, television, and advertising. And yet the majority of what samurai aficionados and a great many scholars of Japan as well believe about samurai culture derives from a consciously-fashioned mythology that bear scant resemblance to historical reality. Indeed, to describe samurai culture in historical reality, we must first ask which samurai historical reality? For warrior values and behaviour changed many times during the nearly millennium-long epoch between their first appearance and the abolition of the samurai class in the 1870s. This lecture will examine the evolution of the warrior ethos in Japan, with special attention to the key constructs of honour and loyalty. 15

16 SECTION 1: BUSHIDO TRADITION Role of the Sword Futsunomitama-no-tsurugi in the Origin of the Japanese Bushido Tradition G. Björn CHRISTIANSON Mikko VILENIUS SEKI Humitake One of the formative narratives in Japanese martial arts is the bestowal of the mystical sword Futsunomitama-no-tsurugi ( 布都御魂釼 ) upon Emperor Jinmu, the legendary founder of Japan. Within the Kashima Shinden Bujutsu ( 鹿島神傳武術 ) lineage, this bestowal is attested as a critical event in the initiation of the principles of bushidō martiality. However, the practical reasons for its significance has been unclear. Drawing on historical and archaeological records, in this paper we hypothesise that the physical conformation of the legendary sword Futsunomitama-no-tsurugi represented a comparatively incremental progression from the one-handed short swords imported from mainland Asia. These modifications, however, allowed for a new, two-handed style of swordsmanship, and therefore it was the combination of the physical conformation of Futsunomitama-no-tsurugi and the development of appropriate techniques for wielding it that formed the basis of the martial significance of the Law of Futsu-no-mitama ( 韴霊之法則 ). Drawing on various traditions and records linking Futsunomitama-no-tsurugi to the Kashima Grand Shrine ( 鹿島神宮 ), we also argue that this new tradition of swordsmanship was the nucleus around which the Kashima Shinden Bujutsu lineage would develop, and therefore represented a critical first step towards the later concepts of bushidō. Based on the kabala of the Kashima Shinryū, we also present a working model of what the techniques for usage of Futsunomitama-no-tsurugi might have been, and provide an account of an experiment testing its application. 16

17 Phenomenology of Genuine Martiality in Bushido Physical Description of the Embodied Cognition AKINAGA Hiroyuki SEKI Humitake Genuine martiality ( 真武 ) is the physical appearance of divine martiality ( 神武 ). To personify the genuine martiality is indispensable to understanding bushidō. We first show the physical description of the genuine martiality. The Fivefold Laws, the Laws governing the ultimate principle of the divine school, are introduced (Seki 1976, 19 23). By making an alignment between the Fivefold Laws and the Eight Divine Coordinators, one can realize the physical vectors of the martial art movement, which should be the physical representation of the Genuine martiality through embodied cognition. Next, the perceptual process of cognition is described by using physical analogies, such as a quantum mechanical behaviour and critical phenomena (Ryu et al. 2007, 574). Cognition is the intrinsic process for bushidō-minded person ( 志士 ) to refine the motive force, which cannot be replaced by artificial intelligence, even after any proposed Singularity. References: Seki, Humitake Nihon-budō no engen: Kashima-Shinryū. Tokyo: Kyorin shoin. Ryu, Kwang-Su, Hiro Akinaga and Sung-Chul Shin Nature Physics 3. 17

18 Pre- and Proto-Historic Background of Martial Arts in Eastern Japan KAWASHIMA Takamune Kashima City is best known as a birthplace of martial arts in Japan. While Kashima Shinryū was officially established in the latter half of the medieval period, there was a long tradition of martial arts in the Kashima region since the Kofun period (AD ). This paper focuses on archaeological remains and landscape around the Kashima Great Shrine, to clarify the significance and influence of the Shrine in managing the eastern part of the territory of ancient Japan. I will examine some characteristics of the region, such as its coastal location that enabled the transportation of materials and soldiers. Another key characteristic of the place could be the metal production represented by the legendary giant sword. Ancient workshops for metallurgy were found at the former local government office in Hitachi-no-kuni, the area of today s Kashima Prefecture. It thus seems no coincidence that Kashima was chosen as a kind of military base. The archaeological facts thus provide a number of reasons why the lineage of various martial arts and schools, including Kashima Shinryū, can be traced to Kashima, which led to the formation of Tōgoku Bushidan in eastern Japan during the medieval period. 18

19 SECTION 2: MARTIAL ARTS IN PRACTICE MEASURING AND TRANSMITTING Researching and Measuring the Basic Principles of Chinese and Japanese Martial Arts Jernej SEVER If we want to analyse the complex experiences that can be the consequence of martial arts training, we must understand those experiences as a combination of physical and mental processes. This opens up a very important question: How is it possible to research and measure these complex experiences? To solve this problem, we used a cognitive science model which highlights the importance of understanding cognition in connection with the body and its position in a given environment (Clark 1997). In this way, cognitive science helps to bridge the gap between body, brain and environment. This model allows at least two different methodological approaches: a phenomenological analysis of experience and the possibility of quantitative research into specific parts of these experiences. In our work, we concentrated on the efficiency of martial arts movements. To design proper experiments, we had to understand some of the basic principles of efficiency in martial arts at the level of the first person, and thus used a phenomenological approach (Sokolowski 2008). The method we used to describe a complex experience in martial arts is similar to the descriptive experience sampling method, which was introduced by Hurlburt and Heavey (2006). In this, the participant must, at random intervals, freeze their current experience and write down a brief description of it in a notebook. In our first person martial arts research, we froze the experience based on the perception of the moment of muscle tension or stiffness of the body that happens in the process of interaction between fighting partners. Based on this first-person analysis, we designed three studies. We measured stability (a) (Sever 2013) after a sudden release of horizontal force. We designed a special massage method (b) where we use a slight vibration and three-dimen- 19

20 sional movement of the joints to achieve better efficiency in a very short time (Sever 2014), and we measured muscle response (c) in the moment of contact of two fighting partners. Based on our research and experience of the basic principles of martial arts, we have concluded that we need to change our inherited motor responses to achieve more efficient movement and mastery in these arts. References: Clark, Andy Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again. Cambridge, USA: The MIT Press. Hurlburt, Russel. T., and Christopher. L. Heavey Exploring Inner Experience. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Sever, Jernej Modulation of Motor Processes on the Basis of Taijiquan Movement Principles, Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems. INDECS 12 (4), October. Sever, Jernej, and Nejc Šarabon Vpliv nenadne razbremenitve sile v vodoravni smeri na stabilnost pri Taijiquanu. Revija Šport 3-4: Sokolowski, Robert Introduction to Phenomenology. London: Cambridge University Press. 20

21 Takemikazuchi-no-Mikoto and Väinämöinen: A Case Example of Utilizing Pre-Christian Fenno-Ugric Myth Patterns as a Cultural Bridge in Transmission of Koryu Bugei Jari Matti RENKO Many classical Japanese systems of martial arts (koryū bugei) provide a multi-layered system for preserving and transmitting a complex and tightly integrated methodology consisting of physical movement, timing, generation and application of power, tactics, strategy and philosophy relevant to combative engagement. These methodologies, that at their highest level are often designated as a form of spiritual transmission, utilize as a part of their curricula a rich panoply of esoterica and theory influenced by Buddhist and Shinto lore. Kashima-Shinryū, tracing its roots back around the periods of Emperor Kenzō ( ) and Emperor Ninken ( ) and having taken shape as the formal lineage of bushidō Martiality during the latter half of the sixteenth century, is here discussed as case example of such a system. In modern times, as in the past, if a student initiated into a tradition is not already intimately familiar with the cultural lore in the original pre-modern context, then there is a risk of incorrect transmission if no supplementary methodology of teaching and contextualizing the traditional lore is used. In order to fully transmit the tradition a variety of supplementary methodology is thus used, in concert with the traditional methodology and lore, to ensure both full transmission and intuitive understanding of the meaning and implications of the tradition. 21

22 Samurai in Slovenia: Cultural Influences and Transmission of the Japanese Martial Arts to Slovenia Nataša VISOČNIK Japanese martial arts have found the way into Slovenia through various roads within different periods. When examining the reasons and causes of the popularity of the many schools and clubs in Slovenia, we are learning how these martial arts are taught in these organizations. The research mainly focuses on the study of transmission of Japanese martial arts to Slovene students. The paper thus presents the ways of transmission used with these bodily practices, teaching and learning, in-body learning and the instructional method of the master in relation to the students. From the perspectives of both philosophical anthropology and the humanistic theory of martial arts (Cynarski and Lee- Barron), this paper discusses the possible value and relevance of the traditional warrior pathways of Japanese martial arts to contemporary Western society. Slovene masters and students both explain their understanding of the bodily movements, kata, and philosophical and social backgrounds of some of the martial arts. We are also interested in the experiences of the practitioners with regard to gaining knowledge of martial arts and how invested they are in a given moment. The analysis carried out in this work also reveals the major structural constituents that are associated with the pedagogies of certain martial arts. It examines if certain martial arts have demonstrated the value of a discipline in the process of self-discovery; if they can provide a cultural model for learning that is shaped by an interest in peaceful relations; and if the can also provide a pedagogical model that is shaped by themes of blending, integration, wholeness, and unity. 22

