Comparison of Reliability of Isometric Leg Muscle Strength Measurements Made Using a Hand-Held Dynamometer with and without a Restraining Belt

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Comparison of Reliability of Isometric Leg Muscle Strength Measurements Made Using a Hand-Held Dynamometer with and without a Restraining Belt"

Transcription

1 Original Article Comparison of Reliability of Isometric Leg Muscle Strength Measurements Made Using a Hand-Held Dynamometer with and without a Restraining Belt J. Phys. Ther. Sci. 21: 37 42, 2009 MUNENORI KATOH, PT, PhD 1), HIROSHI YAMASAKI, PT, PhD 2) 1) Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Science, Ryotokuji University: Akemi, Urayasu-City, Chiba , Japan 2) Department of Physical Therapy, Kochi Rehabilitation Institute Abstract. [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate whether using a belt to restrain a hand-held dynamometer improves reliability of isometric leg muscle strength measurements in healthy subjects. [Subjects] Twenty to 44 healthy subjects participated in the test. [Methods] Two raters, one man and one woman, used a hand-held dynamometer with or without a restraining belt to measure the isometric strengths of the following muscle groups: flexors, extensors, abductors, adductors, internal rotators and external rotators of the hip; flexors and extensors of the knee; and dorsiflexors and plantar flexors of the ankle. [Results] The intraclass correlation coefficient, used to describe interrater agreement, ranged from 0.97 to 0.99 with the belt and from 0.21 to 0.88 without the belt. Pearson s correlation coefficient for measurements with versus without the belt ranged from 0.61 to 0.95 for the man and from 0.31 to 0.87 for the woman. [Conclusion] The interrater reliability of isometric leg muscle strength measurements was improved by use of a belt to restrain the hand-held dynamometer. Key words: Muscle strength measurement, Hand-held dynamometer, Belt fixation (This article was submitted Jul. 17, 2008, and was accepted Sep. 22, 2008) INTRODUCTION Hand-held dynamometers (HHD) are small and relatively simple to use for quantitatively measuring muscle strength, but there is no consensus on the reliability of measurements 1 12). Bohannon et al. 1) evaluated knee extensor strength in 24 healthy women aged around 30 years old and reported, as an estimate of interrater agreement, an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.948, and good intrarater reliability irrespective of experience. In a study by Wikholm et al. 7) in which muscle strengths of healthy subjects were evaluated by 3 raters, ICC was for strength measurements of knee extensor muscles, which are strong, and and 0.932, respectively, for measurements of elbow flexor and shoulder external rotator muscles, which are weaker. In a study by Agre et al. 8) using 4 healthy subjects and 3 raters, Pearson correlation coefficients for interrater measurements ranged from 0.19 to 0.96 for the lower extremity, but from 0.88 to 0.94 for the upper extremity. Regarding the limitations of measurements using a HDD, Hyde et al. 10) claim that, regardless of the tester s experience or power of resistance, 30 kg is the limit, while Wiles et al. 11) and Roebeck et al. 12), claim respectively that it is difficult to maintain the position of the HDD at forces of 300 N and 85 Nm or higher. Problems of reliability of measurements made by

2 38 J. Phys. Ther. Sci. Vol. 21, No. 1, 2009 Table 1. Subjects characteristics per Exertion Task Exertion Task Subjects Male Female Age (years) Height (cm) Weight (kg) Leg Side/Number Hip flexion ± ± ± 7.0 Both/40 Hip extension ± ± ± 9.3 Both/40 Hip abduction ± ± ± 6.9 Right/44 Hip adduction ± ± ± 6.9 Right/44 Hip external rotation ± ± ± 6.9 Right/44 Hip internal rotation ± ± ± 6.7 Right/43 Knee flexion ± ± ± 6.7 Right/43 Knee extension ± ± ± 8.6 Both/42 Ankle plantar flexion ± ± ± 6.9 Right/44 Ankle dorsiflexion ± ± ± 7.6 Right/42 ±: mean ± SD HHDs make comparisons of studies difficult. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether using a restraining belt to steady a HDD with a thin sensor improves reliability of measurements of leg muscle strength. SUBJECTS AND METHODS The number of subjects varied between 20 and 44 depending on which muscle group was evaluated, but since the exertion tasks were performed either bilaterally or unilaterally, the total number of legs per task varied between only 40 and 44 (Table 1). The subjects mean age was 20. None of the subjects had any joint pain or other orthopedic problems of the joints used in the exertion tasks. All the subjects gave their informed consent to participate. The HDD was a µtas MF-01 (Anima Corp., Tokyo). Its metal sensor was covered by a rubber pad. When the belt was used to secure the device, the sensor s Velcro fastener was used to secure the sensor to the part of the body under investigation, but when the belt was not used to secure the device, the sensor s Velcro fastener was used as a grip for the tester to hold when applying resistance. The belt length could be adjusted using a sliding bar buckle and a plate was used to fix the position of the sensor (Fig. 1). The HDD had a measuring range of 0.0 to 80.0 kgf with a precision of 0.1 kgf. Measurements were made with the subjects making the following 10 exertions: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation and external rotation of the hip; flexion and extension of the knee; and dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the ankle. In the test without the belt, the Fig. 1. Equipment and example of installation in a case of knee extension. The sensor of a hand-held dynamometer with its Velcro surface fastener straps is shown attached to the belt. The Velcro straps are used to fasten the sensor to the surface of a patient s limb when the belt is employed (top right) or as a grip for the tester when the belt is not employed (Fig. 2). A sliding buckle is used to adjust the belt length when anchored to a fixed structure (bottom right). HDD was used in the conventional way, i.e., held in the palm of the hand and pressed directly against the part of the body under test. Measurement was ceased when the tester was unable to hold the HDD steady. In the test with the belt, the sensor s Velcro fastener was used to fix the HDD against the part of the body under test, and the belt was fixed to something relatively immobile, such as the leg or rail of the bed or around the tester s leg, to directly oppose the movement of the part of the body under test (Fig. 2, Table 2). The subjects ramped up to maximum their exertions over 3 s, and then maintained a static state for about 5 s during which the maximum force was noted. Each exertion trial was repeated once after 30 seconds of rest. The highest measurement for each pair of trials was noted.

