SURVEY OF SYSTEM OF ATTACKS BY JUDOKA IN REGIONAL AND INTERREGIONAL MATCHES M. CALMET

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1 SURVEY OF SYSTEM OF ATTACKS BY JUDOKA IN REGIONAL AND INTERREGIONAL MATCHES M. CALMET Faculté des Sciences du Sport, Université de Montpellier 1 - France N. TREZEL Faculté des Sciences du Sport, Université d'amiens - France S. AHMAIDI Faculté des Sciences du Sport, Université d'amiens - France Address inquiries to: Michel Calmet, Université de Montpellier 1, Faculté des Sciences du Sport, 700 Avenue du Pic Saint Loup, Montpellier, France or

2 2 Summary: In judo, making the opponent uncertain requires the mastery of several throws in 3 or 4 different directions and a firm grasp to secure the throw. The system of attacks for 28 judoka (18 men, 10 women) during their 185 respective matches over the competition season of 2001'2002 was analyzed. Practice was regional or interregional. The mean number of matches was 3.3 ± 1.1. The mean number of successful directions of attack was 2.5 ± 1.3. The mean number of grasps was 1.4 ± 0.5. Analysis showed mean number of directions of attack was about 3 and was lower for higher competition although the mean time of matches did not vary in a significant way. Numbers of directions of attacks were constant for the higher classified judoka. The number of grasps used remained constant. Progress at this level of skill occurs by methodic learning of throws in a coordinated system of attacks. Throws must be complementary to other throws and initiated with one or several grasps. Keywords: combat sport; judo; level of practice; technical skills

3 3 The purpose of this work was to study adult judokas' behavior during competitive matches at regional and interregional competition. Judo is a martial sport comprised of three domains: competitive matches, technique, and self-defense (Courtine, 1977). The French championships organized by the French Judo Federation are constructed with four levels of competition: departmental, regional, interregional, and national. Competitors' skill indicates their level of competition. For example, a judoka who takes part in the 'interregional' championship was classified as 'interregional'. Judo occurs with both competitors standing but can be carried onto the ground. Partial points are assigned for attempted throws or other standing techniques as well as for grappling techniques on the ground. Ippon or decisive advantage ends the match. The uncertainty for each competitor, resides in the actions and behaviors of the other combatant. When standing, the mastery of several throws in different directions is necessary to create and direct this uncertainty successfully (Baudot, Urvoy & Pelletier, 1975; Calmet & Ahmaidi, 2004). At different competitions, how a judoka obtained advantage (when points were scored) was observed by noting their grasps and their directions of attacks. Confirmation was sought in the competition that the judoka obtained advantages, during the allowed time of several matches by using several techniques and three directions of attack. Comparison of these numbers of directions of attack by level of competition was of interest. METHOD From regional authorities of the French Judo Federation was obtained a list of 57 judoka (men and women) who were at least regional level competitors in 2001'2002 sporting year. The observations were based on these judoka at the times of the regional and interregional championships during the year 2001'2002. It is necessary to be at least 18 years old to participate.

4 4 To guarantee reliability of the observation, each matche was observed by two judoka with a minimum of a brown belt level, having practiced judo for at least three years. They trained 15 min as observers during training matches before the competition. With their agreement, each was assigned a combatant from within the list who was followed during the process of the competition. If a combatant was eliminated, another competitor from the list was assigned. In the contests the combatants are officially called up on different schedules by weight category, which allowed the one pair of observers to follow several candidates. The points awarded during the matches were recorded. Those announced officially by the referees were reported on a specific card, including 5 targets for every judoka (Janicot & Pouillart, 1997; Calmet & Ahmaidi, 2004), noting the direction of the attempted attack, the value assigned by the referee, and the kumi-kata or grasp used. The first four targets allowed collection of different attempted attacks during a matche (name and direction of the technique, score of the attack, grasp). The combatants, facing one another, do not have the same tactics or the same techniques. It is rare to see a judoka express all his expertise during a single match. The competition permits him to confront several judoka, and these different confrontations are likely elicit a variety of behaviors. The superposition of the matches (on the fifth target) is taken to represent the global mastery of a given judoka on tactical and technical skill. That last target records the information and produces a profile or system of attack for this combatant (French Judo Federation, 1985). Figure 1 illustrates one example after three matches of a combatant who organized himself in two directions of attack (right backward and right forward) while using two techniques (o soto gari and ippon seoi nage) with two grasps. As an example of the application of the profile, it would be necessary during training sessions to teach this judoka a third direction of attack.

