1 El Niño, La Niña The Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
2 Equatorial South America Normal Conditions Strong Trade Winds blow from east to west. Trade winds drive equatorial current West flowing Equatorial Current pushes water to the west Movement of water to the west causes deep water to raise up just offshore Ecuador and Peru. Deep water carries nutrients for phytoplankton Thriving phytoplankton attract zooplankton, fish and fisherman.
3 Trade Winds Trade Winds are constant easterly winds (blows from the east). These are normally confined to 0 and 15 degrees latitude North and South.
4 Productivity Nutrients and sunlight
5 Nutrients and Food web
6 Oceanic productivity; Peru coast The Peruvian upwelling is a 300 x 300 mile area adjacent to the coast and is the most biologically productive coastal upwelling system on Earth. High oceanic productivity occurs in areas of upwelling in the ocean, particularly along continental shelves (red areas on map below). The coastal upwelling in these regions is the result of deep oceanic currents colliding with sharp coastal shelves, forcing nutrient-rich cool water to the surface.
7 Over fishing and el Niño The rapid development of the Peruvian fishing industry coincided with a severe El Niño and nearly destroyed the fishery.
8 What is El Niño? When the trade winds weaken or stop, the equatorial current weakens or stops. Deep water and nutrients can no longer rise to the surface. Phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fish die or move away. El Niño was the name given by Peruvian fishermen to a period of warm waters and poor fishing that often coincided with the Christmas season. El Niño typically persists for 12 to 18 months and recurs approximately every two to seven years.
9 El Niño conditions (December 1997) Deviation from normal surface water temperature in degrees centigrades during El Niño (Note Eastern Pacific is 4 º C warmer than normal)
10 Introduction Terms and definitions ENSO and all its members El Niño La Niña ENSO Neutral History of El Niño Impacts on the weather Impacts on history and prehistory Impacts on health
11 El Niño, the Southern Oscillation, ENSO, and La Niña The Southern Oscillation (SO) is a variation in air pressure between the central and western tropical Pacific. These pressure changes alter the strength of the trade winds, affect surface ocean currents, and are related to El Niño. Scientists often combine the terms, El Niño and the Southern Oscillation, ENSO. Normal conditions are sometimes called La Niña.
12 SST (Sea Surface Temperatures) and Anomalies Maps during southern summer
13 Southern Oscillation and Southern Oscillation Index SO: Southern Oscillation: a change in pressure measured between Tahiti and Darwin that is related to Trade Winds strength. SOI : index measuring the pressure which in turn gives a feel for the Trade Wind direction and power over the Pacific basin.
14 Map of wind blowing related to pressure
15 Southern Oscillation Pressure Anomalies During El Niño air pressure in the western Pacific is higher than normal and lower than normal in the Eastern Pacific (Tahiti). During La Niña those conditions reverse.
16 What does the SOI have to do with El Nino? SOI measures difference in air pressure between (Tahiti minus Darwin air pressure) W. Pacific (Darwin) and E. Pacific (Tahiti). Winds blow from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure When high pressure is in the Eastern Pacific (SOI >0), strong Trade Winds blow: La Nina. When high pressure is in the Western Pacific (SOI <0), Trade Winds stop: El Niño
17 Hadley Circulation, Walker Circulation, and ENSO. Hadley circulation: Latitudinal (N-S) convective circulation. Warm air rises over equatorial regions, which draws air in to replace it. Hadley circulation coupled with Earth s rotation - is the main reason for the trade winds. Walker Circulation: Longitudinal (E-W) convective circulation modulated by the SST anomalies.
18 Hadley Circulation Warm air rises over the Equator and moves North and South. Air moves at the surface towards the Equator. Deflection of surface winds by Coriolis effect causes the Trade Winds.
19 Walker Circulation- La Niña Phase Normal Walker circulation sees warm air rising over the warmer waters of the Western Pacific and descending over the cooler Eastern Pacific.