3 39 Fig. 2a. Using a hand-held dynamometer with and without the belt for the hip. Photographs show six measurements of isometric muscle strength for the hip, using the belt to anchor the device (left) and without using the belt (right) where the tester applies resistance by hand and the Velcro straps of the surface fastener are used as a grip. Fig. 2b. Using a hand held dynamometer with and without the belt for the knee and ankle. Photographs show two measurements of isometric muscle strength each for the knee and ankle, using the belt to anchor the device (left) and without using the belt (right) where the tester applies resistance by hand and the Velcro straps of the surface fastener are used as a grip. In the assessment of interrater reliability, 1 man and 1 woman with very different physiques were used as testers (Table 3). The subjects rested for at least 1 h between the first and second testers taking measurements. Measurements made with and without the belt were taken at an interval of 1 week. The order in which measurements were made with the belt, without the belt, by the man, or by the

4 40 J. Phys. Ther. Sci. Vol. 21, No. 1, 2009 Table 2. Subjects posture, dynanometer position and belt fixation method during isometric muscle strength measurements made using a hand-held dynamometer with belt Exertion Task Posture Joint Position Dynamometer Position* Belt Fixation Method Hip flexion Sitting upright (1) Hip flexed 90, popliteal fossa floating Femur head Under table leg Hip extension Prone (2) Hip at 0, distal femur floating Femur head Under table leg Hip abduction Supine (3) Hip at 0, opposite pelvic side on pillow, touching bed rail Femur head Around bed rail Hip adduction Supine (4) Hip at 0, pelvis held by tester s hand Femur head Around tester s lower leg Hip external rotation Sitting upright (1) Hip at 0, thigh horizontal Medial maleolus Around table leg Hip internal rotation Sitting upright (1) Hip at 0, thigh horizontal Lateral maleolus Around table leg Knee flexion Sitting upright (1) Knee flexed 90, thigh horizontal Medial maleolus Around tester s lower leg Knee extension Sitting upright (1) Knee flexed 90, thigh horizontal Medial maleolus Around table leg Ankle plantar flexion Prone (5) Knee at 115, ankle dorsiflexed 15 1st metatarsal head Around subject s thigh Ankle dorsiflexion Sitting on chair (6) Heel on 10 cm block touching bed rail, ankle dorsiflexed 20 1st metatarsal head Around bed rail (1) On edge of a table, (2) On table, more proximal than sensor, (3) On bed, (4) On mat, (5) On table, (6) Lower leg on bed. *lower part of sensor placed on top of part of body under test in opposite direction to movement. Table 3. Testers characteristics per Exertion Task Male Tester Female Tester Exertion Task Age (years) Height (cm) Weight (kg) Age (years) Height (cm) Weight (kg) Hip flexion Hip extension Hip abduction Hip adduction Hip external rotation Hip internal rotation Knee flexion Knee extension Ankle plantar flexion Ankle dorsiflexion woman, was random. Before starting the study, the testers practiced making measurements until they were familiar with the technique. Interrater reliability was evaluated using the paired Student s t test, ICC (2,1), and Pearson s correlation coefficient. Measurements made with versus without the belt were analyzed using the paired Student s t test and Pearson s correlation coefficient (SPSS ver.15j for Windows, SPSS Japan Inc., Tokyo) P values of <.05 were considered significant. RESULTS Isometric muscle strength measurements for each exertion task and their statistics are shown in Tables 4 6. On comparing the examiners measurements, for all tasks, there were no significant differences when the belt was used, but when the belt was not used, measurements obtained by the male examiner were significantly higher than those obtained by the female examiner (p<0.001). ICC ranged from 0.99 to 0.97 when the belt was used, but ranged from 0.88 to 0.21 when it was not used. Pearson s correlation coefficient ranged from 0.99 to 0.97 when the belt was used, but ranged from 0.91 to 0.26 when it was not used. Measurements were significantly higher for both examiners when the belt was used than when it was not used (p<0.01). Pearson s correlation coefficient for measurements made with versus without the belt ranged from 0.95 to 0.61 for the male examiner and from 0.87 to 0.31 for the female examiner. DISCUSSION Gross et al. 13) reported ICCs of between 0.92 and

5 41 Table 4. Isometric muscle strength measurements of young healthy adults made by one male and one female tester using a hand-held dynamometer with and without a belt Exertion Task n With Belt Without Belt Male Tester Female Tester Male Tester Female Tester Hip flexion ± ± ± ± 3.6 Hip extension ± ± ± ± 3.3 Hip abduction ± ± ± ± 4.7 Hip adduction ± ± ± ± 4.9 Hip external rotation ± ± ± ± 4.0 Hip internal rotation ± ± ± ± 3.4 Knee flexion ± ± ± ± 4.3 Knee extension ± ± ± ± 2.6 Ankle plantar flexion ± ± ± ± 3.9 Ankle dorsiflexion ± ± ± ± 4.7 mean ± SD (kgf). Table 5. Interrater comparison (Intraclass correlation coefficient) of isometric muscle strength measurements made using a hand-held dynamometer with and without a belt Without Belt With Belt Exertion Task 95%CI 95%CI ICC (2,1) ICC (2,1) Lower Upper Lower Upper Hip flexion Hip extension Hip abduction Hip adduction Hip external rotation Hip internal rotation Knee flexion Knee extension Ankle plantar flexion Ankle dorsiflexion ICC: intraclass correlation coefficient. 95%CI: 95% confidence interval. Table 6. Comparison of isometric muscle strength measurements: Interrater comparison with and without a belt, and for each tester, a comparison of measurements with versus without the belt (Pearson s correlation coefficient) Exertion Task Interrater comparison Pearson s correlation coefficient for measurements with vs without belt With Belt Without Belt Male Tester Female Tester Hip flexion Hip extension Hip abduction Hip adduction Hip external rotation Hip internal rotation Knee flexion Knee extension Ankle plantar flexion Ankle dorsiflexion

