Variation in motivations by running ability: using the theory of reasoned action to predict attitudes about running 5K races

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Variation in motivations by running ability: using the theory of reasoned action to predict attitudes about running 5K races"

Transcription

1 Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events ISSN: (Print) (Online) Journal homepage: Variation in motivations by running ability: using the theory of reasoned action to predict attitudes about running 5K races Nicolette Bell & Amber L. Stephenson To cite this article: Nicolette Bell & Amber L. Stephenson (2014) Variation in motivations by running ability: using the theory of reasoned action to predict attitudes about running 5K races, Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 6:3, , DOI: / To link to this article: Published online: 30 Jun Submit your article to this journal Article views: 1075 View related articles View Crossmark data Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at Download by: [ ] Date: 25 December 2017, At: 17:12

2 Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure & Events, 2014 Vol. 6, No. 3, , Variation in motivations by running ability: using the theory of reasoned action to predict attitudes about running 5K races Nicolette Bell a * and Amber L. Stephenson b a Administration and Leadership Studies Program, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, PA, USA; b Nonprofit Evaluation Services and Training (NEST), Temple University Harrisburg, 234 Strawberry Square, Harrisburg, PA, USA (Received January 2014; final version received May 2014) Resumen In the past several years, the 5K race has become the most prevalent distance run in the USA. Though 5K races are so prevalent in society, there is a lack of understanding about the motivation of the participants in these events. This study aims to fill the gap by examining the motivations of 5K runners. Using Fishbein and Ajzen s (2010) theory of reasoned action as a conceptual framework, the researchers assess whether variances existed in the attitudinal motivations of running 5K races by levels of ability. The current study sampled 512 runners of 5K races in Pennsylvania. The results show that altruism, competition, and past participation influenced the attitudes of runners with high ability. Altruism, social affiliation, competition, and health influenced the attitudes of runners with medium ability. Similarly, health, social affiliation, and altruism influenced the attitudes of runners with low ability. Finally, results show that runners with higher ability are more likely to participate in 5Ks. The results of this study are particularly pertinent to race directors and event planners. The results provide novel insights into the motivations of 5K race runners, thus highlighting ways for race directors to develop 5K events that appeal to participants. Keywords: motivation; running; 5K; leisure; theory of reasoned action En los últimos años, las carreras de 5 kms se han convertido en la distancia de carrera más popular en los Estados Unidos. Aunque las carreras de 5 kms son socialmente tan populares, hay una falta de comprensión sobre la motivación de los participantes en este tipo de eventos. Este estudio se propone como objetivo salvar esta deficiencia mediante el examen de las motivaciones de los corredores de 5 kms. Utilizando la Teoría de Acción Razonada de Fishbein y Ajzen (2010) como marco conceptual, los investigadores evalúan si existían varianzas en las motivaciones actitudinales de los corredores de carreras de 5 kms por niveles de habilidad. Este estudio muestreó 512 corredores de carrera de 5 kms en Pensilvania. Los resultados muestran que el altruismo, la competición y la participación pasada influían en las actitudes de los corredores de habilidad media. Igualmente, la salud, la afiliación social, y el altruismo influían en las actitudes de los corredores con baja habilidad. Finalmente, los resultados muestran que los corredores con mayor habilidad es más probable que participen en carreras de 5kms. Los resultados de este estudio son especialmente pertinentes para los directores de las carreras y los planificadores de eventos. Los *Corresponding author Taylor & Francis

3 232 N. Bell and A.L. Stephenson Résumé resultados proporcionan una novedosa percepción sobre las motivaciones de los corredores de carreras de 5 kms destacando formas en que los directores de carreras pueden desarrollar eventos de 5 kms que resulten atractivas para los participantes. Palabras claves: motivación; carrera; 5 kms; ocio; teoría de acción razonada 摘要 Depuis des années, la course de 5Km est devenue la distance ayant dominé les compétitions aux États-Unis. Même si les courses de 5 km sont les plus préférées dans la société, ce qui motive la participation à ces événements est mal connu. En utilisant la Théorie de l Action Raisonnée (TAR) de Fishbein et Ajzen (2010) comme cadre conceptuel, les chercheurs étudient si les différences existent au sein des attitudes de motivation parmi les participants aux 5Km selon les niveaux de capacité. La présente étude analyse l échantillon de 512 coureurs des courses de 5 km à Pennsylvanie. Les résultats des recherches montrent que l altruisme, la compétition et la participation antérieure influencent les attitudes des coureurs ayant un niveau élevé de capacité. Par ailleurs, la santé, l affiliation sociale et l altruisme influencent les attitudes des coureurs ayant un niveau bas de capacité. Finalement, les résultats montrent que les coureurs ayant le niveau élevé de capacité sont également susceptibles de participer aux courses de 5 km. Les résultats de cette étude sont particulièrement importants aux directeurs des courses et aux organisateurs des événements. Ils fournissent des données concrètes sur les motivations des coureurs de courses de 5 km, ce qui souligne les voies et moyens par lesquels les directeurs des courses pourraient organiser les événements qui intéressent plus les participants. Mots-clés: Motivation; courir; 5 km; loisir; Théorie de l Action Raisonnée 五千米赛跑在过去的几年里成为美国最受欢迎的长跑项目 尽管五千米赛跑在社会上如此受欢迎, 但对这些活动参与者的动机鲜有了解 本研究试图通过了解五千米跑步者的动机来填补此空白 运用菲什拜因和阿耶兹的理性行为理论作为概念框架, 研究者分析了不同能力水平的五千米跑步者的态度动机是否存在差异 本研究选择宾西法尼亚州的 512 名五千米赛跑者作为样本, 调查结果显示 : 利他 竞争和过去的参与影响高水平跑步者的态度, 利他 社会交往 竞争和健康影响中等水平跑步者的态度, 健康 社会交往和利他影响低水平跑步者的态度 结果还显示高水平的跑步者更愿意参与五千米赛跑活动 本研究结果与比赛总监和活动的策划者密切相关, 并对五千米赛跑者的动机进行了新的洞察, 从而向比赛总监揭示了吸引参与者参加五千米赛跑活动的方式 关键词 : 动机, 跑步,5 千米, 休闲, 理性行为理论 The 5K, or 5000 meter, race has been the most prevalent distance run in the USA since In 2011, approximately 5.2 million individuals completed a 5K road race in the USA (Running USA, 2012). In the same year, 5K road races exceeded 12,500, accounting for over half of the total competitive races held that year (Running USA, 2012). Though 5K races are so widespread in the non-profit fundraising community, little is known about the motivation of the participants in these events. Previous research on the motivation of runners primarily explored the marathon distance. For example, Masters, Ogles, and Jolton (1993), Havenar and Lochbaum (2007), McGehee, Yoon,

4 Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure & Events 233 and Cardenas (2003), and Axelsen and Robinson (2009) examined the motivations of marathon runners to participate in races, travel a substantial distance to participate, and segment the runner market based on motivations, respectively. While the literature on running motivation is plentiful for marathons, the literature about the motivations for running 5K races is rather sparse. Clear differences exist between the marathon and 5K road races, with the most significant being the distance (26.2 miles for a marathon, 3.1 miles for a 5K), the event duration, and necessary training required to complete a marathon. With the sheer number of charitable 5K races held annually in the USA, it is pertinent to explore the motivations of 5K runners. Further, race directors can use identified 5K runner preferences to design races to draw in a bigger pool of participants. Due to the fundraising nature of most 5K races, the primary goal for race directors is to draw in participants, put on a race that meets or exceeds the participants expectations, and encourage them to come back in the subsequent years to continue capturing additional charitable funds. The purpose of this research is to explore the motivations of 5K race runners in Pennsylvania by levels of running ability. Running ability is defined here as 5K race personal record (PR) in the past two years standardized by age and gender. The study uses a modified version of Fishbein and Ajzen s Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA, 2010) as the conceptual framework of the research. This study extends findings of previous scholarship on runner motivation and addresses the gap in literature pertaining to the motivations of specifically 5K race participants. The results of this study will aid 5K charitable race directors in planning events to attract 5K runners of all ability levels. Literature review Leisure motivation Chen and Pang (2012) defined leisure motivation research as the study of psychological and sociological reasons for participating in leisure activities (p. 1075). Much leisure research focused on intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for participation (Chen & Pang, 2012; Deci & Ryan, 1985; Walker, 2008; Walker, Deng, & Dieser, 2005), explored the phenomenon from a categorical perspective (Ewert, Gilbertson, Luo, & Voight, 2013; Recours, Souville, & Griffet, 2004), or applied theoretical models to the field of leisure (Filo, Funk, & O Brien, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2014; Funk & James, 2001). Specifically, previous works on the Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) by Funk and James (2001) as well as Filo et al. (2009, 2010, 2011, 2014) informed this study. The PCM (Funk & James, 2001) posits that motivation is driven by increasing loyalty to a behavior or event. Funk and James (2001) PCM proposed that personal and social situational factors joined to incite loyalty. Individuals moved through stages of awareness, attraction, attachment, and allegiance while becoming more attached and loyal to the charitable sporting events (CSEs) as the stages progressed. PCM supports that those individuals who already participated experienced awareness and attraction; therefore, studies focused primarily on the attachment stage. At the attachment stage, people were attracted to a CSE, had personal meaning for the event, and created a self-concept. These inputs strengthened their attitudes toward the event and assigned emotional, functional, and symbolic meaning to the event (Beaton, Funk, & Alexandris, 2009).

