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1 Slide 1 Slide 1 5:30:08 AM

2 Slide 1 Slide 2 Recognition that the specimens are mosquito larvae is a prerequisite to identification of the genera. 5:30:09 AM

3 Slide 3 Slide 3 In the field, mosquito larvae may be observed resting at the water surface, either held horizontally against the surface by float hairs, or hanging at an angle to the surface by the siphon. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:10 AM

4 Slide 3 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:10 AM

5 Slide 4 Slide 4 When disturbed, mosquito larvae either submerge or move over the water surface with a series of jerky movements. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:11 AM

6 Slide 4 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:11 AM

7 Slide 5 Slide 5 Mosquito larvae are not propelled by appendages as are the aquatic insects shown, nor do they move with rhythmic undulating motions characteristic of many aquatic insect larvae. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:13 AM

8 Slide 5 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:13 AM

9 Slide 6 Slide 6 With slight magnification, the main body divisions and gross morphological characteristics of mosquito larvae can be observed. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:13 AM

10 Slide 6 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:13 AM

11 Slide 7 Slide 7 The head is round in appearance and flattened slightly dorsoventrally. 5:30:15 AM

12 Slide 8 Slide 8 The head is attached to the thorax by a very narrow neck. The thorax appears unsegmented, but like the head it is actually composed of several fused segments. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:16 AM

13 Slide 8 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:16 AM

14 Slide 9 Slide 9 The abdomen consists of 10 segments, of which I-VIII and X are well defined. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:16 AM

15 Slide 9 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:16 AM

16 Slide 10 Slide 10 All except one genus of mosquitoes have a siphon or air tube on the eighth abdominal segment. 5:30:20 AM

17 Slide 11 Slide 11 Numerous hairs occur on the body. The size, shape, number of branches, and arrangement of some of these hairs are important characters used in identifying mosquito larvae. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:21 AM

18 Slide 11 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:21 AM

19 Slide 12 Slide 12 There are four stages of growth, or instars, in the development of mosquito larvae. The identifying characters used here apply only to the fourth instar. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:24 AM

20 Slide 12 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:24 AM

21 Slide 13 Slide 13 Until one is thoroughly familiar with the appearance of different instars of the various genera, some difficulty may be experienced in separating third from fourth instar larvae. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:24 AM

22 Slide 13 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:24 AM

23 Slide 14 Slide 14 Third instar larvae of the genus Anopheles generally have a wide and heavily sclerotized collar on the posterior border of the head. Fourth instars have a smaller, less prominent collar. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:26 AM

24 Slide 14 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:26 AM

25 Slide 15 Slide 15 Instars of other genera are more difficult to determine. Experience in the field and laboratory is essential before third and fourth instars can be differentiated easily. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:27 AM

26 Slide 15 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:27 AM

27 Slide 16 Slide :30:29 AM

28 Slide 17 Slide 17 Note here that the eighth abdominal segment does not bear a siphon 5:30:29 AM

29 Slide 18 Slide 18 and that palmate or float hairs are present on at least some abdominal segments. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:30 AM

30 Slide 18 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:30 AM

31 Slide 19 Slide 19 These specialized hairs hold the larva parallel to the water surface, in a characteristic horizontal position. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:31 AM

32 Slide 19 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:31 AM

33 Slide 20 Slide 20 These characters identify an important genus of disease-transmitting mosquitoes, the genus Anopheles. 5:30:32 AM

34 Slide 21 Slide 21 The genera Mansonia and Coquillettidia are distinguished by the radically modified siphon. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:33 AM

35 Slide 21 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:33 AM

36 Slide 22 Slide 22 This siphon is adapted to penetrate the tissue of aquatic plants from which air is obtained, thus enabling the larvae to remain below the water surface at all times. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:35 AM

37 Slide 22 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:35 AM

38 Slide 23 Slide 23 Coquillettidia and Mansonia may be differentiated by characters on the anal segment and the antenna. 5:30:35 AM

39 Slide 24 Slide 24 The anal segment of Coquillettidia does not bear prominent hair tufts on the ventral aspect of the saddle, although one or two small hairs may be present posteriorly. Also there are usually eight or more comb scales on abdominal segment VIII in this genus. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:36 AM

40 Slide 24 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:36 AM

41 Slide 25 Slide 25 Hairs 2 and 3 on the Coquillettidia antenna, which divide the apical flagellar segment from the basal segment, are small. Also the flagellar segment is longer than the basal segment. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:37 AM

42 Slide 25 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:37 AM

43 Slide 26 Slide 26 The anal segment of Mansonia bears four prominent hair tufts on the ventral aspect of the saddle. Comb scales on abdominal segment VIII usually number less than eight. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:38 AM

