# THEORY OF GLIDER FLIGHT

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 THEORY OF GLIDER FLIGHT In 1988 the Soaring Society rewrote the Joy Of Soaring originally written by Carle Conway. I was asked to assist in the rewriting. The following revision is part of what I recommended. It is a good Introduction to the Theory of Glider Flight. Bret Willat WING, FUSELAGE AND TAIL Most gliders consist of three basic components: the wing, the fuselage, and the tail surfaces. The wing supports the glider, and the ailerons and tail surfaces provide stability and control. The fuselage performs the dual function of holding the wing and tail in proper relationship to each other and of providing cockpit space for the pilot. If one understands how the wing functions, the rest of the theory of glider flight follows naturally and logically. Understanding helps in learning the practical techniques of flight. The way a wing works is not obvious, compared, for example, to the functioning of a wheel on a car. A wheel can be seen turning, bearing against the solid earth to apply power or to change direction. The wing works invisibly in an atmosphere that yields before the passage of the glider. But the air has substance and offers resistance, supporting the wing even as it gives way to it. What the wing does is to drive a mass of air downward, producing an equal and opposite upward reaction upon itself in accord with Newton's 3rd law of motion. (Oddly enough, under most conditions the top of the wing contributes far more to this action than the bottom, which explains why glider pilots are so particular about wiping off the tops and less finicky about the lower surface, OK, the bottom is harder to reach.) The upward reaction on the glider is made up of two force factors: lift, which acts upward at right angles to the direction of motion; and drag, which acts rearward, or parallel to the direction of motion. The values of these two forces, expressed as a ratio, describe the glide performance of the craft at a given time. If lift is twenty times as great as drag (expressed L/D~2O:1), the glider will move forward twenty feet for each foot of altitude lost. In soaring, lift is the hero and drag is the villain. The ability of a given wing to generate lift is in proportion to the density of the air, to speed, and to the angle at which the wing strikes the air. Denser air produces more lift because the wing has firmer substance to push against, so the reaction upon itself is greater. More speed gives more lift because the wing can deflect more air downward in a given time. Glider speed is dependent on the pull of gravity or the tug of the towrope. The third factor in the effectiveness of a wing is the angle at which it strikes the air. This angle of attack is important to the pilot because he controls it directly by moving the stick fore and aft, which has the secondary effect of changing the wing's lift and drag (which means angle of descent) and the glider's airspeed. Decreasing the angle of attack reduces lift, while increasing it generates more lift-but only up to a point. At an angle of attack in the area of 12 to 18 degrees (depending on the shape of the particular airfoil), the wing begins to lose its ability to deflect air downward and instead begins to produce a turbulent wake behind its upper surface. With only a slight additional increase in the angle of attack, lift decreases rapidly and drag 'builds up vastly, so the rate of sink increases; control is greatly reduced, and the wing is said to be stalled. (This is usually the condition with the control stick all the way back.) To regain lift, the angle of attack must be reduced (stick forward), returning the wing to the range of angles of attack where the air flows smoothly over the top surface and is deflected downward. FUNCTIONS OF THE CONTROLS Control surfaces are provided to allow the attitude of the glider to be changed about its three axis. The pilot can blend these three movements to produce any desired change in attitude. Moving the stick sideways depresses

