Theory of Flight Aircraft Design and Construction. References: FTGU pages 9-14, 27

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1 Theory of Flight 6.01 Aircraft Design and Construction References: FTGU pages 9-14, 27

2 Main Teaching Points Parts of an Airplane Aircraft Construction Landing Gear Standard Terminology

3 Definition The airplane is defined as: A power-driven Heavier-than air aircraft Deriving its lift in flight from aerodynamic reactions On surfaces that remain fixed under given conditions of flight.

4 Parts of an Airplane

5 Parts of an Airplane

6 Parts of an Airplane

7 Parts of an Airplane

8 Fuselage The fuselage is the main body of the aircraft, where the passengers, cargo and crew go.

9 Fuselage The fuselage is normally classified according to the type of construction: -Truss Type -Monocoque -Semi-monocoque

10 Fuselage Truss Type

11 Fuselage Semi-Monocoque

12 Empennage The empennage is the rear portion of the airplane It is integral to control and stability during flight

13 Wing Construction Spars spanwise members wood or metal carry bending loads Ribs web or truss give wing its cambered shape

14 Wing Construction Edges Leading Edge Trailing Edge Strength & Shape Wires Internal / External Bracing for strength Covering Metal or Fabric Metal strength

15 Wing Layouts High Wing Mid Wing Low Wing Bi-Plane

16 Wing Layouts High Wing Mid Wing Low Wing Bi-Plane

17 Wing Layouts High Wing Mid Wing Low Wing Bi-Plane

18 Wing Layouts High Wing Mid Wing Low Wing Bi-Plane

19 Confirmation

20 Landing Gear Conventional (Tail-Dragger) - Two main wheels and a tail wheel Tricycle Two main wheels and a nose wheel Retractable - Wheels may be raised so that they are enclosed in wings or fuselage (reducing drag) Fixed - Landing gear is not designed to retract

21 Landing Gear

22 Landing Gear

23 Landing Gear

24 Landing Gear

25 Landing Gear Retractable Landing Gear PROS Reduced drag at cruise Higher cruising speed CONS Added weight Added mechanical complexity Risk of Gear Up Landing (land based) Risk of Gear Down Landing (amphibious)

26 Landing Gear Shock Absorption Absorb the impact of landing, or the effect of bumps in runway. Spring steel Landing Gear Air/Oil oleos Rubber cords (bungee) or discs Low pressure tires

27 Main Landing Gear - Spring Steel Cantilever - Landing Gear

28 Nose Landing Gear - Air / Oil Oleo - Landing Gear

29 Landing Gear - Brakes Brakes Provide a means of stopping the aircraft Assist with steering on the ground

30 Confirmation How would you describe the aircraft to the left? -tail dragger? -tricycle gear? -retractable gear? -float plane? -high wing? -low wing? -mid wing? -biplane? Request the use of the tools to label the aircraft.

31 Wing Span Wingspan is the maximum distance from wing tip to wing tip

32 Chord Chord is the imaginary line between the leading edge and the trailing edge of the wing A measure of the width of a wing

33 Wing Area Wing Area Length of the wing multiplied by the average width of wing

34 Planform Planform Shape of the wing as seen from above

35 Aspect Ratio Aspect Ratio Ratio of the span to chord of the wing A measure of how SLENDER the wing is

36 A structure curved to produce lift Airfoil

37 Camber Camber A measure of the curvature of an airfoil Mean Camber is the line equidistant between the upper & lower surfaces

38 Angle of Incidence Angle of Incidence Angle between chord line and the longitudinal axis

39 Relative Airflow Relative Airflow Airflow over the wing Related to the forward motion of the aircraft through the air

40 Angle of Attack Angle of Attack The angle between the chord line and the relative airflow It is a measure of how much the wing bites into the air

41 Confirmation Check Confirmation

42 Confirmation What kind of landing gear is this?

43 Confirmation What is the angle of attack?

44 Confirmation What are some of the differences between powered aircraft and gliders?

45 Confirmation Reading: From the Ground Up, pages 9-14 The next Theory of Flight Class covers the basic flight controls (6.02)

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