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1 Report on the Findings and Conclusions of the Torino meeting of the METREX Expert Group on PLANNING FOR MAJOR EVENTS October 2003 Nye Bevan House, 20 India Street, GLASGOW, G2 4PF T. +44 (0) F. +44 (0)

2 Report on the Findings and Conclusions of the Torino meeting of the METREX Expert Group on PLANNING FOR MAJOR EVENTS 9-11 October 2003 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 Background to the Torino meeting of the Expert Group 2 Torino meeting Programme 3 List of participants UPDATES OF PAST CASE STUDY PRESENTATIONS AND REPORTS 4 Athens - Summer Olympics Torino - Winter Olympics Zaragoza - International Expo 2008 NEW CASE STUDIES AND REPORTS 7 Stuttgart Summer Olympics bid 8 London Summer Olympics bid (from published material) 9 Sofia Winter Olympics bid METREX Secretariat Glasgow December 2003

3 Report on the Findings and Conclusions of the Torino meeting of the METREX Expert Group on PLANNING FOR MAJOR EVENTS 9-11 October 2003 INTRODUCTION 1 Background to the Torino meeting of the Expert Group The Group was formed at the METREX Sevilla Meeting in 2000 when colleagues from Wroclaw sought the support and assistance of the Network in preparing a bid for the World Expo in The Meeting had visited the site of the Sevilla World Expo of 1992 and had discussed the major strategic issues arising for metropolitan regions and areas in planning for major events of this kind. Subsequently the Group met in Hannover in March 2001, following the autumn closer of the 2000 Hannover World Expo, to similarly consider and discuss the wide range of issues for the spatial planning and development process, before, during and after such major events. A METREX Report on Planning for Major Events was published in March 2001 and this can be downloaded from the METREX web site at The report included broad Findings and Conclusions and Case Studies on Hannover (World Expo 2000), Zaragoza (International Expo 2008), Sevilla (World Expo 1992), Lisboa (World Expo 1998), Barcelona (Summer Olympics 1992), Athens (Summer Olympics 2004) and Torino (Winter Olympics 2006). METREX Meetings in Rotterdam and Copenhagen in 2001 included Expert Group sessions to update colleagues on progress with these events and their impacts. The purpose of the Torino Meeting was to review all the events included in the Hannover Report and to then update this to reflect the changing realities. In effect this Report on the Torino Meeting updates, and adds to, the original Case Studies with further information and feedback. The Report gives the METREX Network an opportunity to draw on the evolving experience of particular Members in planning for major events and to apply this in practice to the full range of major events ranging from the Olympics and World/International Expo's to significant fairs, cultural festivals and sporting events that similarly offer opportunities to reposition a metropolitan region or area at a national, European or international level. The Lead Partner for the Expert Group is the Provincia di Torino that kindly made the arrangements for, and hosted, the Torino meeting. The meeting also received a major contribution from colleagues in TOROC, the Torino Olympic Committee, and their PowerPoint presentation is included in document form in item 4 of this Report (see also The following diagram sets out the context for Planning for Major Events in Europe and shows past and future Olympic Games and Expo's.

4 PLANNING FOR MAJOR EVENTS IN EUROPE Summer Olympics Wniter Olympics World Expo International Expo Horticultural Expo 1992 Barcelona Sevilla Genova 1993 Stuttgart 1994 Lillehammer Atlanta Nagano Lisboa Sydney Hannover Salt Lake City Haarlemmermeer 2003 Rostok 2004 Athens Aichi 2005 Olympics decision 2006 Torino Bejing Zaragoza, Thessaloniki Shanghai London, Paris, Leipzig, 2013 Madrid, Moscow, Istanbul 2014 Sofia Past European Major Events 10 year planning timescale Committed events Uncommitted events Future events METREX 2001 Planning for Major Events Report Case Studies in bold

5 Report on the Findings and Conclusions of the Torino meeting of the METREX Expert Group on PLANNING FOR MAJOR EVENTS 9-11 October Torino meeting Programme Thursday 9 October Reception day Evening - Delegates arrive Official Dinner Friday 10 October - Palazzo Cisterna Morning 9.00 Opening of Conference 9.15 New and updated case studies ( 6 ) Coffee break Presentation of the strategic project LANDSCAPE 2006 (Torino) Press Conference Afternoon Lunch The Winter Olympic Games Coffee break The Winter Olympic Games Discussion and conclusions End of the meeting Dinner independent Saturday 11 October 8.00 Excursion by bus Visit of Olympic sites with lunch at Cesana Arrival in Turin Dinner independent

6 Report on the Findings and Conclusions of the Torino meeting of the METREX Expert Group on PLANNING FOR MAJOR EVENTS 9-11 October List of participants 1 Gianfranco FIORA Servizio Urbanistica, Provincia di Torino, Lead Partner 2/3 Pablo CALVO Y RUATA and Mrs. Maria Pilar De DIEGO Diputacion Provincial de Zaragoza 4 Catherine SYKIANAKI (Friday) Organisation for the Planning and Environmental Protection of Athens 5 Juergen LUDWIG Verband Region Stuttgart 6 Bernd STEINACHER Verband Region Stuttgart 7 Georgette RAFAILOVA Municipality of Sofia 8 Velyana NAYDENOVA Municipality of Sofia 9 Roger READ METREX 10 Alicia de Benito HARLAND METREX Interpretariat 11 Domenico CALIGIURI (Friday) Servizio Urbanistica, Provincia di Torino, staff 12 Rosella MASINO (Saturday) Servizio Urbanistica, Provincia di Torino, staff 13 Luca MATTIOTTI TOROC 14 Massimo FAVELLI TOROC The meeting was welcomed and hosted by Prof. ssa Mercedes BRESSO, Presidente of the Provincia di Torino and President of METREX, and the presentation on LANDSCAPE 2006 was given by arch Luigi RIVALTA, Assessore di Pianificazione Territoriale, Provincia di Torino.

7 Report on the Findings and Conclusions of the Torino meeting of the METREX Expert Group on PLANNING FOR MAJOR EVENTS 9-11 October 2003 UPDATES OF PAST CASE STUDY PRESENTATIONS AND REPORTS 4 Athens - Summer Olympics Torino - Winter Olympics Zaragoza - International Expo 2008 (see associated Case Study)

8 ORGANISATION FOR PLANNING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION OF ATHENS METREX EXPERT GROUPS EXPERT GROUP 1 PLANNING FOR MAJOR EVENTS Paper Prepared by the Organization for Planning and Environmental Protection of Athens Catherine Sykianaki, Town and Regional Planner, Director General Torino, 10 October , PANORMOU STR., GR ATHENS GREECE TEL: (+30) , , , FAX: (+30) ,

9 PLANNING FOR MAJOR EVENTS CASE STUDY: ATHENS AND OLYMPIC GAMES 2004 Introduction Greece underwent rapid transformations in the past fifty years, changing from a rural society to an urban one, developing from a war devastated region to a modern economy competing at a European and international level. The role of Athens has been instrumental in this process. Its population has more than tripled, surpassing last year the 4 million mark (38% of the total Greek population). Public infrastructure investments could not keep up with these rapid urbanization rates. The visitor of today is confronted with air pollution, noise, traffic jams, and lack of open space, high densities in old residential areas and a rather dull city-scape in spite of the region s attractive topography: the city lays in a basin opening up to the sea, with a backbone of hills and low mountains offering views, perspectives and a sense of direction. In spite of its deficient infrastructure, however, concentration of population, isolation of the country from its neighbours and centralization of administration were some of the reasons that influenced rapid and concentrated development in the Athens area. This has triggered a strong sentiment against further growth in Athens and led to policies of relative neglect for long periods. The Olympic Games have presented a unique opportunity for the Athens Metropolis to catch-up with long-needed investments. In this aspect the basic question for all concerned was: What can the city gain through the Olympic Games that will help it towards the global challenges of competitiveness and sustainability? What the city needs is what it was tried through the preparatory work for the Olympic Games. In this way the Olympic Games needs were tied to the city needs. 2