6 42 J. Phys. Ther. Sci. Vol. 21, No. 1, in a study using two types of isokinetic dynamometers to measure the force of knee extensions performed at 60 degrees/s and 180 degrees/s. Wikholm et al. 7) and Agre et al. 8) reported that the interrater reliability of strength measurements made using a HHD was poorer for the lower than the upper limbs. In the present study, ICC for interrater reliability was 0.97 or higher for all measurements made with the HHD restrained by the belt, while compared with measurements made with a belt, ICC without the belt was low. Therefore, for testing healthy subjects, isometric muscle strength measurements made by the HHD restrained by a belt are at least as reliable as measurements made by an isokinetic HHD, and more reliable than isometric measurements made by a HHD without a restraining belt. The most plausible reason that measurements made by the HHD without the belt are poor is that the strength of the subject may exceed the resistance that the tester is able to apply to prevent the HHD from moving. In the present study, for both examiners, measurements made when using the belt were significantly higher than those made when not using the belt. Pearson s correlation coefficients for measurements made with versus without the belt were higher for the male tester than for the female tester. The average forces exerted during abduction, internal rotation and external rotation of the pelvis were all 20 kgf or less, which is clearly less that the reported limit of 30 kgf for measurements made by holding the HHD conventionally, that is without the aid of a restraining device 10). Even the male tester could not adequately maintain the position of the HHD without the belt, so the actual practical strength limit for using the HHD conventionally is probably less than the reported limit of 30 kgf in some circumstances. Therefore, isometric muscle strength measurements made using the restraining belt, are more reliable that those made conventionally, that is, without the belt, probably because the belt is able to compensate for the limit at which the HDD can be fixed in position by just the hand. Furthermore, this hand-held limit of 30 kgf was in practice demonstrated to be impractical, especially in the case of the female tester. We believe that when the belt is used to fix the device, the dynamometer can be reliably applied to quantitatively measure muscle strength of grade 3 (fair) or lower. However, because the trunk, lower back and other factors were not fixed or determined when the belt was used, future studies should evaluate whether values of measurements differ from those made with an isokinetic dynamometer. REFERENCES 1) Bohannon RW, Wikholm JB: Measurements of knee extension force obtained by two examiners of substantially different experience with a hand-held dynamometer. Isokinetics and Exercise Science, 1992, 2: ) Smidt GL, Albright JP, Deusinger RH, et al.: Pre-and postoperative functional changes in total knee patients. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 1984, 6: ) Bohannon RW, Andrews AW: Interrater reliability of hand-held dynamometry. Phys Ther, 1987, 67: ) Kwoh CK, Patrick MA, Munin MC: Inter-rater reliability for function and strength measurements in the acute care hospital after elective hip and knee arthroplasty. Arthritis Care Res, 1997, 10: ) McMahon LM, Burdett RG, Whitney SL: Effects of muscle group and placement site on reliability of handheld dynamometry strength measurements. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 1992, 15: ) Leggin BG, Neuman RM, Iannotti JP, et al.: Intrarater and interrater reliability of three isometric dynamometers in assessing shoulder strength. J Shoulder Elbow Surg, 1996, 5: ) Wikholm JB, Bohannon RW: Hand-held dynamometer measurements: tester strength makes a difference. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 1991, 13: ) Agre JC, Magness JL, Hull SZ, et al.: Strength testing with a portable dynamometer: reliability for upper and lower extremities. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 1987, 68: ) Bandinelli S, Benvenuti E, Del Lungo I, et al.: Measuring muscular strength of the lower limbs by hand-held dynamometer: A standard protocol. Aging Clin Exp Res, 1999, 11: ) Hyde SA, Goddard CM, Scott OM: The Myometer: The development of a clinical tool. Physiotherapy, 1983, 69: ) Wiles CM, Karni Y: The measurement of muscle strength in patients with peripheral neuromuscular disorders. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 1983, 46: ) Roebroeck ME, Harlaar J, Lankhorst GJ: Reliability assessment of isometric knee extension measurements with a computer-assisted hand-held dynamometer. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 1998, 79: ) Gross MT, Huffman GM, Phillips CN, et al.: Intramachine and intermachine reliability of the Biodex and Cybex II for knee flexion and extension peak torque and angular work. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 1991, 13:

1. Hip flexion Muscles: Iliopsoas (psoas major + iliacus)

1. Hip flexion Muscles: Iliopsoas (psoas major + iliacus) Chap. 5 Testing the muscles of the Lower Extremity Part I. Manual Muscle Testing of the hip joint muscles 1. Hip flexion Muscles: Iliopsoas (psoas major + iliacus) Rectus femoris Sartorius Tensor fascia

More information

video Outline Pre-requisites of Typical Gait Case Studies Case 1 L5 Myelomeningocele Case 1 L5 Myelomeningocele

video Outline Pre-requisites of Typical Gait Case Studies Case 1 L5 Myelomeningocele Case 1 L5 Myelomeningocele Outline Evaluation of Orthosis Function in Children with Neuromuscular Disorders Using Motion Analysis Outcomes Terminology Methods Typically developing Case examples variety of pathologies Sylvia Õunpuu,

More information

Comparison of Kinematics and Kinetics During Drop and Drop Jump Performance

Comparison of Kinematics and Kinetics During Drop and Drop Jump Performance schouweiler, hess UW-L Journal of Undergraduate Research XIII (21) Comparison of Kinematics and Kinetics During Drop and Drop Jump Performance Ryan Schouweiler, Karina Hess Faculty Sponsor: Thomas Kernozek,

More information

OrthoBethesda Therapy Services Total Hip Replacement Home Exercise Program

OrthoBethesda Therapy Services Total Hip Replacement Home Exercise Program OrthoBethesda Therapy Services Total Hip Replacement Home Exercise Program General Instructions: Initially perform 10 repetitions of each exercise, 3 times per day. Increase to 20 repetitions, 3 times

More information

Gait Disorders of the Geriatric Patient. by Alex Tieche PT, DPT Inpatient Senior Therapist

Gait Disorders of the Geriatric Patient. by Alex Tieche PT, DPT Inpatient Senior Therapist Gait Disorders of the Geriatric Patient by Alex Tieche PT, DPT Inpatient Senior Therapist Normal Gait Three functional tasks 1. Weight acceptance Weight is loaded onto outstretched limb 2. Single limb

More information

Normal and Abnormal Gait

Normal and Abnormal Gait Normal and Abnormal Gait Adrielle Fry, MD EvergreenHealth, Division of Sport and Spine University of Washington Board Review Course March 6, 2017 What are we going to cover? Definitions and key concepts

More information

WALKING AIDS AND GAIT TRAINING

WALKING AIDS AND GAIT TRAINING WALKING AIDS AND GAIT TRAINING By:Dr. Chaman Lal B.S.PT, DPT, Dip. in sports Injuries, MPPS(PAK), PG in Clinical Electroneurophysiology (AKUH), Registered.EEGT (USA), Member of ABRET, AANEM & ASET (USA).

More information

Shoulder Exercises for Combined Labrum Repair Rehabilitation Protocol

Shoulder Exercises for Combined Labrum Repair Rehabilitation Protocol Shoulder Exercises for Combined Labrum Repair Rehabilitation Protocol The exercises illustrated and described in this document should be performed only after instruction by your physical therapist or Dr.

More information

video Purpose Pathological Gait Objectives: Primary, Secondary and Compensatory Gait Deviations in CP AACPDM IC #3 1

video Purpose Pathological Gait Objectives: Primary, Secondary and Compensatory Gait Deviations in CP AACPDM IC #3 1 s in CP Disclosure Information AACPDM 71st Annual Meeting September 13-16, 2017 Speaker Names: Sylvia Ounpuu, MSc and Kristan Pierz, MD Differentiating Between, Secondary and Compensatory Mechanisms in

More information

A Biomechanical Approach to Javelin. Blake Vajgrt. Concordia University. December 5 th, 2012

A Biomechanical Approach to Javelin. Blake Vajgrt. Concordia University. December 5 th, 2012 A Biomechanical Approach to Javelin Blake Vajgrt Concordia University December 5 th, 2012 The Biomechanical Approach to Javelin 2 The Biomechanical Approach to Javelin Javelin is one of the four throwing

