Rules of the Road. United States Power Squadrons USPS University

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1 Rules of the Road United States Power Squadrons USPS University Seminar and contents copyrighted by USPS 2008

2 Per Inland Rules: Boats 12 m or greater must carry a copy of these rules Seminar Reference

3 Why Rules? Communicate actions Set level of expectation Provide guidance in various situations Identify other boats AVOID COLLISIONS

4 Framework Parallel sets of rules Minor differences COLREGS International Regulations for the Prevention of Collisions at Sea INLAND Bays, inland waters (U.S.) Same language Adds a few words Can communicate via radio as well as sound signals

5 Line of Demarcation U.S. Inland Rules Demarcation Line COLREGS

6 Structure of Rules Define actions of 2 vessels 38 Rules Categories of Rules: General Steering & Sailing Rules Those that apply to all Vessels, Vessels in Sight of Each other, Vessels in limited visibility Lights & Shapes Sound and Light Signals Annexes

7 Some key thoughts Practical Rather than absolute right of way stand-on and give-way except downbound on certain rivers Based on maneuverability Focus collision avoidance

8 International and Inland - General General: Rule 1 Rule 2 Rule 3 Application Responsibility General Definitions

9 Rule 1: Application The rules apply to ALL VESSELS on the high seas and navigable waters. wgh wgh

10 Rule 2: Responsibility No matter what happens, the person in charge of the vessel must do everything possible to avoid collision. Under certain circumstances you are allowed/expected to break rules to avoid collision. Rules do not protect a participant in a collision from fault. Quackenbush

11 Rule 3: General Definitions Underway: not anchored, grounded, or attached to shore. Includes vessels dead in water. In sight: seen with the eyes. Restricted Visibility: any atmospheric condition reducing visibility. Stand-on vessel: vessel obligated to maintain course & speed. Give-way vessel: vessel obligated to keep out of way of other.

12 Rule 3: General Definitions 2 Vessel: any watercraft. Power-driven Vessel: propelled by machinery. Sailing Vessel: propelled by sail alone. Seaplane: aircraft which can maneuver on water. Vessel not under command (NUC): Vessel unable to maneuver due to exceptional circumstances.

13 Rule 3: General Definitions 3 Vessel Engaged in Fishing: vessel fishing with equipment that restricts maneuverability (nets, trawls, etc.) Vessel Constrained by Draft: a power driven vessel which, because of draft, is severely restricted in ability to deviate from her course (COLREGS only). Vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver: vessel which, due to her nature of her work, cannot maneuver.

14 Steering and Sailing Rules Conduct of Vessels in Any Condition of Visibility: Rule 4 Rule 5 Rule 6 Rule 7 Rule 8 Rule 9 Application Lookout Safe Speed Risk of Collision Action to Avoid Collision Narrow Channels Rule 10 Traffic Separation Schemes

15 Rule 4: Application Rules in this section apply in any condition of visibility wgh wgh

16 Rule 5: Lookout Every vessel shall at all times maintain a proper look-out by sight, hearing and installed electronic equipment. Skipper appoints a separate (designated) look-out if there is more than one person aboard. Stroub e

17 Rule 6: Safe Speed Requires every vessel proceed at a safe speed to avoid collisions under existing conditions and circumstances wgh wgh

18 Rule 7: Risk of Collision Use all available means to determine if collision with another boat is possible. converging on a constant relative bearing results in a collision remember skippers must avoid collision

19 Rule 8: Avoiding Collision Give-way vessel must take significant and obvious action in ample time. Must be obvious to Stand-on vessel. Course change may be more apparent Unless Stand-on is abeam, then speed change may be better

20 Rule 9: Narrow Channels No specific definition Based on relation between size of boats and channel Stay near outer limit to starboard As far as safe and practical Other boats Stay clear of vessels constrained by draft Cross channel at right angles INLAND Downbound vessel has right-of-way wgh wgh

21 Rule 10: Traffic Separation Inbound and outbound traffic lanes Divided by separation lines or zones One-way lanes for large ships wgh Vessels under 20 m or fishing shall not impede vessels following lanes Cross lanes at right angles

22 Traffic Separation Schemes Navigation Aid Inshore traffic zone Southern Approach inbound separator outbound Inshore traffic zone Eastern Approach inbound separator outbound Southeastern Approach Cross traffic zones at Right angles

23 Steering and Sailing Rules Conduct of Vessels in Sight of One Another : Rule 11 - Application Rule 12 - Sailing Vessels Rule 13 - Overtaking Rule 14 - Head-on Rule 15 - Crossing Situations Rule 16 - Action by the Give-way Vessel Rule 17 - Action by the Stand-on Vessel Rule 18 - Responsibilities Between Vessels Rule 19 - Restricted Visibility

24 Rule 11: Application Rules in this section apply to vessels in sight of one another. wgh

25 Rule 12: Sailing Vessels Sailing vessels Under sail alone No engine Sailing vessels approaching each other one shall keep out of the way of the other: Wind different sides Wind same side Can t tell Give way Stand-on wgh

26 Rule 12: Sailing Vessels Sailing vessels Under sail alone No engine Opposite Tacks Port Tack: Give-Way Same Tack Windward: Give-Way Downwind Port Tack: Give-Way If uncertain Give-Way port tack port tack

27 Rule 13: Overtaking Overtaking vessel keeps out of the way All vessels Stand-on Vessel Vessel being overtaken maintains course and speed Overtaking vessel is give-way until past and clear Give-way Vessel (overtaking)