2 one aileron and raises the other, making the lift of the two wings unequal and rolling the glider right or left around the axis of the fuselage. Other results also appear which will be discussed later in this chapter, when we take up turning. The vertical and horizontal tail surfaces are small airfoils which work like a wing to deflect the airflow and so produce equal and opposite reactions upon themselves. Moving the stick fore and aft moves the elevator and lowers or raises the nose of the glider so long as airspeed is adequate. A less superficial description of this action is that the elevator controls the angle of attack of the wing. The rudder pedals are connected to the rudder in such a way that pushing the left pedal moves the glider's nose to the left. This may not seem logical when compared to the way a sled is steered; however, the use of the rudder is not to steer the glider but to align its fuselage so as to minimize (and occasionally to maximize) its drag. For this reason, the logic of steering is unimportant; the rudder simply yaws the glider around its vertical axis. STABILITY Stability of direction and bank are interrelated and complicated subjects of more interest to designers than to pilots. Few gliders will return to a wings-level glide without help from the pilot; in fact, few will long remain in that condition if left to themselves. For good reason, designers rely on the pilot to handle directional and banking stability. Pitch stability, possessed by gliders in widely varying degrees, is of great interest to the pilot. This quality appears as a resistance on the part of the craft to flight at speeds other than that for which it is trimmed. If trimmed for 40 mph, for example, the pilot might have to exert a strong forward pressure on the stick to fly at 80 mph. Should he relax the pressure the glider would, after a series of pitch oscillations, return to 40 mph. Gliders with high pitch stability require elevator trimming devices either on the control surface or adjustable springs in the control system to permit the pilot to fly the glider at any reasonable speed without having to hold a steady pressure on the stick. A few glider models have been deliberately designed with neutral stability and do not generate a stick load by changing speed. These gliders do not require a trim. GLIDE PATH AND SPEED CONTROLS When making an approach for a landing the pilot must be able to steepen his glide without gaining speed. He also needs a means to check his speed when diving to lose altitude rapidly. Several of the devices for providing this control are of interest to all glider pilots. Spoilers, which are used on most training gliders, are devices of various styles, some perforated, which emerge from the top or bottom of the wing, or both. They may be hinged or may slide out vertically from slots in the general vicinity of the main spar. The prime purpose of spoilers is to break up the smooth flow of air over a portion of the wing, "spoiling" the lift. Secondarily, drag is increased. (Recall that L/D determines the angle of descent.) Dive brakes are devices whose primary purpose is to increase drag. Most dive brakes are a part of the wing, and so also decrease lift. The choice of names depends on whether the accent is on decreasing lift (spoilers) or increasing drag (dive brakes). Fuselage dive brakes and drogue parachutes have no direct effect on lift, working entirely by increasing drag. Since there are a number of sailplanes available which have drogue parachutes as supplements to spoilers and flaps, it should be noted that they are extremely effective speed-limiting devices. However, their functioning in gliders has not been 100% reliable, and a failure to open usually comes at the most inconvenient moment. Further, once deployed, they cannot be controlled or retracted and redeployed. Another handicap is that the backward pull of the chute upon the tail of the glider substantially reduces the effectiveness of both rudder and elevator. Perhaps these problems will one day be solved; meanwhile, too much reliance should not be placed upon the drogue parachute. Flaps, which are used on some gliders, work differently from spoilers. Flaps are hinged portions of the trailing edge of the wing that, when lowered, change the camber or cross sectional curvature of the wing so as to increase both lift and drag. One type of flap has moderate up and down travel for high-speed cruising and thermalling; the function of speed control is handled by separate spoilers. Another type of flap functions in the same way for cruising and thermalling, but dispenses with the supplementary spoiler, powerful drag being provided by lowering the flap as much as 90 degrees to the chord line. Several models of gliders have Fowler flaps, similar to those used on many airliners. Fowler flaps lower and at the same time slide backward on tracks so as to increase the area of the wing, to change its camber, and to provide a slot which smooths the airflow on the top surface of the flap. The Fowler flap increases drag moderately when partly extended for thermaling, and very greatly when fully depressed for speed control.

4 TOTAL DRAG One of the major Concerns to a glider pilot is to try to reduce his drag to a minimum. The total drag of a glider in flight is composed of INDUCED drag and PARASITE drag. Parasite drag is all drag which is not directly associated with the development of lift. The wing surface, even at zero lift produces "profile" drag due to the skin friction and form. Other compon ents of the glider much as rivets, fuselage, tail, tires etc., Contribute to drag because of their own form smoothness and skin friction. Parasite drag increases with speed varying as the square of the velocity, ie. if you were flying at 200 mph it would have four times as much parasite drag as it would have at 100 mph. consequently, parasite drag will be of greatest importance at high speeds. At speeds just above stall, parasite drag is only 25% of the total drag. It is obvious that at high speeds the better the aerodynamic cleanness of the glider the better to obtain high speed performance. Induced drag is the drag associated with the creation of lift. Therefore, if you increase the lift you also increase the drag. By increasing the angle of attack, you will: increase lift, increase drag, and reduce your speed. (see diagram of drag Curves) UNDESIRED SIDE EFFECTS OF THE TURN In turning a glider, the pilot must counteract five undesired side effects, undesired in the sense that if they did not already exist, the designer would not design them into the aircraft. During student training, the development of habit patterns to overcome these side effects, is perhaps the largest single factor in learning to fly. Success will be much easier when the student understands the causes behind his vexations. The first side effect is called adverse yaw, and is encountered when banking into or out of a turn.. Adverse yaw is the drag on the wing which is raised, this is due to the increase of angle of attack by the lowered aileron (Remember that w hen you increase the angle of attack; you lower the airspeed, increase the lift and increase the induced drag). To roll into a left turn, for example, the pilot moves the stick to the left. This raises the left aileron depresses the right aileron. Since the down aileron produces more drag than the other, an undesirable yawing to the right (against the direction of the turn) takes place,generating unwanted drag as the fuselage moves sideways through the air. To balance out this adverse yaw and so streamline the fuselage, the pilot applies left rudder with the left aileron. This action is called "coordinating stick and rudder", and the result is called a properly coordinated turn when the yaw string and the slip-skid ball are centered. Adv erse yaw is mild at low angles of attack but becomes severe when the wing is nearly stalled. For example, in a tight turn which is close to an accelerated stall, the application of full aileron to roll out can stall the low wingtip. The severe drag on this wing yaws the glider into a dive. If the pilot now makes the understandable error of trying to raise the glider's nose by pulling the stick even farther back the result will be a sudden spin. To recover from such an excessively tight turn, the angle of attack must first be reduced by moving the stick forward, followed by use of rudder. Once you have a lowed angle of attack use aileron/rudder to level the wings. A normal rollout results. The diving tendency is the second "I wish it wouldn't happen" in a turn. When the glider is banked some of the wing's lift is transferred from the task of sup port to that of pulling the glider around the turn, as previously