44 Slide 26 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:38 AM

45 Slide 27 Slide 27 Antennal hairs 2 and 3 are very long in Mansonia, usually longer than the flagellar segment, which is no longer than the basal segment. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:39 AM

46 Slide 27 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:39 AM

47 Slide 28 Slide :30:40 AM

48 Slide 29 Slide 29 Structures on the terminal abdominal segments may be used to identify some genera. 5:30:43 AM

49 Slide 30 Slide 30 The siphon should be examined for occurrence and arrangement of diagnostic hairs and spines. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:44 AM

50 Slide 30 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:44 AM

51 Slide 31 Slide 31 There may be a row of closely set teeth or spines on each side of the siphon near the ventral margin. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:48 AM

52 Slide 31 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:48 AM

53 Slide 32 Slide 32 This is the pecten. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:51 AM

54 Slide 32 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:51 AM

55 Slide 33 Slide 33 There may be one or more scattered hairs or tufts of hairs along the (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:52 AM

56 Slide 33 sides of the siphon beyond the pecten. (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:52 AM

57 Slide 34 Slide 34 These are siphonal tufts or setae. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:53 AM

58 Slide 34 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:53 AM

59 Slide 35 Slide 35 A prominent patch of scales occurs on each side of the eighth (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:54 AM

60 Slide 35 abdominal segment in most genera. (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:54 AM

61 Slide 36 Slide 36 These are the comb scales. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:57 AM

62 Slide 36 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:57 AM

63 Slide 37 Slide 37 A sclerotized plate occurs laterally on the eighth abdominal segment in at least one genus. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:59 AM

64 Slide 37 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:30:59 AM

65 Slide 38 Slide 38 This is the lateral plate. It may bear stout spinulose hairs. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:00 AM

66 Slide 38 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:00 AM

67 Slide 39 Slide 39 The tenth abdominal segment is more or less covered by a heavily sclerotized plate partially or entirely encircling the segment. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:02 AM

68 Slide 39 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:02 AM

69 Slide 40 Slide 40 This is the saddle or dorsal plate. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:03 AM

70 Slide 40 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:03 AM

71 Slide 41 Slide 41 A group of closely set hair tufts forming a brush may also occur on the tenth segment. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:03 AM

72 Slide 41 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:03 AM

73 Slide 42 Slide 42 This is the median ventral brush. It may either be partially attached to the saddle or be attached entirely posterior to it. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:06 AM

74 Slide 42 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:06 AM

75 Slide 43 Slide :31:06 AM

76 Slide 44 Slide 44 The first step is to determine if a pecten is present... (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:10 AM

77 Slide 44 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:10 AM

78 Slide 45 Slide or if the pecten is absent. Do not confuse these hairs on the siphon with the uniform, closely set teeth of the pecten. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:11 AM

79 Slide 45 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:11 AM

80 Slide 46 Slide 46 If the pecten is absent, the mosquito belongs to the genus Toxorhynchites, Orthopodomyia, or Wyeomyia. 5:31:12 AM

81 Slide 47 Slide 47 Toxorhynchites is distinguished readily by the presence of the lateral plate bearing spinulose hairs. Note that comb scales are not present. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:13 AM

82 Slide 47 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:13 AM

83 Slide 48 Slide 48 Orthopodomyia has comb scales present. This genus may be distinguished from Wyeomyia by the closely set tufts of hairs on the (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:14 AM

84 Slide 48 ventral side of the tenth abdominal segment which form the median ventral brush. (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:14 AM

85 Slide 49 Slide 49 Wyeomyia has comb scales like Orthopodomyia, but the median ventral brush is lacking. Members of this genus breed in water held (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:15 AM

86 Slide 49 by the leaves of plants. (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:15 AM

87 Slide 50 Slide 50 If a pecten is present, the mosquito belongs to the genus Uranotaenia, Deinocerites, Psorophora, Aedes, Culiseta, or Culex. Members of some of these genera may have as few as three or four pecten teeth. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:15 AM

88 Slide 50 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:15 AM

89 Slide 51 Slide 51 These genera may be subdivided on the basis of the number of pairs of hairs or tufts of hairs actually attached to the siphon. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:17 AM

90 Slide 51 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:17 AM

91 Slide 52 Slide 52 If only one pair of siphonal tufts or hairs is present, the specimen is a member of the genus Uranotaenia, Psorophora, or Aedes. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:19 AM

92 Slide 52 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:19 AM

93 Slide 53 Slide 53 If a row of teeth arises from a large sclerotized plate borne laterally on the eighth abdominal segment, the genus is Uranotaenia. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:20 AM

94 Slide 53 Members of this genus have characteristically shaped heads, longer than wide. All but one Western species have four stout spines on the head. (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:20 AM

