REGION B ONLY. Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 10.60

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1 221 REGION B ONLY 10.5 LATERAL MARKS Description of Lateral marks Port hand marks Shape: pillar buoy (Figures and 10.54), can lighted buoy (Figures and 10.56) or not lighted (Figures 10.57, and 10.59), spar buoy (Figure 10.60), Colour: green. Topmark: none or one green can. Light (when fitted): green, any character (except composite flashing 2+1). Numbering: uneven and corresponding with the conventional direction of buoyage. Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Starboard hand marks Figure Figure Figure Shape: pillar buoy (Figures and 10.62), conical lighted buoy (Figures and 10.64), or not lighted (Figures 10.65, and 67), spar buoy (Figure 10.68), Colour: red. Topmark: none or one red cone point up. Light (when fitted): red, any character (except composite flashing 2+1). Numbering: even and corresponding with the conventional direction of buoyage.

2 222 Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure IMPORTANT REMARKS 1. The buoys shown in Figures 10.54, 10.59, and have particular shapes. They are mainly encountered in the American waters. See also Figures 8.8, 8.10, 8.18, 8.30, 8.31, 8.82 till American buoys seldom carry topmarks. 3. In the IALA Buoyage System, Region B Port hand buoys are green and Starboard hand buoys are red. COMMENT Green - Red Figure Figure Figure The Lateral marks in Region B of the IALA Maritime Buoyage System are in fact the inverse of those in Region A. The shapes of the bodies and the eventual topmarks remain unchanged. Consequently, the port marks are green and cylindrical (can shaped) and the starboard marks are red and conical (cone shaped). The IALA Maritime Buoyage System in Region B originates from the previous American system of buoyage which was called Red to starboard and which was said to be based on the old practice: Red right return Like in Region A, Lateral marks in Region B are used for well-defined channels and traffic separation schemes. They are also used to indicate dangers, like wrecks, rocks, shoals,etc. but in Region A preference is give to Cardinal

3 223 marks for that purpose (See also Paragraph Obstructions.) Direction of buoyage Like in Region A, the direction of buoyage in Region B is: the local direction of buoyage or the general direction of buoyage. a. The Local direction of buoyage It should be emphasized that the starboard hand side of a channel when coming from seaward, is indicated by red conical marks and the port hand side by green can marks. Thus, red to starboard. The above-mentioned system is also used, wholly or partially, by some United States dependants or by some countries which are, or were, in the sphere of influence of the United States. The following countries use the system red to starboard : Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China (Taiwan), Cuba, Zaire, Dominican Republic, Equador, Guatemala, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Phillipines, and Venezuela. In Region B, like in Region A, the starboard hand side of the channel is the right-hand side when coming from seaward and approaching a harbour, estuary, or other waterway. The term starboard indicates, therefore, the side to the right of the mariner coming from seaward; the term port indicates the side to his left (Figure 10.69). Figure 10.69

4 224 b. The General direction og buoyage Not all channels clearly lead from seaward to land. Therefore, to avoid any ambiguity, the direction follows a clockwise route round the continents or, rules are laid down by the buoyage Authorities to determine the port and starboard hand side of a channel or fairway. Mariners are considered to come from seaward in the following cases (Figure 10.70): a. when navigating in a westerly and southerly direction along the Main coast, and in a southerly direction along the rest of the Atlantic coast; b. when navigating in a northerly or westerly direction along the Gulf coast; c. when navigating in a northerly direction on the Pacific coast; d. when navigating in a northerly or westerly direction on the Great Lakes, except in Lake Michigan, where the direction is southerly; e. in the waterways known as `Intracoastal Waterway, when navigating in a southerly direction along the Atlantic coasts and in a westerly direction along the Gulf coast; f. on the Mississippi and Ohio rivers and their tributaries, a general rule is applied, namely: when coming from seaward the starboard side is the righthand side and the port side is the left-hand side. Figure 10.70