More information

Foot Biomechanics Getting Back to the Base

Foot Biomechanics Getting Back to the Base Foot Biomechanics Getting Back to the Base Christopher J. Mehallo, D.O. Rothman Institute Orthopaedics Objectives Understand basic foot biomechanics during walking and running Understand common sports

More information

CLASSIFICATION TESTING PROTOCOL: 2016 DOD WARRIOR GAMES

CLASSIFICATION TESTING PROTOCOL: 2016 DOD WARRIOR GAMES CLASSIFICATION TESTING PROTOCOL: 2016 DOD WARRIOR GAMES This page to be completed by the athlete prior to classification testing ATHLETE DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION Athlete Name: Athlete Contact Number: (

More information

SHOULDER REHABILITATION

SHOULDER REHABILITATION SHOULDER REHABILITATION Stage 1 - From surgery to 2 weeks. Exercise No. s 1-5 CAN be done hourly if possible. Exercise No. s 6-12 do up to 4 times per day, ice after exercising. 1. Neck Stretches - Lateral

More information

Purpose. Outline. Angle definition. Objectives:

Purpose. Outline. Angle definition. Objectives: Disclosure Information AACPDM 69 th Annual Meeting October 21-24, 2015 Speaker Names: Sylvia Õunpuu, MSc and Kristan Pierz, MD Gait Analysis Data Interpretation: Understanding Kinematic Relationships Within

More information

INTRODUCTION TO GAIT ANALYSIS DATA

INTRODUCTION TO GAIT ANALYSIS DATA INTRODUCTION TO GAIT ANALYSIS DATA 1. Phases of gait a. Stance (% gc) i. Loading response (10%) ii. Mid- and terminal stance (%) iii. Pre-swing (10%) b. Swing (% gc) i. Initial swing ii. Mid-swing iii.

More information

Bend your foot up and down at your ankle joint as shown. SHORT ARC QUAD - SAQ

Bend your foot up and down at your ankle joint as shown. SHORT ARC QUAD - SAQ STAT Orthopedic Rehab (602) 357-4771 General YOUR HOME PROGRAMHome Exercise Program Created by STAT Orthopedic Rehab Aug 19th, 2017 View at "www.my-exercise-code.com" using code: T22WW2T Total 17 ANKLE

More information

Mobilising. Mobilising

Mobilising. Mobilising Shoulder Rehabilitation Exercises (See attached information supplement) P1 of 7 1) Arms relaxed, circle your shoulders by shrugging the shoulders up, then drawing them back, down and forward. 2) You can

More information

LOWER BODY REHABILITATION CONDITIONING EXERCISES

LOWER BODY REHABILITATION CONDITIONING EXERCISES LOWER BODY REHABILITATION CONDITIONING EXERCISES GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: The exercises below are to be performed on your involved and injured leg. Do the exercises slowly and relax between each one. Do not

More information

Dynamic Warm up. the age of the athlete current physical condition and prior exercise experience

Dynamic Warm up. the age of the athlete current physical condition and prior exercise experience Dynamic Warm up 10-20 minutes May be dependent on: the age of the athlete current physical condition and prior exercise experience Prepares the body for the demands of a work out or practice Increases

More information

Marine Corps Trials Rowing Competition Rules

Marine Corps Trials Rowing Competition Rules Marine Corps Trials Rowing Competition Rules Rowing Indoor rowing is an endurance sport. Competition measures power output and athlete s speed. The concept II rower is used to simulate the action of outdoor

More information

INGLESE - COD

INGLESE - COD INGLESE - COD. 22883-12-09-13 design and quality MADE IN ITALY since 1980 7 versions 2 models: front drive and posterior, just one frame folding frame gait trainer with constant center of gravity precise

More information

WalkOn product range. Dynamic Ankle-Foot Orthoses. Information for specialist dealers

WalkOn product range. Dynamic Ankle-Foot Orthoses. Information for specialist dealers WalkOn product range Dynamic Ankle-Foot Orthoses Information for specialist dealers WalkOn Flex WalkOn WalkOn Trimable WalkOn Reaction WalkOn Reaction plus One range Many different applications The WalkOn

More information

AEROBIC GYMNASTICS Code of Points APPENDIX II Guide to Judging Execution and Difficulty

AEROBIC GYMNASTICS Code of Points APPENDIX II Guide to Judging Execution and Difficulty FÉDÉRATION INTERNATIONALE DE GYMNASTIQUE FONDÉE EN 1881 AEROBIC GYMNASTICS Code of Points 2009 2012 DRAFT OCTOBER 2008 APPENDIX II Guide to Judging Execution and Difficulty Page 1 of 80 INTRODUCTION This

More information

to decrease this force without compromising alignment. Four methods of heel modification are frequently used to decrease destabilizing forces at heel

to decrease this force without compromising alignment. Four methods of heel modification are frequently used to decrease destabilizing forces at heel The Influence of Heel Design on a Rigid Ankle-Foot Orthosis DAVID R. WIEST, M.S., R.P.T. 1 ROBERT L. WATERS, M.D. 2 ERNEST L. BONTRAGER, M.S.3 MICHAEL J. QUIGLEY, C.P.O. 4 In the past decade measurements

More information

J of Evolution of Med and Dent Sci/ eissn , pissn / Vol. 3/ Issue 35/Aug 14, 2014 Page 9188

J of Evolution of Med and Dent Sci/ eissn , pissn / Vol. 3/ Issue 35/Aug 14, 2014 Page 9188 TO COMPARE THE EFFECT OF CRYOTHERAPY WITH STRETCHING VERSUS TAPING WITH STRETCHING ON ILIOTIBIAL BAND FRICTION SYNDROME IN LONG DISTANCE RUNNERS Shivananda S 1, Bharath Raju G 2, R. Raja 3, I. Suresh 4,

More information

Serve the only stroke in which the player has full control over its outcome. Bahamonde (2000) The higher the velocity, the smaller the margin of

Serve the only stroke in which the player has full control over its outcome. Bahamonde (2000) The higher the velocity, the smaller the margin of Lower Extremity Performance of Tennis Serve Reporter: Chin-Fu Hsu Adviser: Lin-Hwa Wang OUTLINE Introduction Kinetic Chain Serve Types Lower Extremity Movement Summary Future Work INTRODUCTION Serve the

More information

Support for a Reduction in the Number of Trials Needed for the Star Excursion Balance Test. 3 The SEBT is considered sensitive to functional deficits

Support for a Reduction in the Number of Trials Needed for the Star Excursion Balance Test. 3 The SEBT is considered sensitive to functional deficits 364 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Support for a Reduction in the Number of Trials Needed for the Star Excursion Balance Test Richard H. Robinson, MA, Phillip A. Gribble, PhD ABSTRACT. Robinson RH, Gribble PA. Support

More information

PROPER PITCHING MECHANICS

PROPER PITCHING MECHANICS PROPER PITCHING MECHANICS While each pitcher is a different person and can display some individuality in his mechanics, everyone has similar anatomy (the same muscles, bones and ligaments in the same locations)

More information

Chapter 1 - Injury overview Chapter 2 - Fit for Running Assessment Chapter 3 - Soft Tissue Mobilization... 21

Chapter 1 - Injury overview Chapter 2 - Fit for Running Assessment Chapter 3 - Soft Tissue Mobilization... 21 Table of Contents Introduction Chapter 1 - Injury overview... 6 Chapter 2 - Fit for Running Assessment... 13 Chapter 3 - Soft Tissue Mobilization... 21 Chapter 4 - Dynamic Warm-up... 28 Chapter 5 - Strengthening...