10 A major challenge for the city s future lies in promoting spatial development and providing spatial frameworks conductive to economic growth, as well as to the reduction of environmental problems and the pursuit of sustainability. So far, no mechanism has been available to allow the various levels of government and agencies responsible for outcomes in the Athens region to work together to conceive of an area-ride integrated economic development and planning strategy so as to be able to implement the provision of Athens Master Plan. Also local and Regional government has lacked the capacity to foster entrepreneurship. Through confronting the issues of a better organization and the preparation of a metropolitan strategy, some of the major issues that burden the city of Athens were approached, mainly concerning the following: Acquiring sustainable mobility for the city Urban Renovation and acquiring land for key public projects (Metropolitan interventions) Upgrading Public space Improving the Environment Improving the City image Considering the above, preparing Athens to receive the Olympic Games in 2004 is a huge challenge for a small country such as Greece. Thus, key objectives are not only to make a success of the Games but also, and more important, to sustain into the future the momentary of the economic social and environmental improvements generated by the Games. 3

11 Taken as a whole, the key socio-economic and Metropolitan Governance issues for Athens case (as regards the Olympics 2004) are therefore: How to link the Olympic legacy with the new infrastructures in order to create a better capacity and pro-activity around economic development and the promotion of a confident role for Athens in the Greek and international economies. How to improve the spatial planning system and Governance framework so that future growth and development can be more pro-actively managed to avoid the problems of the past, and better achieve integrated public goals. How to harness the surge in Civic pride, and improvements in public management that the Games are creating to set a wider course for Athens and to crystallize some new ways of working. METROPOLITAN STRATEGIES PREPARING THE CITY FOR THE OLYMPIC GAMES The organization of the Olympic Games (OG) in Athens in 2004 has proved to be a unique challenge not only for the metropolis of Athens (the games will be hosted in principle only by the City of Athens) but for the entire national administration. A special Authority has been created for that purpose: The Organizing Committee of the Olympic Games (OCOG) - Athens 2004, which assumed the responsibility to organize the Games. In addition a complex administrative structure at the level of the national administration was redeveloped to support the overall effort by coordinating public sector actions. In this structure, the Ministry of Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works is an important partner in the delivery of the required projects. 4

12 Cooperation Framework CENTRAL GOVERNMENT INTERNATIONAL SPORT Council of Ministers Parliament National Olympic Committees INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC/ PARALYMPIC COMMITTEES International Federations Ministries Supervisory and Advisory Committees Interministerial Committee Organising Committee for the Olympic Games ATHENS 2004 Coordination Commission Other Municipalities & Olympic Cities* Municipality of Athens Board Of Directors Hellenic Olympic / Paralympic Committees Organisations & Associations** National Federations LOCAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL SPORT The majority of the athletic infrastructure requested for the realization of the Olympic Games has been scheduled as part of other programs and plans that already exist or were under construction. Ex pe cte 5

13 d Impact of the Olympic Games The Holding of Olympic Games presents both opportunities and problems for every host city in economic, social and environmental aspects, as well as in governance and Metropolitan Planning. In general, the Olympic Games are expected to have several positive impacts, although not yet clearly appreciated. They are expected to contribute to the increase of visitors, international investments, international conferences and cultural events, etc. Olympic Games could also serve as a catalyst to accelerate programming and the realization of several projects, which are parts of major programs. The increased pressures for improving the organizational capacity may also contribute to overcoming existing obstacles in coordination among various agencies and stakeholders. (a) Economic Issues According to research by the Foundation of Economic and Industrial research (October 2000), in addition to the massive investment being made in sports facilities and basic infrastructures, the 2004 Games, are expected to have strong positive effects in the basic business sectors of the Greek economy, opening up new investment opportunities: The increase in the turnover of the tourism industry is forecast as 160 million funds for the year During the period of the Games, 2 million visits of foreign tourists are forecast. Local industrial enterprises are expected to increase their turnover during by 755 million Euros, mainly by acting as sponsors of the Games promoting their image in international markets. Construction companies will undertake projects directly related to the Games with a total budget of million Euros. The demand for telecom services as well as transport, financial, trade, consulting and other services is expected to boom. In particular, the Athens economy will benefit substantially from the marketing of Olympic products and from the publicity that the Games offer. A single marketing plan has developed and Business Associations such as the Federation of Greek Industries, the Pan-Hellenic Federation of Hoteliers, and the Union of Greek Banks are participating. The Games provide an opportunity for Greek firms to expand in both the national and international market and, in particular, boost investment and trade with the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. A considerable number of multinationals are also expected to display interest in sponsoring Athens Many of these firms have not so far done business with Greece and may see the Games as an opportunity to penetrate the new markets emerging in the Balkans. Projects such as the Olympic Village and Faliron exemplify the way in which the Games have acted as a catalyst to produce modern and environmentally sound types of settlements and leisure developments which will enhance the attractiveness of Athens as a place to live and work. 6

14 (b) Governance issues and Institutional Changes Preparations for the Olympic Games have required a whole government response in administrative terms and a focused metropolitan perspective in a physical sense. Delivering the Olympic Games to the required standard resulted in co-operation between ministries, several levels of governance and the private sector and thus a positive framework for the future was established. Of course the process was a difficult and painstaking experience since the absence of metropolitan governance has been a negative factor and the number of municipalities in the metropolitan area was vast (60 LAs in Athens Basin and 157 in Attica Region). Normally, it takes over 5 years for a complex project to mature: basic studies, environmental studies and permits land acquisition, design studies, building and land use permits, land reclamation, approval of funding, tendering procedures, etc. It was managed to cut this time in half by instituting new legislation and new mechanisms designed to speed up the processes without compromising their transparency. Also, the need to provide major infrastructure and facilities for the Games within strict deadlines has stimulated innovative approaches on the part of the government`. There has been substantial co-operation and partnerships between the public and private sector. In this aspect, one of the greatest legacies of the games will be this new culture in managing public projects. The creation of competent agencies, the upgrading of procedures, the readiness and effectiveness of administration, the creation of effective monitoring and project management, the networks of cooperation and coordination put in place to implement projects with immovable deadlines, will leave their imprint in promoting investments. METROPOLITAN PLANNING AND THE OLYMPIC GAMES Preparing for the Games, the main issues concerning the city were approached as follows: 1. Sustainable mobility Through the Games a series of projects were scheduled and progressed concerning not only transportation infrastructure but traffic management as well. These projects include roads, highway infrastructure and new interchanges which will help, but not solve, the transport problems. So, parallel to these, a large number of mass transit projects were developed including two new metro lines, an extension to the airport, an extensive network of suburban rail, a light network of suburban tramways linking the centre to the coast (about 27 km). The programme also included the upgrading and renewing the stations and rolling stock of the existing metro line. A traffic management scheme with telematic segregation is also developed that will be a legacy after the Games in improving traffic management. Also, there are clean buses to replace the existing stock, about of them, with anti-pollution and handicapped accessibility. 7

15 ATTIKI ODOS: Covers 70 km and travels through 30 Municipalities of Attica 8

16 2. Urban renovation Metropolitan projects Several new Olympic installations support the rehabilitation and upgrade of Urban and Suburban areas. In this sector attention was given mainly on three major programs which will contribute to a better quality of life for the Athenians and have the potential to become showcase initiatives on which Athens can draw for future development: One has to do with the coastal area, which used to be an important recreational area and which is now cut off from the city because of landfills and the coastal highway that acts as a barrier. Similar to Barcelona in 1992, Athens is reconnecting its city center with the sea through the redevelopment of Faliron Coastal Area, host to several Olympic Competition venues. The centre of the city (Historical centre) is another important area and so there is an extensive programme to improve and connect the archaeological sites, with an overall scheme of an archaeological park, unique in its character. The metropolitan parks that include Olympic installations and the Schinias area with the pine forest and the rowing centre that is being built there. All interventions that are being provided for the Games will lead to the completion of the projects right after the period of the games so as to include the Post-Olympic use of the major Olympic installation (i.e. the old airport area, etc). Thus, all the projects include the Post Olympic phase for all installations. 9

17 3. Upgrading public space Public behavior towards public spaces is disorderly and undisciplined and this is the blessing and the curse of Athens. It is what makes it charming, lively exciting but also unbearable and frustrating. Of course, you cannot impose discipline through police measures or through Olympic Games. It is a question of awareness and education and this takes time. There are many things, though, that were approached in terms of physical improvements that will, in the long-term make the city more livable and functional and improve the daily life of its citizens and this will also improve the behavior of citizens towards their public spaces These issues are involved with improving accessibility and making safe the sidewalks, applying quality standards to street furniture and painting materials, signposting, making the city more readable, cleaning and restoring facades in selected areas and lighting, controlling outdoor advertising (which is presently unacceptable) and improving accessibility specifications for the handicapped in selected areas. 4. Specific environmental initiatives crucial to the Games and the City The environmental improvement was an overall issue for the Olympic Games. Approaching this issue involved, among others, the elaboration of bio-climatic specifications for the Olympic Village; the development of an extensive landscape and greening programme for sports venues and non-athletic venues in the public domain and also the development of a waste management programme for the Games. In this programme there was close cooperation with all local Authorities, Public Agencies, civil societies and NGOs to extend the programme through the public domain so that it can have a long-lasting effect on the city. 10