5 234 N. Bell and A.L. Stephenson Using PCM as the theoretical framework, Filo et al. (2009, 2010, 2011, 2014) explored the motivations and attachments of participants in CSEs, such as bike or foot races. Filo et al. (2009, 2010, 2011, 2014) studied how participants attachment to a CSE (1) gave them meaning, (2) affected the sponsor image, product purchase intent, and future event participation intent, and (3) influenced the motivations of participants in charity-focused and recreation-focused events. The recreation motives were intellectual, social, competency, and escape, based on Beard and Ragheb s (1983) dimensions of leisure motivation. Intellectual motivation was the individuals initiative to participate in events that included mental action and exploration (Filo et al., 2011, p. 495). The social motivation associated with human relationships, competency reflected the individuals need to succeed and compete, and escape was the stress relief afforded by the leisure activity (2011). The charity motives were reciprocity, self-esteem, need to help others, and desire to improve the charity (2011). Reciprocity was the participants expectation that the charity would benefit the individual in the future. Self-esteem was the individuals improved sense of self-worth from participating in the CSE. The need to help others was considered the altruistic ideal and the desire to improve the charity was the individuals motive to contribute to the charity s success (2011). Ultimately, the charity-based motives made a stronger contribution to attachment at the charity-focused CSE and the recreation motives had a stronger influence on attachment at the recreation-focused CSE (2011). These findings supported the notion that race directors should emphasize the sport event over the charity because the recreation-focused CSE inspired a wider range of significant relationships between motive and attachment to the event. In another study, Filo et al. (2009) found through qualitative interviews with participants at a Lance Armstrong CSE emergent themes including camaraderie, cause, and competency. Camaraderie was the harmony and friendship that arose through attachment to the CSE. Cause was the participants goals to raise awareness and support the charity. Competency was the fitness required to compete. The themes discovered by Filo et al. (2009, 2010, 2011, 2014) supported the social affiliation, altruism, and health components in the current study. Additionally, the contributions of Filo et al. (2009, 2010, 2011, 2014) supported the significance of a past participation variable because varying motivations can lead to attachment and a stronger intention to participate in a CSE in the future. Running motivation Several scholars assessed motivation for running races (Axelsen & Robinson, 2009; Masters et al., 1993; McGehee et al., 2003). Masters et al. (1993) created the Motivation Of Marathoners Scale (MOMS) to assess the diverse reasons for marathon running. The instrument captured psychological, physical, social, and achievement facets of overall motivation to participate in a marathon. Based on the results and subsequent testing of the MOMS, health, competition, and social affiliation were included in the current study as running-related motivational constructs. Due to the consistent support in the leisure motivation and CSE literature mentioned above, altruism was also included as a motivation construct in the current study. Notably different from the ego involvement explored by Filo et al. (2009, 2010, 2011), McGehee et al. (2003) explored involvement, or an unobservable state of motivation, arousal, or interest, that is evoked by a particular stimulus or situation and has drive properties (Havitz, Dimanche, & Bogle, 1994), as related to overnight

6 Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure & Events 235 road race travel participation (p. 307). McGehee et al. (2003) found that runners with higher involvement in overnight road race travel reported significantly more trips and spent significantly more in running-related expenditures than recreational runners with lower levels of involvement. As with the current study, McGehee et al. (2003) and Axelsen and Robinson (2009) divided the market by different characteristics of the group. Segmenting the market permitted race directors to use marketing resources effectively, appealing to runners from diverse geographical regions, and to categorize traveling runners to incite their interest in the race (McGehee et al., 2003). Consequently, Axelsen and Robinson (2009) indicated that this segmentation assists in the comprehension of motivations of the distance runner sport tourist. McGehee et al. (2003) indicated that market segmentation based on motivation would assist to increase involvement or race loyalty. This market segmentation can be determined by characteristics of the participants such as age or skill level. Skill level in leisure sports Skill level in leisure sports impacts participation and commitment to the sport (Casper & Andrew, 2008; Heo, Lee, Lundberg, McCormick, & Chun, 2008). Heo et al. (2008) found that serious, or higher-skilled, leisure sport participants invested significant effort in improving their performance in the sport. Serious leisure sport participants persevered through cost, time, and location issues that would deter someone with lower skills and motivation (Heo et al., 2008). Among tennis players, Casper and Andrew (2008) found that higher-skilled players had higher levels of commitment to the sport but lower levels of enjoyment than their intermediate- and lower-skilled counterparts. Casper and Andrew (2008) posited that the lower enjoyment for the higher-skilled players could be due to the game becoming too serious to them with a focus on competition. Also, the higher levels of commitment translated into the higher-skilled players having more social constraints (Casper & Andrew, 2008). This study explores level of runner ability as related to motivations for running 5K races by applying one of the most popular motivation theories in social psychology, the TRA. Theory of reasoned action Historically, motivation has been a challenging construct to operationalize for psychological and sociological researchers alike. Early motivation scholarship was relatively weak and unorganized (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010). The assumption that attitudes predicted behaviors was generally accepted and therefore not empirically tested. Then in 1980, the landmark study by Ajzen and Fishbein introduced TRA and became a model for future motivation scholars. Over the past three decades, variations of TRA have been one of the most widely tested motivation theories in physical fitness activities (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010). According to TRA, intentions and behaviors were a function of three basic determinants: the attitude toward the behavior, the subjective norm, and the perceived behavioral control (Ajzen, 2010). Behavioral beliefs resulted in an attitude toward the behavior. Individuals developed normative beliefs about performing the behavior based on the expectations of those surrounding them. In the case of 5K race participation, the individuals looked to their families, friends, and the running community to seek approval for participation and then acted accordingly. Perceived behavioral control was based on an individual s belief that he or she was capable of the behavior

7 236 N. Bell and A.L. Stephenson in question. Actual control beliefs were developed by the presence or absence of factors that facilitated or impeded performance of the behavior. For example, some people believed they could run the race, but due to injury they were not physically able to complete the activity. Ultimately, the more favorable the attitude and norm, and the greater the perceived control, the stronger a person s intention was to perform the behavior. As long as the individual had enough actual control over the behavior, she was expected to carry out her intention when the opportunity arose. While intention was perceived to be the antecedent of behavior, perceived and actual behavioral control added explanatory power to the model (Ajzen, 2010). To reiterate, TRA existed among the most popular motivation theories for the past three decades. Many authors applied TRA to physical activity behaviors and found support for the predictive abilities of each component. For example, Ries, Granados, and Galarraga (2009) found that attitudes and perceived behavioral control were significant predictors of students intentions to be physically active. Further, Brickell, Lange, and Chatzisarantis (2010) found support that all of the TRA components were significant predictors of exercise behaviors of sufficient and insufficient exercisers alike. Nonetheless, TRA applications to running behaviors, specifically at the 5K distance, were lacking in the literature. In this study, we created a model of motivation for running 5K races by running ability based on TRA as well as running and leisure motivation literature. Conceptual framework For this research, we applied Fishbein and Ajzen s (2010) TRA model (see Figure 1). We selected constructs from the running and leisure motivation literature that could influence attitudes toward running a 5K race. These concepts included competition, Figure 1. Conceptual framework. Adapted from predicting and changing behavior: the reasoned action approach by Fishbein and Ajzen (2010, p. 23).

8 Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure & Events 237 health, altruism, and social affiliation. And, as previously discussed in the literature review, the TRA constructs included attitudes, perceived norms, perceived behavioral control, intention, and actual behavioral control. These variables combined to create the model of 5K race participation motivations. We identified in the running and CSE literature competition, health, altruism, and social affiliation as motivation themes for behavioral, normative, and control beliefs. Competition refers to an individual s intrinsic drive to triumph over the opposition and achieve previously set goals (Bell, 2013; Ewert et al., 2013; Recours et al., 2004). Health denotes the physical and mental positive fitness effects of running (Bell, 2013). Altruism signifies the willingness to contribute to a worthy cause and is pertinent to those 5K races with a charitable association (Bell, 2013). Finally, social affiliation refers to the belongingness or sense of connectedness to other participants experienced by 5K runners (Bell, 2013; Recours et al., 2004). These four aspects create beliefs that influence an individual s attitudes toward executing the behavior of running a 5K race. Attitudes, perceived norms, and perceived behavioral control are the primary TRA constructs. Ajzen (2010) suggests individuals attitudes about a behavior influence the person to respond in favor of or against the event. Perceived norms included the perceived social pressures to perform a given behavior while perceived behavioral control included the individual s feeling of capability to perform the behavior (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010). As many 5K races involved a charitable cause, we expected the perceived norms to take on a positive form. Also, due to the shorter distance and common practice of walking in a 5K event, we expected perceived behavioral control to be viewed as generally achievable. Therefore, the primary focus of this study was on the influence of the motivations on attitudes. Attitudes, perceived norms, and perceived behavioral control influenced intention to perform the action. This study defined intention as an individual s plan to participate in a 5K race in And finally, actual behavioral control included obstacles to the behavior external to the participant. Synthesizing the model in review, an individual s competition, health, altruism, and social affiliation motivational beliefs influence their attitudes about running 5K races. The individual s attitudes, perceived norms, and perceived behavioral control lead to intentions. And, barring the presence of actual control obstacles, the intention then leads to the behavior which, in this case, is running a 5K race. As this study explored the variation in motivations of 5K runners by ability using the TRA model, the hypotheses are as follows: H1: The higher the runner ability, the more important will be competitive motivations in influencing the attitude toward participation in 5K races. H2: The higher the runner ability, the more important will be health motivations in influencing the attitude toward participation in 5K races. H3: The lower the runner ability, the more important will be altruistic motivations in influencing the attitude toward running a 5K. H4: The lower the running ability, the more important will be social affiliation motivations in influencing the attitude toward participation in 5K races. H5: The higher the running ability, the more likely will be the individual s participation in a 5K race.

