Name: Date: Day/Period: CGC1P1: Interactions in the Physical Environment. Factors that Affect Climate

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1 Name: Date: Day/Period: CGC1P1: Interactions in the Physical Environment PART A: Weather and Climate Factors that Affect Climate 1. The words weather and climate are often incorrectly used interchangeably. Weather is the day to day report of precipitation (rain or snow) and temperature. It can usually be predicted up to 10 days in advance. Climate is the long term pattern of weather for a city, country, or region. There are many different climate regions around the globe and within Canada. 2. Categorize the following statements as weather or climate statements. In July, it is often hot and humid in Toronto. Yesterday, it was very warm and sunny. A good time to go to Banff to ski is in the winter. A typhoon hit Japan s coast yesterday. 3. Give an example of a weather statement. 4. Give an example of a climate statement. PART B: Factors that Affect Climate There are six basic factors that influence the climate in Canada. The phrase, LOWER, Near Water? formed by the order of the factors below may help you to study and remember the details of each factor. Complete the questions and diagrams on the pages that follow.

2 Latitude Part a shows the sun s rays being spread over a large area while hitting the earth at higher latitudes (father north of the equator) and Part a in the diagram shows the sun s rays concentrated over a small area around the equator. Use the diagram above and the Word Bank below to help you understand how Latitude affects Climate. In Unit 1, we learned that lines of Latitude run in an and direction. They measure above and below the. Looking at the diagram, the closer you are to the equator, the it is. This is because the sun s rays are more (or concentrated) in this area. Therefore, areas near the equator are warmer. Areas that are far and the equator are NOT as warm because the sun s rays are (not as concentrated) in these areas. This makes these areas have temperatures. The sun s rays have to farther to get to these areas. This is all because our Earth is a shape. So, from all this, we can say that as latitude, temperature. direct less direct stretch east west cooler increases warmer curved below decreases equator above

3 Ocean Currents On the map below, label the first arrow (#1) North Pacific Current, and the second arrow (#2) Labrador Current. Beside the North Pacific Current, write warm and colour the arrow red. Beside the Labrador Current, write cold and colour the arrow blue. 2. Use the diagram above and the Word Bank below to help you understand how Ocean Currents affect Climate. Ocean currents move around and around. Some currents are and some currents are. The temperature of an ocean current will affect the temperature of the passing over it. Canada is affected by two currents: the warm Current and the cold current. The Labrador Current is cold because it flows down from the cold. Because of the warm North Pacific Current, has warm temperatures. Because of the cold Labrador Current, the provinces have cooler temperatures. 1. _ British Columbia cold Labrador North Pacific Maritime Arctic Air warm

4 Winds and Air Masses An air mass is a large volume of air with the climate conditions of the area where it is formed. An air mass originating over an ocean contains moisture. As the air passes over land, the moisture is released in some form of precipitations. On the diagram below, the arrows indicate winds, which are sometimes called Air Masses. Label the inland air masses dry, and the coastal air masses (near water) moist. Use the diagram above and the Word Bank below to help you understand how Wind affects Climate. Winds are large masses of. Some air masses are and some air masses are. If you are near, air masses will be moist. If you are, air masses will be dry. For example, looking at the diagram above, an air mass originating over will be dry. An air mass originating over or the will be moist. Air masses are moist when they are near a large body of water, like an. These areas also have a lot of because there is more moisture in the air from the nearby water. water precipitation British Columbia Manitoba moist air dry inland Maritimes ocean

5 Elevation Elevation is the distance on Earth above sea level. Label the Letter A, Sea Level Label the Letter B, Rising Air and the Letter C, height/attitude. A B C The sun warms the _. As the ground warms up, warm air. The higher up you go from _, the the temperature is. This is because as air rises, it _ (grows) and loses. The further the air rises, the more the temperature will _. If you went up a mountain, the temperature would be. decrease sea level expands heat ground colder rises cold Relief Relief looks at how mountains act as barriers to air masses (air) moving up a mountain. Label the Letter A Mountain and the Letter B Air Mass. B When an air mass move up a mountain, the mountain gives the air mass a hard time from moving. It acts as a block. Because of this, the other side of the mountain will have much different temperatures. A

6 Near Water MARITIME VS. CONTINENTAL CLIMATES Bodies of water are special because they are able to _ the climate of an area. Moderate means to _ and make it in the middle. Because of this moderating effect of water, places that are near water have winters and _ summers. This is called a _ climate. An example of a place with a Maritime climate would be _, because it is right beside the _ Ocean. In the summer, bodies of water are cooler than the air temperature and make the surrounding air colder. In the winter, bodies of water are able to hold on to heat and make the surrounding air temperature more mild. Summer Winter Cooler Warmer A lot of also occurs in a Maritime climate because the ocean releases a lot of _ into the air. Places that are NOT near a body of water, called _ areas, have nothing to moderate their climates. Because of this, these places have more _ temperatures. Winters are _ and summers are _. These areas are considered to have an climate. An example of this would be _. inland precipitation Maritime Ontario British Columbia mild moisture extreme cool Pacific hot cold moderate control Continental

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