More information

The relationship between isokinetic performance of hip and knee and jump performance in university rugby players

The relationship between isokinetic performance of hip and knee and jump performance in university rugby players Isokinetics and Exercise Science 21 (2013) 175 180 175 DOI 10s.3233/IES-130496 IOS Press The relationship between isokinetic performance of hip and knee and jump performance in university rugby players

More information

RUNNING. Normal Running 10/10/2016. Reliability and Concurrent Validity of a 2D Observational Gait Analysis Tool

RUNNING. Normal Running 10/10/2016. Reliability and Concurrent Validity of a 2D Observational Gait Analysis Tool Reliability and Concurrent Validity of a 2D Observational Gait Analysis Tool Kevin Yu, SPT Robert Wayner, PT, DPT Jennifer Smith, PT, DPT RUNNING Stance Phase (Single Limb Support) Initial Contact / Foot

More information

THE INFLUENCE OF SLOW RECOVERY INSOLE ON PLANTAR PRESSURE AND CONTACT AREA DURING WALKING

THE INFLUENCE OF SLOW RECOVERY INSOLE ON PLANTAR PRESSURE AND CONTACT AREA DURING WALKING March 12, 2015 5:39:44pm WSPC/170-JMMB 1540005 ISSN: 0219-51942nd Reading Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology Vol. 15, No. 2 (2015) 1540005 (6 pages) c World Scientific Publishing Company DOI:

More information

Section Section 4. Muscles and Movements Dr. Larry Van Such.

Section Section 4. Muscles and Movements Dr. Larry Van Such. Section 4 25 Section 4 Muscles and Movements Section 4 26 HIP ABDUCTORS Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimus Tensor Fascia Lata Gluteus Maximus Figure 4-1. Hip Abductors. The hip abductors are a group of four

More information

HIPS Al\ID Gala5ynWrlght '94

HIPS Al\ID Gala5ynWrlght '94 HIPS Al\ID GLUTEALS @K Gala5ynWrlght '94 n1 1111 Lie on your back on a table with both legs hanging over the edge at the knees. Inhale, flex one hip, and raise your knee toward your chest; interlock your

More information

12/4/2010 3:10 / 3:40

12/4/2010 3:10 / 3:40 Running Assessment Workshop Anthony Luke MD, MPH, CAQ (Sport Med) UCSF PCSM Conference 2010 Running boom in the 70 s and 90 s Men then women % of women runners Wheelchair Evolution 26.2 miles 42.195 km

More information

Proposed Paralympic Classification System for Va a Information for National federations and National Paralympic Committees

Proposed Paralympic Classification System for Va a Information for National federations and National Paralympic Committees Proposed Paralympic Classification System for Va a Information for National federations and National Paralympic Committees Prepared by the research team Johanna Rosén, MSc, PhD student, member Paracanoe

More information

Normal Gait and Dynamic Function purpose of the foot in ambulation. Normal Gait and Dynamic Function purpose of the foot in ambulation

Normal Gait and Dynamic Function purpose of the foot in ambulation. Normal Gait and Dynamic Function purpose of the foot in ambulation Normal Gait and Dynamic Function purpose of the foot in ambulation Edward P. Mulligan, PT, DPT, OCS, SCS, ATC Assistant Professor; Residency Chair UT Southwestern School of Health Professions Department

More information

ACL Base Strength Program Day 1

ACL Base Strength Program Day 1 ACL Base Strength Program Day 1 Welcome to the Cratos ACL prevention program. This program was written by Physical Therapist and Athletic Trainer, Tasha Mulligan, to serve as a pre-season base strength

More information

Clinical Biomechanics

Clinical Biomechanics Clinical Biomechanics 25 (2010) 1047 1052 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Clinical Biomechanics journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/clinbiomech Gender differences in lower extremity gait

More information

Test Name Analysis Assessment Swing Correlation

Test Name Analysis Assessment Swing Correlation Name: Caleb Wong Date: 2/21/14 Overview Because everyone s body is unique, understanding this is critical for safe and proper golf instruction and training. The Titleist Performance Institute (TPI) Physical

More information

Association of lower extremity range of motion and muscle strength with physical performance of community-dwelling older women

Association of lower extremity range of motion and muscle strength with physical performance of community-dwelling older women Jung and Yamasaki Journal of Physiological Anthropology (2016) 35:30 DOI 10.1186/s40101-016-0120-8 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Open Access Association of lower extremity range of motion and muscle strength with physical

More information

Examination and Treatment of Postural and Locomotor Control

Examination and Treatment of Postural and Locomotor Control Examination and Treatment of Postural and Locomotor Control Not to be copied without permission. 1 15-minute Bedside Balance Systems Tests Contents FIVE TIMES SIT TO STAND TEST... 3 SINGLE LEG STANCE...

More information

Effects of Flexibility and Balance on Driving Distance and Club Head Speed in Collegiate Golfers

Effects of Flexibility and Balance on Driving Distance and Club Head Speed in Collegiate Golfers Original Research Effects of Flexibility and Balance on Driving Distance and Club Head Speed in Collegiate Golfers KELSEY J. MARSHALL*, and TAMRA L. LLEWELLYN Health and Human Performance, Nebraska Wesleyan

More information

Working with the Retired Golfer: Can an Old Dog Learn New Tricks?

Working with the Retired Golfer: Can an Old Dog Learn New Tricks? Working with the Retired Golfer: Can an Old Dog Learn New Tricks? Joe Eischen PT, SCS, ATC, CSCS Mayo Clinic Sports Medicine Center 2013 MFMER slide-1 Take Home Points for the Talk: Become aware of some

More information

Butterfly Technique Checklist

Butterfly Technique Checklist 1 Butterfly Technique Checklist Marion Alexander, Brad Gerbrandt Sport Biomechanics Laboratory, University of Manitoba Armstroke Entry - Arms enter the water with hands about shoulder width apart and slice

More information

40 Allied Drive Dedham, MA (office)

40 Allied Drive Dedham, MA (office) Standing forward flexion Stand facing a mirror with the hands rotated so that the thumbs face forward. Raise the arm upward keeping the elbow straight. Try to raise the arm by hinging at the shoulder as

More information

Floor Barre Fitness with Joanna Nicholas BSc

Floor Barre Fitness with Joanna Nicholas BSc Floor Barre Fitness with Joanna Nicholas BSc History Traditionally a conditioning class performed as a part of a dancers schedule, floor barre increases flexibility, coordination, strength and control,

More information

Yoga for cancer patients, full session By Mary Shall, Ph.D.