9 238 N. Bell and A.L. Stephenson Methods Design and sampling This study used a quantitative cross-sectional survey design. We obtained approval from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of a Pennsylvania university. During the IRB approval process, a committee of scholars reviewed the detailed description of the proposed research to ensure the safety, privacy, and ethical treatment of human subjects. The population of the study included individuals in Pennsylvania who had previously participated in a 5K race, belonged to a local running club, or subscribed to a local running website. The sample frame included a combination of those individuals having finished a 5K in 2011 as provided by race directors, the member lists from Pennsylvania running clubs, and the user list from the local running website. We employed a bimodal distribution method beginning with an electronic survey and followed up with a paper survey mailed to the home address of 2472 potential respondents who did not complete the electronic survey. We received 668 survey responses. Only those respondents who self-identified as being runners were included in the analysis, resulting in 521 usable surveys (21% response rate). We then linked the survey responses to online race participation records such as race completion and completion time. Participant characteristics The respondents participated in more than eight 5K races in the past two years (M = 8.21, SD = 8.30). The same respondents have been participating in 5K races for over nine years (M = 9.82, SD = 9.77). To round out the respondents 5K race profiles, the respondents averaged a 26-minute PR (M = 26.00, SD = 5.69) in the past two years. Some other 5K race behaviors were: 72.0% of the respondents typically preregister for intended 5K events, 87.0% intend to participate in a 5K race in 2013, and 28.7% ran competitively in high school or college. The average survey respondent was over 42 years old (M = 42.68, SD = 11.96). Other general descriptions were: 71.4% had a bachelor s degree, 59.0% were women, 96.1% were Caucasian, 90.0% were non-hispanic, and 41.8% reported household incomes of more than $100,000. These general statistics were comparable to those reported by Running USA s (2012) National Runner Survey. Measures We collected all variables, with the exception of running ability and participation, from the survey instrument. In the case of running ability, we used the 5K PR disclosed on the survey and created a standardized score. In the case of participation, we used secondary data found on the results pages of 5K race websites. The independent variables included motivational beliefs (competition, health, altruism, and social affiliation) and intention. The dependent variables of the study included attitude and participation. The control variable in the study was past participation in 5K races. Running ability Each respondent conveyed their 5K race PR in the past two years. We created standardized runner-ability scores by dividing the self-reported PR by the world record for age

10 Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure & Events 239 and gender (Jones, 2011). These age standards present the fastest possible time that a person of a specified age can run for that distance, in this case a 5K. The closer the score was to 1 the higher the runner ability. For the purposes of analysis, we segmented the runners by three levels of ability (see also Ewert et al., 2013). Those in the high-ability category (n = 173) ranged from 1.04 to Those in the medium-ability category (n = 173) ranged from 1.56 to And, finally, those in the low-ability category (n = 173) ranged from 1.81 to Motivational beliefs According to Fishbein and Ajzen (2010), strength of beliefs pertaining to an object dictates the summative process of developing the individual s overall attitude toward the object. The MOMS (Masters et al., 1993, 2009) instrument was used as a guide to create modified statements to measure the competition, health, and social interaction constructs. The MOMS subscales were previously found to exhibit high reliability and internal consistency with Cronbach s alpha reliability coefficients ranging from.75 to.88 and test retest estimates ranging from R =.71 to R =.90 (Havenar & Lochbaum, 2007; Masters & Ogles, 1995; Ogles & Masters, 2000, 2003). In this study, these motivations were the basis of analysis between each runner ability level and attitude about running a 5K. We measured each motivation on a seven-point Likert scale from strongly agree (7) to strongly disagree (1). To confirm that the questions loaded together appropriately, we conducted a factor analysis using promax rotation. We established the resulting summative index using mean substitution as this method is conservative and well suited for statistical analysis. Competition/achievement. We defined the competition/achievement construct as the motivation an individual had to participate in a 5K race to win, improve their previous PR, and accomplish a race goal. The competition/achievement measure was reliable with a Cronbach s alpha coefficient of.79. Health/fitness. The health/fitness construct referred to the motivation individuals had to participate in a 5K race in order to improve their health and well-being. The health/fitness measure was reliable with a Cronbach s alpha coefficient of.72. Altruism.Wedefined the altruism construct as the motivation to participate in a 5K race to support a worthy charitable cause. The altruism measure was highly reliable, exhibiting a Cronbach s alpha coefficient of.91. Social affiliation. The social affiliation construct referred to motivation to participate in a 5K race, about the ability to make connections, and strengthen bonds with family and friends. The social affiliation construct was found to be reliable with a Cronbach s alpha coefficient of.86. Attitude Fishbein and Ajzen (2010) defined attitude as the tendency to respond with some degree of favorableness or unfavorableness to a psychological object (p. 76). An individual s attitude toward participating in a 5K race was his/her overall evaluation of whether running a 5K was an attractive or unattractive prospect. We tested attitude as a dependent variable against the motivational beliefs and for each runner ability category (see Table 1). Again, attitude was measured on a seven-point Likert scale from strongly agree (7) to strongly disagree (1). The Cronbach s alpha was.61. Though the reliability coefficient was lower than desired, we created the index by modifying

11 240 N. Bell and A.L. Stephenson previously validated instruments. Additionally, the questions used Fishbein and Ajzen s(2010)definition of attitude to specifically ask respondents about the favorableness or unfavorableness of running 5K races. The index was, therefore, theoretically consistent and used in the study. Intention Fishbein and Ajzen (2010) defined intention as an individual s plan to participate in a single behavior, engage in a behavioral category, or achieve a goal. Intention was tested as the independent variable on the behavior of participating in a 5K. This study used a dichotomous (yes/no) variable regarding whether the individual planned to participate in a local 5K race by 2 January Participation We defined the behavior in this study as an individual participating in a 5K race in Pennsylvania in the year The participation variable was dichotomous (yes/no). First, respondents indicated that they intended to participate in a selection of races in the year Then, by checking race results online, if the individual was found to have participated in 50% or more of the 5K races that they intended to run, they were designated as a yes. For example, if respondent A indicated on the survey that he/she intended to run five races in 2012, then he/she would need to have participated in three or more of these races to be considered a yes for participation. If the respondent participated in less than 50% of the intended 5K races, he/she was designated as a no for participation. Past participation This study defined past 5K race participation as previous participation in any 5K race prior to late summer We controlled for past participation because the intensity of exposure that a runner has to 5K races could affect their attitudes about running 5Ks. As suggested by Filo et al. (2009, 2010, 2011), past participation can lead to attachment and a stronger intention to participate in a 5K event in the future. Additionally, Fishbein and Ajzen (2010) found that adding past behavior to the TRA prediction model produced a significant increase in the amount of explained variance in the subsequent intention and behavior. The past 5K race participation was measured as the number of 5K races in which an individual participated in the past two years. Data analysis Using Stata, we conducted Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) multiple regression to test Hypotheses 1 4. Statistically and theoretically sound models were created to look at 5K race participants attitudes by the three running ability levels. In each model, we regressed attitude toward running 5K races on the four motivational beliefs and the control variable of past participation. The Beta, or standardized, coefficients show the effect size of each variable on the model as a whole. Beta coefficients are useful as they show how much influence a variable has on the model. We tested the fifth hypothesis using logistic regression. We regressed the participation variable on the

12 Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure & Events 241 intention variable and used the continuous runner ability score as a control. The following section presents the results of the analysis. Results As mentioned in the previous section, we tested Hypotheses 1 4 using OLS multiple regression. We created three separate models, one for each of the running ability levels (combined in Table 1). Table 1 depicts the results of the three regression models created to address the first four hypotheses. A summary analysis of the results presented in Table 1 shows that runners with high ability are most influenced by altruism and competition. Conversely, they are not influenced by health or social affiliation. High-ability runners are also the only category whose attitudes were influenced by past participation in 5K races. Those runners with medium ability are influenced by all four motivational beliefs. For mediumability runners, the strongest influence over the model was altruism, followed by social affiliation, competition, and health, respectively. Runners in the low-ability category are most influenced by health, followed by social affiliation and altruism. Lowability runners are not influenced by competition. In the following section we expand on these results as they relate to the hypotheses of this study. Addressing the hypotheses Hypothesis 1 stated that the higher the runner ability, the more important will be competitive motivations in influencing the attitude toward participation in 5K races. Hypothesis 1 was generally supported because the importance of competition motivations increased with runner ability. Therefore, we failed to reject the first hypothesis. Table 1 shows that, in the case of high- and medium-ability runners, the competition variable was statistically significant and influential over the models. For the high-ability runners, competition was the second most influential variable in the model (B =.140). For the medium-ability runners, competition was the third most influential variable in the model (B =.220). Additionally, for the low-ability runners, competition was not statistically significant and presented with a low standardized coefficient (B =.096). It is important to note that, while the coefficient was higher for medium (.220) ability runners than for high (.140) ability runners, the beta coefficients can only be compared within each individual model. Stated in another way, the beta coefficients in the high-ability model can be used to determine which motivational Table 1. Standardized coefficients of the regression of attitude on motivational beliefs by high, medium, and low running ability controlling for past participation. Ability High (n = 168) Medium (n = 165) Low (n = 162) Competition.140*.220*.096 Health *.218* Altruism.381*.261*.191* Social *.200* Past participation.139* *P <.05.

