2 Outline Why do Newton's laws of motion matter? What is speed? The technique and physical demands of speed Speed training parameters Rugby specific speed training
3 Outline Why do Newton's laws of motion matter? What is speed? The technique and physical demands of speed Speed training parameters Rugby specific speed training
4 Outline continued Session structure Teaching guidelines Teaching progression for acceleration Teaching progression for maximum velocity Fitting speed into the training week: Pre-season In-season
5 Why Newton matters 1 st law: a body remains at rest or in uniform motion until a resultant force acts upon it 2 nd law: the rate and direction at which a body accelerates is proportional to the resultant forces acting upon it 3 rd law: when a body applies force to another object, the same force is applied back to the body in an equal and opposite fashion
6 Newton's laws applied 1: If you don't apply force, you aren't going anywhere 2: How much force you apply and the direction you apply it determines where you go and how fast 3: Whichever direction you want to go, you have to apply force in the opposite direction
7 Simply put Speed is the rate of horizontal displacement A: Forces speeding you up- propulsive B: Forces slowing you down- braking (friction) The more A exceeds B, the faster you go When A = B, you're at a constant speed Horizontal force is the name of the game
8 A note on vertical force Gravity is always acting 1. Stay upright 2. Extend and reposition your leg Good runners have smaller displacements Vertical force is not the limiting factor, but more often an issue of cueing
9 Speed is... Stride length x stride frequency Both increase as we run faster We need to make both better BUT...stride length appears to be more important
10 Stride length
11 Stride length Take off distance Leg length Technique Flight distance Technique FORCE Landing distance Leg length Technique
12 Stride frequency Stance phase Minimise friction = shorter ground contact time Less time = more force required Maximise propulsive forces Swing phase More force throughout Less v displacement = more h force Shorter levers during early swing
13 Acceleration vs. vmax Acceleration: Vmax: You're still speeding up Propulsive forces > braking forces You're at a constant speed Propulsive forces = braking forces
14 Acceleration: technique Initial speed is zero Speed is lower, contact times are longer Braking forces are lower- propulsive forces! That means: Forward lean- get your COM out in front You can afford to take big long pushing strides Braking forces are small- it's all about the back side
15 Acceleration: technique cues Posture: head to heel, as strong as steel Hips: squeeze your cheeks Knee: smash the glass Ankles: be like a spring Toes hit the sweet spot, get out in front Stance leg: push the floor away Arms: throw it forward, throw it back
16 Acceleration: technique
17 Acceleration: technique
18 Acceleration: physical demands 1) Strength: enables more effective positioning 2) POWER: moderate speed, moderate load 3) Hip, KNEE and ankle extensors in the saggital plane
19 Maximum velocity: technique Speed is higher, we can apply less and less force Shorter contact times, apply force and get off the floor! Use the force to your advantage- elasticity Braking forces higher- minimise them with technique That means: Upright posture- minimise braking distance Hip dominant stride Mechanical emphasis on minimising braking forces
20 Maximum velocity: technique cues Posture: Lean into the wind like you're on Titanic Hip: strike the match on the ball of your foot Knee: keep stiff and tall Ankle: like a spring Swing leg: figure 4 hip flexion, smash the knee forward Swing leg: paw back with a straight leg Arms: hip to lip or face cheek, arse cheek!
21 Maximum velocity: technique
22 Maximum velocity: technique
23 Maximum velocity: technique
24 Maximum velocity: technique
25 Maximum velocity: technique
26 Maximum velocity: technique
27 Maximum velocity: physical demands 1) Speed strength: maximum force at speed 2) Reactive strength Higher GRF = more energy applied & returned Greater stiffness = less GCT, less braking 3) Glutes, hamstrings, hip flexors in the saggital plane
28 Loading parameters 95%+ of max speed Full rest periods (4 minutes + 90s per 10m) Less is more- rugby athletes aren't T&F athletes Over/underspeed training: Mechanics first, load second <10% decline when using horizontal resistance 3-5 degree incline for hills Overspeed for frequency, underspeed for length
29 Speed training parameters Speed increases when you improve: Mobility Stability Neural factors (sprint training) Strength- general, specific, relative Body composition Tissue quality and elasticity Movement skill and efficiency (technique)
30 Neural factors Specifically: Drive: what is the horsepower of your engine? Stretch reflex potentiation (for another time) Sprinting is the most intense CNS activity you can do. Sprint training is our tool. But what activities how much, how often?
