2.1.1 and Monitoring Tools and Attract and Kill

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1 2.1.1 nd Monitoring Tools nd Attrct nd Kill

2 Discovery of the Aggregtion Pheromone of the Brown Mrmorted Stink Bug (Hlyomorph hlys) through the Cretion of Stereoisomeric Lirries of 1-Bisolen-3-ols Khrimin et l. J. Nt. Prod., 2014 BMSB lures contin oth SSRS nd RSRS plus 6 other stereoisomers. Developing methods to increse key stereoisomers AND decrese cost of production.

3 Two-Component BMSB Aggregtion Pheromone nd Synergist Min component of BMSB ggregtion pheromone (3S,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-isolen-3-ol Minor component of BMSB ggregtion pheromone (3R,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-isolen-3-ol + Methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-dectrienote (MDT) cts s synergist for BMSB pheromone = Synergism

4 Generl Protocol Blck pyrmid trps Four tretments 1) BMSB Pheromone (10 mg) 2) BMSB Pheromone (10 mg) + Rescue MDT (119 mg) 3) BMSB Pheromone (10 mg) + AgBio MDT (66 mg) 4) United control Trps re deployed etween wild host hitt nd griculturl production res. Trps were deployed in mid-april nd left in plce seson-long.

5 2013 Seson-Long Attrction To Bited Trps Men numer of BMSB / trp / week Erly Seson Mid-April to Mid-June Mid Seson Mid-June to Mid-August Lte Seson Mid-August to Mid-Octoer

6 2014 Coordinted Trpping Studies Provide feedck to commercil compnies. Monthly ssessment of lure formultions provided y commercil compnies. AgBio/ChemTic, Rescue, Scentry, Trece, AlphScents, nd Hercon (not presented). Compred with our experimentl stndrd. BMSB Pheromone(10 mg) + AgBio MDT (66 mg)

7 Men # BMSB Per Trp Per Week AgBio nd Rescue (My) Adults Nymphs Exp. Std. #10 AgBio2x Control Rescue

8 Men # BMSB Per Trp Per Week Scentry (June) Adults Nymphs Exp. Std. Control Scentry 1 Scentry 2

9 Men # BMSB Per Trp Per Week Trece (July) Adults Nymphs 5 0 c c Exp. Std. Control Trece 1126 Trece 1127

10 Men # BMSB Per Trp Per Week AlphScents (August) Adults Nymphs Exp. Std. 80/11 80/13 80/31 Control

11 Men #BMSB Per Trp Per Week Multiple Comprisons (Lte-Seson) Adults Nymphs 20 0 c Exp. Std. Trece 1126 AgBio Rescue Control

12 Tenttive Conclusions Commercil compnies hve products tht cn e used to detect the presence, undnce, nd sesonl ctivity of BMSB in specilty crops. In prticulr, Trece resulted in consistent ttrction nd hs long-lsting formultion. Expect tht Trece, AgBio nd Rescue will e selling products next yer. Bedoukin will e mnufcturing mteril.

13 Cn we use iologicl informtion provided y trp cptures to guide mngement decisions? Trps ited with 10 mg BMSB Pheromone + 66 mg MDT cn e used to guide mngement decisions in pple. Provisionl threshold of 10 dults/trp resulted in 40% reduction insecticide pplictions, ut sttisticlly identicl levels of injury compred with weekly ARM.

14 Experimentl Stndrd Wooden Pyrmid Cn we use other trp designs? Coroplst Pyrmid Smll Pyrmid (Ground) Smll Pyrmid (Hnging) Smll Pyrmid (Lim) Rescue (Hnging/ Folige) Are cptures similr mong other trp types nd deployment strtegies compred with our experimentl stndrd? Bited with 10 mg BMSB Pheromone + 66 mg MDT. Two yers of dt from commercil orchrds.