13 242 N. Bell and A.L. Stephenson beliefs most influence attitudes but cannot be compared in size to those in the mediumor the low-ability models. The second hypothesis stated that the higher the runner ability, the more important will be health motivations in influencing the attitude toward participation in 5K races. Contrary to the hypothesized outcome, the findings in Table 1 show that the strength of the health motivation actually increased as the runner ability levels decreased. For example, the health motivational belief is statistically significant for the medium- and low-ability runners, but not for the high-ability runners. When looking at strength of effect, the health motivation was only the fourth strongest influence over the mediumability runner attitudes (B =.200). However, for the runners with lower ability, health motivations presented with the largest standardized coefficient (B =.218) suggesting it had the strongest effect over the model. As the health motivation was statistically insignificant and presented with a low standardized coefficient for the high-ability runner category, and due to the apparent increase in strength of variable effect as the runner ability decreased, we rejected the second hypothesis. The third hypothesis stated that the lower the runner ability, the more important will be altruistic motivations in influencing the attitude toward running 5K races. Here the results in Table 1 show that, not only does altruism influence attitudes of lower-ability runners, but instead altruism is a significant motivator for all levels of runner ability. In fact, altruism had the highest strength of effect for attitudes of those runners with high ability (B =.381) and those in the medium-ability category (B =.261). For runners with low ability, altruism was the third most influential variable in the model (B =.191). Therefore, Hypothesis 3 was not supported. Because altruism significantly motivated all runner levels, and the influence of altruism was larger for those runners in the medium- and high-ability category models, we rejected the third hypothesis. The fourth hypothesis stated that the lower the runner ability, the more important will be social affiliation motivations in influencing the attitude toward running 5K races. Hypothesis 4 was generally supported because the importance of social affiliation motivations was more important for runners with lower ability. The findings presented in Table 1 show that runners with medium and low ability are significantly motivated by social affiliation. Runners with high ability, on the other hand, are not significantly motivated by social affiliation. According to the standardized coefficients, social affiliation has the second strongest effect on the model for runners with medium ability (B =.237) and the second strongest effect on the model for runners with low ability (B =.200). Therefore, because runners with high ability were not motivated by social affiliation and because social affiliation had a strong effect on the low and medium runner-ability models, we failed to reject the fourth hypothesis. The fifth hypothesis stated that the higher the runner s ability level, the more will be the individual s participation in a 5K race. The results of the logistic regression are presented in Table 2. Table 2. Logistic regression of participation on intention and ability. OR SE z Intention * Ability * Note: N = 521, pseudo R 2 = *P <.05.

14 Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure & Events 243 The findings in Table 2 show that intention and ability are statistically significant as related to 5K race participation. Assessing the odds ratio (OR) in Table 2, we found that individuals who intended to run a 5K race were 93 times more likely to actually participate in a 5K race than individuals who did not intend to run. This strong finding supports the use of TRA with 5K participation as it shows intention to predict behavior. To examine runner ability, we created the variable such that as the runner got slower, the number increased. The range of ability scores in the sample is 1.04 to For example, a runner with an ability score of 1.25 was faster than a runner with a score of 3.0. Therefore, the results can be interpreted as follows: with every whole unit increase in the ability variable, the odds of participating in a 5K decrease by 42.5% ( OR). Or, stated simply, faster runners are more likely to participate in a 5K event. As such, we failed to reject the fifth hypothesis. Discussion Does motivation for participating in 5K races differ by running ability? And, perhaps more importantly, how can we use these motivational segments to help 5K race directors increase participation in their charitable events? The results of this study, indeed, show varying motivations in the context of 5K races across three levels of ability. Specifically, high-ability runners are most motivated by altruism and competition, medium-ability runners by altruism and social affiliation, and low-ability runners by health and social affiliation. The results showed that the medium runner ability category was the most heterogeneous with all attitudinal motivations showing statistical significance and sharing a comparable effect on the model. While variation in runner ability encompassed the crux of the study, other major findings emerged from the analysis surrounding intention to participate and altruism. First, the most predominant finding from the study included intention to participate in 5K races. The results showed that an individual is 93 times more likely to actually run a 5K race if they had the intention to run the race at the time of the survey. In other words, if a potential participant intended to run, they were nearly 100 times more likely to actually run in the 5K race. One of the central ideas of TRA is that once an individual forms the intention to perform a behavior, he or she is extremely likely to actually behave in that manner (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010). Once again, our findings support the robustness of the basic components of TRA and the existing literature claiming intention is the strongest predictor of behavior. Second, in addition to intention, this study contributed to the literature in the use of the altruism variable. Unlike previous running motivation research, this study included altruism and found the construct to be statistically significant and positively related to each of the three runner-ability categories. The results of the current study showed that altruism had the strongest effect on runners with high and medium ability, as shown by the standardized coefficients in Table 1, though it also influenced those with lower ability. The results supported work of previous scholars who addressed charity as a motivating factor in event participation (Filo et al., 2009, 2010, 2011, 2014; Nettleton & Hardey, 2006; Snelgrove, Wood, & Havitz, 2013). Nettleton and Hardey (2006) previously qualitatively explored charity as a potential motivation for marathon runners. In another qualitative study, Snelgrove et al. (2013) found that participants in a 5K walk/run formed attachments to the event through altruistic themes such as being a fundraiser and aligning self and cause. The results of this study support

15 244 N. Bell and A.L. Stephenson those previous findings that suggested participants of the 5K distance run are highly motivated by the desire to contribute to a charitable cause. In addition to intention and altruism, other important findings emerged pertaining to competition, health, and past participation as motivational factors. The results of this study showed that competition was statistically significant and positively related to those runners in the high- and medium-ability categories. Additionally, competition had a moderate to strong effect on each of the models in this study. This finding is similar to the purist runner designation by Nettleton and Hardey (2006), competitive achiever and running enthusiast categories (Ogles & Masters, 2003), and the athlete and runner categories set forth by Smith (1998) which demonstrated that faster runners focus on competing. Competition, as a significant motivator for the high and medium running ability groups, makes theoretical sense. According to TRA, an individual s perception of their ability strengthens his/her likelihood of participation and as he or she participates and improves and begins to win awards in his or her age group, he or she will become more competitive. Health, while not significant for high-ability runners, had the strongest effect on runners with low ability as seen by the standardized coefficients in Table 1. Health is a motivator for the low running ability group because charitable 5K races are designed to be an attainable goal for new runners and walkers. This finding complements the life manager category set forth by Ogles and Masters (2003) and the jogger category defined by Smith (1998) both of which encompassed participants with lower running abilities and a focus on improving overall health. In our research, medium-ability runners were also motivated by health. However, the standardized coefficients showed that health was only the fourth most influential variable in the model. Finally, the results of this study show merit for including past participation as a control variable in research about 5K race motivations. As with the research of Kwan, Bray, and Ginis (2009), we included past participation as a potential determinant of attitude pertaining to running 5K races. This study, like Kwan et al. (2009), found past participation to be statistically significant. However, past participation was only significant for runners with high ability. This finding is not surprising because the more often a runner participates in 5K races, the better he or she will get at running and performing in races. Limitations, implications, and conclusions As with any study, ours was not immune to limitations. First, this study was cross-sectional therefore limiting the ability to make causal assertions. Future research should, therefore, employ a longitudinal design. Using a longitudinal design would permit scholars to assess trends to determine if motivations change over time. Second, the runner ability variable relied on a self-report item with regards to the individual s PR in the last two years. As such, individuals could have been tempted to supply a faster time thus overestimating their ability or could have misunderstood the question and instead supplied their lifetime PR. For example, two respondents submitted times that were faster than the world record and were subsequently dropped from analysis. Finally, this study focused on 5K runners in the Harrisburg and York areas of Pennsylvania. As such, any generalizations can only be made to that population and other populations with similar characteristics. Future research should replicate the study using a more diverse and heavily populated target.

16 Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure & Events 245 Despite the limitations mentioned above, this study had important strengths worth mentioning. First, this study examined an exclusive population of known 5K race participants. In a search of relevant literature, we were unable to locate other empirical studies that quantitatively assessed this particular population. Not only was it a new runner population focus, but the size of the population (N = 521) was also substantial. We controlled for social desirability by ensuring anonymity if so desired. Also, we employed a small pilot study and performed cognitive interviews with prominent members of local running clubs and local race directors to ensure that the survey was formatted in such a way that runners would easily answer questions in a logical order. The results of this study offer several implications for events management. Race directors can maximize participation (Filo et al., 2014; Higgins & Lauzon, 2003), improve event enjoyment, and incite loyalty by using the findings of this study to plan their 5K race events. Consistent with the finding that altruism was a universal motivation, race directors could host a 5K that appeals to all runner ability levels by partnering with a charity or non-profit organization. If, however, those race directors desired to host an event that appealed to the most skilled runners then the focus needs to be on competition as well as altruism. As described previously, competition was the second most influential motivation for those runners with high ability and the third most influential for runners with medium ability (see Table 1). This suggests that runners with high or medium ability would be enticed by races that focused on competition and offered prizes and recognition to the top finishers. Additionally, running clubs and race directors could appeal to individuals with lower runner ability by shifting the focus from competition to related health benefits. Another valuable finding of this study for race directors is that runners who intended to run a race were almost one hundred times more likely to run that race than those who did not intend to participate. Ultimately, the way to get a runner to participate in a race is to get them to preregister for the race. They can use race fee discounts, attractive prizes, and other extra incentives to get runners to pay the entry fee early and get the race on his or her calendar. Another important finding regarding participation is that faster runners were more likely to participate, so if a race director wants to increase participation, he or she should add components to the race that appeal to faster runners, such as chip timing, age-group medals, and masters heats for runners over a certain age (usually 40 years). In conclusion, this study expands understanding of 5K participation motivations by showing that differences exist by levels of running ability. The study adds value to the literature pertaining to the use of TRA, specifically in a running community setting. The findings support the robustness of TRA in a topical area where it had not previously been tested. By modifying Fishbein and Ajzen s (2010) TRA, we show that altruism had the strongest effect on attitudes of runners with high and medium ability, health had the strongest effect on runners with low ability, and all four motivational beliefs significantly affected the attitudes of runners with medium ability. These results provide insight to race directors and partnering nonprofit organizations such that they can plan and execute successful 5K events. The race directors, and subsequently the charities attached to the 5K, benefit from having a firmer understanding of what motivates the participants to run. This knowledge provides directors with the knowledge required to make the race more attractive to specific demographics.