23 Kashima-Shinryu Instruction in Finland: The Challenges and Rewards Ari YLINIEMELÄ Instructing a traditional Japanese martial art can be a challenge. Provided the instructor is well versed in the schools curriculum, the transmission of its techniques should be pretty straightforward. However, in the case of old schools, like Kashima-Shinryū, we are not talking only about the kata: we are talking about hundreds of years of accumulated martial lore, culture and history. Kashima-Shinryū instruction is based on one-to-one, heart-to-heart transmission. It cannot be done effectively using the methods of mass instruction. While finding suitable training facilities is easy, creating an optimal learning environment can be quite demanding. In the absence of the schools headmasters constant instruction and monitoring, and in the absence of taryū jiai, the next best option is to make the learning and testing environment as realistic possible. Careful selection of students, especially when establishing a new Kashima- Shinryū branch, is the key to avoiding the big-fish-in-a-small-pond syndrome. A heterogeneous group with a variety of high level skills in other martial arts, mixed with newcomers who have no budō experience whatsoever, is a good starting point. Nothing challenges you more than applying your skills to students who are adept in their former art, all the while making sure that you lead them towards the correct way of performing Kashima-Shinryū. The goal of each workout should be training your students, one step at a time, towards mastery of the art. The long-term target is growing a new generation of Kashima-Shinryū experts and instructors who are able and willing to carry the torch. There is nothing more rewarding than witnessing your own students passing the test for menkyo kaiden. 23

24 Aikido: A Report on Ki No Kenkyukai (Ki-Aikido) Developments in Europe Ryan JEPSON In the English language Aikido is commonly known as a martial art, a translation of budō which refers to the code of ethics and set of practices, including multiple artistic pursuits, that were the way of the samurai in feudal Japan, and which remained in existence until the late nineteenth century. This presentation, however, will reflect on the development of Aikido in more recent decades and its evolution (as practiced by one organisation in particular) to a way of modern living both as a philosophy, but most importantly, through embodied somatic learning and training of mind and body, and, crucially, in a cooperative and non-competitive group environment. With an emphasis on remedying the inherent and pervasive dualism underpinning conflict, violence and its resolution, and traced through a discussion of bushidō in contemporary everyday life, Aikido appears as a practice of nonfighting on the one hand and way of leading one s life on the other, which is obtained through serious study of bodily techniques to invoke the notion used by M. Mauss. Following this concept, narrative and anecdotal experiences of long-term Aikido practitioners and dojos, and the author s own experiences with starting a dojo and teaching beginners, is reflected on in combining embodied knowledge, practice theory, rhythms and art, and researcher-participant subjectivities. This theorisation has implications for researching and understanding a broad array of social interactions, practices and situations. 24

25 SECTION 3: BUSHIDO S INFLUENCE IN MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY JAPAN AND EUROPE The Reception of Bushido. The Soul of Japan by Nitobe in Modern and Contemporary Spain M. Teresa RODRÍGUEZ-NAVARRO Until quite recently, Japan was seen as an extremely exotic and distant country in Spain. Consequently, few literary works from Japan were translated into Spanish until the first half of the twentieth century. This study is part of a wider research focused on the role of paratextual and cultural elements in the construction of the image of Japan in Spain since the twentieth century. Our aim is to discuss on the reception of bushidō in Spain through the translations into Spanish of Nitobe Inazo s reinterpretation of bushidō in the Meiji Era, pointing out the role of translators and paratexts in the construction/reinterpretation of the values and concepts of bushidō in contemporary Spain, and its influence in some Spanish Institutions. Moreover, the influence of the context and ideology of translators in the different translations is also analysed here. In other words, our aim is to present a reflection on the role of translators and publishers in the construction and reception of the image of Japan in Spain, and especially the reception of the values of bushidō. For this task we focus our study on the analysis of paratexts and epitexts of Nitobe s Bushidō. In particular book covers, forewords and afterwords from a selection of diacronic translations into Spanish will be examined for their influence in the reception community, and also to verify whether the image of Japan reflected in book covers and other paratexts has changed or not in the most recent translations. It is also our goal to stress the importance of translation in the international circulation of an imaginary about East Asia from the Spanish and Catalan research context. 25

26 Bushido Seen and Unseen: The Lasting Influence of Samurai-inspired Moral Values in Modern Japan Andrew HORVAT In Japan, no newspaper has a humour column, and it is rare to see a pun in any headline. Moreover, none publish any letters from readers complaining about articles or editorials. If such an attitude toward journalism seems a bit austere, it is not by accident. The foundations of the country s modern news media were laid in the 1870s by former samurai, retainers of feudal lords on the losing side of the 1868 civil war that paved the way for the transformation of Japan into a modern nation state. Adherence to samurai-influenced behaviour in contemporary Japan is hardly anachronistic. Unlike in the West, where reporters can call on inalienable rights traceable to the Enlightenment to criticize their governments, in Japan it is by presenting correct moral behaviour appropriate for a class of leaders that the media is able to act as a check on power. This paper argues that although bushidō in name has been discredited, evidence of Confucian-influenced samurai morality can still be found in many aspects of Japanese life. At the university where I teach, students are encouraged to follow the motto self-improvement through learning, an educational philosophy of moral self-strengthening once propagated in books titled Bushidō by both the liberal Nitobe Inazo and the conservative Inoue Tetsujiro. While the former has been debunked as samurai lore for foreign consumption (Chamberlain, Ota) and the latter s glorification of selfless loyalty by the 47 rōnin was exposed as anachronistic even in its own day (Bito, Smith), the educational philosophy of character building through learning (Brown) has had a lasting impact, both prior to World War II and since. Though bushidō is no longer invoked to encourage young men to sacrifice themselves to a divine Emperor, samurai-style self-improvement is still called on to inspire students to learn English in order to become better global human resources. 26

27 Traditional Warrior Education in a Modern Organisational Context: A Case Study of the Kashima-Shinryû Federation of Martial Sciences Mikko VILENIUS Traditional Japanese martial arts schools are generally perceived by the public either as strictly hierarchical, inflexible and almost militaristic in their organisation and teaching methods, or as cult-like secret societies with strict hierarchy and loyalty, working like pyramid schemes in their operation. This first view has been discussed in the literature and among experienced practitioners, and the consensus is that this is mostly a misconception coming from shallow familiarity with some modern East-Asian martial arts. The second view seems to spring from the esoteric nature and traditional religious vocabulary used in the teaching of the schools lore and application, both physical and psychological. In this paper, we use Kashima-Shinryū (KSSR) and its modern administrative organisation into the KSSR Federation of Martial Sciences as a case study for the adaptation of a traditional bugei school into the modern world. We will consider the school from three perspectives: how it facilitates transmission of traditional martial culture in a modern-day context; how its teaching methods operate from the perspective of a student; and how its teaching methods operate from the perspective of an instructor. Through this, we will show how as a modern organisation the KSSR Federation of Martial Sciences strives to uphold the ideal of the past-day warrior class as contributing members of society as expressed by the school s traditional written and oral lore in its modern-day practitioners. Furthermore, we will consider how this impacts the relation between the KSSR Federation of Martial Sciences and modern society. We will also examine how the kata a teaching method in the heart of all traditional bugei develops both the proficiency of the practitioners and the organisation as whole. 27

28 SECTION 4: INVENTED HISTORIES - MEIJI Discipline and Punishment: Honourable Death as a Mechanism of Political Control Luka CULIBERG In 1702 an incident, generally known as the Akō vendetta or the Revenge of the 47 Rōnin, occurred in shogunal capital of Edo. In the aftermath of this event, the rōnin who murdered a bakufu official, blaming him for their lord s fate, waited for the bakufu authorities to deliver their verdict. After weeks of discussion and deliberation, a sort of compromise punishment had been decided upon: the samurai were ordered to commit seppuku. They were punished for violating the government laws, but were given credit as loyal and righteous retainers (chūshin gishi), one of the main ideological requirements for the Tokugawa period samurai class. Within the political context of the tenuous balance of power between the sovereignty of the Tokugawa regime and the local power of feudal lords, the role of the samurai class was slowly being remodelled along the lines of the discourse on bushidō, and one of its key components was the act of honourable death by committing ritual of disembowelment, also known as seppuku. I would like to explore the nature of seppuku within the Tokugawa penal and moral institutions, and argue that this paragon of bushidō honour was appropriated by the governing regime as a supplementary institution to the legal and penal apparatuses, enabling a conciliatory solution between the antagonistic or contending ideological demands of legal submission to the shogunate and loyalty to one s direct lord. 28

29 Invented Histories: The Nihon Senshi of the Meiji Imperial Japanese Army Nathan LEDBETTER From 1893 to 1924, the historical division of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff produced a thirteen-volume collection of campaign studies entitled Nihon Senshi (Military History of Japan). Each volume covered a battle of one of Japan s Three Unifiers in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, and as a whole were influential in shaping both Japanese and Western scholarly narratives of those campaigns. Why were these texts written at this time, and why were these particular battles from a span of fifty-five years chosen out of all recorded Japanese history? This paper situates these histories within a larger discourse of Meiji national identity formation. Comparison with the contemporary Japanese intellectual and institutional invented traditions that provided a nativist rationale for Japan s emerging modernity suggests that Nihon Senshi was part of the Army s attempt at creating a modern but also Japanese institutional history. By tying the new Imperial Japanese Army to examples from Japan s warring states period, the Army staff participated in the same process of inventing history as scholars who created a feudal medieval in the Japanese past to fit into Western historiography, and intellectuals who discovered a traditional spirit called bushidō as a counterpart for English chivalry. Moreover, the interpretations of these campaigns placed a few important daimyō as not only paragons of Japanese military prowess, but global leaders in the modernization of military tactics and technology, ahead of even their European contemporaries. The Japanese Army desired to be seen as a modern military through its invented institutional history; it further used this history as a base for the inculcation of its members with bushidō spirit. The Imperial Japanese Army General Staff was thus an active participant in Meiji-era discourses drawing on foreign models to shape institutions, while also creating continuities with the past to reframe itself as a modern heir to this Japanese historical tradition. 29