28 Rule 14: Meeting - Head-on Situation Power-driven vessels meeting head-on Both are Give-Way vessels Both should alter course to starboard and pass port-toport Sound or VHF to signal agreement on which side Exception: Great Lakes and Western Rivers Downbound have right-of-way over upbound boats

29 Rule 15: Crossing Situation Two power vessels cross, the one to the port side of the other is the GIVE-WAY vessel. Power vessel GIVES- WAY to sailing vessel

30 Rule 16: Action by Give-Way Vessel Stand-On vessel Give-Way Vessel Turn to starboard

31 Rule 17: Action by Stand-on Vessel Maintain Course & Speed Stand-On vessel Give-Way Vessel

32 Rule 18: Responsibilities Between Vessels Only Overtaken New Reels Catch Fish So Purchase Some Worms WIG

33 Rule 19: Conduct of Vessels in Restricted Visibility Applies to vessels not in sight of each other when navigating in or near an area of restricted visibility. wgh wgh

34 Rules: Lights and Shapes Rule 20 - Application Rule 21 - Definitions Rule 22 - Visibility of Lights Rule 23 - Power Driven Vessels Underway Rule 24 - Towing and Pushing Rule 25 - Sailing Vessels Rule 26 - Fishing Vessels Rule 27 - Vessels not under command / restricted in ability Rule 28 - Vessels constrained by draft Rule 29 - Pilot vessels Rule 30 - Vessels aground/at anchor Rule 31 - Seaplanes

35 Rule 20: Application of Lights Lights shall be displayed: From sunset to sunrise In conditions of restricted visibility In all other circumstances when deemed appropriate Purpose of Lights and Dayshapes: Helps determine stand-on/give-way status. Indicates the occupation of certain vessels. Aids in the determination of target angle and course.

36 Rule 21: Definitions Masthead light - white light over centerline with an unbroken 225 arc and when combined with the stern light covers the entire 360 arc. Sidelights - green starboard side and red port side light. Each covering an unbroken arc. Sternlight - white light on or near the stern showing an unbroken 135 arc.

37 Rule 21: Definitions (cont.) Towing light - a yellow light having the same characteristics as the sternlight. All-round light a light showing an unbroken light over a 360 arc. Flashing light - a light flashing at regular intervals with a frequency of 120 flashes or more per minute.

38 Rule 22: Visibility of Lights

39 Rule 22: Visibility of Lights TYPE OF LIGHT COLOR ARC MINIMUM RANGE Boat Length >50 m m Masthead white nm 5 nm Sidelight red / green nm 2nm Sternlight white nm 2 nm Towing yellow nm 2 nm All around various nm 2 nm Flashing yellow / blue nm 2 nm

40 Rule 23: Power-Driven Vessels

41 Rule 24: Towing/Pushing

42 Rule 25 : Sailing Vessels

43 Rule 26: Fishing Vessels

44 Rule 27: Vessels Not Under Command McGraw-Hill If making way, side/stern light Red over red, Captain is dead

45 Rule 27: Vessels Restricted in Their Ability to Maneuver Dayshape = ball-diamond-ball A for diving operations 3 green lights (not vertical) for mine clearing USN USN

46 Rule 28: Vessels Constrained by Draft Day Night McGraw-Hill

47 Rule 29: Pilot Vessel White over red, pilot ahead USN

48 Rule 30: Vessels Anchored

49 Rule 30: Vessels Aground McGraw-Hill

50 Rule 31: Seaplanes (& WIGs) Shall exhibit lights and shapes as closely similar in characteristics and position as is possible. US Army Wing in Ground (WIG)

51 Sound Signals Rules: Rule 32 Definitions Rule 33 Equipment for Sound Signals Rule 34 Maneuvering and Warning Signals Rule 35 - Sound Signals in Restricted Visibility Rule 36 - Signals to Attract Attention Rule 37 Distress Signals

52 Rule 32: Definitions Whistle - any sound appliance capable of producing the prescribed blasts and meets the Regulations Annex III specifications. Short blast - a blast of about one seconds duration (.) Prolonged blast a blast of from four to six seconds (-)

53 Rule 33: Equipment for Sound Signals A vessel 12 m or more shall have a whistle. A vessel 20 m or more shall have a bell in addition to whistle. A vessel 100 m or more shall have a gong in addition to whistle & bell. A vessel less than 12 m shall have means to make an efficient sound signal. wgh

54 Rule 34: Maneuvering and Warning Signals Signal COLREGs INLAND Intended action Proposed action Answer Meeting / Crossing Overtaking narrow channel None required Acknowledge Respond: Same signal (<½ mi) Respond: Same signal

55 Rule 34: Maneuvering and Warning Signals (Cont.) Meeting/Crossing I intend/propose* going to: Starboard Port Astern Warning (disagree) Approaching Bend or departing dock (inland) * COLREGS/INLAND

56 Rule 34: Maneuvering and Warning Signals (Cont.) Overtaking I propose (INLAND) overtaking to: Starboard Port Agree to be overtaken* echo same signal Warning (I don t understand) Approaching Bend or departing dock (inland) * Agreement required before taking action

57 Rule 34: Maneuvering and Warning Signals (Cont.) Overtaking I intend (COLREGS) overtaking to: Starboard Port Agree to be overtaken* Warning (I don t understand) * Agreement required before taking action

58 Rule 35: Sound Signal in Restricted Visibility Power Making way Stopped Manned tow NUC, Restricted Maneuver including: Sail, fishing, restricted draft Anchored Aground (<20m) any sound every 2min

59 Rule 36: Signals to Attract Attention Any vessel may make light or sound signals that can not be mistaken to attract attention of another vessel Note: Inland Rules allow use of strobes

60 I need assistance Rule 37: Distress Signals

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