Yoga for cancer patients, full session By Mary Shall, Ph.D. Yoga for cancer patients, full session By Mary Shall, Ph.D. 1. Sit comfortably (chair or mat), focus on good posture in spine, shoulders 2. Close eyes & practice Ujayi breathing for 5 minutes 3. Combine

More information

Test-Retest Reliability of Discrete Gait Parameters in Children With Cerebral Palsy

Test-Retest Reliability of Discrete Gait Parameters in Children With Cerebral Palsy ORIGINAL ARTICLE Test-Retest Reliability of Discrete Gait Parameters in Children With Cerebral Palsy Susan Klejman, PEng, Jan Andrysek, PhD, PEng, Annie Dupuis, PhD, Virginia Wright, BSc(PT), MSc, PhD

More information

Scapular, Shoulder and Elbow Theraband Exercises

Scapular, Shoulder and Elbow Theraband Exercises Scapular, Shoulder and Elbow Theraband Exercises These Theraband Exercises will help improve your strength and endurance. Your therapist will show you how and where to attach the band to get the most benefit

More information

Coaching the Triple Jump Boo Schexnayder

Coaching the Triple Jump Boo Schexnayder I. Understanding the Event A. The Run and Its Purpose B. Hip Undulation and the Phases C. Making the Connection II. III. IV. The Approach Run A. Phases B. Technical Features 1. Posture 2. Progressive Body

More information

GOLF SPECIFIC DYNAMIC WARM UP

GOLF SPECIFIC DYNAMIC WARM UP GOLF SPECIFIC DYNAMIC WARM UP Golf-related injury is common. The three most common areas injured include: 1. The back 2. The wrists, and 3. The elbows. A golf-specific dynamic warm-up is recommended by

More information

INTERACTION OF STEP LENGTH AND STEP RATE DURING SPRINT RUNNING

INTERACTION OF STEP LENGTH AND STEP RATE DURING SPRINT RUNNING INTERACTION OF STEP LENGTH AND STEP RATE DURING SPRINT RUNNING Joseph P. Hunter 1, Robert N. Marshall 1,, and Peter J. McNair 3 1 Department of Sport and Exercise Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland,

More information

Gender Differences in Hip Joint Kinematics and Kinetics During Side-Step Cutting Maneuver

Gender Differences in Hip Joint Kinematics and Kinetics During Side-Step Cutting Maneuver ORIGINAL RESEARCH Gender Differences in Hip Joint Kinematics and Kinetics During Side-Step Cutting Maneuver Christine D. Pollard, PhD, PT, Susan M. Sigward, PhD, PT, and Christopher M. Powers, PhD, PT

More information

Treating Foot Pain in Alpine Skiers with

Treating Foot Pain in Alpine Skiers with SPORTS PODIATry Treating Foot Pain in Alpine Skiers with Pes Planus What role should the podiatrist play? 103 By Lawrence Z. Huppin, DPM and Paul R. Scherer, DPM Jakub Gojda Dreamstime The foot plays a

More information

UvA-DARE (Digital Academic Repository) Hip and groin pain in athletes Tak, I.J.R. Link to publication

UvA-DARE (Digital Academic Repository) Hip and groin pain in athletes Tak, I.J.R. Link to publication UvA-DARE (Digital Academic Repository) Hip and groin pain in athletes Tak, I.J.R. Link to publication Citation for published version (APA): Tak, I. J. R. (2017). Hip and groin pain in athletes: Morphology,

More information

The Problem. An Innovative Approach to the Injured Runner. Dosage. Mechanics. Structure! Postural Observations. Lower Quarter Assessment

The Problem. An Innovative Approach to the Injured Runner. Dosage. Mechanics. Structure! Postural Observations. Lower Quarter Assessment The Problem An Innovative Approach to the Injured Runner Irene S. Davis, PhD, PT, FAPTA, FACSM Director, Spaulding National Running Center Harvard Medical School Healthy People 2020 Initiative 76% runners

More information

Relationship between Ground Reaction Force and Stability Level of the Lower Extremity in Runners Background: Objective: Design and Setting:

Relationship between Ground Reaction Force and Stability Level of the Lower Extremity in Runners Background: Objective: Design and Setting: Relationship between Ground Reaction Force and Stability Level of the Lower Extremity in Runners Kimitake Sato, Monique Butcher-Mokha Barry University Miami Shores, FL Background: Neuromuscular control

More information

A SEX COMPARISON OF RELEASE TORQUES DURING A SELF RELEASE TEST OF SKI BINDINGS ADJUSTED TO THE ISO STANDARD

A SEX COMPARISON OF RELEASE TORQUES DURING A SELF RELEASE TEST OF SKI BINDINGS ADJUSTED TO THE ISO STANDARD A SEX COMPARISON OF RELEASE TORQUES DURING A SELF RELEASE TEST OF SKI BINDINGS ADJUSTED TO THE ISO 11088 STANDARD Markus Posch, Robert Eberle, Gerhard Ruedl ISSS 2015 San Vito INTRODUCTION Female recreational

More information

The relationship between the structure of the foot and its

The relationship between the structure of the foot and its The Relationship Between Forefoot, Midfoot, and Rearfoot Static Alignment in Pain-Free Individuals Kirsten Rossner Buchanan, PT, PhD, ATC 1 Irene Davis, PT, PhD 2 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical

More information

Test-Retest Reliability of the StepWatch Activity Monitor Outputs in Individuals

Test-Retest Reliability of the StepWatch Activity Monitor Outputs in Individuals Test-Retest Reliability of the StepWatch Activity Monitor Outputs in Individuals with Chronic Stroke Suzie Mudge, MHSc; N. Susan Stott, PhD Department of Surgery, University of Auckland Address for correspondence:

More information

Générateur de mouvements

Générateur de mouvements GOLF : A SPORT UNDER PRESSURE Neuromuscular relaxation the physical preparation s heart Contact Axelle VERMOESEN a.vermoesen@satisform.com +33(0)6 69 40 15 12 The Golf is a complete and complex sport.