30 Bushido in the Meiji Education of Women Simona LUKMINAITE In recent years, the topic of bushidō in education has been explored by Oleg Benesch, Denis Gainty, and several Japanese historians of physical education in Japan. However, the martial arts and bushidō found in the education for women remains an untreated issue, despite the great attention women and their physical education received in discourses regarding the creation of a healthy nation that took place since the Meiji period ( ). In 1889, Meiji Jogakkō ( 明治女学校, ) started instructing its students in martial arts, surprising many at the time. The physical and intellectual ( 文武 ) training was carried out by Hoshino Tenchi ( 星野天知, ), a Christian man of letters who later played a major role in establishing a literary magazine, Bungakukai ( 文学界, ). Many girls wished to participate in these classes, and 50 students were selected as the first intake. This program of martial arts education was maintained until the school closed. The school advocated the benefits such education had on girl students in Jogaku Zasshi ( 女学雑誌, ) a magazine for women that had strong ties with the school and, when there was a need to show off to the public the work the school was carrying out, chose fierce naginata duels in charity events. This paper thus examines why a self-proclaimed Japanese Protestant school placed martial arts at the centre of its activities, how bushidō and Christianity were seen as complementary, and in what ways bushidō for women was reflected in the curriculum. 30

31 A Mysterious Ideal : Bushido and Leniency to Right-wing Terrorists in Pre-war Japan Danny ORBACH In October 1931, a group of Japanese officers were arrested in Tokyo and charged with plotting the assassination of the entire civilian cabinet. During their arrest, the commandant of the military police duly noted that they would be treated according to the principles of bushidō. The implications of this lofty statement were rather amusing: they were detained for two weeks in a comfortable inn, with alcohol and Geisha on demand. The leniency shown to the military terrorists of the Cherry Blossom Society (Sakura-kai), promoted a series of further right-wing coups and assassinations, until the dramatic uprising of February 26, The uprisings of the 1930s, as many scholars have noted, had a significant role in the militarization of Japan and its imperial overreach during the second half of that decade. Why was the legal system in Japan so friendly to right-wing offenders, even when they tried to assassinate leading statesmen and generals? The answer, as I will try to show in this paper, is intertwined with ideological concepts developed since the 1860s, driven by Japan s peculiar form of modernization, and combined with the emerging ideology of bushidō. However, this was not merely bushidō as the imagined way of the samurai, but rather the selective memory of particular groups of rebellious samurai active in the late Tokugawa Period. 31

32 SECTION 5: SAMURAI IDEAL: HISTORY, RELIGION The Formation of the Ideal of the Samurai. From Kakun to Bushido Aldo TOLLINI The ideal of the samurai has a long history in Japan, which can be traced back to the Kamakura period and the literature of kakun. Over the centuries it changed significantly, and assumed the connotations of the various cultural environments it existed within. The influence of Zen and Confucianism are most relevant here, and played a crucial role. Inazō Nitobe s Bushidō must thus be considered as the result of a long itinerary. My presentation will deal with the transformation of the ideal of the samurai in particular from the Muromachi period, when the influence of Zen was paramount, to the rise of bushidō, which is characterized by Confucian ideals. 32

33 Kirishitan Samurai and the Christian Heritage in Nagasaki Tinka DELAKORDA KAWASHIMA In research on Christianity in Japan, the missionaries and military nobility, such as daimyō and samurai, used to play a central role; however, since WWII, commoners took over as the main figures of interest. In this paper, I argue that the kirishitan samurai powerfully re-emerged in the public imagination due to the recent heritization of the Christian-related assets for the UNESCO World Heritage Site project in various parts of Japan. I touch upon three main issues, (1) the 16 th - and 17th-century persecution of Christianity in Japan; (2) the new insights into martyrdom brought about by the process of heritization; and (3) the latest beatification of samurai martyrs by the Roman Catholic Church. I analyse the expressions of the Japanese and foreign Catholics, the Catholic Church, as well as the secular interest groups (for tourism and regional promotion) related to heritization and beatification to discuss how, in these processes, some reasserted aspects of the Japanese samurai and kirishitan figures can affect and retrigger religious feelings and moral commitments among today s Catholics. 33

34 Bureiuchi Facts and Fiction Claudia MARRA Hardly a samurai movie resists the cliché of the hot-tempered warrior claiming his right to bureiuchi ( 無礼討ち ) or kirisute gomen ( 切捨御免 ), by chopping of the head of a hapless bystander, who had failed to bow deep enough or otherwise shown disrespect. In this lecture, I would like to shed some light on the facts and rules of bureiuchi as stipulated in the Kujikata Osadamegaki ( 公事方御定書 ), a 1742 collection of rules, governing and reshaping this privilege of the samurai class in the context of the Edo period s social stratification. 34

35 SECTION 6: BUSHIDO AND THE ARTS The Creation of a Modern Fighting Force and the Arrival of Western Music in Japan Bakumatsu Marching Bands Klara HRVATIN Western music now plays an important role in the musical world of Japan. Its strong presence can be found in the school curriculum from the elementary level onward, and it is well embedded in the everyday lives of the Japanese people. Indeed, Japan is one of the most important markets for this kind of music, and is also advancing the craft of making Western musical instruments. But if we want to track the first arrivals of Western music in Japan, we have to consider its role in relation to the creation of a modern fighting force in the late 19th century. Before the start of the first full-blown military band, under the instruction of Bandmaster John William Fenton in 1869, the first groups to spread Western music were the kotekitai simple fife and drum bands, which were required as a part of the modern Western military drill formation. One of these was Yamagunitai (1968), an armed force of farmers from the village of Yamaguni in the Tanba Province, which served in the Boshin War ( ). How did this kotekitai music spread to Japanese islands? What kind of notation did they use for disseminating and learning it, for we know that the Japanese approach to notation differs from genre to genre, and functions as an auxiliary means for musical memorization. How did they accept and assimilate music whose rhythm and tone color differed greatly from their own musical culture? Answers to these questions, and more knowledge about the socio-military structure of the Yamagunitai, could give us a better insight into one of the earliest Japanese integrations of domestic and Western musical elements. 35

36 The Art of Deception: Trickery on the Battlefield and Its Representation in Early Modern Japanese Art Naama EISENSTEIN The honour and reputation of a warrior is his most important possession, and a shameful act will blemish his name for generations. This notion was a vital issue in warrior culture; yet, over the years the understanding of what is a shameful act has changed significantly. One example is battlefield conduct, including the use of deception to defeat your enemy, known as damashi-uchi ( だまし討ち ). In medieval Japan damashi-uchi was considered not only an acceptable tactic, but an admired one. A warrior s ability to deceive his foe and thus win the battle was proof of his resourcefulness and intellect. To lose in such battle of wit meant inaptness and, in most cases, death. Damashi-uchi was the direct result of battlefield experience in war-worn medieval Japan, but how was it received in the peaceful years of Tokugawa Japan? I examine this question through artistic representations of damashi-uchi from the Heike monogatari. My main example is the First Across the Uji-River ( 宇治川先陣 ) episode. While less dramatic than other examples, such as the Death of Etchū no Zenji ( 越中前司最期 ), the story of Sasaki Shirō Takatsuna ( 佐々木四郎高綱 ) and Kajiwara Genda Kagesue ( 梶原源太景季 ) racing to be first on the battlefield is one of the most frequently depicted Genpei stories in Tokugawa art. My study examines how the story of this race was used in Tokuwaga times. I will discuss the meaning and function of artworks made for elites and commoners, and what they can teach us about the changes in warrior ideals over time. 36

37 POSTER PRESENTATIONS Intercultural Genealogy of Karate Practices from a Cultural Perspective Jérémie BRIDE Karate is a martial that is somewhat apart from others in Japan. Indeed, karate was not originally from the main island and has a long history that takes roots in different places in Asia. As such, the genealogy of karate is particularly interesting and dynamic, having gone through many intercultural exchanges. Half originally from China (Shaolin, Fuzhou) and half from ancient techniques in Okinawa, karate moved to the main island of Japan only recently (a hundred or so years ago), while its original Sino-Okinawan name also changed, before travelling worldwide, following the trend of globalization. Karate is continuing its internationalization and transformation, and will appear for the first time as an Olympic event at the Tokyo 2020 Games. It is indeed a representative example of a martial art in constant transformation since its ancestral origin. In this presentation, karate will be presented as a cultural heritage from an anthropological didactic perspective, showing its transformation in the process of intercultural mediation through generations of masters, evolving from place to place under the cultural influence of actors from each area it has migrated to. The methodology of the research includes a socio-historical study, an ethnographic work with notes taken from the field in France and Japan (t=2.5years in Okinawa, Tsukuba, Osaka), and interviews with karate Grand Masters (N=8, four in France, four in Japan). The results show the interesting migration of karate through time and space, as we can observe with a genealogical map of karate practices. Ethnographic notes reveal the current intercultural mediation of various practices according to the places where they were observed (France or Japan). The transcriptions of the interviews with Grand Masters (N=96,635 words) allow us to gain access to the origin of the transformation of the practices according to the mediation processes operated by its main actors, the Masters. 37

38 Making of Sacred Sites in Japanese Martial Arts: Case Study of Mt. Mitsumine and Kyokushin Karate Mateja ŽABJEK In this study, I am researching the formation of sacred sites in relation to martial arts in Japan. My case study is Mt. Mitsumine (Mitsuminesan 三峰山 ), which is a sacred site of the International Karate Organization Kyokushinkaikan (Kokusai Karatedō Renmei Kyokushinkaikan 国際空手道連盟極真会館 ; hereafter IKO Kyokushinkaikan). Mountains are a very popular location for martial arts training in Japan. Many martial arts schools thus conduct various mountain practices each year, in order to toughen the members from the spiritual as well as physical perspective. The origins of mountain training can be found in Shinto mythology and ascetic practices, which most often involve rituals of purification under waterfalls. In my study, however, I try to argue that for the IKO Kyokushinkaikan members the perception of Mt. Mitsumine as a sacred mountain is different from general interpretations of such mountains in Japanese martial arts. In its history of mountain practice that is more than 50 years old, IKO Kyokushinkaikan members have assigned a personal meaning and importance to Mt. Mitsumine. I believe that the founder of Kyokushin karate, Ōyama Masutatsu, plays a key role in the perception of Mt. Mitsumine as a sacred mountain. Ōyama established IKO Kyokushinkaikan in June He developed a full-contact style of karate, which he named Kyokushin, that is presently one of the most widespread and influential styles in the world. Ōyama passed away in 1994 and was succeeded by Matsui Shōkei as president of the organization, a man who continues the established customs of mountain practices on Mt. Mitsumine, as well as holding memorial services for Ōyama. 38

