Role of Thermal Condition over Asia in the Weakening Asian Summer Monsoon under Global Warming Background

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Role of Thermal Condition over Asia in the Weakening Asian Summer Monsoon under Global Warming Background"

Transcription

1 1MAY 2012 Z U O E T A L Role of Thermal Condition over Asia in the Weakening Asian Summer Monsoon under Global Warming Background ZHIYAN ZUO Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China SONG YANG AND ARUN KUMAR Climate Prediction Center, NOAA/NWS/NCEP, Camp Springs, Maryland RENHE ZHANG Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China YAN XUE AND BHASKAR JHA Climate Prediction Center, NOAA/NWS/NCEP, Camp Springs, Maryland (Manuscript received 22 December 2011, in final form 14 February 2012) ABSTRACT The large-scale Asian summer monsoon circulation has experienced a weakening tendency in recent decades. Using observed data and output from model experiments with the atmospheric component of the NCEP Climate Forecast System, the authors show that a relatively smaller warming in Asia compared to the surrounding regions may be a plausible reason for this change in the monsoon. Although the surface temperature over Asia has increased, the landmass has become a relative heat sink because of the larger warming in other regions of the world. Indeed, over Asia, the vertically integrated tropospheric temperature in the most recent decades is colder than that in the earlier decades, a feature different from the characteristics outside Asia. 1. Introduction The Asian summer monsoon, which exerts a large impact on agricultural production and hence the economy within and outside Asian countries, is in concord with the seasonal reversal of larger-scale atmospheric heating (Webster et al. 1998; Ding and Chan 2005). The fundamental mechanism of the Asian monsoon is land sea thermal contrast (Webster 1987). By the early 1900s, the major advances in monsoon study include the discovery of the strong links of monsoon with the Himalayan and Eurasian snow extent and with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The former indicates the thermal condition over the Asian landmass (Blanford 1884; Walker 1924). The Asian summer monsoon has also been considered as a low-frequency baroclinic Rossby wave Corresponding author address: Dr.SongYang,ClimatePrediction Center, 5200 Auth Road, Camp Springs, MD response to the heating over Asia. Based on the close relationship between atmospheric heating and regional vertical wind shear (Webster 1972; Gill 1980), Webster and Yang (1992) defined an index (the W Y index) by the vertical shear of zonal winds at 850- and 200-hPa levels averaged over N, E. It depicts the thermally driven nature of monsoon and is widely used in both research and operational prediction of the Asian summer monsoon. ENSO is closely related to the Asian monsoon on interannual time scales through influencing the east west displacement of large-scale heat sources in the tropics (Walker 1924; Rasmusson and Carpenter 1983). During the last decades, global ocean and land surface temperatures have increased and influenced the atmospheric circulation on various scales (Hoerling et al. 2008; Wang et al. 2008). The weakening Asian summer monsoon and the monsoon ENSO relationship may be one of the consequences (Krishnamurthy and Goswami 2000; Kripalani et al. 2001; Kinter et al. 2002; DOI: /JCLI-D Ó 2012 American Meteorological Society

2 3432 J O U R N A L O F C L I M A T E VOLUME 25 Wu 2005; Kucharski et al. 2006; Wang and Ding 2006; Fan et al. 2010; Wu et al. 2010). Kripalani and Kulkarni (1997) showed that the decadal variability of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall might modulate the ENSO monsoon relationship. For example, the impact of El Niño (La Niña) is stronger during the below (above)-normal rainfall epochs. Kumar et al. (1999) viewed that global warming led to a warmer Eurasian continent and a more southeastward shift of the Pacific Walker circulation, playing an important role that favors normal Asian monsoon conditions after the late 1970s. Chang et al. (2001) questioned the impact of interdecadal change of the Walker cell and emphasized the importance of Eurasian surface temperature for the Asian monsoon after the late 1970s. Zhao et al. (2010) documented that the decrease in temperature over the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas under the global warming background weakened the land sea thermal contrast, accompanied by weakened Asian summer monsoon circulation. Other studies, however, questioned the weakening of the Asian summer monsoon and ENSO monsoon relationship and the impact of global warming on the Asian monsoon (e.g., Kripalani et al. 2003; Goswami and Xavier 2005; Zhou et al. 2009). Furthermore, the impact of tropospheric temperature (TT) anomalies over the Eurasian continent on the Asian summer monsoon has received substantial attention during the past decades (Verma 1980; Parthasarathy et al. 1990; Li and Yanai 1996; Singh and Chattopadhyay 1998; Liu and Yanai 2001; Yu et al. 2004; Zhou and Zhang 2009). It has been documented that the Asian monsoon is positively and significantly correlated with the preceding May and June August (JJA) TTs over Asia and that enhanced (weakened) land sea thermal contrast in the upper troposphere occurs during the summer months of strong (weak) monsoon (Ding et al. 2009). Motivated by the previous studies on weakening monsoon ENSO relationship and the importance of thermal condition over the Eurasian continent for the Asian monsoon, we conduct this study to examine the influence of the thermal condition over Asia under the global warming background on the broad-scale Asian summer monsoon circulation measured by the W Y index. 2. Data and methods The datasets used in this study include the monthly air temperature and winds from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP NCAR) reanalysis (Kalnay et al. 1996) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Prediction Center gaugebased monthly global land precipitation data (Chen et al. 2002). They also include the Climate Precipitation Center FIG. 1. (top) Time series of the normalized W Y monsoon index in the NCEP NCAR reanalysis and corresponding linear trend (thick line). (bottom) Difference in JJA observed precipitation between 1995 and 2010 and 1950 and 1994 (in mm day 21 ). monthly land surface air temperature analysis (Fan and Van den Dool 2008). Simulations with eight ensemble members by the atmospheric general circulation model of the NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) with monthly varying CO 2 areusedtodeterminethe impact of global warming on the Asian monsoon as well. All datasets cover the same time period of Weakening Asian summer monsoon during Figure 1a presents the normalized time series of the W Y index and the corresponding linear trend observed for An apparent feature is the observed negative trend, which seems to be related mainly to the major shift that occurred in Positive values mainly appeared in , and negative values frequently occurred in Indeed, the averaged value of the W Y index was 25.9 before 1995 and 24.2 afterward. In this study, we analyze the dynamical monsoon index, instead of the monsoon rainfall index, because the dynamical index measures the large-scale features of monsoon especially the monsoon circulation pattern more appropriately. We choose the W Y monsoon index