20 Walker Circulation- El Niño Phase Walker circulation during El Niño breaks down because warm air rises over the entire equatorial Pacific.
21 How we monitor El Niño? Sea Surface Temperature SST Already discussed Southern Oscillation Index SOI Already discussed Trade Winds Intensity Already discussed Sea Surface Elevation Depth of the Thermocline
22 Sea Surface Elevation and Depth of the Themocline during the ENSO Cycle In the tropical eastern Pacific during La Niña, strong Trade Winds move water westward, resulting in lower sea level, a rise in the thermocline, and a drop in sea-surface temperature. In the tropical eastern Pacific during El Niño, weakened Trade Winds results in higher sea level, a deeper thermocline, and warmer seasurface temperature.
23 Variation of SST and Sea Level during El Niño La Niña Cycle
24 Changes in SST, Thermocline and Sea Level during El Niño La Niña Cycle
25 Vertical profile from the previous animation
26 How SST, and other variables are measured SST can be measured from space. Wind velocity and water temperature from below sea surface must be collected using tethered buoys (TAO/Triton array). Data may be retrieved over the internet at NIÑO#: areas of equatorial Pacific where data is collected by buoys.
27 NIÑO SST regions to monitor 4 3
28 Niño SST Regions NIÑO 1 and 2: Along the coast of South America. Sensitive to local impacts and upwelling. No longer used as indication of El Niño/La Niña. NIÑO3: Region runs from 5 N-5 S, and from 90 W- 150 E. NIÑO4: 160 E to 150 W, is known as the warm pool, where Pacific SST s are typically the warmest. NIÑO3.4: overlaps regions 3 and 4 and seems to be the best region to monitor for predicting ENSO.
29 Occurrence of ENSO 20th Century El Niño Years La Niña Years
30 SOI and ENSO
31 Everyone Blames El Niño, but how does it really affect us?
32 La Niña (Normal phase) Colder water in E. Pacific evaporates less and leads to less rainfall in this region and adjacent regions of S. America.
33 El Niño (Warm Phase) Warmer water in E. Pacific evaporates and there is more rain in this region and in adjacent areas of S. America.
34 Weather Impacts: El Niño
35 Weather Impacts: La Niña
36 Recent ENSO Events and Impacts El Niño Event Was big but not a record, but global food problems occurred. Russian wheat crisis brought El Niño to forefront. US sold wheat to Russia Understanding of relationship between abnormal weather and El Niño grows Event: The big anomaly Thought to have been the El Niño of the Century until Big global impacts on food and weather. floods and droughts in tropics blamed on El Niño. flooding in Peru. droughts in Indonesia, Australia, north and south Africa. eastern US warmest winter in 25 years. value of ENSO forecasting grew in importance.
37 More El Niños First successful El Niño Forecast A long El Niño Event Long slow El Niño may be one of the longest events document was not an intense event showed up consistently in NIÑO3.4 data El Niño the strongest on record in terms of amplitude followed closely by a strong La Niña was forecast but not as well as we might think! When will the next El Niño be?
38 ENSO Drought in Pacific Islands
39 ENSO Drought in Pacific Islands More skin disease in Micronesia Poor air quality from wildfires in Guam, Pohnpei, Yap, Palau Relief food shipments Many diseases under study ( dengue,... )
40 El Niño in the Prehistory Geologists identified in coastal Peru El Niño like episodes around AD 1450, 1300, 1100, 600, and 500 (Thompson, Mosley-Thompson, Thompson 1992). Moving the time sequence back even farther, geologists studying sedimentation in a mountain lake in southern Ecuador (Rodbell et al. 1999) claim that El Niños occurred as long ago as 10,500 years b.p., while sedimentological studies from ponds on the Galapagos Islands near the center of the prime El Niño region detected traces of La Niña like episodes from 6170 and 5070 b.p. (Steinitz-Kannan et al. 1998). Geologists believe that the interval of recurrences before 5000 BC was fifteen years and that for this reason the traces of prehistoric El Niños are more discernable. On this point, there is significant disagreement: while some claim that El Niños are traceable only after 5000 BC (Sandweiss et al. 1996) others claim that ENSO events occurred as far back as 8000 and even 40,000 years b.p.