More information

Katarina Skough Vreede, PT 1, Jan Henriksson, MD, PhD 1,2, Kristian Borg, MD, PhD 1 and Marketta Henriksson, PT, PhD 1

Katarina Skough Vreede, PT 1, Jan Henriksson, MD, PhD 1,2, Kristian Borg, MD, PhD 1 and Marketta Henriksson, PT, PhD 1 J Rehabil Med 2013; 45: 924 928 Short Communication Gait characteristics and influence of fatigue during THE 6-Minute Walk Test in patients with post-polio syndrome Katarina Skough Vreede, PT 1, Jan Henriksson,

More information

IIHF GOALKEEPER EQUIPMENT MEASUREMENT STANDARDS

IIHF GOALKEEPER EQUIPMENT MEASUREMENT STANDARDS 2009-2010 IIHF GOALKEEPER EQUIPMENT MEASUREMENT STANDARDS PREAMBLE These equipment standards are written in the spirit of fair play and are a supplement to the IIHF Rule Book. If at any time the IIHF feels

More information

EFFECTS OF SPEED AND INCLINE ON LOWER EXTREMITY KINEMATICS DURING TREADMILL JOGGING IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS

EFFECTS OF SPEED AND INCLINE ON LOWER EXTREMITY KINEMATICS DURING TREADMILL JOGGING IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING- EFFECTS OF SPEED AND INCLINE ON LOWER EXTREMITY KINEMATICS DURING TREADMILL JOGGING IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS 73 LAN-YUEN GUO 1, FONG-CHIN SU 2, CHICH-HAUNG YANG 3, SHU-HUI WANG 3, JYH-JONG

More information

Walking Speed: Reference Values and Correlates for Older Adults

Walking Speed: Reference Values and Correlates for Older Adults Walking Speed: Reference Values and Correlates for Older Adults Richard W. Bohannon, EdD, MS, BS' A. Williams Andrews, MS, BS Michael W. Thomas, BS he walking speed of older adults is important both because

More information

JEPonline Journal of Exercise Physiologyonline

JEPonline Journal of Exercise Physiologyonline Walking Technique and Estimated VO 2 max Values 21 JEPonline Journal of Exercise Physiologyonline Official Journal of The American Society of Exercise Physiologists (ASEP) ISSN 1097-9751 An International

More information

10/22/15. Walking vs Running. Normal Running Mechanics. Treadmill vs. Overground Are they the same? Importance of Gait Analysis.

10/22/15. Walking vs Running. Normal Running Mechanics. Treadmill vs. Overground Are they the same? Importance of Gait Analysis. 2 angle (deg) 1/22/1 Normal Running Mechanics Walking vs Running Irene Davis, PhD, PT, FACSM, FAPTA, FASB Director, Spaulding National Running Center Walking Periods of DOUBLE SUPPORT Running Periods of

More information

Pronator Assist1. Robert Keagy, M.D. 737 North Michigan Avenue Chicago, Illinois 60611

Pronator Assist1. Robert Keagy, M.D. 737 North Michigan Avenue Chicago, Illinois 60611 Pronator Assist1 by Edward C. Grahn Director, Prosthetic Research and Evaluation Northwestern University Prosthetic-Orthotic Center Chicago, Illinois 60611 Robert Keagy, M.D. 737 North Michigan Avenue

More information

Cable Jungle. User manual. All equipment. Compliant EEC 93/42 Directive

Cable Jungle. User manual. All equipment. Compliant EEC 93/42 Directive User manual Compliant EEC 93/42 Directive All equipment 1 Contents Identification of the manufacturer and equipment... 3 Description of the equipment... 4 Technical data... 5 Safety devices and warnings...

More information

The Effect of a Seven Week Exercise Program on Golf Swing Performance and Musculoskeletal Screening Scores

The Effect of a Seven Week Exercise Program on Golf Swing Performance and Musculoskeletal Screening Scores The Effect of a Seven Week Exercise Program on Golf Swing Performance and Musculoskeletal Screening Scores 2017 Mico Hannes Olivier Bachelor of Sport Science Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine Bond

More information

O veruse injuries can occur in walkers and runners.

O veruse injuries can occur in walkers and runners. 939 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Initial effects of anti-pronation tape on the medial longitudinal arch during walking and running B Vicenzino, M Franettovich, T McPoil, T Russell, G Skardoon... Br J Sports Med 2005;39:939

More information

Quantitative assessment of circumduction, hip hiking, and forefoot contact gait using Lissajous figures

Quantitative assessment of circumduction, hip hiking, and forefoot contact gait using Lissajous figures 78 Japanese Journal of Comprehensive Rehabilitation Science (2012) Original Article Quantitative assessment of circumduction, hip hiking, and forefoot contact gait using Lissajous figures Norihide Itoh,

More information

Running Form The Good, The Bad and The Ugly

Running Form The Good, The Bad and The Ugly Running Form The Good, The Bad and The Ugly Sherry Watts www.runninggoals.ca It is surprisingly controversial amongst runners and coaches whether you should tinker with running form. I believe that you

More information

Soft-Over-Ball. Exercise Chart.

Soft-Over-Ball. Exercise Chart. Lay on your stomach, your head on your hands. Contract your thighs. Press your pubic bone into the mat while lifting your belly-button as if an ice cube was underneath. Place the Mambo Max Soft- Over-Ball

More information

Biomechanics Sample Problems

Biomechanics Sample Problems Biomechanics Sample Problems Forces 1) A 90 kg ice hockey player collides head on with an 80 kg ice hockey player. If the first person exerts a force of 450 N on the second player, how much force does

More information

Riding for the Disabled Queensland Inc Adaptive Equipment, Saddlery and Riding Techniques Megan Wray

Riding for the Disabled Queensland Inc Adaptive Equipment, Saddlery and Riding Techniques Megan Wray Riding for the Disabled Queensland Inc Adaptive Equipment, Saddlery and Riding Techniques Megan Wray ADAPTIVE AIDS: STABILISING BLOCKS AND WEDGES Recommended for riders with the following conditions: Acquired

More information

Biomechanical Analysis of Race Walking Compared to Normal Walking and Running Gait

Biomechanical Analysis of Race Walking Compared to Normal Walking and Running Gait University of Kentucky UKnowledge Theses and Dissertations--Kinesiology and Health Promotion Kinesiology and Health Promotion 2015 Biomechanical Analysis of Race Walking Compared to Normal Walking and

More information

UK Yoga Sports Federation

UK Yoga Sports Federation UK Yoga Sports Federation STANDING HEAD TO KNEE POSE 4 parts 1. Stand with feet together, shift body weight to standing leg (leg closest to the judges) and lock the knee (leg straight and thigh muscle

More information

Home Strengthening Program

Home Strengthening Program Home Strengthening Program Internal Rotation at 0 degrees of Abduction Standing with elbow at side, fixed at 90 degrees, thumb pointing upward. Place a towel under your elbow. Pull theraband across your

More information

IJSPT ORIGINAL RESEARCH ABSTRACT

IJSPT ORIGINAL RESEARCH ABSTRACT IJSPT ORIGINAL RESEARCH THE USE OF A STATIC MEASURE TO PREDICT FOOT POSTURE AT MIDSUPPORT DURING RUNNING Michael B. Bade, PT, DPT, PhD 1 Timothy L. Chi, SPT 1 Kelly C. Farrell, SPT 1 Amanda J. Gresl, SPT