5 explained. In consequence, the rate of sink increases, stabilizing action causes the glider's nose to drop, and the airspeed increases. If the pilot does not oppose this reaction of the glider by moving the stick back, the airspeed will soon stabilize at a higher level than formerly. To maintain the same speed in the turn as in straight flight the pilot must use the elevator to keep the nose at such a position on the horizon as to hold that speed. The steeper the bank, the more back pressure on the control stick is needed. The overbanking tendency is the third annoyance in turning. Having established the desired angle of bank, the pilot finds that he has to hold top aileron (against the angle of bank) to keep the bank from steepening. In a glider this is true in all but the shallowest banks because of the long span and normally small radius of turn. The outer wingtip moves faster than the inner, so the outer wing has more lift, causing the bank to steepen. The fourth unwanted side effect, a yaw against the direction of an established turn (not the adverse yaw caused by aileron drag) appears because the faster-moving outer wing has more drag. Rudder in the direction of the turn is needed to balance the wing's yawing force, the amount being indicated by the yaw string or slip-skid ball. If these are centered the turn is correctly coordinated, even though the controls are crossed", which means rudder is applied on one side and aileron on the other. "Crossed controls" is a heinous sin in powered flight.." It should be n oted that the same undesired effects of a turn are in a powered aircraft, but are most noticed when in slow flight or steep turns. Most of these effects are more noticeable in the sailplane because of our long wings and slower spe eds. Power pilots please note that a glider is flown so the fuselage slips through the air with minimum drag, ball/yaw string in the center, whatever position of the controls is required to accomplish this end. The same should be true in an airplane. The fifth and last (thank goodness) side effect of turning is the increase in stalling speed. As was explained earlier, during a turn the pilot applies back pressure on the stick to increase the angle of attack. Thus the glider is closer to a stalled angle than in a level glide at the same speed. Another way to look at the situation is that the load of centrifugal force is added to the weight of the glider; this higher total load on the wing raises the stalling speed. The thermalling pilot soon learns that he has to increase his airspeed as he steepens his bank in order to keep from stalling. It should be noted that the increase in stalling speed is caused by the increased wing loading rather than by the angle of bank per se. In the performance of aerobatic maneuvers such as a wingover the bank may be vertical and the stick is not brought back; there is no turning and no centrifugal force, and the glider's wing is not stalled even though the glider is momentarily hanging almost motionless in a vertical bank. The following table gives an idea of the degree to which stalling speed increases with the angle of bank in a properly executed turn. The percentage increase is included so the reader can calculate actual values for any glider. Figures are also given for a typical trainer and a high-performance sailplane. % Increase Trainer High-performance Angle of Bank Load in Stall Stalling Stalling Speed Speed Speed A "properly exe cuted turn" is impossible

6 EFFECT OF WINDS ON TURNS An observant beginner pilo t (with instructor) making a full-circle turn at an altitude of less than a thousand feet while under strong and steady wind conditions, will be convinced that g lider turns are affec ted by the wind. In a downwind direction, even a steep bank pr oduces a turn of l arge radius over the earth and the gl ider goes very fast. Turning in the upwind direction, the radius of the turn is very small and the speed is visibly slowed. The student pilot knows that wind affects the way the glider turns because he can see the effect just by watching the ground. He feels that the airspeed indicator must be wrong, and that the instructor, who is saying the wind doesn't affect the way a glider turns, simply doesn't believe the evidence of his eyes. Everything the beginner sees is absolutely so. It is what he cannot see, which is the motion of the parcel of air in which he is flying, that lead s to his incorrect conclusion. He can t even feel the strong wind that is causing his glider to behave so eccentric all compared to the expected constant-rate turn. An analogy may clarify the situation. Consider a motorboat turning in a river. The boat, in making a constant rate turn, will soon run into its own wake, and the skipper had looked over the side and watched his path over the river-bottom, he would have seen the resultant of the circular motion of the boat and the straight motion of the river. It probably would never occur to him that a boat's turning capability is different in a river than on the placid surface of a lake because he can see all the elements that are involved, unlike our beginner pilot. When turning in a high wind the pilot makes no change in his use of the controls. However, when he is concerned with his track over the ground, as when in the traffic pattern or on the cross-wind leg of a triangle flight, he must crab into the wind enough to compensate for the motion of the air. It should be noted that changes in wind direction or velocity, as distinct from a steady wind, do affect the way a glider handles. Such conditions, occurring in thunderstorms, wave rotors, and in the disturbed air close to the ground are future discussions.

### II.E. Airplane Flight Controls

References: FAA-H-8083-3; FAA-8083-3-25 Objectives Key Elements Elements Schedule Equipment IP s Actions SP s Actions Completion Standards The student should develop knowledge of the elements related to

### PERFORMANCE MANEUVERS

Ch 09.qxd 5/7/04 8:14 AM Page 9-1 PERFORMANCE MANEUVERS Performance maneuvers are used to develop a high degree of pilot skill. They aid the pilot in analyzing the forces acting on the airplane and in

### Principles of glider flight

Principles of glider flight [ Lecture 2: Control and stability ] Richard Lancaster Email: Richard@RJPLancaster.net Twitter: @RJPLancaster ASK-21 illustrations Copyright 1983 Alexander Schleicher GmbH &

### PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROLS. AILERONS Ailerons control roll about the longitudinal axis. The ailerons are attached to the outboard trailing edge of

Aircraft flight control systems are classified as primary and secondary. The primary control systems consist of those that are required to safely control an airplane during flight. These include the ailerons,