39 BIOGRAPHIES AKINAGA Hiro was born in Tokyo, Japan, on June 27th, He received his B.E., M.E. and PhD degrees from the University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan, in 1987, 1989 and 1992, respectively. From 1997 to 1998, he was a Visiting Scientist at Imec, Leuven, Belgium. He has been appointed to professorships at the University of Tokyo (2001), Tokyo Institute of Technology ( ), and Osaka University (2008, 2010). Currently, he is a Principal Research Manager at the Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). William M. BODIFORD earned his PhD in Buddhist Studies at Yale University, and did additional graduate training at the University of Tsukuba and Komazawa University. Before moving to UCLA, where he teaches Buddhist Studies and the religion of Japan and East Asia, he taught at Davidson College, the University of Iowa, and Meiji Gakuin University in Tokyo and Yokohama, Japan. His research spans the medieval, early modern, and contemporary periods of Japanese history. Currently he is investigating religion during the Tokugawa period, especially those aspects of Japanese culture associated with manuscripts, printing, secrecy, education, and proselytizing. Although many of his publications focus on Zen Buddhism (especially Soto Zen), he also researches the Tendai and Vinaya Buddhist traditions, Shinto, folklore and popular religions, as well as Japanese martial arts and traditional approaches to health and physical culture. A few of his publications include the books Sōtō Zen in Medieval Japan (2008) [1993] and Going Forth: Visions of Buddhist Vinaya (2005), The Encyclopedia of Buddhism (2003), which he co-edited, and articles like Dharma Transmission in Theory and Practice, Zen and Japanese Swordsmanship Reconsidered, and many more. Jérémie BRIDE, with a PhD in Sport Sciences, specializing in intercultural mediation through martial arts and sports (PhD thesis on Japanese/French karate practices), now works on projects for development and peace through martial arts and sports in different countries. He has been practicing karate from age 15, and lived for a total of four years in Japan (Okinawa, Osaka, Tsukuba). He now works at the University of Tsukuba as Assistant Professor for a new program about Global Issues, and associated researcher at the laboratory ICARE (EA7389; University of La Réunion, France, Indian Ocean) specializing in education and intercultural studies. 39

40 G. Björn CHRISTIANSON holds a PhD in Computation and Neural Systems from the California Institute of Technology. He has been awarded menkyo kaiden with Kashima-Shinryu. Luka CULIBERG earned his degree in the sociology of culture and Japanese studies from the University of Ljubljana. He spent several years studying in Japan, at the University of Tsukuba and Hitotsubashi University. In 2015 he earned his PhD from the Sociology Department at the University of Ljubljana, exploring the relationship between language ideologies and social change in modern Japan. He is currently Assistant Professor at the Department of Asian Studies at the same university. Andrew HORVAT is professor by invitation at Josai International University, where he teaches courses on journalism, contemporary history and language policy. Horvat s most recent publication is Japan s News Media How and Why Reporters and News Organizations Influence Official Policy, in Kent Calder and Michael Kotler eds., The Ideas Industry: Comparative Perspectives, Johns Hopkins University, Washington DC A student of John F. Howes, historian of Meiji samurai Christian converts, Horvat has had a long-standing interest in Nitobe Inazo. In 2004, as Japan representative of the Asia Foundation, Horvat convened symposiums on Nitobe s lasting popularity among Japanese leaders and intellectuals. Tinka DELAKORDA KAWASHIMA holds a PhD in sociology from the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. She earned her MA degree in religious studies from University of Tsukuba, Japan, and BA degrees in Japanese and Chinese studies from the Department of Asian Studies, University of Ljubljana. She is currently a lecturer in intercultural studies at Yamaguchi Prefectural University, Japan, and a research associate of the Department of Asian Studies, in the University of Ljubljana. She has published a monograph on Religiosity and Consumption in Contemporary Japanese Society (ZRC SAZU, 2015, Ljubljana; in Slovene), and various articles relating to pilgrimage, religious tourism, heritization processes, and the construction of sacred places in Japan and central Eastern Europe. 40

41 Naama EISENSTEIN is a PhD candidate in the History of Art and Archaeology Department of SOAS, University of London. She holds two MA degrees: From the East Asian Studies Department, Tel Aviv University, Israel, where she studied visual representations of sacred locations focusing on Nachi Waterfall, and from SOAS, where she examined nineteenth-century portraits of Nichiren. In her PhD research she studies warrior culture as it is represented in early modern Japanese artwork, focusing on the image of the Genpei War during the Edo Period. Karl FRIDAY is a Professor Emeritus, Center Director, PhD (History) 1989, Stanford University. He has taught in many renowned universities around the world, most recently at the University of Georgia, Athens, where he has been Professor Emeritus since Since 2010 he has also been a director of the IES Abroad Tokyo Center. He has written many books, articles and book chapters, edited many volumes on the topics of history, martial arts, samurai, bushidō in Japan and worldwide. Toname just a few: Hired Swords: The Rise of Private Warrior Power in Early Japan in 1992, Legacies of the Sword: the Kashima-Shinryū & Samurai Martial Culture, with Prof. Seki Humitake in 1997, and The First Samurai: The Life & Legend of the Warrior Rebel, Taira Masakado in 2008, among many others. Klara HRVATIN completed her master s and doctorate studies at Osaka University (Musicology and Theater Studies), and is presently working as an assistant-researcher at the Department of Asian Studies at the Faculty of Arts in Ljubljana. Her focus is mainly on topics related to the composer Tōru Takemitsu and Sōgetsu Art Center, Japanese contemporary music, Japanese performing arts and theatre, and Slovenian popular music. Ryan JEPSON is a human geographer, sociologist, aikido teacher and learner, and current PhD student and research assistant at the University of Vienna, Austria (since 2015). His research interests include: practice theory and action research, spatial theory and practice, everyday life and rhythmanalysis, urban commons, globalisation and migration, and the sociology of art. His PhD project is applying Rhythmanalysis (H. Lefebvre) firstly to institutional settings understood as a set of practices with a focus on the provision and everyday management of refugees in Vienna, and informal networks of socialisation and their role in producing affect and everyday spaces of inquiry. 41

42 KAWASHIMA Takamune received his PhD degree from the University of Tsukuba, Japan. He was awarded the title of Docent in Slovenia, while he was teaching Japanese history, culture, and language at the Department of Asian and African Studies at the Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, from 2009 to After working at the University of Tsukuba from 2012 to 2013 as a research fellow, he now works at the Archaeological Museum of the Yamaguchi University, which conducts archaeological excavations on the university campuses as well as organising exhibitions. Nathan Howard LEDBETTER is a PhD student in Japanese history in the East Asian Studies Department at Princeton University in Princeton, NJ, United States. In his previous career as an officer in the U.S. Army, he worked as a liaison and policy analyst in Northeast Asia in addition to undertaking several tactical assignments. His current research examines the evolution of Japanese warfare and the organization of military power over the course of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Simona LUKMINAITĖ read Japanese Studies ( ) at Manchester University, UK, where she received a BA (Hons) degree. In Osaka University, Japan, she received an MA in Studies in Japanese Language and Culture ( ), with this work now continuing in the same specialty in her PhD studies (2014-present). She has worked at Kansai International High School as an instructor ( ) and at Osaka University as a research assistant ( ). Her areas of specialization include the history of education, intellectual history, and history of religion in Japan, as well as women s history, literature, and translation in this context. Her main research topic is Meiji ideologies regarding women s education and the modern system of education in Japan. Claudia MARRA is a professor of German and Japanese Studies and director of the Multimedia Center for Research and Education at Nagasaki University of Foreign Studies. Her research topics are the history of thought, aesthetics and religion in the Edo period. Her publications include 'Fucha Ryōri - the Monastic Cuisine of the Ōbaku-shū', 'Ōbaku s Shōfukuji-temple', 'The Influence of Chinese Thought on Ōbaku Zen Buddhism: About the discovery of internal organs hidden inside Ōbaku's seated Shakyamuni statues', 'Haibutsu Kishaku', and 'Through Hanjimono to Enlightenment - The Pictural Heart- Sūtra. Marra has studied martial arts for more than 40 years, holding Dangrades in jūdō, shotōkan karate, kendō and jōdō

43 Danny ORBACH is a military historian and senior lecturer in the Departments of History and East Asian studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He studied in the universities of Tel Aviv, Tokyo and Harvard, where he also received his PhD. His latest books are The Plots against Hitler (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt) and Curse on this Country the Rebellious Army of Imperial Japan (Cornell University Press). He is currently studying the history of military adventurers in China from the Taiping Rebellion to the Second World War. As a political blogger, he writes regularly on political and military questions in the Jerusalem Post, War on the Rocks and other venues. Jari Matti RENKO has practised and instructed koryu bugei with the Kashima- Shinryū of Helsinki University (Kashima-Shinryū Helsinki Shibu, an affiliate branch of Helsinki University Sports Institute) since He holds a Kaidenranking from Kashima-Shinryū. He works as the Chief Technology Officer at Oy Apotti Ab, where his main professional topic is the information enabled transformation of healthcare, both in preventative and social medicine as well as hospital care. His primary research interests include technology-assisted behavioural change supporting population level preventive medicine. M. Teresa RODRÍGUEZ-NAVARRO is an Associate Professor of Japanese Language and Culture. University of Granada, Spain. She is a member of Interasia Research Group, of the Autonomous University of Barcelona. Her research interests include the influence of Japan on the West, especially in a Spanish context, and she is also a translator and writer. She has also worked as an intercultural mediator between Japan and Spain for more than 30 years in various different fields (like the arts, law and business). In her doctoral thesis, she worked on the figure of Nitobe Inazo as a bridge between East and West, focusing on the analysis of his work Bushido. The Soul of Japan, which she has also translated. SEKI Humitake is Professor Emeritus of the Institute of Biological Sciences at the University of Tsukuba, and is the nineteenth generation Shihanke (headmaster) of the Kashima Shinryū. 43