3 1MAY 2012 Z U O E T A L because it depicts well the variability of summer monsoon circulation over the broad tropical Asian regions (Wang and Fan 1999; Lau et al. 2000). In contrast, the popular all-india monsoon rainfall (AIMR) index is appropriate for measuring the variability of monsoon over India but does not include the rainfall over the Bay of Bengal, where the maximum monsoon heating is located. Additionally, it cannot represent the variability of the East Asian summer monsoon. Nevertheless, since precipitation is one of the important meteorological parameters describing the variability of monsoon climate, we also discuss the difference in JJA precipitation between 1995 and 2010 and 1950 and Figure 1b clearly shows negative anomalies of rainfall observed around the Bay of Bengal, which indicates a reduction in monsoon rainfall in and is generally in agreement with the weakened monsoon circulation. The observed rainfall anomalies over much of India are also negative. In addition, rainfall anomalies show a positive negative pattern across the Yangtze Huaihe River basin (YHRB) in eastern China. The enhanced rainfall over the south of YHRB and the reduced rainfall over the north of YHRB generally correspond to the weakened East Asian summer monsoon circulation (e.g., Zhou et al. 2009). 4. Relationship between Asian thermal condition and weakening Asian monsoon Warmer Asian landmass usually leads to a larger land sea thermal gradient in summer and thereby a stronger Asian summer monsoon, especially during the recent period of weakening of the monsoon ENSO relationship (Kumar et al. 1999). In this context, a weakened Asian summer monsoon should be associated with a colder condition over the Asian continent. However, it is seen from the normalized time series of surface air temperature over Asian land ( N, E; referred to as STA) that the STA has a positive, instead of negative, trend during the recent 61 yr (Fig. 2; data from Fan and Van den Dool 2008). Therefore, there seems to be a paradox about the relationship between the warming Asian landmass and the weakening Asian summer monsoon. The purple line in Fig. 2 shows the normalized time series of global mean surface air temperature over land (averaged over 608S 808N, E). The global mean temperature has been increasing during the recent 61 yr, consistent with a trend toward warmer temperatures. Global mean temperature is also highly correlated with STA (R ), indicating that the STA varies with the global warming. However, it is also observed that the positive trend of global mean land surface air FIG. 2. Normalized observed time series of the W Y index (black), 2-m air temperature over Asian landmass (red; N, E), global mean 2-m temperature (purple), and difference in 2-m air temperature (blue) between Asian landmass and global means. Shown also are corresponding linear trends. temperature is larger than that of STA. That is, although the surface temperature over Asia has increased, the continent has become relatively cooler when the changes in temperatures in other regions are factored in. The blue line in Fig. 2 shows the normalized time series of residual surface air temperature over land in which the global mean has been removed. Surprisingly, a negative trend appears. Thus, under the background of global warming, the Asian landmass tends to become a relative heat sink, accompanied by a reduced land sea thermal contrast and weakened Asian summer monsoon. Since the Asian summer monsoon is a vertically deep system and is related strongly to the diabatic heating of the atmosphere and the tropospheric temperature, we also examine the vertically integrated tropospheric temperature from 850 to 200 mb in JJA. The vertically integrated temperature is supreme to surface temperature for measuring the thermal condition of the entire troposphere. Figure 3 demonstrates that while the tropospheric temperature increases across most of the globe, it decreases clearly over the Asian continent (smaller decreases in TT are also observed over northern Europe and a small portion of the North Pacific). That is, the meridional and zonal thermal contrasts between the Asian continent and its adjacent regions are becoming smaller. The TT averaged over Asia ( N, E) is positively and significantly correlated with the residual STA with the global means removed (exceeding the 95% confidence level). The correlation between the TT of the negative anomaly center (408N, 1108E) and the residual STA even significantly exceeds the 99.9% confidence level for While a tropospheric warming over Asia and a cooling over tropical oceans and the North Pacific should lead to a stronger Asian summer monsoon, the opposite features shown in Fig. 3 give rise to weakened Asian summer monsoon.