### Homework Exercise to prepare for Class #2.

Homework Exercise to prepare for Class #2. Answer these on notebook paper then correct or improve your answers (using another color) by referring to the answer sheet. 1. Identify the major components depicted

### Front Cover Picture Mark Rasmussen - Fotolia.com

Flight Maneuvers And Stick and Rudder Skills A complete learn to fly handbook by one of aviation s most knowledgeable and experienced flight instructors Front Cover Picture Mark Rasmussen - Fotolia.com

### Flight Control Systems Introduction

Flight Control Systems Introduction Dr Slide 1 Flight Control System A Flight Control System (FCS) consists of the flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkage, and necessary

### PILOT S HANDBOOK of Aeronautical Knowledge AC61-23C

PILOT S HANDBOOK of Aeronautical Knowledge AC61-23C Revised 1997 Chapter 1 Excerpt Compliments of... www.alphatrainer.com Toll Free: (877) 542-1112 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION

### Principles of glider flight

Principles of glider flight [ Lecture 1: Lift, drag & glide performance ] Richard Lancaster Email: Richard@RJPLancaster.net Twitter: @RJPLancaster ASK-21 illustrations Copyright 1983 Alexander Schleicher

### CIRCLING THE HOLIGHAUS WAY -

CIRCLING THE HOLIGHAUS WAY - OR DO YOU REALLY WANT TO KEEP THE YAW STRING CENTERED? BY RICHARD H. JOHNSON ANSWERS: 1. During Straight Flight - YES, that minimizes drag and maximizes the sailplane's performance.

### 1. GENERAL AERODYNAMICS

Chapter 1. GENERAL AERODYNAMICS Unless otherwise indicated, this handbook is based on a helicopter that has the following characteristics: 1 - An unsupercharged (normally aspirated) reciprocating engine.

### WHAT IS GLIDER? A light engineless aircraft designed to glide after being towed aloft or launched from a catapult.

GLIDER BASICS WHAT IS GLIDER? A light engineless aircraft designed to glide after being towed aloft or launched from a catapult. 2 PARTS OF GLIDER A glider can be divided into three main parts: a)fuselage

### Flight Controls. Chapter 5. Introduction

Chapter 5 Flight Controls Introduction This chapter focuses on the flight control systems a pilot uses to control the forces of flight, and the aircraft s direction and attitude. It should be noted that

### Aviation Merit Badge Knowledge Check

Aviation Merit Badge Knowledge Check Name: Troop: Location: Test Score: Total: Each question is worth 2.5 points. 70% is passing Dan Beard Council Aviation Knowledge Check 1 Question 1: The upward acting

### VII.E. Normal and Crosswind Approach and Landing

References: FAA-H-8083-3; POH/AFM Objectives Key Elements Elements Schedule Equipment IP s Actions SP s Actions Completion Standards The student should be able to perform a normal approach and landing

### DISCLAIMER: This scanned version of the Schweizer 2-33A Sailplane manual is provided without warranty of completeness or accuracy.

DISCLAIMER: This scanned version of the Schweizer 2-33A Sailplane manual is provided without warranty of completeness or accuracy. It is solely as a service to builders of scale model aircraft who are

### Flightlab Ground School 7. Longitudinal Dynamic Stability

Flightlab Ground School 7. Longitudinal Dynamic Copyright Flight Emergency & Advanced Maneuvers Training, Inc. dba Flightlab, 2009. All rights reserved. For Training Purposes Only Introduction to is the

### Visualized Flight Maneuvers Handbook

Visualized Flight Maneuvers Handbook For High Wing Aircraft Third Edition For Instructors and Students Aviation Supplies & Academics, Inc. Newcastle, Washington Visualized Flight Maneuvers Handbook for

### Cessna 172S Skyhawk Standardization Manual

Cessna 172S Skyhawk Standardization Manual This manual is to be utilized in conjunction with the manufacturers approved POH/ AFM and the Airplane Flying Handbook (FAA-H-8083-3A). This manual should be

### Attitude Instrument Flying and Aerodynamics

Attitude Instrument Flying and Aerodynamics 2.1 TURNS 1. An airplane requires a sideward force to make it turn. a. When the airplane is banked, lift (which acts perpendicular to the wingspan) acts not

### CAP-USAF FLIGHT MANEUVERS GUIDE

CAP-USAF FLIGHT MANEUVERS GUIDE February 2012 Flight Maneuvers Guide This guide describes and standardizes the instruction and performance of the various flight maneuvers described in Chapter 3 of AFI11-2CAP-USAF,

### Maximum Rate Turns. Objective To carry out a balanced, maximum rate, level turn using full power.

Advanced Manoeuvres Maximum Rate Turns To achieve the maximum rate of turn, the greatest possible force toward the centre of the turn is required. This is achieved by inclining the lift vector as far as

### G-BCKU Aerobatic Sequences

G-BCKU Aerobatic Sequences Flight Manual Edition No. 1 REIMSjCESSNA FRA l50l November 1971 AEROBATIC MANEUVERS AEROBATIC-CONSIDERATIONS The FRAl50L is certificated in the Aerobatic Category for the maneuvers