44 Jernej SEVER received his PhD from the University of Ljubljana. The main goal of his PhD research was understanding the connection between body postures and higher cognitive processes in the martial arts. Jernej Sever is a director of a Sport Center Premik in Ljubljana, and the head coach and leader of the Karate Institute in Slovenia. He is also responsible for the education program for coaches in the Karate Association of Slovenia, and runs workshops and seminars on the issue of how to cope better with stress, using various physical techniques with the aim of creating a physical and emotional balance. Aldo TOLLINI studied Japanese at the University Ca' Foscari in Venice, Italy. His interests are medieval Japanese culture, especially Buddhism, the culture of tea, and the translation of classical Japanese texts. He has published books such as Antologia del buddhismo giapponese (2009), Lo Zen. Storia, scuole, testi (2012), La cultura del Tè in Giappone e la ricerca della perfezione (2014) and L'ideale della Via (2017). Mikko VILENIUS received his PhD from the University of Electro Communications, Tokyo, Japan in His thesis topic was supporting collaborative learning activities in informal learning on-line. He has been working as a researcher in educational technology since 2010, first in the Japan Institute of Educational Measurements, and later in EduLab, Inc. Dr Vilenius has been living in Japan for over 10 years, and actively practising Kashima-Shinryū. He has received the rank of menkyo-kaiden and is recognised as an official instructor by the Kashima-Shinryū Federation of Martial Sciences. Nataša VISOČNIK earned her degree in ethnology and cultural anthropology and Japanese studies from the University of Ljubljana. In 2009 she received her PhD from the Department of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology, from the Faculty of Arts at the University of Ljubljana. She is currently an Assistant Professor at the Department of Asian Studies at the same university. She has published a monograph on housing and identity in Japan, A House as a Place of Identity (2011), and various articles relating to identity, the anthropology of space and body, and minority issues in Japan. 44

45 Mateja ŽABJEK is doctoral student at the Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, the University of Tsukuba, Japan. Her research field is sociology and religious studies, and more specifically religious traditions and practices and their influence on Japanese martial arts. Ari YLINIEMELÄ is a graduate from the University of Helsinki, Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry. He started Kashima-Shinryū training in Japan in 1992, and was awarded the rank of menkyo-kaiden in He works at the Finnish subunit of the Phoenix Group, responsible for the analysis, planning and execution of development projects related to the EU Falsified Medicines Directive. 45

46

47

48 Supported by CENTER ZA JAPONSKE ŠTUDIJE 日本研究センター DEPARTMENT OF ASIAN AND AFRICAN STUDIES Endorsed by

BU - DO FUNDAMENTALS AND COMPETITION

BU - DO FUNDAMENTALS AND COMPETITION BU - DO FUNDAMENTALS AND COMPETITION The First Budo Congress was held October 5, 2007 at the Polish Olympic Committee Hall in Warsaw, Poland. This historic Congress was attended by top Budo leaders as

More information

The Western Heritage Since th Edition, AP Edition 2014

The Western Heritage Since th Edition, AP Edition 2014 A Correlation of The Western Heritage Since 1300 11th Edition, AP Edition 2014 Advanced Placement Course Topic Outline AP is a trademark registered and/or owned by the College Board, which was not involved

More information

Statement on the occasion of the adoption of the resolution. Building a peaceful and better world through sport and.

Statement on the occasion of the adoption of the resolution. Building a peaceful and better world through sport and. Thomas Bach President Statement on the occasion of the adoption of the resolution Building a peaceful and better world through sport and the Olympic ideal 68 th Session of the UN General Assembly New York,

More information

James Mitose and the. Path of Kenpo

James Mitose and the. Path of Kenpo James Mitose and the Path of Kenpo Copyright 2006 by White Tiger Production All rights are reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No Part of this book may be used or reproduced in any form

More information

Warriors of the Word: The World of the Scottish Highlanders, Michael Newton Edinburgh: Birlinn Books, (ISBN ). 424pp.

Warriors of the Word: The World of the Scottish Highlanders, Michael Newton Edinburgh: Birlinn Books, (ISBN ). 424pp. Warriors of the Word: The World of the Scottish Highlanders, Michael Newton Edinburgh: Birlinn Books, 2009. (ISBN 978 1 84158 826 1). 424pp. Kevin Grant (University of Glasgow) The world of the Scottish

More information

BOOK REVIEW REVIEWER DOI. Kendo: Culture of the Sword Alexander C. Bennett. University of California Press, pages $32.95 / 24.

BOOK REVIEW REVIEWER DOI. Kendo: Culture of the Sword Alexander C. Bennett. University of California Press, pages $32.95 / 24. BOOK REVIEW University of California Press, 2015 328 pages $32.95 / 24.95 The easily accessible writing and rich information contained in Kendo: Culture of the Sword [2015] makes it an essential work for

More information

Assessment: The Rise of the Warrior Class in Japan

Assessment: The Rise of the Warrior Class in Japan Name Date Assessment: The Rise of the Warrior Class in Japan Mastering the Content Circle the letter next to the best answer. 1. How did Japanese government change after Minamoto Yoritomo came to power

More information

Multiple Levels of Teaching & Training in Tang Soo Do Jack Sanders-Reed Sam Dan Essay November 11, 2005

Multiple Levels of Teaching & Training in Tang Soo Do Jack Sanders-Reed Sam Dan Essay November 11, 2005 Multiple Levels of Teaching & Training in Tang Soo Do Jack Sanders-Reed Sam Dan Essay November 11, 2005 As I progress in Tang Soo Do, I am beginning to come to the conclusion that many of the outwardly

More information

Japanese Budō (Martial Ways)

Japanese Budō (Martial Ways) Japanese Budō (Martial Ways) The martial ways of Japan as we know them today are called budo and they are derived from fighting techniques that were used in the battlefields of feudal Japan known as bujutsu.

More information

Introduction. The Back Story. Participating Countries. Sports. The Brand and Mascot

Introduction. The Back Story. Participating Countries. Sports. The Brand and Mascot PRESS RELEASE Introduction In September 2017 Ashgabat will host the 5th Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games; attracting 5,500 athletes from the 62 National Olympic Committees of Asia and Oceania to participate

More information

PREVIEW 22. Check the skills, knowledge, and values that you believe should be taught to American soldiers. 1. Swimming. 2. The use of a rifle

PREVIEW 22. Check the skills, knowledge, and values that you believe should be taught to American soldiers. 1. Swimming. 2. The use of a rifle PREVIEW 22 Check the skills, knowledge, and values that you believe should be taught to American soldiers. 1. Swimming 2. The use of a rifle 3. Driving a motor vehicle 4. Acceptance of hardships without

More information

Black on White New Zealand at the Olympic Winter Games

Black on White New Zealand at the Olympic Winter Games Black on White New Zealand at the Olympic Winter Games The teaching notes for this resource have been designed for Year 7/8 students with a focus on Sports Studies at level four of Health and Physical

More information

CHAMPIONS OF OUR BRAND

CHAMPIONS OF OUR BRAND CHAMPIONS OF OUR BRAND THE PGA OF AMERICA BRAND BOOK DEDICATED TO GROWING OUR BRAND As we continue to honor golf s rich heritage, we also look for ways to modernize so that our game is engaging and accessible.

More information

2015 International Day of Sport for Development and Peace

2015 International Day of Sport for Development and Peace Thomas Bach President 2015 International Day of Sport for Development and Peace United Action Towards Sustainable Development for All Through Sport United Nations Headquarters, New York, 15 April 2015

More information

Which Aspects are able to Influence the Decision in Case of the Bids for the Olympic Games 2024?

Which Aspects are able to Influence the Decision in Case of the Bids for the Olympic Games 2024? Proceedings of FIKUSZ 16 Symposium for Young Researchers, 2016, 19-30 pp The Author(s). Conference Proceedings compilation Obuda University Keleti Faculty of Business and Management 2016. Published by

More information

THE WAY OF JUDO: A PORTRAIT OF JIGORO KANO AND HIS STUDENTS BY JOHN STEVENS

THE WAY OF JUDO: A PORTRAIT OF JIGORO KANO AND HIS STUDENTS BY JOHN STEVENS THE WAY OF JUDO: A PORTRAIT OF JIGORO KANO AND HIS STUDENTS BY JOHN STEVENS DOWNLOAD EBOOK : THE WAY OF JUDO: A PORTRAIT OF JIGORO KANO AND Click link bellow and free register to download ebook: THE WAY

More information

ike the Olympic Games, Celebrate Humanity transcends sport. Like the Olympic Games,

ike the Olympic Games, Celebrate Humanity transcends sport. Like the Olympic Games, ike the Olympic Games, Celebrate Humanity transcends sport. Like the Olympic Games, Celebrate Humanity delivers a universal message to all people. The 2004 campaign s storytellers having achieved acclaim

More information

Report Subject: Netball participation and social class

Report Subject: Netball participation and social class Report Subject: Netball participation and social class briefing paper Background For many years, research has highlighted variations in the levels of sports participation across different socioeconomic

More information

Development of Empty-Handed Fighting in China

Development of Empty-Handed Fighting in China Chinese Origins The form of empty-handed fighting, which we know as karate, is generally traced to the exercises which were developed at the famous Shaolin Monastery in the Hunan district of China, the

More information

Kyudo: The Way Of The Bow By Feliks F. Hoff

Kyudo: The Way Of The Bow By Feliks F. Hoff Kyudo: The Way Of The Bow By Feliks F. Hoff Kyudo: The Way of the Bow with Alex Halpern Shambhala - On Sunday April 8, sitting times are from 5pm to 6:30pm due to a Shambhala Training program. Kyudo: Japanese