31 Sprint training guidelines Warm up long No sprinting without good technique Programme before all other activities Minimum hours between sessions 2 sessions per week pre-season, 1 in-season Less is more in season- 2-3 reps and that's it Equal emphasis on acceleration and vmax
32 Sprint training guidelines Personal best = move on! (time everything) Complete rest periods: 3-4 mins for 10m, add 90s per additional 10m Under-speed for stride length: No more than a 10% reduction in time Over-speed for stride frequency <5% gradient- it should look the same
33 Acceleration sessions 0-30m distance Short to long Closer to the front row = shorter Further from the front row = longer All reps at 95% of personal best for the day Failure to hit 95%- one more attempt then done Max 8-10 reps with full recoveries No more than 300m of total volume per session
34 Acceleration sessions Emphasise under-speed, stride lengthening tools: Pushing and pulling sleds Hill sprints Partner resisted sprints Bungees and bands Use a load that gives maximum 10% reduction in speed
35 Maximum velocity sessions 0-20m distance flying sprints Short to long, start with build ups, extend to 20m Closer to the front row = shorter and less often Further from the front row = longer and more often All reps at 95% of personal best for the day Failure to hit 95%- one more attempt then done Max 8-10 reps with full recoveries No more than 100m of total volume per session
36 Maximum velocity sessions Emphasise over-speed, frequency increasing tools but sparingly: Low gradient downhill running Bungee and band assisted running If you have to put on the brakes you are running with too much assistance
37 Volume guidelines Distance Recommended reps 0-10m m m m m 2-4 Note: Volumes are for acceleration work during pre-season. Reduce reps and total volume for maximum velocity work and work performed during the season.
38 Rugby specific demands Different starting positions: Ground- face up and face down Staggered start Base position Side on Transitions: Standing and rolling starts Change of direction into sprinting
39 Rugby specific demands Forwards: Backs: Generally lower velocity, shorter sprints Higher acceleration and deceleration demands Performed more often Maximum velocity is still important though Generally higher velocity, longer sprints Less frequent accelerations and decelerations Performed less often
40 Session structure Vibration, myofascial release and stretching (5-20 mins) Mobility + heat (5-10 minutes) Activation and torso prep (5-10 minutes) Technical coaching and drills (15-20 minutes) Work sets and applied running (Up to 60 minutes)
41 Teaching guidelines Learn the skill Isolated to integrated Low to high postural demands Slow to fast Perform the skill Perfect technique at speed No distractions No decision making Apply the skill in a rugby context
43 Wall drill progressions Head to heel as strong as steel Smash the knee forward Push the floor away Shin angles match Ankles like a spring Don't hang around. Perform the drill perfectly and then move on. Postures can be performed for 1-2 sets of 15-30s each. Movement drills can be performed for 1-2 sets of 5-10 reps each. If technique breaks down, regress the drill.
44 Resisted progression Use a moderate resistance- enough to take away the stability demands of the exercise, but not so heavy that form breaks down. Perform 1-2 sets each of 10-20m of marching, bounding and running. Ensure good form on all drills. If form breaks down, regress the drill. Pay special attention to foot and placement. Make sure you take big strides with good shin angles and place your hands high on the resistance with locked arms. If you do not have access to a sled, use a partner as resistance: Skip prowler/pushing sled progression and skip to towel/band resisted: First around the shoulder, then around the hip
45 Free running Various starting positions: 2 point Base Belly Back Count the steps (10 in 6, 20 in 11) Maximum intensity with perfect form Limit accelerations to no more than 20m.
47 Wall drill progression Tall and tight or Like the Titanic Figure 4 or Crack the egg Strike the match Foot down not into the glass Smash the glass with your knee Don't hang around. Perform the drill perfectly and then move on. Postures can be performed for 1-2 sets of 15-30s each. Movement drills can be performed for 1-2 sets of 5-10 reps each. If technique breaks down, regress the drill.
48 Drill progression Perform all drills with perfect posture, foot-ground contact, foot placement and heel recovery. Perform 1-2 sets each of 5-10 reps per side on standing drills and 1-2 sets each of 10-20m of running drills.
49 Free sprinting Build ups are a natural extension of the running knee drive Work slowly up to a moment of top speed, then ease off slowly Identical pattern of work for full speed but maintain, then EASE OFF No longer than 20m for flying sprints Build ups and flying sprints should be performed on the flattest surface and in the least fatigued state possible. Consult the volume chart for guidelines and rest fully between reps.
50 Applied sprinting Be very careful with applied sprinting. If excessive distractions are present it can reduce the quality of the reps and increase the risk of injury. Remember: technique and adaptation come first. If they start to slide, revert back to free sprinting only. Do not concentrate on just running fast. The emphasis should be first on moving with clean technique then moving faster. Situations to apply in acceleration: Accelerating to receive passes and break the defensive line Moving up in defence Chasing short kicks through Situations to apply in top speed: Interceptions and break aways High speed support lines Chasing up and under kicks
51 Speed in the training week Minimum hours for CNS recovery following high speed/force/contact work Maximum 3 opportunities per week Better to under-train than over-train, so.. Off-season = 2 sessions per week: 1 maximum velocity focus (Tuesday) 1 acceleration focus (Thursday) In-season = 1 session per week: Mixed acceleration and max. velocity focus (Tuesday)
52 Any questions... Web: Facebook: Rugby Strength Coach
53 Watch this space... More Rugby Strength Coach guides... Agility Strength and power Conditioning Flexibility and injury prevention Recovery Programme design Warm up guide Career development Click here now to join the mailing list and receive updates as new guides are published
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