### PRE-TEST Module 2 The Principles of Flight Units /60 points

PRE-TEST Module 2 The Principles of Flight Units 1-2-3.../60 points 1 Answer the following questions. (20 p.) moving the plane (4) upward / forward. Opposed to that is 1. What are the names of the four

### XII.A-D. Basic Attitude Instrument Flight

References: FAA-H-8083-3; FAA-8083-3-15 Objectives Key Elements Elements Schedule Equipment IP s Actions SP s Actions Completion Standards The student should develop knowledge of the elements related to

### CIVIL AIR PATROL United States Air Force Auxiliary Cadet Program Directorate. Cessna 172 Maneuvers and Procedures

CIVIL AIR PATROL United States Air Force Auxiliary Cadet Program Directorate Cessna 172 Maneuvers and Procedures This study guide is designed for the National Flight Academy Ground School. The information

### Flying Wings. By Henry Cole

Flying Wings By Henry Cole FLYING WINGS REPRESENT THE THEORETICAL ULTIMATE IN AIRCRAFT DESIGN. USE THESE IDEAS, AVAILABLE AFTER A YEAR, OF RESEARCH, TO DEVELOP PRACTICAL MODELS. The rubber version of this

### VII.H. Go-Around/Rejected Landing

VII.H. Go-Around/Rejected Landing References: FAA-H-8083-3; POH/AFM Objectives Key Elements Elements Schedule Equipment IP s Actions SP s Actions Completion Standards The student should develop knowledge

### THERMALLING TECHNIQUES. Preface

DRAFT THERMALLING TECHNIQUES Preface The following thermalling techniques document is provided to assist Instructors, Coaches and Students as a training aid in the development of good soaring skills. Instructors

### file://c:\program Files\Microsoft Games\Microsoft Flight Simulator X\FSWeb\lessons\Stud...

Page 1 of 7 Lesson 2: Turns How Airplanes Turn Fly This Lesson Now by Rod Machado There are many misconceptions in aviation. For instance, there are pilots who think propwash is a highly specialized detergent.

### BASIC AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES

Slide 1 BASIC AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES The basic aircraft structure serves multiple purposes. Such as aircraft aerodynamics; which indicates how smooth the aircraft flies thru the air (The Skelton of the aircraft

### Airplane controls. The three primary flight controls are the ailerons, elevator and rudder.

Airplane controls The three primary flight controls are the ailerons, elevator and rudder. Ailerons: The two ailerons, one at the outer trailing edge of each wing, are movable surfaces that control movement

### Building Good Habits for a Better Future Aileron-Rudder Mixing Explained

Building Good Habits for a Better Future Aileron-Rudder Mixing Explained By Dave Scott. Instructor, 1st U.S. R/C Flight School Illustrations by Dave Scott Adverse Yaw Introduction The following article

### Aerobatic Trimming Chart

Aerobatic Trimming Chart From RCU - Chip Hyde addresses his view of Engine/Motor thrust. I run almost no right thrust in my planes and use the thottle to rudd mix at 2% left rudd. to throttle at idle.

### Stalls and Spins. Tom Johnson CFIG

Stalls and Spins Tom Johnson CFIG Do we need all of this? Lift The force created by moving the wing through the air. Angle of Attack: The angle between the relative wind and the wing chord line. Stalls

### HIGH ALTITUDE AERODYNAMICS

HIGH ALTITUDE AERODYNAMICS CRITICAL ASPECTS OF MACH FLIGHT In recent years, a number of corporate jet airplanes have been involved in catastrophic loss of control during high-altitude/high-speed flight.

### Written by: Tom Bales

Tom s Tips On Flying Schweizer 2-33s Written by: Tom Bales ABOUT THE AUTHOR In 1967, I started flying gliders with the Soaring Society of Dayton, flying out of Richmond, Indiana, and earned my instructor

### Spins and how to keep the pointy end of the airplane going forward

Spins and how to keep the pointy end of the airplane going forward 8/14/07 Evan Reed, cfievan@yahoo.com Ed Williams Outline Spins and their general characteristics Accident statistics and scenarios Some

### Taildragger Technique

Taildragger Technique Rudder Usage There is no mystery involved in the takeoff of a conventional gear aeroplane. There are, however, certain elements of flight that may require the acquisition of new and

### Four forces on an airplane

Four forces on an airplane By NASA.gov on 10.12.16 Word Count 824 Level MAX TOP: An airplane pictured on June 30, 2016. Courtesy of Pexels. BOTTOM: Four forces on an airplane. Courtesy of NASA. A force

### TAKEOFF & LANDING IN ICING CONDITIONS

Original idea from Captain A. Wagner T TAKEOFF & LANDING IN ICING CONDITIONS here have been a number of accidents related to take-off in conditions in which snow and/or other forms of freezing precipitation

### Circuit Considerations

Circuit Training Circuit Considerations This briefing deals with those aspects of a normal circuit that were deferred during Circuit Introduction, to avoid student overload. Objectives To continue circuit

### Jet Propulsion. Lecture-17. Ujjwal K Saha, Ph. D. Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

Lecture-17 Prepared under QIP-CD Cell Project Jet Propulsion Ujjwal K Saha, Ph. D. Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati 1 Lift: is used to support the weight of