More information

Efficacy of Static and Dynamic Distance Perception on Kumite Performance in Karate

Efficacy of Static and Dynamic Distance Perception on Kumite Performance in Karate World Journal of Sport Sciences 3 (S): 205-209, 2010 ISSN 2078-4724 IDOSI Publications, 2010 Efficacy of Static and Dynamic Distance Perception on Kumite Performance in Karate Ahmed M. Abd El-Kader Department

More information

Board Approved First Revision, April 2006 MISSION STATEMENT

Board Approved First Revision, April 2006 MISSION STATEMENT STRATEGIC PLAN Board Approved 2005 - First Revision, April 2006 MISSION STATEMENT The Pyramid Society is devoted to the preservation, perpetuation, and promotion of the Straight Egyptian horse as the premiere

More information

Newsletter February 2015

Newsletter February 2015 Newsletter February 2015 History of the Kenpo Style Of all the major Martial Arts styles, Kenpo's origin and history are the least understood and the most confusing. Kenpo's Cultural Influences Kenpo is

More information

The Mobile Mardi Gras Trail

The Mobile Mardi Gras Trail The Mobile Mardi Gras Trail is a non-profit initiative, created to increase public access to Mobile's history and the arts. The Mardi Gras Trail a series of prominent historic markers which tell Mobile

More information

steps to designing effective practice

steps to designing effective practice 22 23 steps to designing effective practice How do you decide what coaching practices to deliver? And what process do you follow when designing the practice? Here, FA Youth Coach Educator, Ben Bartlett,

More information

1 FOOTBALL COMMUNITY

1 FOOTBALL COMMUNITY 1 FOOTBALL COMMUNITY FOOTBALL COMMUNITY FOOTBALL PLAYERS FOOTBALL COMMUNITY All Australians who love, watch and play Football SITUATION Football reaches into more households, more parks and school grounds

More information

TRAINING CHILDREN IN KARATE

TRAINING CHILDREN IN KARATE TRAINING CHILDREN IN KARATE PURPOSE AND USE OF EQUIPMENT by Edward A. Rumick A paper submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Yon Dan American JKA-International 2013 Approved

More information

World Wrestling Plan. Our strategy for a stronger future. Round 1:

World Wrestling Plan. Our strategy for a stronger future. Round 1: World Wrestling Plan Our strategy for a stronger future Round 1: 2013-2016 Table of Contents Why a World Wrestling Plan? Page 04 How does the Plan work? Page 07 Phase 1: The International Level Page 08

More information

Tokyo 2020 Action & Legacy Plan 2016

Tokyo 2020 Action & Legacy Plan 2016 Tokyo 2020 Action & Legacy Plan 2016 Participating in the Tokyo 2020 Games, Connecting with Tomorrow July 2016 The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games Table of Contents Tokyo2020

More information

The Academy motto is, We Build Character, and for almost twenty-five years

The Academy motto is, We Build Character, and for almost twenty-five years The Academy motto is, We Build Character, and for almost twenty-five years Wilcoxen s Family Academy has been fulfilling that goal. Eddie D. Wilcoxen is a nationally recognized Master Instructor, a three

More information

} In 1185 Minamoto Yoritomo came to power in Japan. In 1192, he took the title of shogun, or commander-in-chief.

} In 1185 Minamoto Yoritomo came to power in Japan. In 1192, he took the title of shogun, or commander-in-chief. } In 1185 Minamoto Yoritomo came to power in Japan. In 1192, he took the title of shogun, or commander-in-chief. } Yoritomo did not take the place of the emperor. Instead, he set up a military government

More information

U.S. Government and Politics Core

U.S. Government and Politics Core Unit 1: Principles of Government Lesson 1.1: The Purposes and Origins of Government 1.1.1: Study - The Purposes of Government Duration: 30 min 1.1.2: Discuss - Who Are You? Duration: 20 min / 10 1.1.3:

More information

Standard 1(Making): The student will explore and refine the application of media, techniques, and artistic processes.

Standard 1(Making): The student will explore and refine the application of media, techniques, and artistic processes. Lesson 3 Giant Kites of Guatemala: Day of the Dead (Dia de los Muertos); A Cultural Holiday LESSON OVERVIEW/OBJECTIVES These lessons introduce the giant kites of Guatemala, an element of Day of the Dead

More information

section four The Value of Salt Lake 2002 Olympic Sponsorship The Salt Lake 2002 sponsorship overview

section four The Value of Salt Lake 2002 Olympic Sponsorship The Salt Lake 2002 sponsorship overview 4 The Salt Lake 2002 sponsorship overview The Value of Salt Lake 2002 Olympic Sponsorship PARTNERSHIP WITH THE OLYMPIC MOVEMENT AND THE OLYMPIC GAMES IS THE MOST powerful corporate marketing opportunity

More information

The RCM Analyst - Beyond RCM

The RCM Analyst - Beyond RCM The RCM Analyst - Beyond RCM darylm@strategic-advantages.com About the Author: Daryl Mather was originally trained in RCM in 1991, after which he was involved in the application of the method through a

More information

The importance of t. Gordon Craig, Coerver Coaching Director

The importance of t. Gordon Craig, Coerver Coaching Director Gordon Craig, Coerver Coaching Director The importance of t Inspired by the ideas of the Dutch coach, Wiel Coerver in the 60 s, that all the great skills from the top players at the time could be taught

More information

Geography Olympiads in Estonia

Geography Olympiads in Estonia Geography Olympiads in Estonia Ülle Liiber and Jüri Roosaare University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia doi: 0.67/irgeeD.0 Keywords: Geography Olympiad, geographical skills, research, prestige The Olympiads in

More information

Introduction QUADRENNIAL PLAN

Introduction QUADRENNIAL PLAN 2017-2020 QUADRENNIAL PLAN Introduction We are pleased to present to you in this leaflet Olympic Solidarity (OS) s objectives, budgets and programmes established for the 2017-2020 quadrennial plan. The

More information

2018 ICEE ICFA ANNUAL CONFERENCE

2018 ICEE ICFA ANNUAL CONFERENCE November 11-17, 2018 la Caixa Foundation Madrid Barcelona CALL FOR PAPERS March-April 2018 2018 ICEE ICFA ANNUAL CONFERENCE www.exhibitionexchange.com Cultural Heritage: Transition and Transformation 2018

More information

The Chinese Olympics and the Expectations for the Beijing Olympic Games WANG JUN PH.D & PROF. CHINA SPORTS MUSEUM

The Chinese Olympics and the Expectations for the Beijing Olympic Games WANG JUN PH.D & PROF. CHINA SPORTS MUSEUM The Chinese Olympics and the Expectations for the Beijing Olympic Games WANG JUN PH.D & PROF. CHINA SPORTS MUSEUM 1 The import of Western sport in the end of Qin Dynasty (1840-1911) 2 The Olympics and

More information

Report on Activities ~ Oct Feb 2014

Report on Activities ~ Oct Feb 2014 ANGLIA RUSKIN JUDO RESEARCH GROUP (ARJRG) Report on Activities ~ Oct 2012 - Feb 2014 The Anglia Ruskin Judo Research Group ARJRG was formed on 23 October 2012, World Judo Day. The Research Group provides

More information

Vision2020 Emerging Themes Top-Line

Vision2020 Emerging Themes Top-Line Vision2020 Emerging Themes Top-Line 1. Irish Rugby-Values & Vision Now Irish Rugby is the term used to describe rugby in Ireland from mini rugby to the professional team. It encompasses all stakeholders

More information

Lord of the Flies by William Golding Revision Notes. irevise.com Lord of the Flies Revision Notes.

Lord of the Flies by William Golding Revision Notes. irevise.com Lord of the Flies Revision Notes. Lord of the Flies by William Golding Revision Notes irevise.com 2016 1 Lord of the Flies Revision Notes. irevise.com 2016. All revision notes have been produced by mockness ltd for irevise.com. Email:

More information

THE NATIONAL BLACK BELT KARATE ASSOCIATION, FOUNDATION TANG SOO DO TRAINING. Taken from the World Moo Duk Kwan Tang Soo Do Federation Student Manual

THE NATIONAL BLACK BELT KARATE ASSOCIATION, FOUNDATION TANG SOO DO TRAINING. Taken from the World Moo Duk Kwan Tang Soo Do Federation Student Manual THE NATIONAL BLACK BELT KARATE ASSOCIATION, FOUNDATION TANG SOO DO TRAINING Taken from the World Moo Duk Kwan Tang Soo Do Federation Student Manual Edited by Master Gerald Brown, B.S., National Black Belt

More information

INTERNATIONAL DECADE OF OCEAN SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ( ) OUTLINE

INTERNATIONAL DECADE OF OCEAN SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ( ) OUTLINE 39th Session, Paris, 2017 39 C 39 C/52 19 October 2017 Original: English Item 4.13 of the provisional agenda INTERNATIONAL DECADE OF OCEAN SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (2021-2030) OUTLINE Source:

More information

Shotokan Mysteries: The Hidden Answers to the Secrets of Shotokan Karate

Shotokan Mysteries: The Hidden Answers to the Secrets of Shotokan Karate Shotokan Mysteries: The Hidden Answers to the Secrets of Shotokan Karate 260 pages / 2013 / Shotokan Mysteries: The Hidden Answers to the Secrets of Shotokan Karate / 1483612384, 9781483612386 / Xlibris

More information

Jacques Rogge Opening Session New York, 5 June 2013

Jacques Rogge Opening Session New York, 5 June 2013 3 rd International Forum on Sport for Peace and Development Jacques Rogge Opening Session New York, 5 June 2013 Dear Secretary General, Ministers, Excellencies, Members of the Olympic Family, Distinguished

More information

Civil Society. Dialogue for Progress

Civil Society. Dialogue for Progress By Madona Gasanova It took George, 15, about two years to rebuild his life aſter getting hit by a car on his way to school. He is lucky to still be alive; other people are not so lucky. In George's words,

More information

Comparisons of the IMO and IOI

Comparisons of the IMO and IOI Olympiads in Informatics, 2012, Vol. 6, 199 204 199 2012 Vilnius University Comparisons of the IMO and IOI Peter TAYLOR Australian Mathematics Trust, University of Canberra ACT 2601 Australia e-mail: pjt013@gmail.com

More information

Inequality in America : The 1% in International and Historical Perspective

Inequality in America : The 1% in International and Historical Perspective Inequality in America : The 1% in International and Historical Perspective Thomas Piketty Paris School of Economics Columbia University, September 27 2012 Inequality & capitalism in the long run Long run

More information

Bruce Lee s Qi Magazine 22

Bruce Lee s Qi Magazine 22 Qi Magazine 22 Bruce Ted Wong Preserving Jeet Kune Do On 20th July 1973, a famous martial artist and movie star passed away. This was twenty seven years ago but this person is still popular and his image

More information

When you have checked of all the techniques on you curriculum paper, you know you are nearly ready to test. Testing is generally every two months.

