PRIMARY AND GENERAL ELECTION CAMPAIGNS IN THE UNITED STATES. November 5, 2012 Hans Noel Georgetown University

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1 PRIMARY AND GENERAL ELECTION CAMPAIGNS IN THE UNITED STATES November 5, 2012 Hans Noel Georgetown University

2 PRIMARY AND GENERAL ELECTION CAMPAIGNS IN THE UNITED STATES NOMINATIONS Origins of U.S. Primaries The Invisible Primary GENERAL ELECTION The Fundamentals Shape the Election The Electoral College

3 THE UNITED STATES UNDER THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION (1787) STATES FORM THE UNION

4 IT S ALL ABOUT THE STATES State parties choose delegates to conventions, which choose candidates, who compete in the Electoral College for the presidency DEMOCRATS REPUBLICANS

5 NOMINATIONS Origins of U.S. Primaries The Invisible Primary GENERAL ELECTION The Fundamentals Shape the Election The Electoral College

6 COORDINATING VOTERS Election of 1824: Popular Vote Electoral College Democrat-Republican (J.Q. Adams) 31% 84 Democrat-Republican (Jackson) 41% 99 Democrat-Republican (Crawford) 11.2% 41 Democrat-Republican (Clay) 13% 37 Election of 1828: Democrat Jackson vs. National Republican Adams

7 SOLUTION I: CONVENTIONS How it might work: Party delegates arrive. They deliberate. Name the candidate. How it came to work: Pre-convention coordination Campaigning among future delegates Then delegates arrive...

8 PARTY CONVENTIONS Roughly 1928, Parties began increasingly to settle on their nominee before the convention. Number of ballots to select a winner (log scale) Ballots for Nomination, (For open nominations only) Year

9 PRIMARIES AS TESTS Primaries begin in early 1900s, progressive reform. For president, primarily used to demonstrate appeal, not to actually win delegates. e.g. John F. Kennedy in West Virginia

10 MCGOVERN-FRASER COMMISSION 1968: Democrats Hubert H. Humphrey Supporters of McCarthy (and RFK) unhappy with 1968 outcome. Commission to evaluate delegate selection Delegates must be chosen in a manner open to rankand-file party members. Not primaries, necessarily. Expected more caucuses. Democratic state legislatures impose on both parties.

11 1972 and 1976 MCGOVERN AND CARTER 1972, McGovern wins the system he designed. 1976, Carter comes to Iowa early. Momentum. The only candidate to campaign in every primary. Carter is not viewed as a successful president. Why not? Not able to work with own party.

12 Date State Carter Udall Jackson Wallace Brown Church Bayh Bentsen Shriver Harris January 19 Iowa February 24 N.H March 2 Mass March 9 Fla March 16 Ill March 23 N.C April 6 Wis April 27 Pa May 1 Texas May 4 D.C Ala Ga Ind May 11 Neb May 18 Md Mich May 25 Ark Idaho Ky Nev Ore Tenn June 1 Mont R.I S.D June 8 Calif Ohio

13 SOLUTION II: PRIMARIES How it might work: Party delegates chosen by party voters. Delegates deliberate, name candidate. How it worked: Delegates pledged to candidates, but not chosen by party leaders. No deliberation The party s solution: Get involved sooner The Invisible Primary

14 FIGURE 6-1: Distribution of Endorsements by Contest Muskie McGovern Humphrey Mills 1972 DEMOCRATS Jackson Lindsay 20. of governors endorsing Distribution of politically weighted endorsements before the Iowa caucus for presidential nominations, 1972 to Eventually nominee in black DEMOCRATS REPUBLICANS % of governors endorsing % of governors endorsing Carter Kennedy Brown Reagan Bush Connally Baker Anderson Bayh Crane McCarthy Dole Harris Dukakis Gephardt Gore Jackson 1988 DEMOCRATS Simon Hart 19.2% of go endorsing Babbitt Bush Dole Kemp Robertson 1988 REPUBLICANS DuPont Haig 58.3% of go endorsing DEMOCRATS 11.4% of governors endorsing REPUBLICANS 100. of governors endorsing DEMOCRATS 44.8% of governors endorsing REPUBLICANS 90. of governors endorsing Jackson Udall Bentsen Carter Bayh Humphrey Harris Church Sanford Ford Reagan Clinton Harkin Kerrey Tsongas Brown Dole Gramm Alexander Buchanan Forbes Lugar Keyes Dornan DEMOCRATS REPUBLICANS % of governors endorsing % of governors endorsing Gore Bradley Bush Forbes Hatch DEMOCRATS DEMOCRATS % of governors endorsing % of governors endorsing Mondale Glenn Cranston Jackson Hart Askew Hollings McGovern Gephardt Dean Kerry Edwards Kucinich Clark Lieberman Sharpton Braun

15 FIGURE 9 5: Vote shares vs. Endorsements PARTY VOTERS ARE LOYAL Voters who self-identify as partisan vote much the same way as political endorsers. Independent voters are less persuaded. Partisan Voters y Independent Voters y % 5 25% % 5 25% % % x % % Endorsements x Endorsements is the percent of all politically weighted endorsements for each candidate in the year prior to the primaries, up to the day before the Iowa caucuses. Primary election vote shares are from Mayer Solid circles are Democrats. Open circles are Republicans.

16 2012 INVISIBLE PRIMARY Romney emerges as most broadly acceptable. But not broadly enough. Series of anti-romney candidates also not broadly acceptable enough. Not electable enough. Failure to coordinate early on Romney could have led to unexpected outcomes.

17 NOMINATIONS Origins of U.S. Primaries The Invisible Primary GENERAL ELECTION The Fundamentals Shape the Election The Electoral College

18 THE ECONOMY Incumbent's Share of Two-Party Vote % Change in RDI

19 PARTY IDENTIFICATION A stable orientation (attachment, predisposition) toward a political party Generally speaking, do you usually think of yourself as a Republican, a Democrat, an Independent, or what? (IF REPUBLICAN OR DEMOCRAT) Would you call yourself a strong (REP/DEM) or a not very strong (REP/DEM)? (IF INDEPENDENT, OTHER NO PREFERENCE:) Do you think of yourself as closer to the Republican or Democratic party?

20 PARTY ID IN THE U.S TO Str. R Wk. R 75% Lean R 5 Ind. Lean D 25% Wk. D Str. D

21 PARTY LOYALTY IN % 5 25% Str. D Wk. D Lean D Ind. Lean R Wk. R Str. R Bush Vote in 2004

22 PARTY LOYALTY IN % 5 25% Str. D Lean D Wk. D Ind. Lean R Wk. R Str. R McCain Vote in 2008

23 PARTY LOYALTY Coefficient from logit model predicting presidential vote choice with party identification

24 VOLATILE POLLS SPREAD: OBAMA VS. MCCAIN Nov 2006 Feb 2007 Jun 2007 Sep 2007 Dec 2007 Apr 2008 Jul 2008 Nov 2008 Source:

25 LESS VOLATILE POLLS SPREAD: OBAMA VS. ROMNEY May 2009 Dec 2009 Jul 2010 Feb 2011 Sep 2011 Apr 2012 Nov 2012 Source:

26 THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE

27 2008

28 2012 SWING STATES pollster.com

29 THE ROAD TO 270 pollster.com

30 THE ROAD TO Obama Kerry Gore Clinton Clinton Dukakis Mondale Carter McCain Bush Bush Dole Bush Bush Reagan Reagan

31 YEAR TO YEAR STABILITY

32 2012 SWING STATES pollster.com

33 THANK YOU

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