41 ENSO perturbations in the Middle Moche Valley, Peru Gary Huckleberry1 and Brian R. Billman2 Geoarchaeology Vol.18,No.5, (2003 Figure 4. Stratigraphic column for the Quebrada Chinos Stratigraphic Locality with associated ceramic and 14C ages. Flooding associated with El Niño events are recorded in the archaeological record Archaeological sites and surficial geology of the distal portion of Quebrada de los Chinos
42 El Niño Prehistory Around AD 800, the Moche were assimilated by the Chimú, whose capital was Chan Chan, located near the mouth of the Moche River not far from the present city of Trujillo. The capital of the Chimú kingdom counted some 30,000 inhabitants. Around 1100AD, a powerful El Niño occurred. The northern Chimú center at Batán Grande on the upper La Leche River was heavily flooded and became uninhabitable. Irrigation systems all along the Moche River and in the city of Chan Chan were severely damaged. The magnitude of the AD 1100 mega-niño in the circum-pacific rimlands is reflected in a major cultural change on Easter Island around that time, probably associated with the arrival of a new wave of Polynesian settlers (Weakened trade winds allowed them to sail east?).
43 EL NIÑO AND ITS HEALTH IMPACTS The El Niño cycle is associated with increased risks of some of the diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, such as malaria, dengue and Rift Valley fever. Malaria transmission is particularly sensitive to weather conditions. Deserts don t have mosquitoes, but areas that are normally dry that are affected by heavy rainfall (El Nino in Peru) can create puddles that provide good breeding conditions for mosquitoes. In some highland regions higher temperatures linked to El Niño may increase malaria transmission by allowing mosquitoes to live where they normally cannot. In very humid climates, droughts may turn rivers into strings of pools, preferred breeding sites of other types of mosquito. In Venezuela, Colombia and Brazil, malaria cases increase by more than one third following dry conditions associated with El Niño.
44 Brazil Landsat Image for Castanhal, Pará
45 Brazil- Cases of Malaria in the State of Roraima Northern Brazil ( )
46 El Niño - West Nile Virus? 1982-'83 El Niño. Encephalitis (West Nile) outbreaks occurred on the east coast of the U.S. attributed to a warm, wet spring fostering mosquitoes.
47 Conclusions ENSO is a cyclic phenomenon that affects both the atmospheric and the oceanic circulation. ENSO has has 2 phases El Niño La Niña The phases impact climate this impacts global circulation patterns, which affects climate around the world.
48 Final Question What affect will Global Warming have on ENSO?
49 References Zhang, Y., J.M. Wallace, D.S. Battisti, 1997: ENSO-like interdecadal variability: J. Climate, 10, Mantua, N.J. and S.R. Hare, Y. Zhang, J.M. Wallace, and R.C. Francis,1997: A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 78, pp (available via the internet at url: Glantz, M.H., 2001: Currents of Change : Impacts of El Niño and La Niña on Climate and Society. 2nd addition, Cambridge Press.
50 Web resources inosfc.html
51 Models and Forecasting Nasa Team NSIPP( NASA s Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project) developed the NSIPP forecast animation (10.1 MB), which shows predicted conditions from September 2004 through August It is interesting to note that while the NSIPP model doesn t predict any significant El Niño conditions for this year, it does forecast the onset of an El Niño in the summer of However, NASA oceanographer and climate modeler David Adamec cautions us to take that forecast with a grain of skepticism the accuracy of the NSIPP model is not very accurate more than 6 months into the future.