More information

A Study on Human Upper-Limb Muscles Activities during Daily Upper-Limb Motions

A Study on Human Upper-Limb Muscles Activities during Daily Upper-Limb Motions A Study on Human Upper-Limb Muscles Activities during Daily Upper-Limb Motions R. A. R. C. Gopura a, Kazuo Kiguchi a, Etsuo Horikawa b a Dept. Advanced Systems Control Engineering, Saga University, Saga,

More information

Effect of Ankle Dorsiflexion Range of Motion on Rearfoot Motion During Walking

Effect of Ankle Dorsiflexion Range of Motion on Rearfoot Motion During Walking Effect of Ankle Dorsiflexion Range of Motion on Rearfoot Motion During Walking MARK W. CORNWALL, PhD, PT, CPed* THOMAS G. McPOIL, PhD, PT, ATC* The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the

More information

Skating in ice hockey is a complex

Skating in ice hockey is a complex by Michael R. Bracko, EdD sports medicine Biomechanics powers ice hockey performance Skating in ice hockey is a complex motor skill. Howie Green, of the University of Waterloo in Ontario has written, Hockey

More information

Kinetic Comparison Among the Fastball, Curveball, Change-up, and Slider in Collegiate Baseball Pitchers

Kinetic Comparison Among the Fastball, Curveball, Change-up, and Slider in Collegiate Baseball Pitchers Kinetic Comparison Among the Fastball, Curveball, Change-up, and Slider in Collegiate Baseball Pitchers Glenn S. Fleisig,* PhD, David S. Kingsley, Jeremy W. Loftice, Kenneth P. Dinnen, MS, Rajiv Ranganathan,

More information

KEVIN BATCHELOR :01 SITE FITTER

KEVIN BATCHELOR :01 SITE FITTER Personal Bicycle Fitting Report KEVIN BATCHELOR 2014-05-30 15:01 RIDER Kevin Batchelor Age: 32 Male Blank@Blank.com BIKE MAKE/MODEL: Mosaic, RT-1 SIZE: Custom YEAR: 2013 TYPE: Road SITE Retul HQ 5445 Conestoga

More information

STRETCHES FOR GOLF. 7 Minutes to Longer Drives and Precision Based Shots SIMPLE GOLF SERIES

STRETCHES FOR GOLF. 7 Minutes to Longer Drives and Precision Based Shots SIMPLE GOLF SERIES STRETCHES FOR GOLF 7 Minutes to Longer Drives and Precision Based Shots SIMPLE GOLF SERIES 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Self Tests Phases of the Swing...5 Golf Self Tests...13 On Course Warm Up Winning Warm Up...23

More information

ScienceDirect. Improvement of three-dimensional motion analyzer system for the development of Indonesian gait database

ScienceDirect. Improvement of three-dimensional motion analyzer system for the development of Indonesian gait database Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Manufacturing 2 (2015 ) 268 274 2nd International Materials, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering Conference, MIMEC2015, 4-6 February

More information

CARDS. Core Strength Positioning

CARDS. Core Strength Positioning Core Strength Positioning CARDS Core Strength involves the activation of the muscles of the torso and neck that keep the trunk and head stable, aligned, and erect when the limbs are moving. A strong and

More information

Research Report. Measurements Used to Characterize the Foot and the Medial Longitudinal Arch: Reliability and Validity. Key Words:

Research Report. Measurements Used to Characterize the Foot and the Medial Longitudinal Arch: Reliability and Validity. Key Words: Research Report Measurements Used to Characterize the Foot and the Medial Longitudinal Arch: Reliability and Validity Background and Purpose. Abnormality in the structure of the medial longitudinal arch

More information

Association between Iliotibial Band Syndrome Status and Running Biomechanics in Women

Association between Iliotibial Band Syndrome Status and Running Biomechanics in Women University of Tennessee, Knoxville Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange Doctoral Dissertations Graduate School 8-2013 Association between Iliotibial Band Syndrome Status and Running Biomechanics

More information

ALTHOUGH IT HAS BEEN SHOWN that the energy demands

ALTHOUGH IT HAS BEEN SHOWN that the energy demands 136 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Energy Demands of Walking in Persons With Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome: Relationship With Muscle Strength and Reproducibility Merel-Anne Brehm, MSc, Frans Nollet, MD, PhD, Jaap Harlaar,

More information

Work on going opposite direction also!!

Work on going opposite direction also!! Lateral Step (strengthens abductors) Lying Leg Raises (abductors) Lateral Leg Raises (abductors) Medial Pull (strengthens adductors) Medial Pull In s (adductors) Front Leg Raise (strengthen hip flexors)

More information

Motor Vehicle Collision Form

Motor Vehicle Collision Form Patients Name: Date: / / 1) Please choose the date of the MVC: / / 2) Please the time of the MVC: : am / pm 3) Please enter the number of vehicles involved in the MVC: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4) In dollars,

More information

2015, Vol. 27, No. 1, ISSN (Print) Eirik Haukali & Leif Inge Tjelta* University of Stavanger, Norway. Abstract

2015, Vol. 27, No. 1, ISSN (Print) Eirik Haukali & Leif Inge Tjelta* University of Stavanger, Norway. Abstract International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences ISSN 2233-7946 (Online) 2015, Vol. 27, No. 1, 26-32. ISSN 1598-2939 (Print) c Korea Institute of Sport Science http://www.sports.re.kr/eng/05publication/callforpaper.jsp

More information

Ten-Minute Self-Massage Before Sleep

Ten-Minute Self-Massage Before Sleep Ten-Minute Self-Massage Before Sleep A ten-minute self-massage before sleep based on traditional Chinese medical theory is a kind of health protecting method to improve the constitution and prevent disease.

More information

Yoga Home Practice Guidebook. Boston Medical Center Veterans Back to Health Trial

Yoga Home Practice Guidebook. Boston Medical Center Veterans Back to Health Trial Yoga Home Practice Guidebook Table of Contents Welcome... 1 Study Contact Information... 2 Making the Most Out of Your Yoga Experience... 3 Setting up Your Home Practice... 4 Completing Your Home Practice

More information

Tadasana Variation 7. Thighs back, buttocks in (with two helpers)

Tadasana Variation 7. Thighs back, buttocks in (with two helpers) Tadasana Variation 7 Pro ps 2 ropes or belts, Thighs back, buttocks in (with two helpers) 2 helpers This variation produces a similar effect to the previous one but with a different method. Stand in Tadasana

More information

PRPLE. Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow)

PRPLE. Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow) PRPLE Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow) What is Tennis Elbow? Chronic lateral epicondylopathy (tennis elbow) is an overuse injury to the tendons/muscles on the outside (lateral) aspect of the elbow.

More information