18 5. Improving the city image In addition to infrastructure and competition venues the city itself has to be prepared to receive Olympic visitors and to become the centre of attention for billions of Olympic spectators. In this context, the Ministry of Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works in coordination with the Organisation for Planning and Environmental Protection of Athens, produced a Strategic Action Plan for the Enhancement of the Functioning and the image of Athens in the year The Plan includes projects which are complementary to each other as well as to other interventions currently being undertaken in Attica as part of the implementation of the Athens Structural Plan. The Strategic Action Plan s projects in a series of related activities, which include: Infrastructure Projects of local/metropolitan scale. Upgrading the areas along major traffic axis. Reclamation and Reformation of the Athens Coastal Zone (Athens Seafront) Upgrading the City Gates Enhancement of the City s Historic Center and its Surroundings Enhancement of Specific Sites in Piraeus Redevelopment of Areas around Olympic Games Sites and Accesses Actions aimed at the improvement of the City s Image Construction and monitoring of the various projects were assigned to public sector construction agencies and to Local Government Agencies (through private sector contractors). Thus the City of Athens will be spruced up with projects that might not have happened without an Olympic deadline. Also, a complementary to the above program is scheduled by the Organising Committee, referring mainly in the enhancement of the environment of Olympic installation sites (see paragraph 3 and 4). 11

19 POST OLYMPIC USES for Olympic Major Installations Of special interest to the Metropolitan Planning is the post Olympics use of the major Olympic installations and their broader areas. In the post Olympic Era: The broader coastal area of Faliron will be transformed into a unique recreational park while several other activities, in accordance with the provisions of the Structural Plan for Athens, will be developed. The Athletic Center of Aghios Kosmas is prepared to become a park and an area dedicated to marine sports and tourism development. The uses and the interventions envisaged in the areas are in accordance with the special overall study for the development of the coastal zone of Athens Basin (40 km zone) and are expected to upgrade the existing urban structure. By locating the adjacent to Aghios Kosmas group of sports venues at Hellinikon old Airport, the Games were, once more, used as a catalyst to turn the old airport site into a metropolitan park of about 540 Ha. Thus, a large open space, with sports and cultural facilities, opening up to the seafront, would be a major recreational and cultural area for Athens. As mentioned previously, it is planned that the post Olympic use of infrastructures, facilities and equipment will generate substantial economic and financial benefits for the Athens Region. For example, it is hoped that the investments made in support of the Games will improve the image of Athens, allowing the urban region and its 12

20 hinterland to develop as an international venue for year round tourism, convention business, sporting competitions and other major events. However, the task is challenging and will require innovative approaches to reconvert and manage both land and buildings so as to achieve in both the medium and long term sound economic, social and financial results for the various parties involved (residents, local government and private investors). For the management of these installations a real estate company (Olympic Holding Co.) was established which will also be responsible for the marketing and disposal of all Olympic holdings. 13

21 The construction of the Olympic village on a site of 120 ha can have positive impacts on the urban environment and prospects of this neglected area of the North West section of the Greater Athens. The Greek state already owned 50% of the site; the remainder belonged to private citizens and was acquired under compulsory purchase orders. The Village has been constructed on a self financing system by a consortium of contractors. An innovative feature of the Village is the use of new technologies to save energy. Today, Olympic village s greater area is in great need of major interventions to organize and improve the urban area and enhance the natural environment of the peri - urban area. Towards this goal a general development plan was prepared which includes all major interventions and connects the Olympic village with its greater area. The Olympic village represents a type of organized settlement development, where the construction of infra-structure has been scheduled early at the beginning of the project and is characterized by its high quality standards. Services, technical networks, utilization of renewable energy re-sources, waste management, use of material which have a low impact on environmental quality are only some of the characteristics targeted for this type of development. This is in contrast with the traditional type of urban development, which was characterized by diffused, small scale type of development (plot development) accompanied by land consumption and luck of services. From a functional standpoint, the Olympic village consists of three zones: - The International Zone which will contain a shopping centre, a leisure centre and meditation area, and a logistics centre. 14

22 - The Residential Zone which will contain accommodation for athletes and officials; facilities for doctors and masseurs for each delegation; a polyclinic; HQs for delegations; an information centre, restaurants, storage areas, and facilities for service staff. - The Olympic Park which will contain plants compatible with the Mediterranean climate and training and rest facilities for athletes. The Village will provide residential units following the Games. Post Games occupation will be as Workers Housing, an important choice in a culture where there is limited tradition of lowincome housing but nevertheless important at a time on rising regional house prices. The experience of planning a community of this scale will establish parameters and new development principles for the future, particularly with respect to new development areas in Athens periphery which experience now high rates of urbanization. Also, the Olympic Village is expected to satisfy an increase in demand arising from the destruction of the existing housing stock that was caused by the earthquake that stroke the area on September 1999 and the influx of a vast number of immigrants in this area. The provision of railway (Suburban Rail) connections as well as the preservation of environmental quality in the broader area (Parnitha Mountain s Regional Park) will greatly help towards the desired overall goal. Finally, the installations and facilities of the International zone will be an important addition for this deprived section of greater Athens, and will become a multi-functional centre for the use of more than people. 15

23 Ecological Regeneration The Schinias Rowing Centre, the most controversial of all installations, is also a flagship restoration project that will upgrade and protect a degraded wetland ecosystem through compatible development. 16

24 The rowing lake is constructed on an old airport site, which has been removed, and an old military base which is also being removed. The overflow of the lake will enrich and regenerate the wetlands which had been drained in the 1920 s to make way for agricultural land. The entire area will be listed and protected through the NATURA 2000 sites of European importance. Already, in the final stages of the construction of the lakes, a great variety of birds found new habitat in this wetland. Telecommunications/Media Infrastructures Communications and the mass media are a critical part of the Games and the mainstay of Olympic finance. The IOC requires that host cities of the Olympic Games provide the media with all the facilities, services and other requirements needed to ensure the fullest news coverage and the highest broadcasting quality to the widest possible world-wide audience. The International Broadcasting Centre (IBC) and the Main Press Centre (MPC) are situated in two separate but neighboring building complexes within the AOSC (Athens Olympic Sports Complex) in order to avoid an excessively high concentration of people and hi-tech equipment in a single location. Athens Olympic Sports Complex After the Olympics, the Centres will become a Model Olympic Park for Telecommunications and Broadcasting Technology, unique in the world, and will also serve as a permanent sports training and accommodation centre. The two centres are close to and easily accessible from all the Olympic accommodation sites, the Olympic Village, the Press Village, Olympic Family hotels, media hotels and the cultural sites of Athens, the historic centre and all the recreational and entertainment areas. 17

25 City Transport The deadline of the Olympic Games is being used to drive forward measures to increase use of non-polluting public transport and improved transport may well become the biggest and most visible Olympic legacy in Athens. Also worthwhile to note is the fact that all transport stakeholders in Athens used to work independently, thus forgetting the overall aim of Athens Structural Plan of a public transport system which is to enhance mobility and quality of life. The Olympic experience is promoting integrated transport operations which will be a most important asset for the function of the post Olympic city. Piraeus Port 18

26 CASE STUDY OF A MAJOR PROJECT CONNECTED WITH THE OLYMPICS Overall Planning for Faliron Coastal Area Faliron Bay is a coastal area with a coastline of six kilometers of strategic significance to Athens. Since ancient times, it has provided the city with its main seaport. This alone, coupled with the presence of the celebrated Faliron and Piraeus long walls, is proof of just how important the site is. Consolidating its status as the historic opening from the town to the sea, are Syngrou Avenue and the Kifissos and Ilissos rivers that run through it. In classical antiquity it was the first harbor of Athens before it was replaced by Piraeus Port. In the 1870 s Faliron developed as a seaside resort and in 1896, during the First Olympic Games, Faliron Bay was the venue of cycling and tennis, while nearby sites were used for target and swimming. In the 1970s, this ancient link was interrupted by the creation of a coastal expressway. At the same time, the existence of this expressway and its importance to the city s traffic circulation plan has meant that Faliron has become one of Athens essential crossroads. This situation will be reinforced by the creation of the encircling Olympic Ring highway, and the covering over the river Kifissos. Faliron is also one of the rare available open spaces to the south of the city. It is a green lung for the neighboring districts, as well as having a specific ecosystem that has established itself around the estuaries of the two rivers. Finally, the site has been chosen as an Athletic Complex of the Olympic program. 19