52 Volcanic glass shards: pieces of volcanic glass viewed microscopically have characteristic shapes, vesicles and stretched bubbles More common: flat with round bubbles, ragged edges St. Helens, 1980 Volume of ash: 0.26 cubic miles (1.4 billion cubic yards) Ash fall area: Detectable amounts of ash covered 22,000 square miles Ash fall depth: 10 inches at 10 miles downwind (ash and pumice); 1 inch at 60 miles downwind; 1/2 inch at 300 miles downwind
53 El Niño and La Niña Consequences Changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation in the tropical Pacific impact weather and climate in the tropics and well beyond. Temperature governs the rate at which water molecules escape a water surface and enter the atmosphere; that is, warm water evaporates more readily than cool water. Regions of relatively warm surface waters heat the atmosphere and add moisture to the atmosphere. Thunderstorms more readily develop in this warm, humid air. Towering thunderstorms help shape the planetary-scale atmospheric circulation, altering the course of jet streams and moisture transport at higher latitudes. Changes in the planetary-scale atmospheric circulation during El Niño and La Niña often give rise to weather extremes, including drought and excessive rainfall, in many areas of the globe outside the tropics. No two El Niño or La Niña events are exactly the same, so that in some areas weather extremes may or may not accompany a particular El Niño or La Niña.
The General Circulation and El Niño Dr. Christopher M. Godfrey University of North Carolina at Asheville Global Circulation Model Air flow broken up into 3 cells Easterlies in the tropics (trade winds)
Example of regional winds of small scale Sea and land breezes Note on Fig. 8.11. Shows the case for southern hemisphere! Coastal upwelling and downwelling. Upwelling is caused by along shore winds, that
Teleconnections and Oscillations Teleconnection climate anomalies being related to each other over a large scale Oscillations: Macroscale movement of atmospheric systems that can influence weather, climate,
El Niño Lecture Notes There is a huge link between the atmosphere & ocean. The oceans influence the atmosphere to affect climate, but the atmosphere also influences the ocean, which can also affect climate.
Discerning Patterns: Does the North Atlantic oscillate? Climate variability, or short term climate change, can wreak havoc around the world. Dramatic year to year shifts in weather can have unanticipated
18-11-2014 ENSO Wrap-Up Current state of the Pacific and Indian Ocean Tropical Pacific Ocean moves closer to El Niño The Pacific Ocean has shown some renewed signs of El Niño development in recent weeks.
Geography Worksheet Instructions Using a map, atlas, or any other materials your teacher suggests, label the following on the blank map provided. 1. Label East, West, North, and South. 2. Label the following
1 of 10 3/06/2014 3:33 PM ENSO Wrap-Up Current state of the Pacific and Indian Ocean Tropical Pacific Ocean remains on track for El Niño in 2014 Issued on Tuesday 3 June 2014 Product Code IDCKGEWWOO The
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 CHAPTER 7 Ocean Circulation Words Ocean currents Moving seawater Surface ocean currents Transfer heat from warmer to cooler areas Similar to pattern of major wind belts
Chapter 2 Lecture McKnight's Physical Geography 11e Lectures Chapter 5 Atmospheric Pressure and Wind Michael Commons Ohio Northern University Atmospheric Pressure and Wind The Nature of Atmospheric Pressure
Air Pressure and Wind 19.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air. Air pressure is exerted in all directions down, up, and sideways. The
Leeuwin Current At 5,500 kilometres, the Leeuwin is our longest ocean current! One of Australia s most influential natural features, the Leeuwin Current, has been confirmed as the longest continuous coastal
ENFEN OFFICIAL STATEMENT N 21-2015 Status Warning System: El Niño Coastal Alert 1 Note: This translation is provided for convenience, the official version is in Spanish The Multisectoral Committee of the
General Introduction to Climate Drivers and BoM Climate Services Products Climate Information Services Australian Bureau of Meteorology Yuriy Kuleshov El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) El Niño Southern
Chapter Air Pressure and Wind 19.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air. 19.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure
Climate Science INTER-ANNUAL TO DECADAL CLIMATE VARIABILITY/COASTAL UPWELLING AND COASTAL CLIMATES MONITORING EL NIÑO and LA NIÑA Background: Before 1982, few Americans had ever heard of the term El Niño,
OCEANOGRAPHY STUDY GUIDE Chapter 2 Section 1 1. Most abundant salt in ocean. Sodium chloride; NaCl 2. Amount of Earth covered by Water 71% 3. Four oceans: What are they? Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Indian
18.1 Understanding Air Pressure 18.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air. Air pressure is exerted in all directions down, up, and sideways.