When you have checked of all the techniques on you curriculum paper, you know you are nearly ready to test. Testing is generally every two months. FAMILY KARATE RONIN DOJO Yellow 10 th Kyu OSS! This is a Japanese word meaning to push patience. Most of us define the word patience as: to wait, but in karate-do it means to understand that it takes time

More information

The Military Hero s Of Today And Those Of Homer s Iliad. Introduction

The Military Hero s Of Today And Those Of Homer s Iliad. Introduction The Military Hero s Of Today And Those Of Homer s Iliad Introduction In today s military, a hero is described as a person who goes out of their normal life to make significant changes in the battlefront.

More information

KORFBALL......at the turn of the twentieth century: attempting to invade the final male preserve, it s just not cricket...

KORFBALL......at the turn of the twentieth century: attempting to invade the final male preserve, it s just not cricket... KORFBALL......at the turn of the twentieth century: attempting to invade the final male preserve, it s just not cricket... INTRODUCTION Intro into what korfball is rules and values/philosophies Overview

More information

LEARN ENGLISH PLAYING BEAUTIFUL FOOTBALL

LEARN ENGLISH PLAYING BEAUTIFUL FOOTBALL CITY FOOTBALL LANGUAGE SCHOOL LEARN ENGLISH PLAYING BEAUTIFUL FOOTBALL 2018 COURSES AT MANCHESTER CITY DELIVERED BY We look forward to welcoming young players from all over the world to the City Football

More information

IMAF 2007 Autumn Headquarters Seminar

IMAF 2007 Autumn Headquarters Seminar G E N D O Commit oneself to maximum efficiency, and mutual benefit in all endeavors UPCOMING EVENTS 2008 IMAF HQ Japan Tour Date: March 16 th - 29 th Location: Tokyo, Japan The objectives of the Kokusai

More information

Title: Soccer culture of Japan and Australia. Topic: Consider soccer intellectually

Title: Soccer culture of Japan and Australia. Topic: Consider soccer intellectually Title: Soccer culture of Japan and Australia Topic: Consider soccer intellectually Introduction Each country has its own soccer culture. First, I need to give some descriptions about soccer cultures. It

More information

Warm-Up: Imagine you are a samurai invited to the New Year dinner by the Shogun. What do you think will be on the menu and served for dinner tonight?

Warm-Up: Imagine you are a samurai invited to the New Year dinner by the Shogun. What do you think will be on the menu and served for dinner tonight? The Samurai Warm-Up: Imagine you are a samurai invited to the New Year dinner by the Shogun. What do you think will be on the menu and served for dinner tonight? The Menu The Menu in early medieval Japan

More information

ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES 5272 Turfgrass Soils (2 Credit Hours) Semester Syllabus

ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES 5272 Turfgrass Soils (2 Credit Hours) Semester Syllabus Course Instructor: ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES 5272 Turfgrass Soils (2 Credit Hours) Semester Syllabus Dr. Ed McCoy Associate Professor 412C Kottman Hall mccoy.13@osu.edu 330-466-8758 (cell) Face-to-face

More information

SOCIAL CAPITAL DIMENSIONS AND CIVIL SOCIETY: INCLUSIVE VS. EXCLUSIONARY SOCIAL CAPITAL IN SPORT GOVERNANCE

SOCIAL CAPITAL DIMENSIONS AND CIVIL SOCIETY: INCLUSIVE VS. EXCLUSIONARY SOCIAL CAPITAL IN SPORT GOVERNANCE SOCIAL CAPITAL DIMENSIONS AND CIVIL SOCIETY: INCLUSIVE VS. EXCLUSIONARY SOCIAL CAPITAL IN SPORT GOVERNANCE Dr. Nikolaos Patsantaras & Dr. Irene Kamberidou The University of Athens, Faculty of Sport Sciences

More information

KAZUTAKA OTSUKA. Interview Angoulême 2008 workshop. «Wado-Ryu is way of peace and harmony. - Amicale Balam

KAZUTAKA OTSUKA. Interview Angoulême 2008 workshop. «Wado-Ryu is way of peace and harmony. - Amicale Balam KAZUTAKA OTSUKA Interview Angoulême 2008 workshop «Wado-Ryu is way of peace and harmony. What are the principles of Wado Ryu? Kazutaka Otsuka : Wado Ryu is way of peace and harmony. What is Budo and why

More information

For The Beginners. Dear Parent and Beginner Student

For The Beginners. Dear Parent and Beginner Student For The Beginners Dear Parent and Beginner Student We want to personally thank you for choosing Winter Haven Budokai. We are proud of the training programs we have to offer and believe you won t find a

More information

LOST? EQUUS. How We Misunderstand the Nature of the Horse-Human Relationship Plus, Brave New Ideas for the Future

LOST? EQUUS. How We Misunderstand the Nature of the Horse-Human Relationship Plus, Brave New Ideas for the Future Dare to Change Your Perspective for the Good of the Horse EQUUS LOST? Is everything we think we know about horses wrong? Two researchers think there s a better way. How We Misunderstand the Nature of the

More information

The «Do» and the importance of teaching of the «Do» in the ITF TKD

The «Do» and the importance of teaching of the «Do» in the ITF TKD April/May 2004 The «Do» and the importance of teaching of the «Do» in the ITF TKD Message of the President for the 49 th anniversary of TaeKwon-Do What is Taekwon-Do? Taekwon-Do is a form of martial art.

More information

The Science and Practice of Racket Sport for Improved performance and Health

The Science and Practice of Racket Sport for Improved performance and Health The Science and Practice of Racket Sport for Improved performance and Health Special Focus on Table Tennis 25-27th April, 2018, Halmstad University, SWEDEN Innovations at work Explore Sports With the future

More information

WORLD. Geographic Trend Report for GMAT Examinees

WORLD. Geographic Trend Report for GMAT Examinees 2012 WORLD Geographic Trend Report for GMAT Examinees WORLD Geographic Trend Report for GMAT Examinees The World Geographic Trend Report for GMAT Examinees identifies mobility trends among candidates applying

More information

Lex Chalmers: Important things, they are very important. I m also assignment writer. It s supposed to be a secret. I m just kidding.

Lex Chalmers: Important things, they are very important. I m also assignment writer. It s supposed to be a secret. I m just kidding. Ksenia Ivanenko: Thank you so much for your time. Could you first introduce yourselves, tell a few words about what you are, and what your role in organizing this event was. Su-Min Shen: My name s Su-Min

More information

COACHING BLUEPRINT COACHING

COACHING BLUEPRINT COACHING COACHING BLUEPRINT COACHING CONTENTS Introduction 05 Netball Australia Coaching Blueprint 06 Coach Development Objectives 10 Implementation Drivers 12 The Netball Coaching Community 13 Coaching Community

More information

COACHING SAFETY GUIDELINES For all leaders of orienteering activity and coaching sessions in schools, outdoor centres, clubs and squads

COACHING SAFETY GUIDELINES For all leaders of orienteering activity and coaching sessions in schools, outdoor centres, clubs and squads COACHING SAFETY GUIDELINES For all leaders of orienteering activity and coaching sessions in schools, outdoor centres, clubs and squads This document is offered as a guide. Each organisation or individual

More information

Study (s) Degree Center Acad. Period FACULTY OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE AND SPORT FACULTY OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE AND SPORT

Study (s) Degree Center Acad. Period FACULTY OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE AND SPORT FACULTY OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE AND SPORT COURSE DATA Data Subject Code 33214 Name Judo Cycle Grade ECTS Credits 6.0 Academic year 2017 2018 Study (s) Degree Center Acad. Period year 1312 Grado de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte

More information

Road safety training for professional drivers: worldwide practices

Road safety training for professional drivers: worldwide practices International Conference on Traffic Safety: The impact of Education and Training on Traffic Behaviour Abu Dhabi, UAE 1-2 November, 2017 Road safety training for professional drivers: worldwide practices

More information

COMMON CORE Lessons & Activities SAMPLE

COMMON CORE Lessons & Activities SAMPLE COMMON CORE Lessons & Activities TEACH IT TODAY! About this Book This Common Core Lessons and Activities Book allows you to immediately meet new Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts, as

More information

Koryu-no-kata and the Key Thoughts of Aikido Produced by Kenji Tomiki. Fumiaki Shishida 1

Koryu-no-kata and the Key Thoughts of Aikido Produced by Kenji Tomiki. Fumiaki Shishida 1 Aikido Lecture & Seminar at the 11th TAIN International Festival / 2015 Aikido World Championships On Thursday October 22, 2015. Koryu-no-kata and the Key Thoughts of Aikido Produced by Kenji Tomiki Fumiaki

More information

2017 Sporting Chance Forum Geneva, 30 November 2017

2017 Sporting Chance Forum Geneva, 30 November 2017 Thomas Bach President 2017 Sporting Chance Forum Geneva, 30 November 2017 Thank you for the opportunity to address you here today on this important topic of human rights in sport. The Director General

More information

Code Name: Part 1: (70 points. Answer on this paper. 2.5 pts each unless noted.)