15 Men H. hlys Trp Ctch (±SE) Seson-Long Trp Cptures / Sensitivity 6 Adults Nymphs 2 5 A C 4 c B B Rescue Smll Lim Smll Ground 3 B c Smll Hnging B 1 Wooden Pyrmid Coroplst Pyrmid H. Hlys Trp Type

16 Men Nymphs Per Dte (Wooden) Men Adults Per Dte (Wooden) Coroplst vs. Stndrd Wooden Pyrmids Spermn Rnk Correltion ρ=0.735 P < y = x Men Adults Per Dte (Coroplst) Spermn Rnk Correltion ρ=0.900 P < y = 0.575x Men Nymphs Per Dte (Coroplst)

17 Coroplst vs. Smll Pyrmids Styles Coroplst Pyrmid Smll Pyrmid (Ground) Smll Pyrmid (Hnging) Smll Pyrmid (Lim) Rescue (Hnging/ Folige) SIG. SIG. SIG. NS SIG. SIG. SIG. SIG.

18 Evlution of sticky trps for BMSB monitoring Trps designs: - Yellow sticky trp (Ag-Bio) - Cler sticky trp (AlphScent) - Rescue Stink Bug Trp (Sterling Int.) Lures: - BMSB Smrt Lure (Ag-Bio) - Rescue Stink Bug lure (Sterling Int) Loction: - Woods (edge of woods surrounding orchrd) - Crop (first row of trees in orchrd) Tretments: 1. Cler trp plus Ag-Bio lure (clab) 2. Cler trp plus Rescue lure (clerres) 3. Cler trp plus no lure (clnone) 4. Yellow trp plus Ag-Bio lure (YelAB) 5. Yellow trp plus Rescue lure (YelRes) 6. Yellow trp plus no lure (Yelnone) 7. Rescue trp plus Rescue lure (ResRes) Oservtions period : Aug 19 Sep 25

19 Evlution of sticky trps for BMSB monitoring Yellow sticky trps (Ag-Bio) Cler sticky trp (AlphScent)

20 Evlution of sticky trps for BMSB monitoring Loction: Crop nd Woods comined Weekly oservtions * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * - mens different, p 0.05; (ANOVA Fisher s LSD, sqr x trnsformtion) Trp rev. Lure rev. Cler cl Ag-Bio AB Rescue Res Rescue Res Yellow Yel No Lure none

21 Cumultive numer od BMSB per trp/lure comintion Evlution of sticky trps for BMSB monitoring Averge cumultive numer of BMSB dults cptured per trp/lure comintion Trp rev. Lure rev. Cler cl Ag-Bio AB Rescue Res Rescue Res Yellow Yel No Lure none

22 Behviorl Bsis for Attrct nd Kill Attrction To A Sptilly Precise Loction Long Retention Time Effective Killing Mechnism Dte of Appliction BMSB Trde Nme A.I. Recommended Rte/A Gl/A Restrictions Seson Mx Mx pplictions Min spry intervl PHI 15-My Lnnte SP methomyl 1 l 50 gl/a 5 l/a 7 d 14 d 5 22-My Mustng Mxx zet-cypermethrin 4 oz 20 gl/a 24 oz/a 7 d 14 d none 29-My Lnnte SP methomyl 1 l 50 gl/a 5 l/a 7 d 14 d 5 5-Jun Mustng Mxx zet-cypermethrin 4 oz 20 gl/a 24 oz/a 7 d 14 d none 12-Jun Lnnte SP methomyl 1 l 50 gl/a 5 l/a 7 d 14 d 5 19-Jun Bifenture EC ifenthrin 6.4 oz 50 gl/a 32 oz/a none 30 d 14 d 26-Jun Lnnte SP methomyl 1 l 50 gl/a 5 l/a 5 7 d 14 d 3-Jul Endigo ZCX thimethoxm lm6 oz 20 gl/a 28 oz/a none 10 d 35 d + 10-Jul Dnitol fenpropthrin 21 oz none oz/a none 10 d 14 d 17-Jul Endigo thimethoxm lm6 oz 20 gl/a 28 oz/a none 10 d 35 d ZCX + 24-Jul Bifenture EC ifenthrin 6.4 oz 50 gl/a 32 oz/a none 30 d 14 d 31-Jul Endigo ZCX thimethoxm lm6 oz 20 gl/a 28 oz/a none 10 d 35 d + 7-Aug Dnitol fenpropthrin 21 oz none oz/a none 10 d 14 d 14-Aug Bely clothinidin 6 oz 100? 12 oz/a none 10 d 7 d 21-Aug Endigo thimethoxm lm6 oz 20 gl/a 28 oz/a none 10 d 35 d ZCX + 28-Aug Bely clothinidin 6 oz 100? 12 oz/a none 10 d 7 d 4-Sep Bifenture EC ifenthrin 6.4 oz 50 gl/a 32 oz/a none 30 d 14 d 11-Sep Venom dinotefurn 6.75 oz 50 gl/a 13.5 oz/a 2 7 d 3 d 18-Sep Leverge 2.7 imidcloprid cyflut5.1 oz 100 gl/a 5.1 oz none 14 d 7 d + 25-Sep Venom dinotefurn 6.75 oz 50 gl/a 13.5 oz/a 7 d 3 d 2