95 Slide 54 Slide 54 If some of the tufts of the median ventral brush are attached to the saddle which encircles the tenth abdominal segment completely, the genus is Psorophora. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:22 AM

96 Slide 54 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:22 AM

97 Slide 55 Slide 55 If the ventral brush is attached posteriorly to the saddle plate, or if the saddle does not encircle the anal segment completely, the genus (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:23 AM

98 Slide 55 is Aedes. In most species, the saddle plate does not completely encircle the anal segment, but in those cases where it does, the ventral brush is attached posteriorly to it and none of the tufts are actually borne on the saddle plate. (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:23 AM

99 Slide 56 Slide 56 If several pairs of tufts or single hairs occur on the siphon, the mosquito is a member of either the genus Deinocerites, Culiseta, or Culex. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:25 AM

100 Slide 56 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:25 AM

101 Slide 57 Slide 57 Deinocerites has characteristic pouches on the sides of the head. They also have two plates on the anal segment, a dorsal plate, and a ventral plate. Members of this genus breed only in crab holes. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:26 AM

102 Slide 57 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:26 AM

103 Slide 58 Slide 58 If there is a pair of tufts near the base of the siphon, and a ventral (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:26 AM

104 Slide 58 row of tufts, or a row of straight hairs following the pecten, or no additional hairs or tufts, the genus is Culiseta. (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:26 AM

105 Slide 59 Slide 59 If a basal tuft is. not present, the genus is Culex: A row of tufts or (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:28 AM

106 Slide 59 scattered hairs occurs along each side of the siphon. (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:28 AM

107 Slide 60 Slide :31:29 AM

108 Slide 61 Slide :31:30 AM

109 Slide 62 Slide 62 First, examine the eighth abdominal segment for the presence or absence of a siphon. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:32 AM

110 Slide 62 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:32 AM

111 Slide 63 Slide 63 If it is absent, the mosquito belongs to the genus Anopheles. The palmate hairs are also characteristic. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:33 AM

112 Slide 63 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:33 AM

113 Slide 64 Slide 64 If the siphon is present and characteristically modified for piercing plant tissue, the genus is either Mansonia or Coquillettidia. 5:31:39 AM

114 Slide 65 Slide 65 If the siphon is present and characteristically modified for piercing plant tissue, the genus is either Mansonia or Coquillettidia. 5:31:40 AM

115 Slide 66 Slide 66 Whereas in Mansonia, four prominent hairs are present on the saddle, and antennal hairs 2 and 3 are very long. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:41 AM

116 Slide 66 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:41 AM

117 Slide 67 Slide :31:42 AM

118 Slide 68 Slide 68 The remaining genera may then be divided into two groups. Three genera have no pecten, while the other six genera have a pecten present. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:43 AM

119 Slide 68 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:43 AM

120 Slide 69 Slide 69 In the group without a pecten, see if comb scales are present. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:44 AM

121 Slide 69 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:44 AM

122 Slide 70 Slide 70 If comb scales are present and a median ventral brush is also present, the mosquito is a member of the genus Orthopodomyia. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:46 AM

123 Slide 70 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:46 AM

124 Slide 71 Slide 71 The genus Wyeomyia has comb scales but lacks the median ventral brush. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:47 AM

125 Slide 71 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:47 AM

126 Slide 72 Slide 72 If comb scales are absent and if a heavily sclerotized lateral plate bearing long spinulose hairs is present on the eighth abdominal segment, the genus is Toxorhynchites. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:49 AM

127 Slide 72 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:49 AM

128 Slide 73 Slide :31:49 AM

129 Slide 74 Slide :31:50 AM

130 Slide 75 Slide 75 If only one pair of hairs or hair tufts is present, the mosquito belongs to one of these genera: Uranotaenia, Psorophora, or Aedes. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:51 AM

131 Slide 75 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:51 AM

132 Slide 76 Slide 76 If a row of teeth arise from a lateral sclerotized plate on the eighth abdominal segment, the genus is Uranotaenia. The four stout spines on the head are characteristic of most species. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:52 AM

133 Slide 76 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:52 AM

134 Slide 77 Slide 77 If tufts of the ventral brush are attached to the saddle which completely encircles the anal segment, the genus is Psorophora. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:52 AM

135 Slide 77 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:52 AM

136 Slide 78 Slide 78 If the saddle completely encircles the anal segment and tufts of the ventral brush are posterior to it, or if the saddle does not encircle the anal segment entirely, the mosquito is a member of the genus Aedes. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:54 AM

137 Slide 78 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:54 AM

138 Slide 79 Slide 79 If several pairs of tufts or single hairs are present on the siphon, the mosquito belongs to the genus Deinocerites, Culiseta, or Culex. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:57 AM