27 Technically, the installations could be limited to the development of the old racecourse area, and part of the coastal zone. But this site is also the only, which can incarnate the nautical sports image that Athens wishes to promote. As far as the athletic complex in the area of Faliron is concerned, it represents the most important pole of sports activities for the Olympic Games and in total accounts for approximately half of the total investment for sports facilities. Linking the regeneration of Faliron Bay to Olympic venues has provided the impetus and the commitment of resources necessary to materialize a plan that had been on the drawing boards for the last thirty years. The exceptional potential for an all-embracing ambitious project for Faliron can be summed up in four points: A historic opening to the sea Perfect accessibility A distinctive ecosystem Its powerful possibilities in terms of the Olympic Games Image For such a project, to succeed clearly required re-establishing the physical liaison between the city and the sea, but also reducing the impact of infrastructures in terms of noise and atmospheric pollution. It must be executed in conjunction with the suitable treatment of land and sea hydrology required to protect the Kallithea and Moschato districts from flooding. Initially, two measures were proposed to respond to these objectives: The first consists of relocating the elevated metropolitan road that isolates the coastal neighborhoods and generates considerable noise and atmospheric 20

28 pollution. In a new more southerly route, the road is designed as a rift in a natural landscape enabling the creation of overhead passages from city to sea. The second consists of protecting neighborhoods at risk of flooding, by the construction of a network of canals, thus restoring the sea to its historical place alongside Poseidon Avenue. In this network of water and roads, creation of five specific sites is thus proposed: The linear garden, which faces the town and protects it from the expressway s pollution The natural island, open to the sea, dedicated to ecology, sport and leisure activities; which will, during the Olympic period, be occupied by beach volleyball. The central point, organized around a new marina, bordered to the west by an open-air stadium; to the north, by restaurants; and to the east by a large aquarium. The old racecourse site linked to the sea by a vast esplanade covering over the infrastructures next to the Syngrou interchange, and which will be used as parking and leasure open area during the Olympics and a multicultural recreational complex in the future. The museum park, which already includes, to the north, the existing military museum (old Syngrou villa); and to the south, the naval museum. In its central part, a contemporary art museum is to be created. These five complementary sites will be linked together by a network of pedestrian ways designed to reconcile the neighboring districts with the sea, but also to reestablish continuous promenades from the Zea marina to the naval museum. During the Games, the aim is to create a marine site, linking the Irinis & Filias stadium to the racecourse site, so creating a Games gateway towards the bay. After the Games, Athens will be endowed with a major metropolitan park, completed by a multiple complex of amenities, serving the surrounding neighborhoods and indeed the whole city. 21

29 Conclusion The holding of Olympic Games presents major opportunities and problems for every host city in terms of economy, the environment, social aspects, governance and Planning. The 2004 Olympic Games for Athens provided an excellent opportunity to project a new image of the city as a modern, well plan and well run Urban Region which is attractive in terms of economic investment and quality of life. The Olympic Games was also an opportunity to accelerate administrative and institutional change. Athens Metropolis, building on the experience of the last decade, developed a long term Athenian vision, since preparation for the Games has required more flexible approaches in order to ensure that the necessary physical works are completed on time, whilst respecting National and International law. Thus, the preparatory works connected with the Olympic games have effectively restructured the Urban Region via the new airport, ring roads and major highways, a new Metro, a new tramway, a redeveloped coastal Zone of 40 km, a multi-functional sea-park at Faliron, new and refurbished hotels and the Unification of Archaeological sites in the city centre, which comprises a large new pedestrian circuit of unique character. Also, mobilizing for the Olympic Games has generated new attitudes and innovative approaches, involving the public sector in partnership with the private sector. Most of all, big events are important factors in helping to build social capital in a city. Awareness of social issues is increasing in Greece and the Olympic Games experience will be important towards social changes. A new sense of place ensures that Greeks and immigrants alike benefit from a renewed civil pride. As citizens, they will benefit in terms of quality of life and experience as city improves. REFERENCES 1. Olympic Games and Architecture The future for Host Cities International Conference, Lausanne 5-6 May 2001 Paper on Athens: The Games in the XXI st century Yannis Pyrgiotis 2. Athens Metropolitan Regional Review University of Thessaly Final Background Report, Volos July OECD Athens Metropolitan Regional policies and Olympics 2004 Preliminary Review June ISOCARP 38 th International Planning Congress The Pulsar Effect Athens September Avghi Markopoulou, Organisation of Athens Athens and the Olympic Games: The transformation of a city RIBA, London, May

30 XX Winter Olympics in Torino The bid

31 Torino 2006 the bid Roma - December, 1997: CONI presents the bid Torino - March 3, 1998: presentation to the city Losanne - August 31, 1998: dossier delivered to CIO Seul - June 19, 1999: CIO votes Torino The Seul victory With 53 favourable votes, the IOC session chose Torino to host the XX Olympic Winter Games. The Mayor of Torino and the President of CONI signed the Host City Contract. Territorial cohesion

32 The Winter Olympics Torino 2006 Winter Olympics February 2006 Winter Paralympics March 2006 Torino 2006 a great project athletes and officials journalists and media operators members of the Olympic family radio television spectators spectators at Olympic venues volunteers The Games in Torino Ice Hockey Figure skating Speed skating Short-Track Curling (Pinerolo)

33 The Olympic system of Torino 2006 Sports in the mountain areas Alpine Skiing Sestriere / San Sicario Cross Country Pragelato Plan Biathlon Cesana San Sicario Nordic Combined/Ski Jumping Pragelato Snowboard Bardonecchia Freestyle Sauze d Oulx Jouvenceaux Bobsleigh, Luge, Skeleton Cesana

34 The city and its mountains join forces to build their Olympic future Urban transformation: new identity and positioning as an international city of arts, culture, wine & food, innovation and sports Alpine transformation: development of infrastructure, services and tourism Urban transformation Long period strategy: Olympic venues and sites planned in coherence with the strategic urban plan of Torino (started in 1993 and leading to 2011) Urban restoration: from a city divided by its industrial history (historical and industrial area) to a coherent sustainable urban centre Transport services: first line of Metro, Underground railway link Sports facilities: Build a coherent network of sports venues Renewal of stadium Network of sport facilities in the mountain area

35 Urban planning and Torino 2006 Coherence with city planning and future Multipurpose and post Olympic use World class architecture (Aulenti, Camerana, Isozaki, Zoppini) Environmental sustainability in the urban and Alpine areas New concept for the city stadium Coherent network of sport facilities Development of artificial snow system in the mountain area (50 % additional capacity) The Olympic legacy - A pact with the territory Creation of students halls of residence, hotels, exhibition areas Urban restyling and renovation Improvement of streets and railways network Modern and barriers-free sport facilities Enhancement of the accommodation offer Strategic environmental interventions The Olympic legacy An opportunity to change Reorganisation of the territory and enhancement of resources Strengthening of the tourist, cultural and sport offer Qualification and increase of the local employment Technological innovation Quality improvement of the environment and the landscape Relaunch of the image of the region at international level

36 The Charter of Intents Identifies the principles to be followed during the performance of TOROC activities; Represents TOROC attention towards ethical, environmental and social themes, as they were expressed by the Bidding Committee; Aims at sharing the Charter values with those involved in the organisation of the Games. The Volunteers programme Training Recruiting Management I Ragazzi del 2006 initiative The Olympic Rings Health and education Science and technology Intercultural dialogue Renvironmental education and physical activity in a natural frame

37 Sport and sport culture Environmental legacy Preserve and improve the quality of the environment Monitoring and evaluating the environmental sustainability of the Olympics Enforcement of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (in coordination with the local Institutions) International examples of best practices (EMAS) Tourism legacy Build the international image of Torino as a city of arts, culture, wine and food, innovation and sports New upper range hotels and service facilities Development of tourist services and initiatives Olympic Culture program as strategic Values legacy Give the Olympic generation an enduring legacy of values Charter of Intents Education program Volunteer program