Motivation to Run: Using Fishbein & Ajzen'sTheory of Reasoned Action to Predict Participation in 5K Races

Motivation to Run: Using Fishbein & Ajzen'sTheory of Reasoned Action to Predict Participation in 5K Races Indiana University of Pennsylvania Knowledge Repository @ IUP Theses and Dissertations (All) 7-23-2013 Motivation to Run: Using Fishbein & Ajzen'sTheory of Reasoned Action to Predict Participation in 5K

More information

The Boat Race 划船赛. The Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race 牛津剑桥划船赛. Read the text below and do the activity that follows.

The Boat Race 划船赛. The Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race 牛津剑桥划船赛. Read the text below and do the activity that follows. The Boat Race 1 The Boat Race 划船赛 The Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race 牛津剑桥划船赛 Read the text below and do the activity that follows. 阅读下面的短文, 然后完成练习 : Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest and most famous

More information

A STUDY ON EQUESTRIAN TOURISTS MOTIVATION AND INVOLVEMENT

A STUDY ON EQUESTRIAN TOURISTS MOTIVATION AND INVOLVEMENT A STUDY ON EQUESTRIAN TOURISTS MOTIVATION AND INVOLVEMENT Jie Wu (Ph.D. Student) The University of Hull, UK 1 EAAP-64 th Annual Conference, Nantes, France 27 th August, 2013 OUTLINE Introduction 1.Theoretical

More information

Swimming Star 泳坛新星 1

Swimming Star 泳坛新星 1 Swimming Star 泳坛新星 1 Swimming Star 泳坛新星 A thirteen year old swimming success 十三岁的游泳健将 Read the text below and do the activity that follows. 阅读下面的短文, 然后完成练习 : Need some inspiration? Looking for a sporting

More information

Big Blue Adventure Event Analysis UTC Tourism Center October 2016

Big Blue Adventure Event Analysis UTC Tourism Center October 2016 A report summarizing Big Blue Adventure events economic impact on the Lake Tahoe region as well as participants assessments of their event experience Big Blue Adventure Event Analysis UTC Tourism Center

More information

FACTORS INFLUENCING GOLFERS REVISIT INTENTIONS OF GOLF COURSES IN BANGKOK METROPOLITAN REGION

FACTORS INFLUENCING GOLFERS REVISIT INTENTIONS OF GOLF COURSES IN BANGKOK METROPOLITAN REGION FACTORS INFLUENCING GOLFERS REVISIT INTENTIONS OF GOLF COURSES IN BANGKOK METROPOLITAN REGION by Anchalee Khajittanakorncharoen University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce, Bangkok, Thailand E-mail: shin.ujin@gmail.com

More information

Ballroom Dancing 国标舞

Ballroom Dancing 国标舞 Ballroom Dancing 国标舞 1 Ballroom Dancing 国标舞 Celebrity Dance Show Popular Year after Year 名流国标舞表演日趋看好 Read the text below and do the activity that follows. 阅读下面的短文, 然后完成练习 : Ballroom dancing in the UK used

More information

The 2009 Snooker World Championship 2009 年世界台球锦标赛

The 2009 Snooker World Championship 2009 年世界台球锦标赛 The 2009 Snooker World Championship 2009 年世界台球锦标赛 1 The 2009 Snooker World Championship 2009 年世界台球锦标赛 Chinese Players Put On a Great Show 中国选手表现出色 Read the text below and do the activity that follows.

More information

Report to COUNCIL for decision

Report to COUNCIL for decision 17 152 Title: Section: Prepared by: Olympic Pool Business Case Community & Recreation Andrew White (Community & Recreation Manager) Meeting Date: 18 May 2017 Legal Financial Significance = Medium Report

More information

The Snooker World Championship

The Snooker World Championship The Snooker World Championship 1 Snooker 台球 The Snooker World Championship 世界台球锦标赛 Snooker aficionados in the UK have descended upon Sheffield, a city in the north of England, for the 2006 Snooker World

More information

ABSTRACT AUTHOR. Kinematic Analysis of the Women's 400m Hurdles. by Kenny Guex. he women's 400m hurdles is a relatively

ABSTRACT AUTHOR. Kinematic Analysis of the Women's 400m Hurdles. by Kenny Guex. he women's 400m hurdles is a relatively Study Kinematic Analysis of the Women's 400m Hurdles by IAAF 27:1/2; 41-51, 2012 by Kenny Guex ABSTRACT The women's 400m hurdles is a relatively new discipline and a complex event that cannot be approached

More information

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 116 ( 2014 )

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 116 ( 2014 ) Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 116 ( 2014 ) 5025 5029 5 th World Conference on Educational Sciences - WCES 2013 A Comparison study of

More information

Major League Baseball Offensive Production in the Designated Hitter Era (1973 Present)

Major League Baseball Offensive Production in the Designated Hitter Era (1973 Present) Major League Baseball Offensive Production in the Designated Hitter Era (1973 Present) Jonathan Tung University of California, Riverside tung.jonathanee@gmail.com Abstract In Major League Baseball, there

More information

Sportsmanship Rating Scale in Tennis Competition with Young Players

Sportsmanship Rating Scale in Tennis Competition with Young Players Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 82 ( 203 ) 740 744 World Conference on Psychology and Sociology 202 Sportsmanship Rating Scale in Tennis Competition

More information

Active mobility and health: Insights from the PASTA Project

Active mobility and health: Insights from the PASTA Project Active mobility and health: Insights from the PASTA Project According to the PASTA survey, over 40% of car and public transport trips are less than 5km. Shifting such short trips to active mobility, such

More information

Citation for published version (APA): Canudas Romo, V. (2003). Decomposition Methods in Demography Groningen: s.n.

Citation for published version (APA): Canudas Romo, V. (2003). Decomposition Methods in Demography Groningen: s.n. University of Groningen Decomposition Methods in Demography Canudas Romo, Vladimir IMPORTANT NOTE: You are advised to consult the publisher's version (publisher's PDF) if you wish to cite from it. Please

More information

PREDICTING the outcomes of sporting events

PREDICTING the outcomes of sporting events CS 229 FINAL PROJECT, AUTUMN 2014 1 Predicting National Basketball Association Winners Jasper Lin, Logan Short, and Vishnu Sundaresan Abstract We used National Basketball Associations box scores from 1991-1998

More information

Electronic Supplementary Material: Goals as Reference Points in Marathon Running: A Novel Test of Reference Dependence

Electronic Supplementary Material: Goals as Reference Points in Marathon Running: A Novel Test of Reference Dependence Electronic Supplementary Material: Goals as Reference Points in Marathon Running: A Novel Test of Reference Dependence Alex Markle George Wu Rebecca White Aaron Sackett This document provides additional

More information

Initial Mortality of Black Bass in B.A.S.S. Fishing Tournaments

Initial Mortality of Black Bass in B.A.S.S. Fishing Tournaments North American Journal of Fisheries Management 22:950 954, 2002 Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2002 Initial Mortality of Black Bass in B.A.S.S. Fishing Tournaments GENE R. WILDE,* CALUB E.

More information

APPENDIX 3: EAGLECREST MASTER PLAN PUBLIC OPINION SURVEYS

APPENDIX 3: EAGLECREST MASTER PLAN PUBLIC OPINION SURVEYS APPENDIX 3: EAGLECREST MASTER PLAN PUBLIC OPINION SURVEYS Eaglecrest Master Plan Public Opinion Surveys Prepared for Eaglecrest Ski Area Board of Directors Prepared by McDowell Group Inc. Eaglecrest Master

More information

MARKET SEGMENTATION PROFILE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

MARKET SEGMENTATION PROFILE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY MARKET SEGMENTATION PROFILE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY February 18, 2011 Research Objectives 2 Achieving significant gains in fishing and boating participation is going to require reaching new audiences with new

More information

INTRODUCTION TO PATTERN RECOGNITION

INTRODUCTION TO PATTERN RECOGNITION INTRODUCTION TO PATTERN RECOGNITION 3 Introduction Our ability to recognize a face, to understand spoken words, to read handwritten characters all these abilities belong to the complex processes of pattern

More information

Will the New Low Emission Zone Reduce the Amount of Motor Vehicles in London?