4 3434 J O U R N A L O F C L I M A T E VOLUME 25 FIG. 3. Difference in vertically integrated observed JJA air temperature (310008C 3 kg 3 m 22 ) from 850 to 200 mb between 1995 and 2010 and 1950 and Weakening monsoon simulated by NCEP model Previous studies have shown that the NCEP CFS, which is an atmosphere ocean land fully coupled climate prediction system, has noticeable skills in simulating and predicting the Asian monsoon (e.g., Yang et al. 2008, 2011). The simulated variations of the W Y monsoon index in the mean of eight ensemble members of Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP)- type experiments using the atmospheric model of NCEP CFSv2 with time-varying CO 2 areshowedinfig.4a.the agreement between observation and model output is evident, especially in the low-frequency component, including the positive values before 1995 and the negative values afterward. The simulated liner trend is also close to the observed. This model observation agreement suggests that the long-term change in the observed W Y index is related to the varying CO 2 forcing. The CFSv2 atmospheric model with varying CO 2 also simulates the reduced rainfall over most of India and the Bay of Bengal. It simulates the positive negative precipitation anomalies across the YHRB in China as well (Fig. 4b), although the pattern is less apparent than the observed. That is, with varying CO 2, the CFSv2 atmospheric model captures the weakening tendency of the Asian summer monsoon in the recent 61 yr, representing a link of the weakening monsoon to the global warming. As concluded in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report, most of the observed increase in global averaged temperatures since the midtwentieth century is likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations (Alley et al. 2007). Since CO 2 is the main factor of greenhouse gases, the above feature obtained by varying CO 2 validates that the weakening Asian summer monsoon is related to the global warming. We also note, however, that since the observed sea surface temperature is specified in the AMIP simulations and sea surface temperature variations themselvesmaybeaconsequenceoftheincreaseinco 2 and in turn may affect atmospheric variability, our FIG. 4. As in Fig. 1, but simulated by the atmospheric model of NCEP CFSv2. analysis does not separate the direct and the indirect roles of CO Summary The NCEP NCAR reanalysis and output from AMIP experiments with the atmospheric model of NCEP CFSv2 with varying CO 2, among others, are used to study the change in Asian summer monsoon and its relationship with the thermal condition over Asia under the global warming background. It is demonstrated that the large-scale Asian summer monsoon circulation measured by the W Y index has exhibited a weakening tendency during the recent decades, and that this monsoon tendency is related to the relative cooling trend of the thermal condition over Asia. Temperatures have increased nearly globally in the past decades. However, under this global warming background, the increase in the surface temperature over the Asian landmass is relatively small compared to its adjacent regions. Over this relative cold landmass, heat fluxes from the land surface to the troposphere are relatively small. Indeed, the tropospheric temperature over Asia has become colder in the recent decades. As a consequence, the meridional and zonal land sea thermal contrasts are reduced and the Asian summer monsoon becomes weaker. These features are captured successfully by the atmospheric model of the NCEP CFSv2 with varying CO 2, indicating that the

