# The other thing about ranges that are tree lined on both sides like Lodi (above), Oak Ridge (below),

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1 Reading the wind Bryan Litz has an excellent chapter on reading wind in his book Applied Ballistics for Long Range shooting. In there he talks about wind at the rifle vs. wind at the target and which is better to read. All things being equal on a wide open range both are the same and will affect the bullet the same. What does affect the flight path is the wind at a point in the trajectory that the bullet experiences a different surroundings. The example he uses is at Lodi. That range is tree lined on both sides accept for a cut at the 400yd line. So since there is a different surrounding there that area is a good place to watch at that range. The other thing about ranges that are tree lined on both sides like Lodi (above), Oak Ridge (below),

2 and Miami Valley R+P in Batavia, Ohio (below) is that while they generally are protected from wind laterally. When wind blows up and down the range you will get swirling. This is very common at Lodi where the 23 wind flags can be pointed in many different directions. The swirling can come from either the geographic terrain (i.e. hills) or from the fact that the flags themselves are being interfered with from swirls by the trees. Camp Atterbury Range 6 (along with Ranges 3 and 5) is different. It is wide open however from about 500yds on in you do have the cemetery to the west and a hedge row to the east. Forming a tree lined alley Because of this alley affect you will see that it does slow the speed of the wind down when out of the east.

3 The wind used for calculation was 10m/s but regardless of the speed you will see the same drop. Also notice there is a slight tunnel effect up against the berm. If we flip the wind around to the west we

4

5 A somewhat similar pattern but not as large in distance and we notice some lower velocity regions that push all the way across. The difference is due to the inconsistencies of the woods. Either way we see that in the alley there is a definite different region of wind velocity. There are wind flags located on the left side at the 600yd berm, on the right side just behind the 500yd berm, and in between points 20 and 21 (generally middle of the line) at the 300yd berm. The outside flags are range flags so they are heavier and do not show the subtle changes as well as the 300yd flag. Also depending on the wind direction the 500yd flag can be caught in a region with rather great turbulence. So following Bryan s advice in his book along with the mathematical data we've shown the 300 yard flag is generally the best flag to watch as is the mirage at this area. However while they are not as sensitive the outside flags still will give you a good idea of what is going on and since they are to the side you have an idea of what may be coming. The key here is to watch the flag that is upwind. If the wind is right to left watch the flag to the right as that is what is coming, the flag to the left is showing what has already happened. However for the beginning shooter it is easy to watch to much. So to keep stuff simple just watch the flag on the 300 yard line. Now that we know what to watch lets try to interpret the data that we get from the flags in mirage. The first mistake shooters make with wind is they want to get their Kestrels out and measure the speed. From this you will get a value in mph then they will look in a drift table and come up with what the wind drift is. It may be nice to know but in a match that doesn t do you any good as you are watching flags not a wind meter. Also those drift tables assume that the wind is constant from muzzle to target and it never is. The better approach is to not even think of wind in terms of mph, instead think of it in terms of MOA (minutes of angle). Why? Well because that is the unit you are using on your sights to adjust for it. If you talk to any experienced shooter they won t say they were shooting in 15mph that was gusting up to 20mph, they ll say I had 8 minutes on the rifle, with gusts up to 10.5moa (talking any rifle at 1000yds). Same way with the mirage talk about it in terms of MOA. Once you start shooting you will find out how much the wind is worth as the target will tell you. So how much are the flags and mirage worth? Well that isn t as simple of a question as it seems. There are two things that come into play the actual speed of the wind and the direction of the wind to the shooter. First we will talk direction. When talking about direction we don t talk in terms of compass direction such as North, South, South West, etc. We talk in terms of full, half, or no values.

6 A full value wind is coming from 9o clock to 3o clock or vice versa. For interpreting wind speed we can use the following chart. Now how can we find the direction? Well we can simply look at the range flags. However you can also use your spotting scope. Put your scope out of focus so you can see the mirage then turn the scope around till you see the boil. The direction your scope is in, is the direction in which the wind is blowing. Earl Liebetrau taught me this trick a couple years ago at Camp Perry and works very nicely.

7 Now before we go farther lets add these two together. A full value 5mph is exactly what it sounds like. You are getting the full amount of the 5mph. Now lets say we have a 10mph wind that is half value. Well half value means your only getting half of 10mph. So a half value 5mph is the same as a full value 5mph. But we talk MOA not mph so how do we find out what mph equals what in MOA? Well experience over time lets you do this, but to start off here is a chart you can use for a starting point. Any Rifle Palma 600yd yd 6 9 The above is for a 10mph wind and will give you a starting point. Your cartridge and bullet combination may vary. Now do note the above diagrams are just general and it depends on your rifle. It is important to know the difference because Palma shooters tend to be better wind readers. If you know what they say they think they will need and you know the difference between your rifle and theirs it can be an aid. So now that we have an idea to interpret what the flags are telling us how do we use this data? Well the first thing you need to do is make a guess as to what you think the wind is worth. You look at the flags and say I think its worth 2MOA, you may want to talk to other shooters to see what they are going on with. What you are doing here is trying to match the data you are seeing (theoretical) with the data you

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