38 XX Winter Olympics in Torino The project

39 Torino Olympic Committee (TOROC) organization structure Ufficio di Presidenza Presidente V.P. Vicario V.P. V.P. V.P. V. CASTELLANI E. CHRISTILLIN G. PETRUCCI R. BONTEMPI B. RAMBAUDI R. PAGNOZZI F. JAYME DIREZIONE GENERALE P. ROTA RELAZ. CON LA STAMPA G. GATTINO DIVISIONE TOBO M. ROMERO SECURITY STRATEGIES E. BADELLA RISORSE UMANE E ORG. E. LUCCITELLI VICE DIREZ. GENERALE M. POCHETTINO C.O.O. M. POCHETTINO MAIN OPERATING CENTER CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS COORD. SUPPORT SERVICES M. COMOGLIO COORD. MKG/COM/REL EST P. ROTA COORD. VENUES N. BIANCHI COORD. SERVIZI VENUES F. RASPINO COORD. SERVIZI CLIENTI P. BALISTRERI TECNOLOGIE E. FRASCARI AMM. FIN. & LEGALE M. SAN PIETRO MKTG & SPONSORSHIP N. DEVIDE SPORT E. LOCATELLI INFRASTR. & UTILITIES N. BIANCHI FOOD & CLEANING L. VECCHI NOC SERVICES P. BALISTRERI PROCUREMENT A. DANZI IMM. & COMUNICAZIONE A. VARNIER GIOCHI PARALIMPICI D. FABBRO VENUE OPERATIONS E. POZZI SERVIZI ALLA STAMPA C. CARLUTTI TRASPORTI & LOGISTICA P. BALISTRERI PROGR. & COORD. GIOCHI G. PULICE RAPP. CON IL TERRITORIO R. DANEO SICUREZZA E SERVIZI E. BADELLA SERVIZI MEDICI G. MASSAZZA I.R.S. S. TRABUCCO AMBIENTE R. SAINI OPERAT. DI SUPPORTO G. COSCIA

40 The Olympic system of related venues Venue Venue Venues Venues in Torino (see inset) Venues Venue Venue Venues in Torino (see inset) Competition venues (red) Villages (blue) Training venues (yellow) Olympic stadium (green)

41 Transportation infrastructure NEW RAILWAYS/METRO NEW ROADS RENOVATED ROADS NEW HIGHWAY EXIT 10 km

42 Competition and training venues Location Venue Discipline 1 Torino Stadio Comunale Palasport Olimpico Ice Hockey 1 TRAINING COMPETITION VENUES INDOOR OUTDOOR 2 Torino Parco del Valentino Torino Esposizioni Ice Hockey 2 3 Torino Lingotto Oval Speed Skating 4 Torino Italia 61 Palavela Short Track - Figure Skating 5 Pinerolo Pinerolo Palaghiaccio Curling 6 Cesana T.se Pariol Bobsleigh - Luge - Skeleton 7 Cesana T.se Sansicario Biathlon 8 Cesana T.se Sansicario Fraiteve Alpine Skiing 9 Pragelato Pragelato Ski Jumping - Nordic Combined 10 Pragelato Pragelato Plan Cross Country - Nordic Combined 11 Sestriere Sestriere Colle Alpine Skiing 12 Sestriere Sestriere Borgata Alpine Skiing 13 Bardonecchia Bardonecchia Melezet Snowboard 14 Sauze d'oulx Jouvenceaux Freestyle 15 Torino C.so Tazzoli # 1 & 2 Torino Palaghiaccio Short Track - Figure Skating 16 Torre Pellice Torre Pellice Palaghiaccio Ice Hockey 17 Torino Parco del Valentino Torino Esposizioni Ice Hockey 18 Torino Stadio Comunale Area Piazza d'armi Ice Hockey 19 Pinerolo Pinerolo Training Arena Curling 20 Claviere Claviere Cross Country - Alpine Skiing

43 Palasport Olimpico Ice Hockey 1 New Arena in Comunale Stadium area Total Capacity: Design Team: A.Isozaki, Archa, Arup Distance from Torino Olympic Village: 3km Post-Olympic usage; multi functional facility

44 Torino Exposizioni Ice Hockey 2 Refurbishment of Torino Expo and installation of two temporary (competition and warm up) Ice Rinks Total Capacity: Distance from Torino Olympic Village: 4km Post-Olympic usage: exhibition centre

45 Oval Lingotto Speed skating New Oval for Speed Skating in the Lingotto area Total Capacity: Design Team: Hok Sport, Zoppini, Happold, Studio Corona Distance from Torino Olympic Village: 1km Post-Olympic usage: sport facility and exhibition centre Palavela Short track and figure skating Refurbishment of the existing facility to host the Ice Rink Total capacity: Design Team: Aulenti, De Bernardi, Si.Me.Te Distance from Torino Olympic Village: 2km Post-Olympic usage: multi functional facility

46 Pinerolo Palaghiaccio - Curling Refurbishment of the existing Ice Stadium Total Capacity: Construction of a training Ice sheet close to the competition rink Distance from Torino Olympic Village: 36km Post-Olympic usage: Ice Stadium Torino Palaghiaccio Short track and figure skating training venue Two new Ice Rinks Total Capacity: Design Team: Lucchin, D Ambrogio, De Ferrari, Concer Distance from Torino Olympic Village: 2km Post-Olympic usage: Ice Stadium

47 Torre Pellice Palaghiaccio Ice hockey training venue New Ice Stadium Total Capacity: Design Team: Lucchin, D Ambrogio, de Ferrari, Concer Distance from Torino Olympic Village: 53km Post-Olympic usage: Ice Stadium Cesana Pariol - Bobsleigh/Skeleton/Luge New 1435 m long track, featuring 6 starts, weight building, training facility, technical rooms and restaurant Total Capacity: Design Team: Deyle-Gurgel, Ai Engineering, Quaranta, Brecko Distance from Torino Olympic Village: 95km

48 Cesana San Sicario - Biathlon New Biathlon Facility, including refurbishment of the existing Italsider Colony (facility for athletes and journalists) Total Capacity: Distance from Torino Olympic Village: 97km Post Olympic usage of Italsider Colony: tourist accommodation Pragelato Ski jumping/nordic combined 2 new Olympic Jumping Hills: K 120, K 95 3 new training Jumping Hills: K 60, K30, K15 Multi functional Building: facility for athletes, Olympic Family, media and sponsors Total Capacity: Distance from Torino Olympic Village: 82km Post Olympic usage of Multi functional Building: lodge with restaurant and m meeting rooms

49 Pragelato Plan Cross country/nordic combined Extension of the existing facility and hydraulic / hydrogeological arrangement of fluvial area Total Capacity: Distance from Torino Olympic Village: 86km Sectriere Borgata/San Sicario Fraiteve Alpine skiing Adjustments of the existing slopes Improvement of Snowmaking systems New Lifts Total Capacity: Sestriere Colle , Sestriere Borgata , San Sicario Distances from Torino Olympic Village: Sestriere Colle 104km Sestriere Borgata 106km, San Sicario 98km

50 Bardonecchia - Snowboard Adjustments of the existing slopes, improvement of snowmaking systems, new lifts Total Capacity: Distance from Torino Olympic Village: 95km Sauze d Oulx Jouvenceaux - Freestyle New slopes (competition and training), new snowmaking system, new lift Total Capacity: Distance from Torino Olympic Village: 84km

51 Non competition venues Location Venue ATHLETES 1 Torino Area ex MOI 2 Sestriere Colle 3 Bardonecchia Colonia Medail OTHERS VILLAGES MEDIA 5 Torino ITC - ILO (BIT) 6 Torino Politecnico 7 Torino Spina 3 8 Torino Università - ex area Italgas 9 Torino Area ex Ospedale Militare Riberi 10 Grugliasco Università - Villa Claretta 11 Torino Stadio Comunale 12 Torino Medal Plaza 13 Torino Main Press Center (MPC) 14 Torino International Broadcasting Center (IBC) 15 Caselle di Torino International Airport

52 Ex Mercati Generale (MOI) Torino Olympic Village New complex in the old Market Place close to Lingotto Owner: Torino Municipality Capacity: beds Post-Olympic usage: residencial buildings Sestrierre Centro New Olympic village New Olympic Village by Private investor Capacity: beds Post-Olympic usage: touristic village Refurbishment of existing Valtur Village Capacity: 400 beds Refurbishment of existing Club Med Village Capacity: 300 beds Distance from Torino Olympic Village: 104km

53 Bardonecchia Olympic Village Refurbishment of existing Colonia Medail complex Capacity: 700 beds Post-Olympic usage: touristic village Distance from Torino Olympic Village: 96km ITC-ILO (BIT) Torino Media village Refurbishment of part of the existing buildings of the International Training Center (ITC) of International Labour Organisation (ILO) Owner: Torino Municipality (ILO concessionary) Capacity: 320 beds Post-Olympic usage: ITC-ILO complex