### Theory of Flight Aircraft Design and Construction. References: FTGU pages 9-14, 27

Theory of Flight 6.01 Aircraft Design and Construction References: FTGU pages 9-14, 27 Main Teaching Points Parts of an Airplane Aircraft Construction Landing Gear Standard Terminology Definition The airplane

### FLYING THE ASH-ZSd OPEN CLASS SAILPANE. crasssa'p*n:frffil:%:t:';hfi:tl1'.":;.'oatmavcause

FLYING THE ASH-ZSd OPEN CLASS SAILPANE A look at some specific handling qualities of a long span Open crasssa'p*n:frffil:%:t:';hfi:tl1'.":;.'oatmavcause By: Stanley F. Nelson DRAFT # 6 Flying the ASH-25

### Agood tennis player knows instinctively how hard to hit a ball and at what angle to get the ball over the. Ball Trajectories

42 Ball Trajectories Factors Influencing the Flight of the Ball Nathalie Tauziat, France By Rod Cross Introduction Agood tennis player knows instinctively how hard to hit a ball and at what angle to get

### TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

Ch 05.qxd 5/7/04 7:02 AM Page 5-1 GENERAL This chapter discusses takeoffs and departure climbs in tricycle landing gear (nosewheel-type) airplanes under normal conditions, and under conditions which require

### Ops Manual 05 Page 40

Ops Manual 05 Page 40 Ops Manual 05 Pg 41 I. PRE -FLIGHT PREPARATION. (a) EXTERNAL CHECKS --Before entering the cockpit, a detailed inspection of the sailplane for proper condition should be carried out

### BOEING COMMERCIAL AIRPLANE GROUP FLIGHT OPERATIONS TECHNICAL BULLETIN

BOEING COMMERCIAL AIRPLANE GROUP FLIGHT OPERATIONS TECHNICAL BULLETIN NUMBER: 707 717 727 737 747 02-1 B-717-02-09 02-1 02-2 13 747-400 757 767 777 DC-8 50 68 68 10 DC-8-02-01 DC-9 DC-10 MD-80 MD-90 MD-10

### Basics of Speed to Fly for Paragliding Pilots

Page 1 of 10 San Francisco and Northern California's Premier Paragliding School Up is GOOD!!! Basics of Speed to Fly for Paragliding Pilots The expression Speed to Fly represents the adjustments to a Paraglider's

### HOW TO FLY AIRPLANES

HOW TO FLY AIRPLANES Complimentary Ebook Available from bob@safe-flight.net HOW TO FLY AIRPLANES BASIC AIRCRAFT CONTROL Robert Reser, Publisher bob@safe-flight.net Tempe, Arizona Copyright 2012-2016 by

### Uncontrolled copy not subject to amendment. Principles of Flight

Uncontrolled copy not subject to amendment Principles of Flight Principles of Flight Learning Outcome 1: Know the principles of lift, weight, thrust and drag and how a balance of forces affects an aeroplane

### Guidance Notes PRIVATE AND COMMERCIAL PILOT TRAINING

PRIVATE AND COMMERCIAL PILOT TRAINING September 2005 1 st Edition ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Transport Canada thanks the Federal Aviation Administration of the United States for their permission to use the chapter

### Aircraft - Very Heavy Lift at Very Low Cost

Aircraft - Very Heavy Lift at Very Low Cost Stephen Funck This is a span loader for standard shipping containers. The design goal is the lowest cost per ton / mile. Low wing loading allows for low flight

### Spin. CHARACTERISTICS of CESSNA MODELS 150, A150,152, A152, 172, R172 & 177 D

! I I Spin CHARACTERISTICS of CESSNA MODELS 150, A150,152, A152, 172, R172 & 177 D5014-2-13 The subject of airplane spinning is a complex one, which is often over-simplified during hangar-ffying sessions.

### Improvement of an Artificial Stall Warning System for Sailplanes

Improvement of an Artificial Stall Warning System for Sailplanes Loek M. M. Boermans and Bart Berendsen Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering P.O.Box 5058, 2600 GB Delft, The

### THEORY OF WINGS AND WIND TUNNEL TESTING OF A NACA 2415 AIRFOIL. By Mehrdad Ghods

THEORY OF WINGS AND WIND TUNNEL TESTING OF A NACA 2415 AIRFOIL By Mehrdad Ghods Technical Communication for Engineers The University of British Columbia July 23, 2001 ABSTRACT Theory of Wings and Wind

### Beechcraft Duchess 76 Maneuver Notes

Beechcraft Duchess 76 Maneuver Notes I. Maneuver notes for Performance (AOA V), Slow Flight and Stalls (AOA VIII), Emergency Operations (AOA X), and Multiengine Operations (AOA XI) a. Maneuvers addressed:

INTRODUCTION The following maneuver guide is designed to provide a technique for completing each VFR maneuver required by the FAA s Practical Test Standards for the Private Practical Test. By performing

### AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL DESIGN & ANALYSIS K. RAMAJEYATHILAGAM

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL DESIGN & ANALYSIS K. RAMAJEYATHILAGAM To invent an airplane is nothing To build one is something But to fly is everything Lilienthal DAY 1 WHAT IS AN AIRCRAFT? An aircraft is a vehicle,