5 1MAY 2012 Z U O E T A L weakening of the Asian summer monsoon is related to the spatially uneven effects of greenhouse gases. The concept of differential warming is similar to the argument proposed by Vecchi et al. (2008), in which the Atlantic hurricane activity is determined by the relative tropical Atlantic SST anomalies that are different from SST anomalies averaged over global tropical oceans and that it does not depend solely on the local SST anomalies in the tropical Atlantic. It should also be pointed out that the weakening of monsoon is not significantly related to the long-term change in the tropical central-eastern Pacific SST that is often used to measure ENSO. Moreover, the weakening of the broad-scale Asian summer monsoon (measured by the W Y index) is more strongly related to the weakening of monsoon over some regions, such as Southeast Asia, than that over other regions. Details of these features will be reported in a separate paper. Nevertheless, a question that has not been answered is why the warming over Asian landmass is smaller than the warming over other places under the global warming background. Although previous studies have documented an impact of the North Atlantic SST on global warming and the thermal condition over the Eurasian continent (e.g., Chang et al. 2001; Zhang et al. 2007; Kravtsov and Spannagle 2008; Rajeevan and Sridhar 2008), other influences should also be factored in. Further investigations to understand the other possible factors, such as aerosols (Lau et al. 2006; Lau and Kim 2006; Massimo et al. 2011) related to the relatively small warming over Asia and thus the weakening Asian summer monsoon, are undoubtedly necessary. Acknowledgments. The authors appreciate the several constructive discussions with Dr. Dong Xiao of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA). Comments from three anonymous reviewers have improved the overall quality of this paper. This study was jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant , the International S&T Cooperation Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China under Grant 2009DFA21430, the Basic Research Fund of the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences under Grant 2010Z001, and the NOAA-CMA bilateral program. REFERENCES Alley, R., and Coauthors, 2007: Summary for policymakers. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, S. Solomon et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, Blanford, H. H., 1884: On the connexion of the Himalaya snowfall with dry winds and seasons of drought in India. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, 37, Chang, C.-P., P. Harr, and J. Ju, 2001: Possible roles of Atlantic circulations on the weakening Indian monsoon rainfall ENSO relationship. J. Climate, 14, Chen, M., P. Xie, and J. E. Janowiak, 2002: Global land precipitation: A 50-yr monthly analysis based on gauge observations. J. Hydrometeor., 3, Ding, Y., and C. L. Chan, 2005: The East Asian summer monsoon: An overview. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 89, , Y. Sun, Z. Wang, and Y. Song, 2009: Inter-decadal variation of the summer precipitation in China and its association with decreasing Asian summer monsoon part II: Possible causes. Int. J. Climatol., 29, Fan, F., M. E. Mann, S. Lee, and J. L. Evans, 2010: Observed and modeled changes in the South Asian summer monsoon over the historical period. J. Climate, 23, Fan, Y., and H. Van den Dool, 2008: A global monthly land surface air temperature analysis for 1948 present. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D01103, doi: /2007jd Gill, A. E., 1980: Some simple solutions for heat-induced tropical circulation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 106, Goswami, B. N., and P. K. Xavier, 2005: ENSO control on the South Asian monsoon through the length of the rainy season. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L18717, doi: /2005gl Hoerling, M., A. Kumar, J. Eischeid, and B. Jha, 2008: What is causing the variability in global mean land temperature? Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L23712, doi: /2008gl Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, Kinter, J. L., K. Miyakoda, and S. Yang, 2002: Recent change in the connection from the Asian monsoon to ENSO. J. Climate, 15, Kravtsov, S., and C. Spannagle, 2008: Multidecadal climate variability in observed and modeled surface temperature. J. Climate, 21, Kripalani, R. H., and A. Kulkarni, 1997: Climatic impact of El Niño/La Niña on the Indian monsoon: A new perspective. Weather, 52, ,, and S. S. Sabade, 2001: ENSO-monsoon weakening: Is global warming really the player? CLIVAR Exchanges, No. 21, International CLIVAR Project Office, Southampton, United Kingdom, ,,, and M. L. Khandekar, 2003: Indian monsoon variability in a global warming scenario. Nat. Hazards, 29, Krishnamurthy, V., and B. N. Goswami, 2000: Indian monsoon ENSO relationship on interdecadal timescale. J. Climate, 13, Kucharski, F., F. Molteni, and J. H. Yoo, 2006: SST forcing of decadal Indian monsoon rainfall variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L03709, doi: /2005gl Kumar, K. K., B. Rajagopalan, and M. A. Cane, 1999: On the weakening relationship between the Indian monsoon and ENSO. Science, 284, Lau, K.-M., and K.-M. Kim, 2006: Observational relationships between aerosol and Asian monsoon rainfall, and circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L21810, doi: / 2006GL ,, and S. Yang, 2000: Dynamical and boundary forcing characteristics of regional components of the Asian summer monsoon. J. Climate, 13, , M. K. Kim, and K. M. Kim, 2006: Asian summer monsoon anomalies induced by aerosol direct forcing: The role of the Tibetan Plateau. Climate Dyn., 26,