23 Are BMSB Attrcted To A Sptilly Precise Loction? Bited focl trees (nd united tree s control) t the periphery of orchrd locks. Three tretments 100 mg + 66 mg MDT (Low) 1000 mg + 66 mg MDT (High) Control Bited nd djcent trees spryed every 7d. Counted the numer of BMSB dults nd nymphs twice weekly. Dmge smples from focl nd djcent trees t hrvest.

24 Men No. Nymphs Per Smple ± SE Men No. Adults Per Smple ± SE BMSB Annihiltion A B C Control Low High Bited Adjcent A B C Bited Adjcent Control Low High

25 Dmge t Hrvest Externl 8 C B A Bited United Adjcent Control Low High ANOVA Dose F 2,67.89 = P < Focl vs. Neighoring Trees F 1,1255 = 17.3 P < Internl B B A Bited United Adjcent Control Low High ANOVA Dose F2,67.89 = P < Focl vs. Neighoring Trees F1,1255 = 4580 P <

26 How long re BMSB retined t ttrct nd kill sites? Relesed tgged dults t sunrise. Tretments Bited (1000 mg pheromone + 66 mg MDT) pple trees nd mowed grss United pple trees nd mowed grss. Retention checked using hrmonic rdr t 1, 3, 6 nd 24h fter relese.

27 Retention Time (hr) ± SE Retention Time Adult BMSB B A Bited ANOVA Species F 1,70 = 9.76 P < Bited Vs. United F 2,70 = 6.22 P < United 5 0 Mowed Grss Host Species Apple

28 Conclusions BMSB cn e ttrcted to sptilly precise loction y using pheromonl stimuli. Greter numers of individuls re ttrcting with incresing dose/relese rte, ut the re of ggregtion round stimulus does not increse. Retention time is mximized when stimuli re deployed in ssocition with host plnt. Weekly insecticide pplictions in ssocition with ttrctive stimuli ppered to improve overll efficcy (repeted exposure to chemicls).

29 Overll Project Summry Pheromone + synergist provides relile, seson-long detection nd monitoring of BMSB. Commercil compnies re mking resonle formultions, ut they will continue to e refined. Coroplst pyrmids re good seline trp design, ut other designs lso seem like they could work s well. Trps cn e used to guide monitoring. Behvior of BMSB nd their response to pheromonl stimuli lend itself to sptilly precise ttrct nd kill strtegies.

30 Next Steps Continued collortion with commercil compnies to ensure relile pheromone-sed products nd trps re ville. Further vlidtions of pheromone-sed trpping in commercil orchrds nd other crops. Attrct nd kill strtegies for sptilly precise mngement.

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