ENSO Cycle: Recent Evolution, Current Status and Predictions Update prepared by Climate Prediction Center / NCEP 4 September 2012 Outline Overview Recent Evolution and Current Conditions Oceanic Niño Index
M13/4/ENVSO/SP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/T 22136303 ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS AND SOCIETIES Standard level PAPER 2 Tuesday 7 May 2013 (afternoon) 2 hours RESOURCE BOOKLET INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES Do not open this booklet
Name: 1. Which combination of climate factors generally results in the coldest temperatures? A) low elevation and low latitude B) low elevation and high latitude C) high elevation and low latitude D) high
Chapter 7: Circulation And The Atmosphere Highly integrated wind system Main Circulation Currents: series of deep rivers of air encircling the planet Various perturbations or vortices (hurricanes, tornados,
Global Winds AOSC 200 Tim Canty Class Web Site: http://www.atmos.umd.edu/~tcanty/aosc200 Topics for today: Global Wind Patterns Deserts Jet Stream Monsoons Ocean transport Ocean cycles Lecture 16 Oct 24
The Movement of Ocean Water Currents Ocean Current movement of ocean water that follows a regular pattern influenced by: weather Earth s rotation position of continents Surface current horizontal movement
Assessment Chapter Test B The Movement of Ocean Water USING KEY TERMS Use the terms from the following list to complete the sentences below. Each term may be used only once. Some terms may not be used.
19.3 Regional Wind Systems Section 19.3 1 FOCUS Key Concepts What causes local winds? Describe the general movement of weather in the United States. What happens when unusually strong, warm ocean currents
Sailing the Seas: Wind Driven Ocean Circulation Ocean Gyres Ocean Currents What Happens at the Coast? Readings: Ch 9: 9.2-9.6, 9.8-9.13 Graphic: America's Cup sailboat race off Newport, Rhode Island. J.
The impact of the El Niño Southern Oscillation on Rainfall Variability in Timor-Leste A TLSA conference paper submitted by: Samuel Bacon, Florindo Morais Neto, Isabel Soares Pereira, Robert Williams. Seeds
Unit 3 Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions In this unit, you will Explore how the distribution of land masses affects global temperature patterns. Discover how the ocean and atmosphere transfer energy from equatorial
Influences on Weather and limate Weather and limate oriolis Effect 1 limate is defined as the common weather conditions in one area over a long period of time. Temperature, humidity, rainfall, and wind
Lesson: Ocean Circulation By Keith Meldahl Corresponding to Chapter 9: Ocean Circulation As this figure shows, there is a connection between the prevailing easterly and westerly winds (discussed in Chapter
Name: Class: _ Date: _ OCN201 Spring14 1 True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Short residence time elements are uniformly distributed in the oceans 2. Thermohaline circulation
Influence of El Nino Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean Dipole in biennial oscillation of Indian summer monsoon 4.1 Introduction The main contributors to the interannual variability of Indian summer
The Surface Currents OCEA 101 Why should you care? - the surface ocean circulation controls the major ocean biomes - variations in ocean circulation control the supply of nutrients for marine organisms
Chapter 4 Global Climates and Biomes Global Processes Determine Weather and Climate - the short term conditions of the atmosphere in a local area. These include temperature, humidity, clouds, precipitation,
Skills Worksheet Directed Reading Section: Ocean Currents 1. A horizontal movement of water in a well-defined pattern is called a(n). 2. What are two ways that oceanographers identify ocean currents? 3.