Will the New Low Emission Zone Reduce the Amount of Motor Vehicles in London? Will the New Low Emission Zone Reduce the Amount of Motor Vehicles in London? Philip Osborne I. INTRODUCTION An initiative of the 2016 London Mayor s election campaign was to improve engagement with Londoners

More information

Using Actual Betting Percentages to Analyze Sportsbook Behavior: The Canadian and Arena Football Leagues

Using Actual Betting Percentages to Analyze Sportsbook Behavior: The Canadian and Arena Football Leagues Syracuse University SURFACE College Research Center David B. Falk College of Sport and Human Dynamics October 2010 Using Actual Betting s to Analyze Sportsbook Behavior: The Canadian and Arena Football

More information

Should bonus points be included in the Six Nations Championship?

Should bonus points be included in the Six Nations Championship? Should bonus points be included in the Six Nations Championship? Niven Winchester Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue,

More information

RECRUITMENT HUNTERS A case-study approach to learning more about hunting among Hispanics and improving recruitment and retention of other hunters

RECRUITMENT HUNTERS A case-study approach to learning more about hunting among Hispanics and improving recruitment and retention of other hunters RECRUITMENT OF HISPANIC HUNTERS A case-study approach to learning more about hunting among Hispanics and improving recruitment and retention of other hunters A joint project of the McGraw Center for Conservation

More information

Journal of Human Sport and Exercise E-ISSN: Universidad de Alicante España

Journal of Human Sport and Exercise E-ISSN: Universidad de Alicante España Journal of Human Sport and Exercise E-ISSN: 1988-5202 jhse@ua.es Universidad de Alicante España HRUSA, PETR The dependence of the number of shots and rebounds on the change of rules in the top Czech Basketball

More information

City of Novi Non-Motorized Master Plan 2011 Executive Summary

City of Novi Non-Motorized Master Plan 2011 Executive Summary City of Novi Non-Motorized Master Plan 2011 Executive Summary Prepared by: February 28, 2011 Why Plan? Encouraging healthy, active lifestyles through pathway and sidewalk connectivity has been a focus

More information

TENNIS VICTORIA STRATEGIC PLAN TO 2020

TENNIS VICTORIA STRATEGIC PLAN TO 2020 TENNIS VICTORIA STRATEGIC PLAN TO 2020 MESSAGE FROM OUR PRESIDENT AND CEO We are pleased and privileged to present Tennis Victoria s Strategic Plan to 2020. We acknowledge and thank all of the organisation

More information

Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports

Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports Volume 1, Issue 1 2005 Article 5 Determinants of Success in the Olympic Decathlon: Some Statistical Evidence Ian Christopher Kenny Dan Sprevak Craig Sharp Colin

More information

Cronbach s α coeficient 0,88 0,87. Number of eigenvalues exceding Average inter-item correlation 0,36 0,35. Total score mean 44,68 47,99

Cronbach s α coeficient 0,88 0,87. Number of eigenvalues exceding Average inter-item correlation 0,36 0,35. Total score mean 44,68 47,99 Table 3: Metric characteristics of Goal achievement satisfaction scale in sport environment for the first sample (kinesiology students) and second sample (athletes Students sample Athletes sample Cronbach

More information

How commuting influences personal wellbeing over time

How commuting influences personal wellbeing over time Partners: DfT, DoH, DCLG, WWCW How commuting influences personal wellbeing over time Ben Clark, Kiron Chatterjee, Adrian Davis, Adam Martin Centre for Transport & Society Panel data Numerous UK panel datasets

More information

Active Travel and Exposure to Air Pollution: Implications for Transportation and Land Use Planning

Active Travel and Exposure to Air Pollution: Implications for Transportation and Land Use Planning Active Travel and Exposure to Air Pollution: Implications for Transportation and Land Use Planning Steve Hankey School of Public and International Affairs, Virginia Tech, 140 Otey Street, Blacksburg, VA

More information

Motivations of Football Fans in Singapore

Motivations of Football Fans in Singapore Motivations of Football Fans in Singapore 1. Matthew, Mohan. Student. Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information, Nanyang Technological University, MATT0019@e.ntu.edu.sg 2. Ho Keat, Leng. Assistant

More information

Journal of Human Sport and Exercise E-ISSN: Universidad de Alicante España

Journal of Human Sport and Exercise E-ISSN: Universidad de Alicante España Journal of Human Sport and Exercise E-ISSN: 1988-5202 jhse@ua.es Universidad de Alicante España SOÓS, ISTVÁN; FLORES MARTÍNEZ, JOSÉ CARLOS; SZABO, ATTILA Before the Rio Games: A retrospective evaluation

More information

Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports

Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports Volume 6, Issue 1 21 Article 5 Age and Winning Professional Golf Tournaments Gizachew Tiruneh University of Central Arkansas, gtiruneh@uca.edu Copyright c 21

More information

BRING THE POWER OF CRICKET INTO YOUR SCHOOL

BRING THE POWER OF CRICKET INTO YOUR SCHOOL BRING THE POWER OF CRICKET INTO YOUR SCHOOL HOWZAT! Chance to Shine is a charity that provides free coaching and teaching resources for state schools. Welcome to the new Chance to Shine primary schools

More information

2009 New Brunswick Gambling Prevalence Study

2009 New Brunswick Gambling Prevalence Study 2009 New Brunswick Gambling Prevalence Study Prepared for: Government of New Brunswick Centennial Building P.O. Box 6000 Fredericton, NB E3B 5H1 Prepared by: TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY... 1 STUDY

More information

Parent Guide to BC Hockey s Long Term Player Development Model

Parent Guide to BC Hockey s Long Term Player Development Model Parent Guide to BC Hockey s Long Term Player Development Model INTRODUCTION The Parent Guide to BC Hockey s Long Term Player Development is designed for parents as being THE key stakeholders in their child

More information

European Athletics Health and Well-Being Conference January 2014, Marseille (FRA)

European Athletics Health and Well-Being Conference January 2014, Marseille (FRA) European Athletics Health and Well-Being Conference 24-26 January 2014, Marseille (FRA) Jean Gracia Vice-President of European Athletics AGENDA 01. STRATEGY 02. HEALTH AND WELL-BEING 03. ACTION PLAN 04.

More information

Wasson Way Bike Path Tourism Impact. Biking tourism is best defined as recreational visits, either overnight or day visits away

Wasson Way Bike Path Tourism Impact. Biking tourism is best defined as recreational visits, either overnight or day visits away Basheer Alshammari Sammy Dabdoub Dr. Colleen McTague Geog 7060 & 6069 Term Paper April 22, 2014 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

More information

Dolores A. Christensen, M.A. 1 ; Britton W. Brewer, Ph.D. 1 ; Jasmin C. Hutchinson, Ph.D. 2

Dolores A. Christensen, M.A. 1 ; Britton W. Brewer, Ph.D. 1 ; Jasmin C. Hutchinson, Ph.D. 2 Dolores A. Christensen, M.A. 1 ; Britton W. Brewer, Ph.D. 1 ; Jasmin C. Hutchinson, Ph.D. 2 1 Psychology Department, 2 Exercise Science and Sport Studies Department, Springfield College, Springfield, MA

More information

THE HOCKEY STRATEGY. UPDATED March 2012

THE HOCKEY STRATEGY. UPDATED March 2012 THE HOCKEY STRATEGY UPDATED March 2012 1 CURRENT SITUATION SWOT Hockey has great potential with some unique strengths and competitive advantages...we must play to our strengths SWOT Strengths Global sport,

More information

Efficiency Wages in Major League Baseball Starting. Pitchers Greg Madonia

Efficiency Wages in Major League Baseball Starting. Pitchers Greg Madonia Efficiency Wages in Major League Baseball Starting Pitchers 1998-2001 Greg Madonia Statement of Problem Free agency has existed in Major League Baseball (MLB) since 1974. This is a mechanism that allows

More information

Final Report, October 19, Socioeconomic characteristics of reef users

Final Report, October 19, Socioeconomic characteristics of reef users Socioeconomic Study of Reefs in Southeast Florida - Executive Summary By Hazen and Sawyer in association with Florida State University and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, October 19, 2001

More information

Introduction to Pattern Recognition

Introduction to Pattern Recognition Introduction to Pattern Recognition Jason Corso SUNY at Buffalo 19 January 2011 J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo) Introduction to Pattern Recognition 19 January 2011 1 / 32 Examples of Pattern Recognition in

More information

Understanding Rail and Bus Ridership

Understanding Rail and Bus Ridership Finance Committee Information Item III-A October 12, 2017 Understanding Rail and Bus Ridership Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Board Action/Information Summary Action Information MEAD Number:

More information

Report Subject: Netball participation and social class

Report Subject: Netball participation and social class Report Subject: Netball participation and social class briefing paper Background For many years, research has highlighted variations in the levels of sports participation across different socioeconomic

More information

Revisiting the Hot Hand Theory with Free Throw Data in a Multivariate Framework

Revisiting the Hot Hand Theory with Free Throw Data in a Multivariate Framework Calhoun: The NPS Institutional Archive DSpace Repository Faculty and Researchers Faculty and Researchers Collection 2010 Revisiting the Hot Hand Theory with Free Throw Data in a Multivariate Framework

More information

Location Matters: Where America Is Moving

Location Matters: Where America Is Moving Location Matters: Where America Is Moving Nearly half of all American households plan to move at some point in the future. While some will move for a larger or nicer home, or perhaps to purchase a home