Code Name: Part 1: (70 points. Answer on this paper. 2.5 pts each unless noted.) Code Name: Part 1: (70 points. Answer on this paper. 2.5 pts each unless noted.) 1. It s 2020 and you are studying two nations: 1) Leadernam and 2) Followerstan. In 2020 Leadernam s GDP/capita ($35,000)

More information

Large scale European Voluntary Service Event

Large scale European Voluntary Service Event Large scale European Voluntary Service Event Infopack Tarragona - SPAIN Who are we? Asociación Mundus- Un Mundo a Tus Pies has been established in 2013 with main headquarters in Badalona (Barcelona), Spain.

More information

PRINCE ALI Candidate for President of FIFA

PRINCE ALI Candidate for President of FIFA HRH PRINCE ALI: VISION AND FRAMEWORK FOR THE FUTURE OF FIFA AND FOOTBALL The selection of the next FIFA President is now in the hands of 209 National Football Associations. They are the driving force behind

More information

Principles guiding Sport NI investment in Sporting Clubs and Sporting Winners objectives.

Principles guiding Sport NI investment in Sporting Clubs and Sporting Winners objectives. Enjoy Engage Excel Principles guiding Sport NI investment in Sporting Clubs and Sporting Winners objectives. Page 1 of 8 1. Background 1.1. This paper outlines a number of proposals that aim to contribute

More information

Then let s look at how a snapback works. Take a look at the following formula:

Then let s look at how a snapback works. Take a look at the following formula: Myth: Snapback in Mae geri During your training in the past, have you ever heard some instructors yell, More snapback! or Faster snapback! while you were doing mae geri? Do you also remember that their

More information

BRING THE POWER OF CRICKET INTO YOUR SCHOOL

BRING THE POWER OF CRICKET INTO YOUR SCHOOL BRING THE POWER OF CRICKET INTO YOUR SCHOOL HOWZAT! Chance to Shine is a charity that provides free coaching and teaching resources for state schools. Welcome to the new Chance to Shine primary schools

More information

Growing artists in excellence and in ministry Class Schedule

Growing artists in excellence and in ministry Class Schedule Growing artists in excellence and in ministry 2017-2018 Class Schedule 2017-2018 August 21-December 4 January 8 April 23 MONDAY Private Lesson Times beginning @ 2:30 pm 3:45-5:00 1 st -4 th Ballet & Jazz

More information

*NOTE: Sensei Amin is a certified examiner and is assisted by registered members of the ISKF Instructor Training Program.

*NOTE: Sensei Amin is a certified examiner and is assisted by registered members of the ISKF Instructor Training Program. THE KYU EXAMINATION The following information is intended for students, and parents of students, of the Shotokan Karate Club of Hagerstown. We have a kyu examination scheduled at the end of every session.

More information

EN GARDE! Swashbuckling Skirmish Wargames Rules OSPREY WARGAMES. Craig Woodfield 21/09/ :58

EN GARDE! Swashbuckling Skirmish Wargames Rules OSPREY WARGAMES. Craig Woodfield 21/09/ :58 EN GARDE! Swashbuckling Skirmish Wargames Rules Craig Woodfield OSPREY WARGAMES 21/09/2015 13:58 AUTHOR Craig Woodfield is a defence analyst from Canberra, Australia, and has previously written for magazines

More information

DANCE (DANCE) (DANCE)

DANCE (DANCE) (DANCE) 125 DANCE (DANCE) Dance is self aware movement which begins in solitude and becomes ever more public up to and including being a disciplined art form. It can incorporate movement - with stories, music,

More information

THE SCIENCE OF RUGBY

THE SCIENCE OF RUGBY THE SCIENCE OF RUGBY Welcome to the Irish Rugby Institute The IRI Rugby Experience Let s talk about our unique offer of Rugby Camps and Tours : Experienced, professional and passionate coaching team. Sports

More information

Information Pack (PPDT) Your Self Protection Is In Your Hands Safe - Smart - Realistic. PPDT Pressure Point Defensive Tactics

Information Pack (PPDT) Your Self Protection Is In Your Hands Safe - Smart - Realistic. PPDT Pressure Point Defensive Tactics (PPDT) Your Self Protection Is In Your Hands Safe - Smart - Realistic Information Pack PPDT Courses The Courses are now available in Australia through www.pressurepointdefensivetactics.com and Taekwonjitsu

More information

BROADCASTING THE OLYMPIC GAMES

BROADCASTING THE OLYMPIC GAMES Information Sheet BROADCASTING THE OLYMPIC GAMES THE MEDIA AND THE OLYMPIC GAMES HISTORICAL OVERVIEW 1 The Media and the Olympic Games the major Stages Information Sheet Introduction Table of contents

More information

THEMATIC UNIT. Baseball. Written by Robert Smith

THEMATIC UNIT. Baseball. Written by Robert Smith THEMATIC UNIT Baseball Written by Robert Smith Teacher Created Materials, Inc. 6421 Industry Way Westminster, CA 92683 www.teachercreated.com 2001 Teacher Created Materials, Inc. Made in U.S.A. ISBN-0-7439-3102-5

More information

OVERVIEW of Sport and society. Discuss the statement: It is not the game that has changed but the players.

OVERVIEW of Sport and society. Discuss the statement: It is not the game that has changed but the players. OVERVIEW of Sport and society Discuss the statement: It is not the game that has changed but the players. A. Overview Ethics and Deviance There are four dimensions of sport ethic; sacrifices; striving

More information

MISTRAL: the best partner for your Erasmus + in Lecco

MISTRAL: the best partner for your Erasmus + in Lecco MISTRAL: the best partner for your Erasmus + in Lecco Information guide 2016/2017 LECCO: BETWEEN BREATH-TAKING LANDSCAPES AND CULTURE From the mountain to the lake, from the monuments to Manzoni s itineraries,

More information

DESIGNING PERCEPTUAL MOTOR SKILL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS FOR SQUASH

DESIGNING PERCEPTUAL MOTOR SKILL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS FOR SQUASH DESIGNING PERCEPTUAL MOTOR SKILL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS FOR SQUASH by Roger Flynn (Grad. Dip. Elite Sports Coaching) Designing Perceptual Motor Skill Development Programs for Squash Introduction by Roger

More information

The Art Of War By Sun Tzu (English And Mandarin Chinese Edition) By Sun Tzu, Lionel Giles READ ONLINE

The Art Of War By Sun Tzu (English And Mandarin Chinese Edition) By Sun Tzu, Lionel Giles READ ONLINE The Art Of War By Sun Tzu (English And Mandarin Chinese Edition) By Sun Tzu, Lionel Giles READ ONLINE The Art of War is an ancient Chinese military treatise dating from the Spring and Autumn period The

More information

Kyokushin Kata. Literally translated, kata means "shape which cuts the ground".

Kyokushin Kata. Literally translated, kata means shape which cuts the ground. Kyokushin Kata The word kata means "shape" or "form". The kanji for kata the Japanese character above at the right) is composed of the following characters: Katachi meaning "Shape", Kai meaning "Cut",

More information

World Baseball Academy, Inc. 501(c)3 Non Profit. Tournament Director. Job Description. Using the platform of baseball to develop future leaders

World Baseball Academy, Inc. 501(c)3 Non Profit. Tournament Director. Job Description. Using the platform of baseball to develop future leaders Tournament Director Job Description Using the platform of baseball to develop future leaders LETTER FROM DIRECTOR OF OPERATIONS The strategic vision of World Baseball Academy is to develop leaders who

More information

FÉDÉRATION INTERNATIONALE DE SKI INTERNATIONAL SKI FEDERATION INTERNATIONALER SKI VERBAND OLYMPIC SOLIDARITY TOOL KIT

FÉDÉRATION INTERNATIONALE DE SKI INTERNATIONAL SKI FEDERATION INTERNATIONALER SKI VERBAND OLYMPIC SOLIDARITY TOOL KIT FÉDÉRATION INTERNATIONALE DE SKI INTERNATIONAL SKI FEDERATION INTERNATIONALER SKI VERBAND OLYMPIC SOLIDARITY TOOL KIT The Olympic Solidarity contributes significantly to the extensive work FIS is undertaking

More information

KORFBALL SPORT IN THE MIXED ZONE

KORFBALL SPORT IN THE MIXED ZONE KORFBALL SPORT IN THE MIXED ZONE An extra dimension - that no other sport can offer Welcome to korfball, the world s only mixed team sport. Since its earliest development, korfball teams have consisted

More information

YOUNG AMBASSADORS+ PHASE 2

YOUNG AMBASSADORS+ PHASE 2 YOUNG AMBASSADORS+ PHASE 2 YOUNG AMBASSADORS+ As a Young Ambassador you are part of an incredible worldwide network of inspirational young people bonded by a unique experience and equipped with the tools

More information

Classical Ballet Technique PDF

Classical Ballet Technique PDF Classical Ballet Technique PDF "Classical Ballet Technique is an invaluable guide for students, teachers, and ballet lovers. It not only covers the broad spectrum of ballet vocabulary but also gives sound,

More information

SUBJ NUMBER TITLE ASD or ASG AAST 1000 Introduction to African American Studies ASD AAST 1030 Social Justice in the 21st Century ASD AAST 2350

SUBJ NUMBER TITLE ASD or ASG AAST 1000 Introduction to African American Studies ASD AAST 1030 Social Justice in the 21st Century ASD AAST 2350 SUBJ NUMBER TITLE ASD or ASG AAST 1000 Introduction to African American Studies ASD AAST 1030 Social Justice in the 21st Century ASD AAST 2350 Introduction to African American Literature ASD AAST 2360

More information