54 New Media Village in the University area of Spina 2: Owner: Torino Municipality Capacity: 400 beds Post-Olympic usage: University campus New Media Village in the old industrial area of ITALGAS Owner: Torino Municipality Capacity: 410 beds Post-Olympic usage: University campus

55 New Media Village in the park of the historical Villa Claretta Owner: Grugliasco Municipality Capacity: 390 beds Post-Olympic usage: University campus Distance from Torino Olympic Village: 9km Refurbishment of part of the existing Military Hospital Owner: Italian Army Capacity: 920 beds Post-Olympic usage: residential buildings for soldiers families

56 New Media Village by Private investor: Capacity: beds Post-Olympic usage: residential buildings Temporary installation inside Lingotto Exhibition and Offices/Commercial Centres

57 One only location for the medals award ceremonies, in the historical center of Torino. Total Capacity: A unique location that meets the following requirements: To remark the solemnity of the event To provide the better scenery for television To involve the citizens of Torino Athletes finishing their competition in the Mountain area by 3.30 pm will be awarded the same day, athletes finishing after 3.30 will be awarded the next day; Athletes finishing the competition at Torino venues by will be awarded the same day, Medals won after will be awarded the following day; Medals won in Pinerolo will be awarded the following day; For the Ice Hockey and Figure Skating competition the Flower and Medal Ceremonies will proceed on the field of play immediately after the competition.

58 Report on the Findings and Conclusions of the Torino meeting of the METREX Expert Group on PLANNING FOR MAJOR EVENTS 9-11 October 2003 NEW CASE STUDIES AND REPORTS 7 Stuttgart Summer Olympics bid 8 London Summer Olympics bid (from published material) 9 Sofia Winter Olympics bid

59 1 Stuttgart 2012 application to organise the Olympic Games a retrospection The applicant Generally speaking, the candidate cities who have applied so far to organise the Olympic Summer Games were metropolises having at least one million inhabitants; in most cases they were the nation s capital. When compared with these candidates, the city of Stuttgart with its approx. 580,000 inhabitants seems to be rather small at first sight. We have to take into account, however, that the surface area of the city is indeed relatively small, but the population density, even beyond the city s administrative borders, is rather high. More than one million people live within a radius of 15 kilometres, more than five million people live in Stuttgart s catchment area within an hour s drive. Against this backdrop, it was a logical consequence to create the Verband Region Stuttgart in 1994, an independent political body for the conurbation of Stuttgart with its 2.6 million inhabitants. The autonomy of towns, cities, municipalities and districts remains untouched. The responsibilities of the Region is restricted to certain cross-municipal tasks. These include first of all regional planning, a large part of public passenger transport and regional business promotion. It was also a logical consequence to apply for the German candidature to host the Olympic Summer Games in 2012: not just the city of Stuttgart, but the entire region, backed up by the Land of Baden-Württemberg. What were the reasons behind this application? Motivation and background In the 1980s and the first half of the 1990s, Stuttgart gained a reputation for being a sports-enthusiastic city after hosting a number of high-level international sports events. The zenith was reached during the 1993 Athletics World Championship with its almost legendary audiences who were awarded the Fair Play Trophy by UNESCO for its sports enthusiasm and fairness. Based on this positive spirit, a first attempt was made in the late 1980s to apply for the organisation of the 2000 Summer Olympics. An extensive feasibility study had already been made when, all of a sudden, the reunification of Germany dramatically changed the situation. Out of solidarity with the suddenly no longer divided city of Berlin which was also preparing an application, all other German competitors stopped their Olympic activities, including Stuttgart of course. It didn't make a difference. As we all know, Berlin's application to organise the Olympic Games was not successful. As of the mid-1990s, the city of Stuttgart had to reduce its commitment to major sports events due to ever more stringent financial constraints. Sports, however, continue to play a very important role in the region: one in three citizens is a member of one of the numerous sports clubs. The region counts almost 100 Premier teams in various sports. Several influential sports associations have their head offices in the Stuttgart region. Furthermore, an association which was based on the regional initiative group had formed after the early withdrawal of the application for 2000 Olympic Games. It basically comprised municipalities and sports associations that were committed to promoting and enhancing co-operation at the sports front. This was the background against which the debate on a new application to organise the Olympic Games was launched at the end of the 1990s. The issue was adopted and promoted very early on by leading politicians, both at the level of the city and the region of Stuttgart. First of all, they believed that the attention attracted by the Olympic candidature would provide Stuttgart with a unique opportunity to launch a broad publicity and image campaign. Secondly, they hoped that a successful application would boost the regional infrastructure, in particular the transport infrastructure, as was the case in Munich in Thirdly, a successful application would make it possible to implement long-term objectives within much shorter time. Fourthly, they thought that the development of the sports infrastructure would allow the region to attract major sports events in the future and promote the sports culture in general.

60 2 The preparation It is impossible to accommodate sports facilities (complying with the Olympic standards) for 28 different kinds of sports in the relatively small urban area of Stuttgart. Therefore it was natural that the city and region became partners in this venture. For some competitions, such as rowing, no appropriate facilities or premises were available, neither in the city nor in the region. This is why the Land s support for the application was needed. In mid- 2000, i.e. just about three years before the National Olympic Committee (NOC) was to take the decision which German city would be proposed for hosting the Games in 2012, the decisive talks between the leading politicians of the city of Stuttgart and the Stuttgart region took place. The primary objective was to get the general support of the population, both in the region and the Land of Baden- Württemberg. Representatives of the towns, cities, and municipalities inside and outside the region were invited to join the newly founded "Initiativkreis Olympiabewerbung (initiative group Application to organise the Olympic Games ). The group discussed some organisational and basic matters: it was agreed to set up a steering committee composed of leading politicians and entrepreneurs, to create various commissions charged with the preparation of specific issues and a small office that would take over the role of the secretariat. In the autumn of 2000, the Olympics office was set up, having three team members at first. The commissions first met in early The ideas and proposals of external experts were fed into the discussion; at the same time, the commissions served as a platform for interaction between the region, municipalities and sports associations which had sent delegates to the commissions. The overall budget for 2000 and 2001 amounted to approx. 370,000. It was provided by the city of Stuttgart, the region and other members of the initiative group (20:15:15:50). One year after the establishment of the Olympics office, in the autumn of 2001, the official decision was taken by the bodies of the city and region of Stuttgart to apply for the 2012 Olympic Games. In the meantime, several German cities had expressed their interest in organising the Games, just like in the case of the application for the 2000 Games. This meant that a national election process was required. The application In November 2001, a private limited liability company was founded under the name of Stuttgart 2012 GmbH. The partners were the city of Stuttgart, the Stuttgart region and the Land of Baden-Württemberg, each owning a third of the company. The budget for the national election process, which lasted from the end of 2001 to the spring of 2003 when the decision on the German candidate was finally taken by the NOC, amounted to a total of 7.5 million. The staff involved comprised a core team of about 25 persons. About one third of them was assigned by the partners, i.e. the city, region or the Land; they had been in charge of the Olympics application before and were available within short time. The last externally recruited employees only started their work about three months later. In spite of these difficulties, all efforts had to be concentrated on preparing the concept because it had to be finalised and submitted to the NOC by mid-may This was only possible by co-operating with numerous partners, first of all the sports and planning departments of the cities involved, external planning companies for issues related to architecture, transport and the environment, agencies and, last but not least, representatives of the sports associations and commissions who accompanied the work. A concept was developed that was geared towards improving the infrastructure and quality of life in the city and region of Stuttgart in a sustainable way and to meeting the requirements placed on the compactness of the Games and the greatest possible involvement of the Land, as well. The master plan for the central Olympic facilities developed by the architects Auer and Weber, in particular, was generally accepted and helped to secure the support of the population for Stuttgart s application. According to this master plan, the majority of the sports facilities, the Olympic Village, Media Centre and hotels were to be built in the Neckar valley, at a distance of four kilometres from the city centre of Stuttgart. It was planned to erect the majority of the new buildings on recycling areas only accessible by public transport. The plan provided for further facilities to be located within a circle of six to twelve kilometres radius from the centre. One exception were two sites which were to be located at a distance of 18 to 20 kilometres from the centre; i.e. a bit more remote; it was planned, however, to connect them to the city centre and central facilities by way of a light railway network. The geographic distribution of sites aimed at promoting two objectives. First of all, existing facilities were to be used to the greatest