More information

RESEARCH Massachusetts Recreational Boater Survey. Project Summary

RESEARCH Massachusetts Recreational Boater Survey. Project Summary Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning RESEARCH Project Summary 2010 Massachusetts Recreational Boater Survey The 2010 Massachusetts Recreational Boater Survey gathered spatial and economic data relating

More information

COACHING BLUEPRINT COACHING

COACHING BLUEPRINT COACHING COACHING BLUEPRINT COACHING CONTENTS Introduction 05 Netball Australia Coaching Blueprint 06 Coach Development Objectives 10 Implementation Drivers 12 The Netball Coaching Community 13 Coaching Community

More information

THESE DAYS IT S HARD TO MISS the story that Americans spend

THESE DAYS IT S HARD TO MISS the story that Americans spend WHICH COMES FIRST: THE NEIGHBORHOOD OR THE WALKING? BY SUSAN HANDY AND PATRICIA MOKHTARIAN THESE DAYS IT S HARD TO MISS the story that Americans spend more time stuck in traffic than ever, that they re

More information

Competitive Swim Start Safety

Competitive Swim Start Safety International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education Volume 8 Number 2 Article 3 5-1-2014 Competitive Swim Start Safety Andrew C. Cornett Eastern Michigan University, acornet2@emich.edu Josh C. White

More information

AN INVITATION TO BECOME A SPONSOR OF

AN INVITATION TO BECOME A SPONSOR OF AN INVITATION TO BECOME A SPONSOR OF MOORE PARK GOLF Moore Park Golf is one of Australia s most popular golf venues, offering a targeted, large demographic for consumer-focused brands, and the ideal environment

More information

Ontario Cycling Events & Tourism Impact Project - Cross Event Report -

Ontario Cycling Events & Tourism Impact Project - Cross Event Report - Ontario Cycling Events & Tourism Impact Project - Cross Event Report - Cyclists, Tourism Researchers, Strategists Funded in part by Cycling Events in Ontario Background Over the past few years, Ontario

More information

N.I.S.L. Player Development Guide. Under 8 Under 10 Created by the NISL Technical Committee for the benefit of the NISL Member Clubs

N.I.S.L. Player Development Guide. Under 8 Under 10 Created by the NISL Technical Committee for the benefit of the NISL Member Clubs N.I.S.L. Player Development Guide Under 8 Under 10 Created by the NISL Technical Committee for the benefit of the NISL Member Clubs I. INTRODUCTION A. Principles of coaching 1. Know who you are coaching

More information

CENTENNIAL SOCCER CLUB

CENTENNIAL SOCCER CLUB CENTENNIAL SOCCER CLUB EVALUATION, AGE GROUP MANAGEMENT & TEAM FORMATION POLICY Version July 2013 This policy covers management of age groups, the operation and practices governing evaluations, and the

More information

CATCH CHARACTERISTICS OF TROPICAL TUNA CAUGHT BY KOREAN TUNA LONGLINE FISHERY IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN

CATCH CHARACTERISTICS OF TROPICAL TUNA CAUGHT BY KOREAN TUNA LONGLINE FISHERY IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN SCRS/13/6 Collect. Vol. Sci. Pap. ICCAT, 7(6): 595-65 (1) CATCH CHARACTERISTICS OF TROPICAL TUNA CAUGHT BY KOREAN TUNA LONGLINE FISHERY IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN Sang Chul Yoon 1, Zang Geun Kim, Sung Il Lee,

More information

SPORTS BETTORS RESPONSES TO SPORTS- EMBEDDED GAMBLING PROMOTIONS: COMPARISONS AMONGST PGSI GROUPS

SPORTS BETTORS RESPONSES TO SPORTS- EMBEDDED GAMBLING PROMOTIONS: COMPARISONS AMONGST PGSI GROUPS 1 SPORTS BETTORS RESPONSES TO SPORTS- EMBEDDED GAMBLING PROMOTIONS: COMPARISONS AMONGST PGSI GROUPS Nerilee Hing, Matt Lamont, Peter Vitartas, Elian Fink Presenter: Professor Nerilee Hing This study was

More information

Introduction Definition of decision-making: the capacity of the player to execute an action following some conscious tactical or strategical choice.

Introduction Definition of decision-making: the capacity of the player to execute an action following some conscious tactical or strategical choice. Decision Making in Rugby Here is a paper by Pierre Villepreux. He presented it at the 1993 Asian Pacific Congress in Calgary. Eleven years have passed, but this remains one of the benchmark papers on this

More information

BCLC Employee Survey Final Report. August 31, 2016

BCLC Employee Survey Final Report. August 31, 2016 BCLC Employee Survey Final Report August 31, 2016 BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY Survey Background Canadian research indicates that gaming workers exhibit rates of problem gambling that are over three times

More information

AN EXPLORATION OF SELF-EFFICACY AS A MOTIVATION FOR ROCK CLIMBING AND ITS IMPACT ON FREQUENCY OF CLIMBS

AN EXPLORATION OF SELF-EFFICACY AS A MOTIVATION FOR ROCK CLIMBING AND ITS IMPACT ON FREQUENCY OF CLIMBS AN EXPLORATION OF SELF-EFFICACY AS A MOTIVATION FOR ROCK CLIMBING AND ITS IMPACT ON FREQUENCY OF CLIMBS Edwin Gómez, Ph.D. Associate Professor 111 Spong Hall ESPER Department, Recreation & Tourism Studies

More information

The probability of winning a high school football game.

The probability of winning a high school football game. Columbus State University CSU epress Faculty Bibliography 2008 The probability of winning a high school football game. Jennifer Brown Follow this and additional works at: http://csuepress.columbusstate.edu/bibliography_faculty

More information

Why walk? Introducing Heart Foundation Walking! What is Heart Foundation Walking? Your role. Host Organisation

Why walk? Introducing Heart Foundation Walking! What is Heart Foundation Walking? Your role. Host Organisation An Introduction Why walk? It s an inexpensive form of physical activity It s easy doesn t require special skills or equipment It has psychological and community benefits improves mental health and social

More information

Intercept Surveys of Cycle Usage

Intercept Surveys of Cycle Usage Intercept Surveys of Cycle Usage Anthony J. Richardson, Professor of Transport Planning, Institute of Transport Studies Martin Utiger, project management Veloland Schweiz, Velobüro, Olten, CH Jürg Tschopp,

More information

USA Track & Field Marketing Activation Tour. We Are USATF

USA Track & Field Marketing Activation Tour. We Are USATF USA Track & Field Marketing Activation Tour We Are USATF USATF Activation Tour USATF sent its Marketing Activation Tour on the road to 8 markets across the country in 2012. The Marketing Tour leveraged

More information

STATIC AND DYNAMIC EVALUATION OF THE DRIVER SPEED PERCEPTION AND SELECTION PROCESS

STATIC AND DYNAMIC EVALUATION OF THE DRIVER SPEED PERCEPTION AND SELECTION PROCESS STATIC AND DYNAMIC EVALUATION OF THE DRIVER SPEED PERCEPTION AND SELECTION PROCESS David S. Hurwitz, Michael A. Knodler, Jr. University of Massachusetts Amherst Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering

More information

Merging Traffic at Signalled Junctions

Merging Traffic at Signalled Junctions Chris Kennett August 2015 Merging Traffic at Signalled Junctions Introduction Back in 2012, at the JCT Symposium, I presented a paper Modelling Merges at Signalled Junctions. In that paper I showed that

More information

Jet Li 李连杰. China s highest-earning star 中国收入最高的影星. Read the text below and do the activity that follows. 阅读下面的短文, 然后完成练习 :

Jet Li 李连杰. China s highest-earning star 中国收入最高的影星. Read the text below and do the activity that follows. 阅读下面的短文, 然后完成练习 : Jet Li 李连杰 1 Jet Li 李连杰 China s highest-earning star 中国收入最高的影星 Read the text below and do the activity that follows. 阅读下面的短文, 然后完成练习 : Actor Jet Li has hit the headlines this week because he has broken

More information

Wildlife Ad Awareness & Attitudes Survey 2015

Wildlife Ad Awareness & Attitudes Survey 2015 Wildlife Ad Awareness & Attitudes Survey 2015 Contents Executive Summary 3 Key Findings: 2015 Survey 8 Comparison between 2014 and 2015 Findings 27 Methodology Appendix 41 2 Executive Summary and Key Observations

More information

Analysis of Factors Affecting Train Derailments at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings

Analysis of Factors Affecting Train Derailments at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings Chadwick et al TRB 12-4396 1 1 2 3 Analysis of Factors Affecting Train Derailments at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings 4 5 TRB 12-4396 6 7 8 9 Submitted for consideration for presentation and publication at

More information

BRIEFING PAPER 29 FINDINGS SERIES. Children s travel to school are we moving in the right direction?