5 5 The time of matches varies according to the category (4 min for the women and 5 min for the men at the time of the survey). Although match times varied for the men's or women's categories a comparison of the judoka's scores could be made. Dependent variables were : number of direction of attack, number of grasps, number of matches, total time of matches. The association's level of competition (regional vs interregional) on the various / dependent variables was tested for significance by using a Student paired t'test. A variance analysis (ANOVA) with localization of the level of difference by Boneferroni's post-hoc test was carried out to compare women's and men's results. The p value defined as significant was p<_.05. RESULTS For 41 judoka at the regional and interregional championship data were obtained and we retained those who had at least a mean number of 3 matches during 2 competitions. We got finally 28 judoka (18 men, 10 women) having participated in these two competitions, representing 185 matches surveyed. The mean number of matches was 3.3 ± 1.1, the mean number of directions of attack was 2.5 ± 1.3, the mean number of grasps was 1.4 ± 0.5 and the mean time of matches was 08:04 ± 03:12 which correspond to the values (07:00 to 08:00 ± 1 min) reported by Rambier (1991) and Castarlenas & Planas (1997). The mean of their black belt dan was 1.6 ± 0.7. The means and standard deviation of the dependent variables for each competition are presented in Table 1. Among those 28 judoka at the interregional and national competitions, 10 scored within the first 9 ranks of the interregional championships and 6 qualified for the national championships. Data were examined, for the 28 judoka, then by sex as male and female judoka, and with the 10 best classified. For 28 judoka in the regional and interregional competitions, the mean numbers of directions of attacks decreased significantly (t=3.06; p=.006). The mean numbers of grasps (F 1;28 =0.2; p=.7) was not statistically different, the mean numbers of matches (F 1;28 =7.1;

6 6 p=.013) decreased significantly but the mean time of matches (F 1;28 =0.14; p=.7) were not statistically significant (cf. Table 1). For 18 men judoka the ANOVA was significant (F 1;3 =27.1; p<_.001), the mean number of directions of attacks (F 1;17 =23.1; p<_.001) was significantly lower in interregional competition. The mean number of grasps (F 1;17 =0.3; p=0.6) was not statistically different. The mean number of matches (F 1;17 =17; p=0.001) decreased significantly but the mean time of matches (F 1;17 =0.1; p=0.8) was not statistically different. For 10 women judoka and the 10 better classified judoka, the ANOVA was not significant and respectively (F 1;3 =2; p=0.17) and (F 1;3 =0; p=1), the four variables may be considered as stable. DISCUSSION Results supported the first hypothesis, that competitors used mastery of at least 3 directions of attack to create uncertainty in the opponent. It is easy to oppose oneself against one force or one throw; it is always easy to oppose oneself against two forces or two throws: because there is respectively only one point or one axe to control these opposed forces. But with three forces in three directions (or three throws) one is obliged to adopt a compromise in keeping one's balance. From observing a match, some champions are able to win with one throw. But within the match how such a champion organizes his grasp creates the needed uncertainty. The opponent feels different directions of attack, he is vulnerable: it is easier to throw him. The analysis scores of 6 judoka awarded a medal during the European championships in 2001 and 2002 (Calmet, Ahmaidi, 2004), showed that these elite judoka react in at least 4 different directions (4.6 ± 0.8). In this present study, among the 10 better classified judoka, two judoka (1 man, 1 woman) used 5 directions of attacks in the national university championships. They respectively ranked overall 1 st and 5 th in this competition.