### Learning Objectives 081 Principles of Flight

Learning Objectives 081 Principles of Flight Conventions for questions in subject 081. 1. The following standard conventions are used for certain mathematical symbols: * multiplication. > = greater than

### Flying The. Traffic Pattern. Skill Level: Basic

Flying The Now that you ve mastered a number of basic and intermediate flying skills, it s time to put them all to the test in the exercise that combines them all Flying The Traffic Pattern. In this Flight

### SULAYMANIYAH INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT MATS

KURDISTAN REGIONAL GOVERNMENT SULAYMANIYAH INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT MATS APPENDIX " O " SPEED CONTROL GUIDANCE ( First Edition ) April 2012 Prepared By Fakhir.F. Mohammed Civil Aviation Consultant APPENDIX

### Principles of Flight. Chapter 4. From the Library at Introduction. Structure of the Atmosphere

From the Library at www.uavgroundschool.com Chapter 4 Principles of Flight Introduction This chapter examines the fundamental physical laws governing the forces acting on an aircraft in flight, and what

### OUTLINE SHEET BASIC THEORY. 2.1 DEFINE scalar, in a classroom, in accordance with Naval Aviation Fundamentals, NAVAVSCOLSCOM-SG-200

Sheet 1 of 7 OUTLINE SHEET 2-1-1 BASIC THEORY A. INTRODUCTION This lesson is a basic introduction to the theory of aerodynamics. It provides a knowledge base in aerodynamic mathematics, air properties,

### Howard Torode. Member of General Aviation Group and Chairman BGA Technical Committee

Efficient Light Aircraft Design Options from Gliding Howard Torode Member of General Aviation Group and Chairman BGA Technical Committee Presentation Aims Recognise the convergence of interest between

### DUTCH ROLLS - - COORDINATION ROLLS

Here's another example of WARBIRD NOTES #41 14 Jun 2000 (37) terminology being used in error. I d DUTCH ROLLS - and - COORDINATION ROLLS never thought this would need discussion, however several computer

### Today Mr. Happer told us to use the following physics vocabulary words and relate them to our experiment:

Design Your Own Experiment Lab Report Objective While making our water rocket, our group tried to achieve different criteria listed by Mr. Happer. With our rocket, we were trying to achieve a distance

### THE DESIGN OF WING SECTIONS

THE DESIGN OF WING SECTIONS Published in "Radio Control Model News" Issue Number 8 Winter 93 Aerofoil section design has advanced a great deal since great pioneers like Horatio Phillips experimented with

### Introduction. The Undershoot

Introduction Being a safe pilot means combining your working knowledge of aviation with current skills and experience - tempered by good judgment. One important phase of flying skill is the landing. Landing

### Chapter 6: The Magician's Tools: High Performance Tuning

Chapter 6: The Magician's Tools: High Performance Tuning How your kite is tuned determines how it flies. You can leave it set on the regular performance marks provided by the factory and probably have

### CIRRUS AIRPLANE MAINTENANCE MANUAL

RUDDER 1. GENERAL The rudder provides airplane directional (yaw) control and includes a rudder trim tab used for yaw trim adjustment. The rudder is of conventional design with skin, spar and ribs manufactured

### Figure 1: Graphical definitions of superelevation in terms for a two lane roadway.

Iowa Department of Transportation Office of Design Superelevation 2A-2 Design Manual Chapter 2 Alignments Originally Issued: 12-31-97 Revised: 12-10-10 Superelevation is the banking of the roadway along

### Chapter 6. You lift a 10 N physics book up in the air a distance of 1 meter at a constant velocity of 0.5 m/s. The work done by gravity is

I lift a barbell with a mass of 50 kg up a distance of 0.70 m. Then I let the barbell come back down to where I started. How much net work did I do on the barbell? A) - 340 J B) 0 J C) + 35 J D) + 340

### Two Finger Solution. Exponential Control Response D E F L E C T. Surface Deflection I O. Stick Deflection

Two Finger Solution Transmitter Handling Tips to Maximize Flying Consistency and Proficiency By Dave Scott. Instructor, 1st U.S. R/C Flight School Illustrations by Dave Scott Introduction Opinions vary

### Aerodynamically Efficient Wind Turbine Blade S Arunvinthan 1, Niladri Shekhar Das 2, E Giriprasad 3 (Avionics, AISST- Amity University, India)

International Journal of Engineering Science Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 6734, ISSN (Print): 2319 6726 Volume 3 Issue 4ǁ April 2014ǁ PP.49-54 Aerodynamically Efficient Wind Turbine Blade S Arunvinthan

### Principles of Sailing

Principles of Sailing This is a PowerPoint set of charts presented by Demetri Telionis on March 21, 2015 at the Yacht Club of Hilton Head Island. The aim of this presentation was to help the audience understand

### TWO-SEATER GLIDERS. Elementary Flying Instruction THE MANUAL. for. Produced by the BRITISH GLIDING ASSOCIATION LTD.

THE MANUAL for Elementary Flying Instruction in TWO-SEATER GLIDERS Compiled by Ann Douglas and Lome Welch APRIL, 1952 INDEX Page Introduction............ 1 Technique of Instruction.... 2 Methods of Training...