Chapter The Dynamic Ocean An ocean current is the mass of ocean water that flows from one place to another. 16.1 The Composition of Seawater Surface Circulation Surface Currents Surface currents are movements
OCEANOGRAPHY 101 EXAM 2 WINTER 00 NAME STUDENT NUMBER 1 Map, and temperature, salinity & density profiles of the water column at X, near mouth of the Columbia River. P a c i f i c O c e a n X WA Columbia
Impact of ENSO on surface tuna habitat 1 WORKING PAPER SKJ 1 IMPACT OF ENSO ON SURFACE TUNA HABITAT IN THE WESTERN AND CENTRAL PACIFIC OCEAN Patrick Lehodey Oceanic Fisheries Programme Secretariat of the
Click Here for Full Article GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 36, L13703, doi:10.1029/2009gl038774, 2009 Asymmetry in zonal phase propagation of ENSO sea surface temperature anomalies Michael J. McPhaden
Wind and Air Pressure When air moves above the surface of the Earth, it is called wind. Wind is caused by differences in air pressure. When a difference in pressure exists, the air will move from areas
Chapter 7 Weather and Climate *Describe what weather is, what affects it, and where it occurs. *Explain the connection between air pressure and wind. * *Many factors affect a region s weather. * *atmosphere
GEOS 513 ENSO: Past, Present and Future Jessica Conroy Department of Geosciences Stephen W. Bieda, III Department of Atmospheric Sciences February 22, 2006: Regional Teleconnections (Observations) References:
Name: Date: Day/Period: CGC1P1: Interactions in the Physical Environment PART A: Weather and Climate Factors that Affect Climate 1. The words weather and climate are often incorrectly used interchangeably.
Climatic and marine environmental variations associated with fishing conditions of tuna species in the Indian Ocean Kuo-Wei Lan and Ming-An Lee Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries Science,
Lesson: Atmospheric Dynamics By Keith Meldahl Corresponding to Chapter 8: Atmospheric Circulation Our atmosphere moves (circulates) because of uneven solar heating of the earth s surface, combined with
Lecture 12 Local Wind Systems Scales of Atmospheric Motion Small turbulent eddies (swirls) A synoptic eddy 1 Coriolis Effect The larger the scale, the longer the life time. Wind shear and turbulent eddy
Decadal changes in the relationship between Indian and Australian summer monsoons By C. Nagaraju 1, K. Ashok 2, A. Sen Gupta 3 and D.S. Pai 4 1 CES, C-DAC Pune, India 2 CCCR, IITM, Pune, India 3 Universities
Traveling on a Rotating Sphere Table of Contents Page Click the titles below to jump through the lesson 2 Spin-offs of a Rotating Sphere 3 What Do You Know? 3 Heated Fluid Circulation 4 Where Do The Trade
Water Budget I: Precipitation Inputs Forest Cover Global Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP) Biomes and Rainfall Forests won t grow where P < 15 / yr Forest type depends strongly on rainfall quantity, type
Climatic and marine environmental variations associated with fishing conditions of tuna species in the Indian Ocean Kuo-Wei Lan and Ming-An Lee Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries Science,
Role of the oceans in the climate system heat exchange and transport hydrological cycle and air-sea exchange of moisture wind, currents, and upwelling gas exchange and carbon cycle Heat transport Two Primary
Possible Effects of Global Warming on Tropical Cyclone Activity Johnny Chan Guy Carpenter Asia-Pacific Climate Impact Centre School of Energy and Environment City University of Hong Kong Outline Background
Monsoon Arabic word mausim means season Loose definition: a wind/precipitation pattern that shifts seasonally Classical criteria (Ramage 1971) Prevailing wind shifts 120 o between Jan & July Average frequency
Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- I First: need to understand basic Earth s Energy Balance 1) Incoming radiation 2) Albedo (reflectivity) 3) Blackbody Radiation Atm/ Ocean movement ultimately derives from
Chapter 10 Lecture Outline The Restless Oceans Focus Question 10.1 How does the Coriolis effect influence ocean currents? The Ocean s Surface Circulation Ocean currents Masses of water that flow from one
Unit 2 World Climate Patterns Weather the day to day or short term conditions of the atmosphere. Weather includes variables such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, cloud cover, wind, and air pressure.