6 3436 J O U R N A L O F C L I M A T E VOLUME 25 Li, C., and M. Yanai, 1996: The onset and interannual variability of the Asian summer monsoon in relation to land sea thermal contrast. J. Climate, 9, Liu, X. D., and M. Yanai, 2001: Relationship between the Indian monsoon rainfall and the tropospheric temperature over the Eurasian continent. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127, Massimo, A. B., Y. Ming, and V. Ramaswamy, 2011: Anthropogenic aerosols and the weakening of the South Asian summer monsoon. Science, 334, Parthasarathy, B., K. R. Kumar, and N. A. Sontakke, 1990: Surface and upper air temperatures over India in relation to monsoon rainfall. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 42, Rajeevan, M., and L. Sridhar, 2008: Inter-annual relationship between Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies and Indian summer monsoon. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L21704, doi: / 2008GL Rasmusson, E. M., and T. H. Carpenter, 1983: The relationship between the eastern Pacific sea surface temperature and rainfall over India and Sri Lanka. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, Singh, G. P., and J. Chattopadhyay, 1998: Relationship of tropospheric temperature anomaly with Indian southwest monsoon rainfall. Int. J. Climatol., 18, Vecchi, G. A., K. L. Swanson, and B. J. Soden, 2008: Whither hurricane activity? Science, 322, Verma, R. K., 1980: Importance of upper tropospheric thermal anomalies for long-range forecasting of Indian summer monsoon activity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, Walker, G. T., 1924: Correlations in seasonal variations of weather. Mem. Indian Meteor. Dep., 24, Wang, B., and Z. Fan, 1999: Choice of South Asian summer monsoon indices. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80, , and Q. Ding, 2006: Changes in global monsoon precipitation over the past 56 years. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L06711, doi: /2005gl , Q. Bao, B. Hoskins, G. Wu, and Y. Liu, 2008: Tibetan Plateau warming and precipitation changes in East Asia. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L14702, doi: /2008gl Webster, P. J., 1972: Response of the tropical atmosphere to local, steady, forcing. Mon. Wea. Rev., 100, , 1987: The elementary monsoon. Monsoons, J. S. Fein and P. L. Stephens, Eds., Wiley Interscience, 3 32., and S. Yang, 1992: Monsoon and ENSO: Selectively interactive systems. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 118, , V. O. Magaña, T. N. Palmer, J. Shukla, R. A. Tomas, M. Yanai, and T. Yasunari, 1998: Monsoons: Progresses, predictability, and the prospects for prediction. J. Geophys. Res., 103 (C7), Wu, B., 2005: Weakening of Indian summer monsoon in recent decades. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 22, Wu, R., S. Yang, S. Liu, Y. Lian, and Z. Gao, 2010: Changes in the relationship between northeast China summer temperature and ENSO. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D21107, doi: / 2010JD Yang, S., Z. Zhang, V. E. Kousky, R. W. Higgins, S.-H. Yoo, J. Liang, and Y. Fan, 2008: Simulations and seasonal prediction of the Asian summer monsoon in the NCEP Climate Forecast System. J. Climate, 21, , M. Wen, R. Yang, W. Higgins, and R. Zhang, 2011: Impacts of land process on the onset and evolution of Asian summer monsoon in the NCEP Climate Forecast System. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 28, Yu, R., B. Wang, and T. Zhou, 2004: Tropospheric cooling and summer monsoon weakening trend over East Asia. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L22212, doi: /2004gl Zhang, R., T. L. Delworth, and I. M. Held, 2007: Can the Atlantic Ocean drive the observed multidecadal variability in Northern Hemisphere mean temperature? Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L02709, doi: /2006gl Zhao, P., S. Yang, and R. Yu, 2010: Long-term changes in rainfall over eastern China and large-scale atmospheric circulation associated with recent global warming. J. Climate, 23, Zhou, T., and J. Zhang, 2009: Harmonious inter-decadal changes of July August upper tropospheric temperature across the North Atlantic, Eurasian continent, and North Pacific. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 26, , D. Gong, J. Li, and B. Li, 2009: Detecting and understanding the multi-decadal variability of the East Asian summer monsoon - Recent progress and state of affairs. Meteor. Z., 18,

Changes in the in-phase relationship between the Indian and subsequent Australian summer monsoons during the past five decades

Changes in the in-phase relationship between the Indian and subsequent Australian summer monsoons during the past five decades Ann. Geophys., 25, 1929 1933, 2007 European Geosciences Union 2007 Annales Geophysicae Changes in the in-phase relationship between the Indian and subsequent Australian summer monsoons during the past

More information

Weakening of the Winter Monsoon and Abrupt Increase of Winter Rainfalls over Northern Taiwan and Southern China in the Early 1980s

Weakening of the Winter Monsoon and Abrupt Increase of Winter Rainfalls over Northern Taiwan and Southern China in the Early 1980s 1MAY 2010 H U N G A N D K A O 2357 Weakening of the Winter Monsoon and Abrupt Increase of Winter Rainfalls over Northern Taiwan and Southern China in the Early 1980s CHIH-WEN HUNG Department of Geography,

More information

Decadal changes in the relationship between Indian and Australian summer monsoons

Decadal changes in the relationship between Indian and Australian summer monsoons Decadal changes in the relationship between Indian and Australian summer monsoons By C. Nagaraju 1, K. Ashok 2, A. Sen Gupta 3 and D.S. Pai 4 1 CES, C-DAC Pune, India 2 CCCR, IITM, Pune, India 3 Universities

More information

Influence of El Nino Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean Dipole in biennial oscillation of Indian summer monsoon