### It isn t hard to imagine where some of these hot tricks and techniques came from.

Chapter 8: Magical Illusions and Hot Tricks It isn t hard to imagine where some of these hot tricks and techniques came from. A flier jerks on the line to try and relaunch a downed kite. The kite rolls

### WIPLINE 3450 SEAPLANE FLOATS

FOUND SUPPLEMENT M400-S08 Transport Canada Approved Flight Manual Supplement For WIPLINE MODEL 3450 SEAPLANE FLOATS This supplemental manual is applicable to Wipline Model 3450 seaplane float equipped

### Pilot Training Manual & Logbook

Canberra Model Aircraft Club Canberra A.C.T Pilot Training Manual & Logbook Issue Date: November 2009 www.cmac.org.au Contents Learning to Fly Radio Controlled Aircraft... 3 Introduction... 3 Student Pilot

### Takeoffs & Landings Refresher. By Wally Moran

Takeoffs & Landings Refresher By Wally Moran About Wally Moran Wally Moran is a retired airline captain and spent much of his career as a training instructor and check airman on aircraft including the

### Part 66 Cat. B1 / B2 Module 8 BASIC AERODYNAMICS. Vilnius Issue 1. Effective date FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY Page 1 of 74

Part 66 Cat. B1 / B2 Module 8 BASIC AERODYNAMICS Vilnius-2017 Issue 1. Effective date 2017-07-28 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY Page 1 of 74 Table of Contents Part-66 Module 8. Basic Aerodynamics (Cat. B1

1. Introduction This example loads report is intended to be read in conjunction with BCAR Section S and CS-VLA both of which can be downloaded from the LAA webpage, and the excellent book Light Aircraft

### Figure 1. Curtis 1911 model D type IV pusher

This material can be found in more detail in Understanding Flight 1 st and 2 nd editions by David Anderson and Scott Eberhardt, McGraw-Hill, 2001, and 2009 A Physical Description of Flight; Revisited David

### Preliminary Analysis of Drag Reduction for The Boeing

Preliminary Analysis of Drag Reduction for The Boeing 747-400 By: Chuck Dixon, Chief Scientist, Vortex Control Technologies LLC 07. 31. 2012 Potential for Airflow Separation That Can Be Reduced By Vortex

### FLIGHT TRAINING INSTRUCTION

NAVAL AIR TRAINING COMMAND NAS CORPUS CHRISTI, TEXAS CNAT RA P-763 (Rev. 10-12) FLIGHT TRAINING INSTRUCTION OUT-OF-CONTROL FLIGHT T-6A/B 2012 FLIGHT TRAINING INSTRUCTION FOR OUT-OF-CONTROL FLIGHT T-6A/B

### 5. A bead slides on a curved wire, starting from rest at point A in the figure below. If the wire is frictionless, find each of the following.

Name: Work and Energy Problems Date: 1. A 2150 kg car moves down a level highway under the actions of two forces: a 1010 N forward force exerted on the drive wheels by the road and a 960 N resistive force.

### Flight Profiles are designed as a guideline. Power settings are recommended and subject to change based

MANEUVERS AND PROCEDURES Flight Profiles are designed as a guideline. Power settings are recommended and subject to change based upon actual conditions (i.e. aircraft weight, pressure altitude, icing conditions,

### Transportation Engineering - II Dr. Rajat Rastogi Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology - Roorkee. Lecture - 35 Exit Taxiway

Transportation Engineering - II Dr. Rajat Rastogi Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology - Roorkee Lecture - 35 Exit Taxiway Dear students, we are back with the lecture series of

### Fighter aircraft design. Aerospace Design Project G. Dimitriadis

Fighter aircraft design Aerospace Design Project 2017-2018 G. Dimitriadis General configuration The elements of the general configuration are the following: Wing Wing placement Airfoil Number of engines

### Compiled by Matt Zagoren

The information provided in this document is to be used during simulated flight only and is not intended to be used in real life. Attention VA's - you may post this file on your site for download. Please

### Discuss: 1. Instrument Flight Checklist

INST 1 Prerequisites: 1. OFT: Tac 1 2. CBT: Basic Instrument Flight, IFR Navigation I & II Lessons P2 501, P2 502, & P2 503. Discuss: 1. Instrument Flight Checklist NATOPS 13.1.3 Instrument Flight Checklist

### Acceleration= Force OVER Mass. Design Considerations for Water-Bottle Rockets

Acceleration= Force OVER Mass Design Considerations for Water-Bottle Rockets The next few pages are provided to help in the design of your water-bottle rocket. Read through this packet and answer the questions

### Surviving Off-Field Landings: Emergency Landing Pattern. By Wally Moran

Surviving Off-Field Landings: Emergency Landing Pattern By Wally Moran About Wally Moran Wally Moran is a retired airline captain and spent much of his career as a training instructor and check airman

### Performance Characteristics

Performance Characteristics This document describes the opening, flying, and landing characteristics of the Zero in comparison to a similarly sized Classic or Parafoil. This will help potential users of

### SAILPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL

WSK "PZL-ŚWIDNIK" S.A. Al. Lotników Polskich 1, 21-045 Świdnik, POLAND SAILPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL Type: PW-6U Serial No.: Registration: Document No.: PW-6U / IUL / I / 03 US M Date of Issue: November 18,