# Pearson Edexcel Level 3 GCE Psychology Advanced Subsidiary Paper 2: Biological Psychology and Learning Theories

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2 Standard deviation (sample estimate) FORMULAE AND STATISTICAL TABLES Spearman s rank correlation coefficient Critical values for Spearman s rank Level of significance for a one-tailed test Level of significance for a two-tailed test n The calculated value must be equal to or exceed the critical value in this table for significance to be shown. 2 *P49828A0228*

3 Chi-squared distribution formula XX! = (!!!)!! dddd = rr 1 cc 1 Critical values for chi-squared distribution Level of significance for a one-tailed test Level of significance for a two-tailed test df The calculated value must be equal to or exceed the critical value in this table for significance to be shown. *P49828A0328* 3 Turn over

4 Mann-Whitney U test formulae UU! = nn! nn! +!!!!!!! RR! UU! = nn! nn! +!!!!!!! RR! (U is the smaller of U a and U b ) Critical values for the Mann-Whitney U test N a N b p 0.05 (one-tailed), p 0.10 (two-tailed) *P49828A0428*

5 N b N a p 0.01 (one-tailed), p 0.02 (two-tailed) N a N b p (one-tailed), p 0.05 (two-tailed) *P49828A0528* 5 Turn over

6 N b N a p (one-tailed), p 0.01 (two-tailed) The calculated value must be equal to or less than the critical value in this table for significance to be shown. 6 *P49828A0628*

7 Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test process Calculate the difference between two scores by taking one from the other Rank the differences giving the smallest difference Rank 1 Note: do not rank any differences of 0 and when adding the number of scores, do not count those with a difference of 0, and ignore the signs when calculating the difference Add up the ranks for positive differences Add up the ranks for negative differences T is the figure that is the smallest when the ranks are totalled (may be positive or negative) N is the number of scores left, ignore those with 0 difference Critical values for the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test Level of significance for a one-tailed test Level of significance for a two-tailed test n N= The calculated value must be equal to or less than the critical value in this table for significance to be shown. *P49828A0728* 7 Turn over

8 Answer ALL questions. SECTION A: BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 1 (a) Identify the three lobes highlighted on the diagram of the brain below. (i) (3).... (ii)... (iii)... (b) Brain scanning can be used to investigate the brain. Explain two weaknesses of the fmri scanning technique. (4) (Total for Question 1 = 7 marks) 8 *P49828A0828*

9 BLANK PAGE *P49828A0928* 9 Turn over

10 2 Joel was interested in the relationship between environmental temperature and aggression. He noted down the average temperature for his school year and recorded the number of aggressive incidents that took place. Table 1 below shows the data Joel collected. Month Average temperature (degrees Celsius) Number of aggressive incidents September October November 10 4 December 7 18 January 7 11 February 8 11 March 9 14 April 11 6 May Table 1 (a) State a null hypothesis for this study. (2) 10 *P49828A01028*

11 (b) Draw a suitable graph to display the data in Table 1. (3) Title:... (c) State the type of relationship shown in the graph you have drawn. (1) *P49828A01128* 11 Turn over

12 (d) Complete Table 2 and calculate Spearman s rank correlation coefficient between average temperature and number of aggressive incidents. (4) Average temperature (degrees Celsius) Rank 1 No. of aggressive incidents Rank 2 D d² Total: Table 2 SPACE FOR CALCULATIONS Spearman s rank correlation coefficient *P49828A01228*

13 (e) Explain one strength and one weakness of using the correlational research method, as it is used in biological psychology, to inform our understanding of aggression. (4) Strength Weakness (Total for Question 2 = 14 marks) *P49828A01328* 13 Turn over

14 3 Assess how far evolution and natural selection can be used to explain aggression. (8) 14 *P49828A01428*

15 (Total for Question 3 = 8 marks) TOTAL FOR SECTION A = 29 MARKS *P49828A01528* 15 Turn over

16 SECTION B: LEARNING THEORIES 4 (a) State one factor that would make a psychological study scientific. (1) (b) Explain whether Pavlov s (1927) experiment with salivation in dogs could be considered scientific. (4) 16 *P49828A01628*

17 (c) Suggest one way in which Pavlov s (1927) experiment with salivation in dogs could have been improved. (2) (Total for Question 4 = 7 marks) *P49828A01728* 17 Turn over

18 5 Zaid conducted an animal study investigating the influence of different schedules of reinforcement on the time taken to complete a maze. Before going ahead with his study he gained the relevant licences for researching with animals from the Home Office. He separated rats into two groups to assess the impact of different amounts of food (variable ratio) against a specific amount of food (fixed ratio) as a reward for completing the maze successfully. He recorded the amount of time taken for the completion of the maze using a stopwatch and analysed his data to see if there was a difference between the two groups of rats. (a) State the independent variable (IV) and dependent variable (DV) for Zaid s study. (2) Independent variable (IV) Dependent variable (DV) (b) Describe one ethical issue that Zaid needed to consider before conducting his study, which would have helped him gain a Home Office licence. (2) 18 *P49828A01828*

19 (c) Explain two weaknesses of using animals in psychological research. (4) (Total for Question 5 = 8 marks) *P49828A01928* 19 Turn over

20 6 Jack is two years of age and is learning to use the potty/toilet without the need for a nappy. His parents are trying to think of ways to encourage Jack to use the potty/toilet. (a) Describe how Jack s parents could use operant conditioning to encourage him to use the potty/toilet. (4) 20 *P49828A02028*

21 (b) Bandura s (1961, 1963) original Bobo Doll experiments investigated the influence of social learning theory. Using your knowledge of Bandura s (1961, 1963) original Bobo Doll experiments, suggest one way Jack s parents could use social learning theory to encourage Jack to use the potty/toilet. (2) (Total for Question 6 = 6 marks) *P49828A02128* 21 Turn over

22 7 Evaluate systematic desensitisation as a treatment for phobias. (8) 22 *P49828A02228*

23 (Total for Question 7 = 8 marks) TOTAL FOR SECTION B = 29 MARKS *P49828A02328* 23 Turn over

24 SECTION C 8 Taking recreational drugs is purely a choice and to stop using drugs is easy. To what extent do the learning and biological approaches agree with the above statement? (12) 24 *P49828A02428*

25 *P49828A02528* 25 Turn over

26 (Total for Question 8 = 12 marks) TOTAL FOR SECTION C = 12 MARKS TOTAL FOR PAPER = 70 MARKS 26 *P49828A02628*

27 BLANK PAGE *P49828A02728* 27

28 BLANK PAGE 28 *P49828A02828*

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