139 Slide 79 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:31:57 AM

140 Slide 80 Slide 80 The lateral pouches on the head distinguish members of the genus Deinocerites from Culex and Culiseta. 5:31:58 AM

141 Slide 81 Slide 81 If a pair of tufts also occurs near the base of the siphon, and a row of tufts or a row of straight hairs, or no additional hairs or tufts follows the pecten, the genus is Culiseta. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:00 AM

142 Slide 81 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:00 AM

143 Slide 82 Slide 82 If basal tufts are absent and if a row of tufts or scattered hairs (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:00 AM

144 Slide 82 occurs along each side of the siphon, the genus is Culex. (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:01 AM

145 Slide 83 Slide 83 By using the characters described, try to determine the genera to which each of the following mosquitoes belongs. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:01 AM

146 Slide 83 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:01 AM

147 Slide 84 Slide :32:04 AM

148 Slide 85 Slide 85 Absence of the pecten and presence of the lateral plate bearing spinulose hairs on the eighth abdominal segment characterize the (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:05 AM

149 Slide 85 genus Toxorhynchites. (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:05 AM

150 Slide 86 Slide 86 (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:06 AM

151 Slide 86 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:06 AM

152 Slide 87 Slide 87 Aedes: note the presence of pecten, single pair of siphonal hair tufts, and median ventral brush attached posterior to the saddle. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:07 AM

153 Slide 87 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:07 AM

154 Slide 88 Slide 88 (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:08 AM

155 Slide 88 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:08 AM

156 Slide 89 Slide 89 The pecten, the row of tufts or scattered hairs, and the absence of a (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:10 AM

157 Slide 89 pair of hair tufts at the base of the siphon are characteristic of the genus Culex. (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:10 AM

158 Slide 90 Slide :32:11 AM

159 Slide 91 Slide 91 The absence of a pecten and median ventral brush permits easy identification of the genus Wyeomyia. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:14 AM

160 Slide 91 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:14 AM

161 Slide 92 Slide :32:16 AM

162 Slide 93 Slide :32:17 AM

163 Slide 94 Slide 94 The genus Coquillettidia is readily recognized by the modified siphon, the absence of hair tufts on the ventral aspect of the saddle,... (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:18 AM

164 Slide 94 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:18 AM

165 Slide 95 Slide and the short antennal hairs 2 and :32:20 AM

166 Slide 96 Slide 96 (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:21 AM

167 Slide 96 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:21 AM

168 Slide 97 Slide 97 Deinocerites is distinguished by the prominent lateral pouches on the head. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:21 AM

169 Slide 97 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:21 AM

170 Slide 98 Slide 98 (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:22 AM

171 Slide 98 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:22 AM

172 Slide 99 Slide 99 The important genus Anopheles, characterized by the absence of a siphon and the presence of palmate hairs. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:24 AM

173 Slide 99 (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:24 AM

174 Slide 100 Slide (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:25 AM

175 Slide (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:25 AM

176 Slide 101 Slide 101 The basal tuft of hairs on the siphon and in most instances the row of hairs or tufts following the pecten are characteristic of Culiseta. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:25 AM

177 Slide (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:25 AM

178 Slide 102 Slide :32:26 AM

179 Slide 103 Slide 103 Psorophora, with pecten. Note that tufts of the median ventral brush are attached to the saddle plate, which completely encircles the tenth abdominal segment. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:27 AM

180 Slide (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:27 AM

181 Slide 104 Slide :32:29 AM

182 Slide 105 Slide 105 Orthopodomyia is distinguished by absence of a pecten and presence of a median ventral brush and comb scales. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:31 AM

183 Slide (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:31 AM

184 Slide 106 Slide :32:31 AM

185 Slide 107 Slide :32:33 AM

186 Slide 108 Slide 108 Mansonia is characterized by having very long antennal hairs 2 and (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:34 AM

187 Slide (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:34 AM

188 Slide 109 Slide and with prominent tufts on the ventral aspect of the saddle. 5:32:34 AM

189 Slide 110 Slide :32:35 AM

190 Slide 111 Slide 111 Uranotaenia has a pecten. It is easily distinguished from other members of the group by a row of teeth attached to a lateral plate on abdominal segment VIII. Note the stout spines on the head. (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:36 AM

191 Slide (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:36 AM

192 Slide 112 Slide 112 Use this information to identify mounted specimens with the compound microscope on the right, or living larvae from the field, using the stereoscopic microscope and chemicals on the left to prepare temporary or permanent mounts. Remember, drawings are clear and obvious, but the characters on the actual mosquito larvae (1 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:39 AM

193 Slide 112 may not be so easy to observe. Study each larva very carefully. (2 of 2)10/27/2004 5:32:39 AM

194 Slide 113 Slide 113 This is the end of the slide set. 5:32:40 AM

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