Atmospheric and Ocean Circulation Lab name Key Objectives: The main goal of this lab is to learn about atmospheric and oceanic circulation and how these two processes are strongly inter-dependent and strongly
Chapter 12 Case Studies and Study Guide: Ocean Currents, Winds and Weather Case Study 1: Shifts in Water and Air Flow during El Niño and La Niña Figure 12.17 Global sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies
CHAPTER 1 3 Global Winds and Local Winds SECTION The Atmosphere BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What causes wind? What is the Coriolis effect?
Global Climate Systems and Climate Change 1) An area defined by characteristic, long-term weather patterns is called A) a biome. B) an average weather place. C) an ecosystem. D) a climatic region. 2) Climate
Name: Section: Ocean Currents Unit (Topic 9A-1) page 1 Ocean Currents Unit (4 pts) Ocean Currents An ocean current is like a river in the ocean: water is flowing traveling from place to place. Historically,
Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 15 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors
Reading and Vocabulary Study Guide Boston, Massachusetts Upper Saddle River, New Jersey The map on page 20 is based on a map by DK Cartography. Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson
Indian Ocean Seasonal Cycle Jérôme Vialard (IRD) LOCEAN Paris France email@example.com From Schott & McCreary (Prog. Oc. 2001) Outline The monsoon cycle The basin-scale dynamical response Thermocline
Wind Energy Definition of Wind Energy Wind energy is energy from moving air. Air has mass. When it moves, it has kinetic energy. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. How does wind form? Wind forms when
CHAPTER 15 3 Global Winds and Local Winds SECTION The Atmosphere BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What causes wind? What is the Coriolis effect?
Great Barrier Reef: Bleaching 'kills 35% of area's coral' 8 hours ago From the section Australia Image copyright AFP Image caption The recovery of coral cover is expected to take a decade or longer, scientists
Chapter 19 Air Pressure and Wind Section 1 Understanding Air Pressure Key Concepts Describe how air pressure is exerted on objects. What happens to the mercury column of a barometer when air pressure changes?
Weather & Atmosphere Study Guide 1. Draw a simple water cycle diagram using the following words: Precipitation, Evaporation, Condensation, Transpiration 2. In your own words, explain the difference between
SURFLINE TEAHUPOO, TAHITI SURF REPORT Historical Analysis of Swell Patterns in April & May, 1997 2009 Prepared for Billabong ~ by Sean Collins, July 2009 Billabong has requested assistance to choose improved
(1 of 13) Further Reading: Chapter 10 of the text book Outline - wet tropical climate - coastal trade wind climate - wet-dry and monsoon climate - dry tropical climate (2 of 13) Introduction Previously,
SESSION THREE: FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE WEATHER IN SOUTH AFRICA KEY CONCEPTS: In this section we will focus on the following aspects: Factors determining the weather of South Africa Influence of the oceans
Local Winds & Microclimates Unit 2- Module 1 Objectives Overview of local winds (sea & land breezes, valley winds) Overview of microclimates (valley, urban, woodland) Local Winds Local Winds Local winds
The tmosphere Write answers on your own paper 1. What is the primary energy source that drives all weather events, including precipitation, hurricanes, and tornados?. the Sun. the Moon C. Earth s gravity
Deep Water Currents Lab Background: Anyone visiting the seashore is struck by the constant motion of water traveling on the surface of the ocean in the form of waves. But beneath the ocean's surface, water
Understanding the Role of Water Vapor Transport Anomalies in Asian and African Monsoon Droughts Using New Satellite Observations Chris Funk, USGS EROS, UCSB CHG NASA PMM meeting, Salt Lake City, Oct. 27
Ag-Weather Update: Review of Summer Growing Season & Update on the Wet Forecast for Fall & Winter Paul W. Brown Extension Specialist, Biometeorology College of Agriculture & Life Sciences University of