Towards Sustainable Multispecies Fisheries in the Florida Coral Reef Ecosystem

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1 Towards Sustainable Multispecies Fisheries in the Florida Coral Reef Ecosystem Jerald S. Ault University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science

2 Southern Florida coral reefs generated 71 thousand jobs and $6 billion US in economic activity in 2001! They also contributed to the designation of Florida as fishing capital of the world by the state legislature. These ecosystem goods and services, however, are threatened by increased exploitation and environmental changes from a rapidly growing regional human population.

3 Today I will briefly describe progress and provide 3 examples: Expanded stock assessment capabilities spatial & multispecies. Optimized sampling with new length-based framework. Innovative models to encompass complex biological dynamics of fish stocks and broad range of environmental and human impacts.

4 (A) (B) (C) (D)

5 Coastal Bays to Coral Reefs (CBCR) Everglades Restoration Freshwater Miami Port of Miami Gulf Stream Straits of Florida Mangrove Biscayne Barrier Patch Barrier Coral Pelagic Marsh Bay Islands Reefs Reef Environment MANGROVES SEAGRASSES PATCH REEFS BANK and DEEP TERRACE REEFS

6 Florida s Human Population Growth 2nd World War

7 Commercial Landings Nassau Grouper (Cuba) Catch (mt) Yellowtail Snapper All Groupers (Florida) Black Grouper (FL) Catch (mt) Gray Snapper Commercial: TIP, Logbook, Recreational: MRFSS, Creel (BNP, ENP), Headboats

8 Serial Overfishing in the Florida Keys 100 % Spawning Potential Ratio GROUPERS Overfishing (30% SPR) SNAPPERS GRUNTS 10 0 black red graysby coney gag nassau yellowfin yellowmouth red hind rock hind scamp snowy speckled hind yellowedge warsaw jewfish hogfish gray mutton yellowtail schoolmaster blackfin cubera dog lane black red sailor s choice barracuda silk vermillion bluestriped white tomtate margate Exploited Coral Reef Fishes Ault, J.S,, Bohnsack, J.A., and G.A. Meester Fishery Bulletin 96: (Best Publication Award & NOAA Certificate of Achievement 2002)

9 Systems Science Analysis Framework Data Acquisition Population Dynamics Habitats Bioeconomics Coral Reef Ecosystem Model Building Physical Biological Humans Habitats Human-Fishery Sector Fishery Resource Risk Assessment

10 Bohnsack Method RVC Stationary Cylinder (Reef Fish Visual Census)

11 Patchy hard-bottom Patch reefs Pinnacles Low Degree of Patchiness High Low-relief spur & groove Low-relief hard-bottom Rocky outcrops Medium-profile reef High-relief spur & groove Reef terrace Low Vertical Relief High

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13

14 Frequency Bay Gray Snapper Inshore Reefs Offshore Reefs Survey Error (%CV) YOY Juveniles Adults L 1 yo m L c Length (cm) Yellowtail Snapper Gray Snapper

15 RVC Fishery-independent data for Yellowtail snapper Fishery-dependent data range

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17 Reef Fish Recruitment 8 Yellowtail Snapper 2.00E-01 Black Grouper E E E E E E E+00 Gray Snapper 6.00E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E+00 Gray Angelfish YEAR

18 3.50E E+07 Yellowtail Snapper 6.00E E+05 Black Grouper 2.50E E E E+05 Population Abundance 1.50E E E E E E E E E E E E E E+06 Gray Snapper 2.00E E E E E E E E+05 Gray Angelfish 0.00E E YEAR

19 Non-Exploited Species 2.00E E+06 Spotfin butterflyfish 1.00E E+05 Bicolor damselfish Population Abundance 0.00E E E E E E E E E Stoplight parrotfish 1.60E E E E E E E E E Year

20 Average Size (mm) Black Grouper Reef Fish Visual Census (RVC) Average Size (mm) Yellowtail Snapper Headboat Survey Minimum Size L c Gray Snapper 500 Hogfish Average Size (mm) Average Size (mm) Year

21 (A) (B) Average Size (mm) Florida Hogfish Year

22 (A) (B) (C) Average Size in the Exploitable Phase (FL cm) Florida Hogfish RVC MRFSS RVC Biscayne National Park RVC Headboats Year

23 (A) Minimum Size (12 ) Florida Hogfish 1984 N = 533, (B) Frequency N = 764,935 (C) N = 3,958, Fork Length (cm)

24 Maturation Function Growth Function Mature Females Eggs Larvae Juveniles Recruitment Function Copulation Function Hermaphroditism Function Mature Males Maximum Size-Age Competition Function Movement/Migration Function Natural Mortality Function Fishing Mortality Function Natural Deaths Physiological Predation Rec & Comm Yields Fishery Deaths Bycatch Catch & Release Conceptual overview of the REEFS length-based age- and sex-structured population simulation model used for reef fish stock assessment in the Florida coral reef ecosystem.

25 Hogfish Frequency F = F = Frequency Length (mm) F = F msy =0.13 Juvenescense Length (mm) F = F 2001 F = F 2001 = 0.5 Frequency Length (mm)

26 Stock Synthesis Modeling Catch (kg) Use of Maximum Likelihood Estimators with Bayesian Statistics Crec Obs C comm Obs CpredRec CpredComm Alternative estimates of current F Profile Likelihood for B(0) Relative likelihood 1.20E E E E E E E Current F Relative Likelihood 1.20E E E E E E E Initial Population Biomass B(0) (kg x100000) Likelihood profiles to express parameter uncertainty via MLE criterion.

27 Higher-Order Structured Stock Synthesis Modeling predicted vs observed survey indices Index value (fish/177m2) Yield (kg) year RVC juv pred RVC juv RVC exploited pred RVC exploited Fishing mortality rate Average Size (FL) in RVC Stock Synthesis

28 Florida Hogfish Cross-Validation Study 2.50 Fishing Mortality Rate Age-structured SS Continuous SS Lbar RVC aspic

29 (A) 1.4 Fishing Mortality Rate Commercial Recreational (B) Percent of Total Fishing Mortality 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Recreational Frec Fcomm Commercial Recr F Comm F

30 Figure 6

31 New Sustainability Criteria Scamp Snowy grouper F/Fmsy Yellowfin grouper Yellowedge grouper Red snapper Overfishing Schoolmaster snapper Silk snapper Vermillion snapper Hogfish Tomtate Red grouper Warsaw grouper White grunt Mutton snapper Gag grouper Black grouper Yellowtail snapper Coney Gray snapper Cubera Yellowmouth grouper Goliath grouper Black Lane Dog Margate Rock Hind Speckled Hind B/Bmsy snapper Nassau Blackfin snapper Sailor s choice Graysby Bluestriped MSY Target Red Hind

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33

34

35

36 Scenario Testing - CBCR Model Two dimensional spatial patch interaction model used to simulate fish (predator)-shrimp (prey) community dynamics.

37

38 Predator Prey

39 Biophysical Dynamics

40 Summary Systems Science cost-effective and precise! Higher resolution of habitat distribution. Integration of FI & FD survey technologies. Spatial growth rate potential (EFH, MPAs). Fishery science framework improves understanding of impacts from fishery extraction, ecosystem alterations, and natural oceanographic variability on the dynamics of exploited fish stocks.

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