61 3 strong commitment among the population. It was planned to organise the mountain biking, horse riding and water sports events, such as rowing and canoeing, in the Black Forest region or the somewhat distant cities of Mannheim and Karlsruhe. The respective facilities exist in these cities and would only have required some modernisation or adaptation. Again, the primary focus was the sustainability of the facilities and the involvement of the Land of Baden-Württemberg. The planning process was complemented by a transport concept which was a direct result of the environmental guidelines: within the central area, all visitors were to use public transport. Furthermore it was planned to connect the out-of-centre sites to the Olympic centre by way of railway lines, some of them high-speed connections. As a general rule, individual motorised transport should not account for more than 15 percent of the overall traffic volume. Mention should be given to a remarkable principle contained in the extensive environmental objectives which provided for the minimisation of individual motorised transport, the establishment of a well-accepted environment management system and some other, self-evident prerequisites: the principle of zero net land use ; i.e. no green land would be used for Olympic facilities. It was agreed to renaturalise settlement areas as a compensation for land use in individual cases where no existing sites were available. The Stuttgart application was complemented by a youth programme including the planning of a separate Olympic Village for the young and a cultural programme. The programme was launched during the run-up to the national elections; it would have continued throughout the entire international application period and culminated in an International Festival of Cultures during the Olympic Games. Lobbying and Public Relations The preparation of the candidature documents was one thing. Another thing which was no less important was to involve the citizens and to secure their support for the Olympics. Numerous campaigns and information events were staged in order to reach these goals. Two surveys carried out in early 2002 and 2003 proved that the actions taken had been successful since the results showed increasing acceptance in the course of the application period. Thanks to the use of a special vehicle, the Olympiamobil, the Olympics were present everywhere in Baden- Württemberg. The Stuttgart 2012 GmbH went to numerous sports and other events in order to advertise the application. The company also organised a large number of events, most of them in conjunction with partners. At the same time, all types of meetings and events were used to talk to so-called opinion-makers, multipliers and representatives of the sports world in order to convince them of the quality of Stuttgart s concept and venues. Conclusion The result of the national election held in April 2003 is generally known: Stuttgart was the first candidate to be withdrawn; the NOC selected Leipzig as the German candidate to apply for the organisation of the Games. The disappointment felt by the citizens regarding the poor result was just as huge as the enthusiasm before the national election ceremony. The reason why Stuttgart came out last in the election was that the efforts apparently failed to pool all regional forces, to convince the decision-makers in the region and the Land of the idea to organise the Olympics and to get their full support for the application. The Verband Region Stuttgart strongly committed itself to promote the application: it launched the issue and discussed it offensively so that there was finally a political majority in favour of the application. It contributed its regional planning expertise to the development of the locational concept. Its responsibility for the regional light railway network was very important for developing a functional transport concept for the Games. The representatives of the Region made major efforts to promote the application among the general public. Staff was assigned to the respective company. And, last but not least, the Verband covered one third of the application costs something which is not to be neglected considering its funding system. Without its commitment, the application would probably not have been possible. Were all these efforts worth it? How is the commitment to assess retrospectively? What are the conclusions and what lesson do we learn for the future?

62 4 First of all, it has to be stated that the application concept was suitable and that the region is capable of hosting a major event, such as the Olympic Games. Furthermore, there is no doubt as to the quality of the master plan for the central Olympic area in Stuttgart. The plan not only drew the attention of urban planners to a part of town which had been neglected a bit so far. It also showed the huge potential of this area dominated by industry and transport facilities for the future urban development of the city. Furthermore, the master plan showed that the public transport system in the Stuttgart Region is extremely performing in spite of the criticism voiced daily by users and that it is capable of shouldering the load of extra passengers during major events, although considerable improvements to the system would be required. Maybe a more compact overall concept would have better suited the expectations of the NOC, but this would have made it difficult to integrate the region as a whole and would probably not have made any difference at the end of the day. Public interest in sports and in the city and region of Stuttgart as well as media coverage were enormous during the application period. The public generally supported the application and it was possible to enthuse large parts of the population. Coverage in local and regional media was generally positive, too. From this regard, the application was effective as a PR campaign in spite of the high costs. It s a question, however, to which extent the positive PR effects were offset by the poor result in the national election. The enterprises in the region, however, were less enthusiastic when judged by their willingness to provide funds for the application. It is true that a number of global players have their origin and headquarters in our region. But they were less willing to act as sponsors and promoters of the application than it was hoped. In financial terms, the impact of the application is negative. The planned budget was exceeded by 18 %. Various major events in the final phase of the application as well as an expensive final presentation which had not been envisaged in this form at the beginning caused considerable extra costs. The reluctant commitment of regional enterprises was one reason for the remaining deficit. One of the positive effects certainly is that a sense of identity was promoted and regional awareness was raised. The growing interest of the region in organizing major sports and other events is also attributable to the application. The Region has now launched a discussion on the requisite infrastructures and the appropriate organisation. It will be interesting to see what the future will bring. Manfred Meister November 2003 Verband Region Stuttgart Kronenstraße Stuttgart Germany phone: fax :

63 London Summer Olympics 2012 bid issues Timetable European bid options in 2012 or 2024 London and Paris seen as front runners but Madrid, Moscow, Leipzig and Istanbul are all candidates Short list in June 2004, decision in July 2005 Organisational implications London Olympic Committee (LOCOG) in 2005 Olympic Development Agency in 2005 Olympic Transport Agency 2009 Security Unit 2009 London Olympics bid issues Budget LONDON OLYMPIC BID - Summary financial Analysis and cost-benefit analysis Figures in m Expenditure Income Surplus/deficit Bidding for the Games Operating account for staging the Games Elite sports development programme Capital cost of infrastructure and facilities Land purchase and residual value Cash flow balance Provision for risk Cash flow including risk Additional tourism income to to 710 Other quantified benefits Total cash flow including Loss of 203 to benefits profit of 115

64 Key points from the bid proposals Olympic zone will be in a deprived area of east London (the Lea Valley) which has the ha required It will have new Channel Tunnel links and cross London links Heathrow Terminal 5 will be operative k bedrooms needed, 200k available Low assumptions about tourism impact Will support the Thames Gateway project 80k seat Stadium, Aquatics Centre, 4000 dwellings Olympic village legacy in the Lea Valley Social cohesion legacy seen as important (50k trained volunteers). 9k jobs, 3k in the Lea Valley Sporting awareness and participation levels Pre Games impact nationally Inward investment Export of expertise (Sydney to Bejing) Issue of blight to 2012 Loosing strategy EU support for infrastructure ( 1.4b to Athens) No parking at Sydney. 50k spaces at Hannover Expo underused Opportunity to raise levels of public transport usage Overall could break even financially May accept Stadium to be temporary and relocated

65 Printer Friendly Format - This Is Local London 12/11/03 2:41 PM "Compact Olympics" plan for London bid The key sites for London s 2012 Olympic bid were unveiled yesterday along with the promise that if successful, it would drive a massive regeneration of Stratford, one of East London s most run-down areas. Under the plans a 500-acre Olympic precinct is to be set in 1,500 acres of parkland stretching from Hackney Marshes down to the Thames. It will mean more than half the events will be within 15 minutes drive of an Olympic Village and 3 miles from the heart of the capital. London 2012 chief executive officer Keith Mills said: We are aiming to create a compact Games for the modern Olympic movement. The layout of venues has been designed to meet the requirements of the athletes during the Games as well as the long-term needs of London communities post Games, Mr Mills said. The public of east London are to be consulted about the preferred venue locations within the Olympic precinct before they are submitted to the International Olympic Committee which will decide in 2005 who will host the Games. We believe the regeneration of the Lower Lea Valley, marking the most extensive transformation London has seen since the Victorian era, will offer a unique opportunity to meet all `the key criteria of the IOC, Mr Mills said. This will enhance the quality of the Olympic experience for athletes, team officials and for all national and international visitors at the London 2012 Olympic Games, Mr Mills said. He added: We re also committed to a legacy that will ensure that no venues are built without a clear plan for their post-olympic use. There will be no white elephants at the London Games. We ll build what we need, and no more. Tony Winterbottom, LDA Executive Director of Regeneration and Development, said the regeneration of the Lower Lea Valley would bring more homes, jobs, businesses and open spaces which will dramatically improve the lives of local people. The Proposed venues and locations are an 80,000 seat Olympic stadium at Marshgate Lane at the heart of the Olympic Precinct. an aquatic centre including a 50m pool built to Olympic specifications at Carpenters Road. Seating will meet the 20,000 capacity indicated by FINA, the international swimming federation and 5,000 for diving. Construction of an Page 1 of 2