Influence of El Nino Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean Dipole in biennial oscillation of Indian summer monsoon Influence of El Nino Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean Dipole in biennial oscillation of Indian summer monsoon 4.1 Introduction The main contributors to the interannual variability of Indian summer

More information

Rokjin J. Park, Jaein I. Jeong, Minjoong Kim

Rokjin J. Park, Jaein I. Jeong, Minjoong Kim 1. Jeong, J. I. and R. J. Park (2017), Winter monsoon variability and its impact on aerosol concentrations in East Asia, Environmental Pollution, 211, 285-292. 2. Kim, M. J., S. -W. Yeh, and R. J. Park

More information

NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE. Timing of El Niño Related Warming and Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall

NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE. Timing of El Niño Related Warming and Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall 1 JUNE 2008 N O T E S A N D C O R R E S P O N D E N C E 2711 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE Timing of El Niño Related Warming and Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall CHIE IHARA, YOCHANAN KUSHNIR, MARK A. CANE, AND

More information

Currents. History. Pressure Cells 3/13/17. El Nino Southern Oscillation ENSO. Teleconnections and Oscillations. Neutral Conditions

Currents. History. Pressure Cells 3/13/17. El Nino Southern Oscillation ENSO. Teleconnections and Oscillations. Neutral Conditions Teleconnections and Oscillations Teleconnection climate anomalies being related to each other over a large scale Oscillations: Macroscale movement of atmospheric systems that can influence weather, climate,

More information

Traditional El Niño and El Niño Modoki Revisited: Is El Niño Modoki Linearly Independent of Traditional El Niño?

Traditional El Niño and El Niño Modoki Revisited: Is El Niño Modoki Linearly Independent of Traditional El Niño? ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC SCIENCE LETTERS, 2010, VOL. 3, NO. 2, 70 74 Traditional El Niño and El Niño Modoki Revisited: Is El Niño Modoki Linearly Independent of Traditional El Niño? LI Gen, REN Bao-Hua,

More information

Interannual Variability of the Asian Summer Monsoon: Contrasts between the Indian and the Western North Pacific East Asian Monsoons*

Interannual Variability of the Asian Summer Monsoon: Contrasts between the Indian and the Western North Pacific East Asian Monsoons* 15 OCTOBER 2001 WANG ET AL. 4073 Interannual Variability of the Asian Summer Monsoon: Contrasts between the Indian and the Western North Pacific East Asian Monsoons* BIN WANG Department of Meteorology

More information

Analysis of 2012 Indian Ocean Dipole Behavior

Analysis of 2012 Indian Ocean Dipole Behavior Analysis of 2012 Indian Ocean Dipole Behavior Mo Lan National University of Singapore Supervisor: Tomoki TOZUKA Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo Abstract The Indian Ocean

More information

The Influence of Indian Ocean Warming and Soil Moisture Change on the Asian Summer Monsoon

The Influence of Indian Ocean Warming and Soil Moisture Change on the Asian Summer Monsoon SUST Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 20, No. 6, 2012; P:89-98 The Influence of Indian Ocean Warming and Soil Moisture Change on the Asian Summer Monsoon (Submitted: July 18, 2012; Accepted for

More information

ENSO Cycle: Recent Evolution, Current Status and Predictions. Update prepared by Climate Prediction Center / NCEP 4 September 2012

ENSO Cycle: Recent Evolution, Current Status and Predictions. Update prepared by Climate Prediction Center / NCEP 4 September 2012 ENSO Cycle: Recent Evolution, Current Status and Predictions Update prepared by Climate Prediction Center / NCEP 4 September 2012 Outline Overview Recent Evolution and Current Conditions Oceanic Niño Index

More information

The East Asian Subtropical Summer Monsoon: Recent Progress

The East Asian Subtropical Summer Monsoon: Recent Progress NO.2 HE Jinhai and LIU Boqi 135 The East Asian Subtropical Summer Monsoon: Recent Progress HE Jinhai 1,3 (Û7 ) and LIU Boqi 2,4 (4ËÛ) 1 Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education,

More information

Symmetry and Asymmetry of the Asian and Australian Summer Monsoons

Symmetry and Asymmetry of the Asian and Australian Summer Monsoons 15 JUNE 2004 HUNG ET AL. 2413 Symmetry and Asymmetry of the Asian and Australian Summer Monsoons CHIH-WEN HUNG * Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles,

More information

The General Circulation and El Niño. Dr. Christopher M. Godfrey University of North Carolina at Asheville

The General Circulation and El Niño. Dr. Christopher M. Godfrey University of North Carolina at Asheville The General Circulation and El Niño Dr. Christopher M. Godfrey University of North Carolina at Asheville Global Circulation Model Air flow broken up into 3 cells Easterlies in the tropics (trade winds)