5 The conventional directions are, in any case, given in the appropriate Sailing Directions. NOTES The basic principles of the buoyage system in the waters of the United States may, at first sight, seem simple but this is not so as 4 (four) different systems have to be distinguished, namely: 1. Aids to Navigation on Navigable Waters except the Western Rivers and Intracoastal Waterway; 2. Aids to Navigation on Western Rivers; 3. Aids to Navigation on the Intracoastal Waterway; 4. Uniform State Waterway Marking System. The Navigable Waters The Navigable Waters include all waters around the American coasts, except the Western Rivers and the Intracoastal Waterway. Thus the open sea where the IALA Maritime Buoyage System is applicable The Western Rivers The Western Rivers include the Mississippi and its tributaries; this system is often called the `Mississippi River System (Figure 10.70). The Intracoastal Waterway 225 The Intracoastal Waterway (ICW) is formed by those inland waters which run almost parallel to the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico coasts in the eastern and southern United States. They include rivers, lagoons, marshes, and bays which are connected together by canals. These sheltered waters are suitable for almost all-year-round use by lighters and yachts, and in many parts by deep-draught vessels. The Intracoastal Water-way is in two separate sections: the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway and the Gulf Intra-coastal Waterway. Each section has a length of approximately 2,000 km. The Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway begins at Manasquan Inlet on the New Jersey shore, and continues to Norfolk Virginia and Key West in Florida. It serves ports from Boston to Key West and is linked by several canals including the Cape Cod Canal, Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Albermarle and Chesapeake Canal, and Dismal Swamp Canal (Figure 10.70).

6 The Gulf Intracoastal Waterway begins at St Marks in Apalachee Bay and ends at Brownsville in Texas (near the Mexican Border) - (Figure 10.70). Special charts called `Intracoastal Waterway Charts are published for navigation. The State Waterway The State Waterways include all waterways which are not under Federal jurisdiction. Figure shows the Intracoastal Waterway and the Mississippi River. Details on the buoyage sytems in the Western Rivers, the Intracoastal Waterway and the State Waterway will be given further in this course Symbol 226 Where the conventional direction of buoyage is doubtful, it is indicated on charts by a symbol. The shape of the symbol is a short arrow, the size and direction of which varies according to the local situation (Figure 10.71). Figure When following the direction of buoyage, the starboard hand marks are on the right side of the channel and the port hand marks are on the left side. The port hand marks are green, can or spar shaped with a green can topmark (seldom fitted on American buoys) and a green light when fitted. The starboard hand marks are red, cone or spar shaped, with a red conical topmark, point up (seldom fitted on American buoys), and a red light when fitted Variations Starboard hand marks may occasionally be painted black where green is insufficient, but this will not be necessary in most waters. When following the General direction of buoyage, coming from seaward, starboard hand marks are kept on the starboard side of the vessel and port hand marks on the port side of the vessel (Figure 10.72). When navigating in the opposite direction, that is, coming from land (or a harbour), the system is reversed and starboard hand marks are kept on the port side of the vessel and the port hand marks are kept on the starboard side of the vessel (Figure 10.73).

7 227 Figure When port and starboard hand marks cannot be identified by their can or conical shape, they shall, whenever practicable, be fitted with the appropriate topmark. We know, however, that American buoys seldom, not to say never, carry a topmark on their buoys. Lateral marks, used to define channels, usually carry a number and sometimes the first or last letter of the name of the channel in which they lie. When they are numbered, the numbering follows the conventional direction of buoyage (commencing from seaward) with odd numbers on port hand buoys and even numbers on starboard hand buoys. At sea, spar buoys are generally used for temporary replacement of ordinary can or conical buoys. On rivers and lakes they may be part of the permanent buoyage; in this case they often carry a topmark. Stakes are used only to indicate secondary channels of lesser importance. Spar buoys, floating beacons, and stakes are not lighted.