7 7 The second hypothesis was also supported. All 28 judoka and the 18 male judoka performed lower their mean number of directions of attack. For the 18 men, their mean number of directions of attacks was fewer although the mean time of matches was not significantly different. For the 10 women data surveyed were stable. Respectively, the mean of women's and men's black belt dan was 1.7 ± 0.7 and 1.5 ± 0.7. Are women better technician in judo than men? A Student t-test indicated no significantly difference between their black belt status (t=2.1; p=.57), but one must consider that these results could reflect that few female competitors were surveyed and that there are few women in competition. Women represent 25% of the members within the French Judo Federation. At the regional level, those judoka know one other well and neutralize one other more easily than participants in an interregional competition. The data on 10 judoka who were classified higher during the interregional federal championship showed the mean number of directions of attack was stable. CONCLUSION It seems necessary to refine training of competitors and the trainers to win and to be more proficient across 3 directions of attack during the matches. Learning the techniques must be done directly within the practice context of a match, along with a methodical system of techniques. The instructor or coach is responsible for that. But the French diploma (1 st State degree) which is necessary to teach judo in a club (decree of May 8th, 1974) requires, even today, during the examination, merely achieving a list of throwing techniques without mastery of the relations among them, the grasps or the tactical possibilities or strategic intentions. However, having 3 or 4 complementary projections from the same grasp would enable a judoka to master a system of attacks in a convenient and theoretically integrated manner. The recommendations of the French Judo Federation within its educational curriculum have been

8 8 consistent with that direction since 1989, but reorganizing the contents of that State diploma it would be necessary to institutionalize these recommendations. The collection of data is important, yet, these analyzes may be refine by evaluating the directions of measured attacks in addition to the directions of successful attacks. The attempted attacks would be subjective (not announced by the referee) so analyzing them carefully using video recordings would be necessary. Such a methodology should show the mean number of directions of attack as higher, but given such procedures more time consuming, fewer judoka could be observed. However, that might indicate how competitors could best train to increase their skills and their success in competition.

9 9 REFERENCES Baudot, G. Urvoy, G. Pelletier, G. (1975) Judo supérieur, enchaînements T3. Chilly Mazarin : Arphos Calmet, M. Ahmaidi, S. (2004) Survey of the advantages obtained by judoka in competition according to their level of practice. Perceptual and Motor Skills; 99: Castanerlas, JP. Planas, A. (1997 ) Estudi de l estructura temporel del combat de judo, Education Fisica Esport; 47: Courtine, H. (1977) Judo et jiu-jitsu. Paris : Livre de poche. Fédération Française de judo. (1985) Le judo des ans. Paris : FFJ. Janicot, D. Pouillart, G. (1997) Le judo, la technique, la tactique, la pratique. Paris : Milan Rambier, R. (1991) Programmation de l entraînement chez le judoka de haut niveau. 2 ème journée médicale de la F.F.J.D.A. : Paris

10 10 Table 1 : Means (M) and standard deviations (SD) for number of directions of attacks, number of grasps, number of matches, time for matches and black belt dan Judoka Directions of attacks Number of Grasps Number of Matches Time for matches Reg. IR Reg. IR Reg. IR Reg. IR Black belt dan All, 28 Men, 18 Women, 10 M min 44 sec 8 min 23 sec 1.6 SD min 28 sec 3 min 49 sec 0.7 M min 22 sec 8 min 01 sec 1.5 SD min 40 sec 3 min 57 sec 0.7 M min 35 sec 9 min 04 sec 1.7 SD min 34 sec 3 min 38 sec 0.7 Best M min 32 sec 11 min 43 sec 1.9 classified, 10 SD min 19 sec 1 min 20 sec 0.7 Regional and interregional championships

11 11 Fig. 1: Superposition of scores for one judoka with two grasps in 3 matches. Backward Right Backward I w-a y k Backward Left Right Left Forward Right Forward Forward Left Advantages : I = ippon; w-a = waza-ari; y = yuko; k = koka Ippon, waza-ari, yuko and koka are the different scores one can obtain during a match. Advantages of the matches are: Match 1: squares Koka with o soto gari Waza-ari with ippon seoi nage Match 2: circle Waza-ari with o soto gari Match 3: triangle Ippon with ippon seoi nage Diamonds indicate placement of hands for precise grasp first grasp second grasp

12 12 Fig 2 : Comparison of the means of the number of directions of attacks, number of grasps, number of matches, time of matches in regional ( ) and interregional ( ) matches for 28 judoka. 9,0 8,0 7,0 6,0 *** 07:44 08:23 Means 5,0 4,0 3,0 2,0 1,0 0,0 Direction Grasp Matche Time

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