BRIEFING PAPER 29 FINDINGS SERIES. Children s travel to school are we moving in the right direction? BRIEFING PAPER 29 FINDINGS SERIES Children s travel to school are we moving in the right direction? February 2011 FINDINGS SERIES 29 BRIEFING PAPER KEY FINDINGS National surveys show that while the level

More information

BSc (Honours) Events and Leisure Management

BSc (Honours) Events and Leisure Management Sheffield Business School BSc (Honours) Events and Leisure Management Title The Motivational factors of participating in Standard Chartered Hong Kong Marathon Name Chu Lai Lee Student No 91206563 Month

More information

STUDY BACKGROUND. Trends in NCAA Student-Athlete Gambling Behaviors and Attitudes. Executive Summary

STUDY BACKGROUND. Trends in NCAA Student-Athlete Gambling Behaviors and Attitudes. Executive Summary STUDY BACKGROUND Trends in NCAA Student-Athlete Gambling Behaviors and Attitudes Executive Summary November 2017 Overall rates of gambling among NCAA men have decreased. Fifty-five percent of men in the

More information

Trends in Walking and Bicycling to School from 2007 to 2013

Trends in Walking and Bicycling to School from 2007 to 2013 Trends in Walking and Bicycling to School from 2007 to 2013 March 2015 The National Center for Safe Routes to School www.saferoutesinfo.org Acknowledgements The National Center for Safe Routes to School

More information

TAMPA BAY UNITED ACADEMY PHILOSOPHY & CURRICULUM

TAMPA BAY UNITED ACADEMY PHILOSOPHY & CURRICULUM TAMPA BAY UNITED ACADEMY PHILOSOPHY & CURRICULUM MISSION The mission of the Tampa Bay United Academy is to provide the best possible coaching and instruction for our young players to ensure proper development

More information

The impact of the national sports lottery and the FIFA World Cup on attendance, spectator motives and J. League marketing strategies

The impact of the national sports lottery and the FIFA World Cup on attendance, spectator motives and J. League marketing strategies The impact of the national sports lottery and the FIFA World Cup on attendance, spectator motives and J. League marketing strategies Keywords social impact attendance motives sport events Daniel C. Funk

More information

DEVELOPMENT OF A SET OF TRIP GENERATION MODELS FOR TRAVEL DEMAND ESTIMATION IN THE COLOMBO METROPOLITAN REGION

DEVELOPMENT OF A SET OF TRIP GENERATION MODELS FOR TRAVEL DEMAND ESTIMATION IN THE COLOMBO METROPOLITAN REGION DEVELOPMENT OF A SET OF TRIP GENERATION MODELS FOR TRAVEL DEMAND ESTIMATION IN THE COLOMBO METROPOLITAN REGION Ravindra Wijesundera and Amal S. Kumarage Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of Moratuwa

More information

Best Practices of Basic Skills. The best practices of successful Basic Skills programs are comprised of four key ingredients:

Best Practices of Basic Skills. The best practices of successful Basic Skills programs are comprised of four key ingredients: Best Practices of Basic Skills The Basic Skills Program is built on the premise of offering positive, rewarding and safe skating experiences to participants of all ages. How well this program is administered

More information

The Fight for Runners Recreational Dollar

The Fight for Runners Recreational Dollar The Fight for Runners Recreational Dollar Why Your Event Needs to be Different Household Income Flat Entry Fees on the Rise Proliferation of Fitness Activities According to the 2015 National Runner Survey

More information

SOCIALGROUPS PREFERENCES RELATION TO MOTIVATIONS AND ABILITYLEVELSOF WHITEWATER KAYAKERS. Methods/ Instrument

SOCIALGROUPS PREFERENCES RELATION TO MOTIVATIONS AND ABILITYLEVELSOF WHITEWATER KAYAKERS. Methods/ Instrument SOCIALGROUPS PREFERENCES RELATION TO MOTIVATIONS AND ABILITYLEVELSOF WHITEWATER KAYAKERS Seth Turner Lyndon State ColIege, Undergraduate, Lyndon State ColIege, Lyndonville, VT 05851 Rod Zwick Recreation

More information

A Cost Effective and Efficient Way to Assess Trail Conditions: A New Sampling Approach

A Cost Effective and Efficient Way to Assess Trail Conditions: A New Sampling Approach A Cost Effective and Efficient Way to Assess Trail Conditions: A New Sampling Approach Rachel A. Knapp, Graduate Assistant, University of New Hampshire Department of Natural Resources and the Environment,

More information

Travel time savings and speed: actual and perceived May 2017

Travel time savings and speed: actual and perceived May 2017 Travel time savings and speed: actual and perceived May 2017 Tim Rowland and Deborah McLeod Malatest International NZ Transport Agency research report 568 Contracted research organisation Malatest International

More information

COACHING COACHING APPROACH

COACHING COACHING APPROACH COACHING COACHING APPROACH CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 02 WHY HAVE WE DEVELOPED A COACH APPROACH? 02 WHERE DO THE IDEAS COME FROM? 03 PLAYER-CENTRED COACHING 05 CHANGING PLAYER BEHAVIOURS 06 PLAYER CENTRED APPROACH

More information

The Relationship. between Participation. in Number Lotteries. and Gambling Addiction. in the Netherlands

The Relationship. between Participation. in Number Lotteries. and Gambling Addiction. in the Netherlands The Relationship between Participation in Number Lotteries Final Report and Gambling Addiction Summary in the Netherlands and Findings The Relationship between Participation Final Report in Number Lotteries

More information

tfishing A study of gender and life stage along New York s eastern Lake Ontario coast

tfishing A study of gender and life stage along New York s eastern Lake Ontario coast New York Sea Grant SUNY CESF 205 Marshall Hall 1 Forestry Drive Syracuse, NY 13210 Tel: (315) 470-6561 Fax: (315) 470-6956 Sportf tfishing ishing: A study of gender and life stage along New York s eastern

More information

GROWING THE GAME FOR THE FUTURE

GROWING THE GAME FOR THE FUTURE GROWING THE GAME FOR THE FUTURE THE CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE S PLAN FOR GOLF 2017 2021 INTRODUCTION As pressure on young people s time continues to increase and the pace of life moves quicker, young people

More information

Analysis of performance at the 2007 Cricket World Cup

Analysis of performance at the 2007 Cricket World Cup Analysis of performance at the 2007 Cricket World Cup Petersen, C., Pyne, D.B., Portus, M.R., Cordy, J. and Dawson, B Cricket Australia, Department of Physiology, Australian Institute of Sport, Human Movement,

More information

USA Triathlon Membership Survey Report Colorado Springs, Colorado

USA Triathlon Membership Survey Report Colorado Springs, Colorado USA Triathlon Membership Survey Report Colorado Springs, Colorado Report prepared by: Lauren Rios Team USA and Research Coordinator USA Triathlon This is a product of USA Triathlon. Any reproduction or

More information

The Mind of the Triathlete

The Mind of the Triathlete The Mind of the Triathlete Market Research Report The event that is most popular is the sprint triathlon, the shortest-distance triathlon. Such events have attracted the participation of more than three-quarters

More information

Competitive Performance of Elite Olympic-Distance Triathletes: Reliability and Smallest Worthwhile Enhancement

Competitive Performance of Elite Olympic-Distance Triathletes: Reliability and Smallest Worthwhile Enhancement SPORTSCIENCE sportsci.org Original Research / Performance Competitive Performance of Elite Olympic-Distance Triathletes: Reliability and Smallest Worthwhile Enhancement Carl D Paton, Will G Hopkins Sportscience

More information

Here is a snapshot of the projects that have been successfully introduced this season;

Here is a snapshot of the projects that have been successfully introduced this season; 2017 Annual Report 2017 in Review This year marked the fifth season of the Enduro World Series (EWS) and what an incredible year it s been. The 2017 season will go down as one of the most challenging to

More information

Cycle traffic and the Strategic Road Network. Sandra Brown, Team Leader, Safer Roads- Design

Cycle traffic and the Strategic Road Network. Sandra Brown, Team Leader, Safer Roads- Design Cycle traffic and the Strategic Road Network Sandra Brown, Team Leader, Safer Roads- Design Highways England A Government owned Strategic Highways Company Department for Transport Road Investment Strategy

More information

Session 3 - Dressage Future

Session 3 - Dressage Future Session 3 - Dressage Future I - INTRODUCTION The FEI Dressage Committee and department have spent the last few years more with internal issues, to secure that all processes and rules have the necessary

More information

Determinants of college hockey attendance

Determinants of college hockey attendance University of Northern Iowa UNI ScholarWorks Honors Program Theses University Honors Program 2014 Determinants of college hockey attendance Max Martino University of Northern Iowa Copyright 2014 Max Martino

More information

Bikes Belong Survey: The Size & Impact of Road Riding Events

Bikes Belong Survey: The Size & Impact of Road Riding Events Bikes Belong Survey: The Size & Impact of Road Riding Events November 2009 Recreational road bicycling events are popular all across the United States. Participants are inspired by the opportunities to

More information

World Wrestling Plan. Our strategy for a stronger future. Round 1:

World Wrestling Plan. Our strategy for a stronger future. Round 1: World Wrestling Plan Our strategy for a stronger future Round 1: 2013-2016 Table of Contents Why a World Wrestling Plan? Page 04 How does the Plan work? Page 07 Phase 1: The International Level Page 08

More information

ELITE PLAYERS PERCEPTION OF FOOTBALL PLAYING SURFACES

ELITE PLAYERS PERCEPTION OF FOOTBALL PLAYING SURFACES ELITE PLAYERS PERCEPTION OF FOOTBALL PLAYING SURFACES study background this article summarises the outcome of an 18 month study commissioned by fifa and supported by fifpro aimed at determining elite players

More information

Fundraising, It s Not Just Direct Mail How Other Areas of Fundraising Impact Each Other

Fundraising, It s Not Just Direct Mail How Other Areas of Fundraising Impact Each Other Fundraising, It s Not Just Direct Mail How Other Areas of Fundraising Impact Each Other Kristy Hensel Director, National Development Office Boy Scouts of America 972 580 2107 Kristy.Hensel@scouting.org

More information