8 228 Figure Starboard hand buoys are always fitted with a red light and port hand buoys are always fitted with a green light. As these colours of light are never fitted on any other mark, Lateral buoys may be identified without fear of ambiguity. As the characteristics of the lights are clearly distinguishable, any rhythm may be used. However, on Lateral buoys used to define a channel, it is preferable to use a slow rhythm with long periods of light, while for buoys indicating a danger or an obstruction, such as a wreck, quick flashing lights are more appropriate. As previously mentioned, the prevailing rule is: The greater the danger, the more rapid the rhythm (Figures and 10.76). Composite group flashing (2 + 1) may, however, only be used on Preferred

9 229 channel marks. Figure Figure Same as Figure with International sym-

10 230 Figure Same as Figure with American symbols Obstructions In Region B, obstructions in channels or fairways, such as wrecks, are also indicated by green or red Lateral marks. To attract the mariner s attention, they are fitted with red or green quick flashing or very quick flashing lights (Figure and 10.76). We insist on the fact that in Region A, obstructions are mainly indicated by mean of Cardinal marks. In Region B, the starboard hand side of a channel is indicated by red marks and may carry even numbers. The port hand side is indicated by green marks and may carry odd numbers Red - Starboard side The choice of red for daycolour and lights at night to indicate the starboard side of channels was made to correspond with the starboard-red and port-green convention for the harbour entrances and extremities of jetties (Figure 10.77). RED - RIGHT - RETURN

11 Radar reflector As mentioned in Chapter 8.4.4, the radar reflectors fitted on U.S. marks are completely different from those used on the European marks. They are incorporated in the top of the buoy. Figures 8.83 and 8.85 to 8.87 show this very clearly Name Figure Harbour entrance in Region B - Red right return Most marks carry numbers or letters by which they may easily be located on charts. The following general rule apply: port and starboard hand marks carry numbers (no letters); port hand marks carry odd numbers, starboard hand marks carry even numbers. Preferred channel marks carry letters only (no numbers) Optical reflector Reflective tape (scotchlite) is often applied to unlighted buoys. The colour of these tapes may be green, red, white, or yellow and has the same significance as the colour of the light that would be fitted if the buoy were lighted.

12 For more details concerning shape, colour, light, fog signal apparatus, and radar reflectors of U.S. buoys, see Chapter 8 `Buoyage and particularly Paragraph Pillar buoys used in U.S. waters. REMARKS U.S. marks never carry a topmark. Spar buoys are rarely encountered in U.S. waters Beacons In U.S. waters extensive use is made of fixed aids to navigation called beacons. They are placed along the shore or in channels. In fact, all fixed and floating marks used as aids to navigation such as lighthouses, buoys and others, come under the heading of beacons. However, the term beacon as used in U.S. waters refers to marks which are peculiar to the U.S. buoyage system and mainly encountered in rivers, lagoons, bays, coastal waters, etc. Beacons which are not fitted with a light and which are therefore mainly used for day navigation are called daybeacons. Each daybeacon has its own particular characteristic giving it a distinctive appearance by day, called daymark or daymarker. Beacons fitted with a light are simply called beacons. Beacons may therefore be used at night as well as by day. Daybeacons on the other hand, are used only by day. Daymarks also may be fitted with a light and may then serve the same purpose as lighthouses, etc. In the U.S., light towers are called offshore light stations. For more details concerning beacons and their daymarks, see Paragraph 5.12 Particular Daymarks Light-vessels, light towers and lanbys As in Europe and elsewhere in the world, light-vessels, light towers, and lanbys are also used in the waters of Region B. Details concerning these aids to navigation are covered in Chapter Indication on charts 232 For the indication on charts of buoys (lighted or unlighted), beacons, and lightvessels, we refer to Paragraphs and and to Figures 2.52, 10.76,

13 , 10.80, 10.81, and NOTE As in Region A, Buoys in a channel can be anchored in pairs (Figure 10.78) or alternately. Figure Buoys anchored in pairs

14 234 Figures tp show some buoys and how they are depicted on American charts. Figure Red nun buoy 8, unlighted with Radar reflector Figure Small pillar buoy 16, lighted with Radar reflector

15 235 Figure High pillar buoy N 16, lighted and Radar reflector Figure Green can buoy 5, unlighted, no Radar reflector

16 236 Figure Small starboard pillar buoy 21, lighted with Radar Figure High starboard pillar buoy 17, lighted, with bel and Radar reflector

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