More information

The Tropospheric Biennial Oscillation and Asian Australian Monsoon Rainfall

The Tropospheric Biennial Oscillation and Asian Australian Monsoon Rainfall 722 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE The Tropospheric Biennial Oscillation and Asian Australian Monsoon Rainfall GERALD A. MEEHL AND JULIE M. ARBLASTER National Center for Atmospheric Research,* Boulder, Colorado (Manuscript

More information

Steady decline of east Asian monsoon winds, : Evidence from direct ground measurements of wind speed

Steady decline of east Asian monsoon winds, : Evidence from direct ground measurements of wind speed Click Here for Full Article JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 111,, doi:10.1029/2006jd007337, 2006 Steady decline of east Asian monsoon winds, 1969 2000: Evidence from direct ground measurements of

More information

NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE. Contributions of Indian Ocean and Monsoon Biases to the Excessive Biennial ENSO in CCSM3

NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE. Contributions of Indian Ocean and Monsoon Biases to the Excessive Biennial ENSO in CCSM3 1850 J O U R N A L O F C L I M A T E VOLUME 22 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE Contributions of Indian Ocean and Monsoon Biases to the Excessive Biennial ENSO in CCSM3 JIN-YI YU, FENGPENG SUN,* AND HSUN-YING

More information

Propagation of planetary-scale zonal mean wind anomalies and polar oscillations

Propagation of planetary-scale zonal mean wind anomalies and polar oscillations Article Atmospheric Science July 2012 Vol.57 No.20: 2606 261 doi: 10.1007/s113-012-5168-1 SPECIAL TOPICS: Propagation of planetary-scale zonal mean wind anomalies and polar oscillations QIAN WeiHong *

More information

Climate model errors over the South Indian Ocean thermocline dome and their. effect on the basin mode of interannual variability.

Climate model errors over the South Indian Ocean thermocline dome and their. effect on the basin mode of interannual variability. Climate model errors over the South Indian Ocean thermocline dome and their effect on the basin mode of interannual variability Gen Li* State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute

More information

Global Impacts of El Niño on Agriculture

Global Impacts of El Niño on Agriculture Global Impacts of El Niño on Agriculture Presented to the University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture s Food and Agribusiness Series Webinar Series Presented by: Mark Brusberg and Brian Morris USDA

More information

Asymmetry in zonal phase propagation of ENSO sea surface temperature anomalies

Asymmetry in zonal phase propagation of ENSO sea surface temperature anomalies Click Here for Full Article GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 36, L13703, doi:10.1029/2009gl038774, 2009 Asymmetry in zonal phase propagation of ENSO sea surface temperature anomalies Michael J. McPhaden

More information

MFE 659 Lecture 2b El Niño/La Niña Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction. El Niño La Niña Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction. Intro to Ocean Circulation

MFE 659 Lecture 2b El Niño/La Niña Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction. El Niño La Niña Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction. Intro to Ocean Circulation MFE 659 Lecture 2b El Niño/La Niña Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction El Niño La Niña Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction Outline Ocean Circulation El Niño La Niña Southern Oscillation ENSO 1 2 Intro to Ocean Circulation

More information

East Asian monsoon change for the 21st century: Results of CMIP3 and CMIP5 models

East Asian monsoon change for the 21st century: Results of CMIP3 and CMIP5 models Article SPECIAL ISSUE: Extreme Climate in China April 2013 Vol.58 No.12: 1427 1435 doi: 10.1007/s11434-012-5533-0 SPECIAL TOPICS: East Asian monsoon change for the 21st century: Results of CMIP3 and CMIP5

More information

GEOS 201 Lab 13 Climate of Change InTeGrate Module Case studies 2.2 & 3.1

GEOS 201 Lab 13 Climate of Change InTeGrate Module Case studies 2.2 & 3.1 Discerning Patterns: Does the North Atlantic oscillate? Climate variability, or short term climate change, can wreak havoc around the world. Dramatic year to year shifts in weather can have unanticipated

More information

OBSERVATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SUMMER AND WINTER MONSOONS OVER EAST ASIA. PART II: RESULTS

OBSERVATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SUMMER AND WINTER MONSOONS OVER EAST ASIA. PART II: RESULTS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLIMATOLOGY Int. J. Climatol. 25: 453 468 (05) Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/joc.1153 OBSERVATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SUMMER

More information

Unraveling The Mystery of Indian Monsoon Failure During El Niño

Unraveling The Mystery of Indian Monsoon Failure During El Niño Unraveling The Mystery of Indian Monsoon Failure During El Niño K. Krishna Kumar 1, Balaji Rajagopalan 2,3, Martin Hoerling 4,*, Gary Bates 4 and Mark Cane 5 1 Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology,

More information

Equatorial upwelling. Example of regional winds of small scale

Equatorial upwelling. Example of regional winds of small scale Example of regional winds of small scale Sea and land breezes Note on Fig. 8.11. Shows the case for southern hemisphere! Coastal upwelling and downwelling. Upwelling is caused by along shore winds, that