66 Printer Friendly Format - This Is Local London 12/11/03 2:41 PM aquatic centre is scheduled to go ahead regardless of the outcome of the bid. a velodrome and BMX track located at the Eastway Sports Centre alongside the existing Eastway cycling circuit. Eastway is already regarded as a cycling centre for London and the Lea Valley Regional Park Authority considers that a velodrome would complement the existing sports infrastructure. a multi-sport complex comprising three indoor sports arenas located at Hackney Wick on the site of the former Hackney Greyhound Stadium. The arenas will be used for a range of indoor sports such as handball, volleyball and basketball and Paralympic events such as goalball and wheelchair rugby. The legacy use of these arenas is under discussion with Hackney Borough Council. an all-weather tennis complex adjacent to Fish Island. a hockey complex comprising two competition stadiums and one warm-up pitch located alongside the preferred Olympic Village site. an Olympic Village accommodating 17,000 beds located close to Stratford International Station on the Channel Tunnel Rail Link and to be constructed in partnership with the developers of the Stratford City project. a preferred Olympic Village accommodating 17,000 beds located next to Stratford International Rail Terminal. a media complex less than 5 minutes drive from the Olympic stadium comprising a 65,000 sq m single-storey International Broadcast Centre and a 45,000 sq m two-storey Main Press Centre. 2:14pm Wednesday 12th November 2003 By Vaneesa Bellew Back Page 2 of 2

67 SOFIA CANDIDATE TO HOST THE WINTER OLYMPIC GAMES IN 2014 The idea that a Bulgarian city should make a bid to stage the Winter Olympic Games gained popularity at the beginning of the The principal contenders then were Sofia and Borovetz, a winter resort in Sofia District. Bulgarian Olympic Committee decided to support the candidacy of the city of Sofia, at first for the 16 th Olympic winter games in 1992, and then following the 91 st Session of the International Olympic Committee for the 17 th in This decision was based on the following important considerations: 1. Unity of place. The remarkable proximity between the capital city and Vitosha Mountain created an excellent opportunity of holding the games. 2. The infrastructure of the capital city could be easily and relatively cheaply adapted to the needs of modern Olympic Games. 3. Sofia was well connected by air, road and rail to all parts of the world. 4. All athletes and officials would be lodged in very favourable conditions at a single Olympic village located conveniently close to the main Stadium (this project was not realized, although all the necessary planning was done). 5. All media would be offered excellent accommodation and working conditions. 6. After the games the Olympic facilities would satisfy the needs of the local population (one million inhabitants only in Sofia) and the needs of the tourist industry. 7. Opportunity to integrate the humanist message of art with the spirit of the Olympic Movement through a rich and varied cultural programme in the city, the Olympic village and at the hotels of the Olympic family. VITOSHA S K I F A C T S LONGEST SKI RUN - 5 km TOTAL SKI RUNS - 29 km DRAGS 6, CHAIRLIFTS 4 GONDOLAS 1 SLOPES EXPOSURE North, East HIGHEST SKI POINT m MAX. VERTICAL DROP m HEIGHT OF RESORT m CROSS-COUNTRY TRACKS - 15 km OFF-PISTE SKIING - Good NAMES OF SKI RUNS - Laleto, Stenata, Zaeka, Spas, Magistralata, Zelenata Aleko ski center is situated in the immediate vicinity of Sofia, on the Vitosha the most visited mountain in Bulgaria, at 1800m above sea level, on the eastern slopes of Cherni Vrah (2290 m) which is the highest Vitosha peak. It's Bulgaria's highest ski resort, while being only 22 km distant from Sofia's center.

68 Most of these considerations are still valid nowadays although time passed and general social and economic changes occurred in the country. Vitosha is still there, a beautiful and attractive place just next to Sofia and the ambition to make them for a short time the capital of such an event of global importance and interest has now new vigour and new dimensions. Bulgarian Olympic Committee launched its decision to work out Sofia's offer to host the 2014 Winter Olympics and the Minister of Youth and Sport declared that he supported strongly the idea. In January 2003 an initiative committee has been set up, chaired by Bulgaria's second pilot-cosmonaut Alexander Alexandrov, to make the necessary for the official bid procedures. It is a chance that the new bid is made in the period of preparation of Bulgaria for joining the EU in 2007 and the finalization of the works on the new Master Plan of Sofia and Sofia Municipality. The new Master plan defines as its major objective the creation of conditions for promoting Sofia as an attractive modern center of sports, tourism and leisure at the Balkanic and European level. A specialized programme is under preparation aiming to define the availability of the necessary infrastructure for the Winter Olympics and the spatial potentials of the territory for complementing it with the due facilities. Some of them already exist and can be used without almost any changes; some have to be reconstructed in accordance with the modern rules applied by the sports federations and the number of expected spectators. There is no infrastructure for bob-sleigh and ski jumps in the country. Some of the formally proposed sites for new facilities in Sofia and its vicinity are now with restituted private ownership and some of them are already built up for different functions. The task is now, from the point of view of spatial planning, to find the possible spatial solutions and clear up the variants of the legal procedures step by step for the implementation of the plans. Revising the basic points of consideration in view of the new conditions we find out that : 1. The Mount Vitosha has geographic potential to host all the competitions of s Rila and Pirin. With the better transport links (the Strouma highway, part of Euro corridor N4) planned to be ready in very short terms the accessibility between Sofia and Bansko will be within approximately one hour and between Sofia and Borovetz it will be even less about half an hour. In the

69 world practice there was already a precedent of a larger scale - two different states successfully shared the role of a host for such major sport events. In our case this relative decentralization will do better from both economic and ecological point of view, giving chances for business and employment to more municipalities in the region and preserving the nature from overloading and disturbing the delicate ecologic balance. BOROVETZ S K I F A C T S LONGEST SKI RUN - 6 km OFF-PISTE SKIING - Good MARKED SKI RUNS - 40 km SLOPES EXPOSURE - North HIGHEST SKI POINT m HEIGHT OF RESORT m MAX. VERTICAL DROP m CROSS-COUNTRY TRACKS - 25 km DRAGS - 14 GONDOLAS - 1 CHAIRLIFTS 3 BANSKO S K I F A C T S MARKED SKI RUNS: 14 km LONGEST SKI RUN: 2.6 km CROSS-COUNTRY TRACKS: 8 km SLOPES EXPOSURE: North HEIGHT OF RESORT: 936 m HEIGHT OF THE SKI RUNS m HIGHEST SKI POINT: 2500 m OFF-PISTE SKIING - Great MAX. VERTICAL DROP m DRAGS - 5 CHAIRLIFTS 2 GONDOLAS - 0 NAMES OF SKI RUNS - Todorka, Balkaniada,Shiligarnika, Platoto, Tzurna Mogila, Chalin Valog

70 2. The transport accessibility from all world destinations to Sofia will be much improved by the year A reconstruction of the international airport is in progress. The European transport corridors N 4, 8 and 10, passing through Sofia Municipality, are planned to be completed with all their elements, including high class modern car and rail roads and modern telecommunication. 3. The lodging of the athletes in Sofia Municipality has now two alternatives to be considered: in the University campus the so called Students Town after its adaptation and renovation (after the Games it will keep its first use); in an entirely new Olympic village on vacant land in the Southern periphery of Sofia (near the existing Lozen village) with perfect environment and direct transport links to the mountain. After the Games it can serve the tourist industry and/or for housing. The lodging of the Olympic officials and the tourists requires a larger hotel base there are many suitable sites for construction of new hotels from different categories, the four star and above regarded as more important and requiring a pro-active policy of the Municipality. The team of the Master Plan is convicted that even the serious preparation alone for the Winter Olympics bid can stimulate the development of Sofia and its Metropolitan area. In the new economic, social and legal conditions the preparations will do much for the establishing of new practices in coordinated planning and new types of partnerships with the participation of the State through its Ministries and respective regional structures, the Municipalities, the National Olympic Committee and the National Sports Federations, the potential investors from the private sector from Bulgaria and abroad in the different areas of the complex. No doubt Sofia can expect serious marketing benefits. Hosting a prestigious event of this range makes the sites of the venues well known all over the world. The mountain attractive for sports and leisure in all four seasons, the abundant mineral water sources presenting a rich palette of various specific qualities each source for healing and embellishing procedures, the city of Sofia itself with its historic monuments and active economic, cultural and social life can expect more tourists as after the Games the synergic use of all the resources for tourism can fully perform its long term effect

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