More information

VEGETATION VARIATIONS ALONG THE MONSOON BOUNDARY ZONE IN EAST ASIA

VEGETATION VARIATIONS ALONG THE MONSOON BOUNDARY ZONE IN EAST ASIA CHINESE JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICS Vol.49, No.3, 2006, pp: 627 636 VEGETATION VARIATIONS ALONG THE MONSOON BOUNDARY ZONE IN EAST ASIA OU Ting-Hai QIAN Wei-Hong Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Peking University,

More information

GEOS 513 ENSO: Past, Present and Future

GEOS 513 ENSO: Past, Present and Future GEOS 513 ENSO: Past, Present and Future Jessica Conroy Department of Geosciences Stephen W. Bieda, III Department of Atmospheric Sciences February 22, 2006: Regional Teleconnections (Observations) References:

More information

The OCEANS and Indian Monsoon. Climate Variability

The OCEANS and Indian Monsoon. Climate Variability The OCEANS and Indian Monsoon Weather, Climate and the OCEANS Climate Variability B. N. Goswami Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune 3 rd OSICON, 26-28 Nov, 2013, IITM, Pune The Sun-Earth System

More information

Tropical Pacific Ocean remains on track for El Niño in 2014

Tropical Pacific Ocean remains on track for El Niño in 2014 1 of 10 3/06/2014 3:33 PM ENSO Wrap-Up Current state of the Pacific and Indian Ocean Tropical Pacific Ocean remains on track for El Niño in 2014 Issued on Tuesday 3 June 2014 Product Code IDCKGEWWOO The

More information

El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)

El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Modes Indian of Indo-Pacific Ocean Capacitor: variability and predictability History, Dynamics, of East Asian and Impact climate Shang-Ping Xie 1,2 Yan Du 3,Gang Huang 4,J. Chowdary 1, Kaiming Hu 4, Jan

More information

ENSO Wrap-Up. Current state of the Pacific and Indian Ocean

ENSO Wrap-Up. Current state of the Pacific and Indian Ocean 18-11-2014 ENSO Wrap-Up Current state of the Pacific and Indian Ocean Tropical Pacific Ocean moves closer to El Niño The Pacific Ocean has shown some renewed signs of El Niño development in recent weeks.

More information

General Introduction to Climate Drivers and BoM Climate Services Products

General Introduction to Climate Drivers and BoM Climate Services Products General Introduction to Climate Drivers and BoM Climate Services Products Climate Information Services Australian Bureau of Meteorology Yuriy Kuleshov El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) El Niño Southern

More information

ATMS 310 Tropical Dynamics

ATMS 310 Tropical Dynamics ATMS 310 Tropical Dynamics Introduction Throughout the semester we have focused on mid-latitude dynamics. This is not to say that the dynamics of other parts of the world, such as the tropics, are any

More information

Possible Effects of Global Warming on Tropical Cyclone Activity

Possible Effects of Global Warming on Tropical Cyclone Activity Possible Effects of Global Warming on Tropical Cyclone Activity Johnny Chan Guy Carpenter Asia-Pacific Climate Impact Centre School of Energy and Environment City University of Hong Kong Outline Background

More information

National Weather Service

National Weather Service National Weather Service The North American Monsoon Until the late 1970s, there was serious debate about whether a monsoon truly existed in North America. However, considerable research, which culminated

More information

Somali Jet in the Arabian Sea, El Niño, and India Rainfall

Somali Jet in the Arabian Sea, El Niño, and India Rainfall 434 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE VOLUME 14 Somali Jet in the Arabian Sea, El Niño, and India Rainfall DAVID HALPERN AND PETER M. WOICESHYN Earth and Space Sciences Division, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California

More information

Historical Analysis of Montañita, Ecuador for April 6-14 and March 16-24

Historical Analysis of Montañita, Ecuador for April 6-14 and March 16-24 Historical Analysis of Montañita, Ecuador for April 6-14 and March 16-24 Prepared for the ISA by Mark Willis and the Surfline Forecast and Science Teams Figure 1. Perfect Right- hander at Montañita, Ecuador

More information

A large-scale perspective on the land-sea breeze circulation over East Asia and Western Pacific

A large-scale perspective on the land-sea breeze circulation over East Asia and Western Pacific A large-scale perspective on the land-sea breeze circulation over East Asia and Western Pacific Judy W. R. Huang 1, Johnny C. L. Chan 1, and Simon S. Y. Wang 2 1. Guy Carpenter Asia-Pacific Climate Impact

More information

An ITCZ-like convergence zone over the Indian Ocean in boreal late autumn

An ITCZ-like convergence zone over the Indian Ocean in boreal late autumn Click Here for Full Article GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 34, L10811, doi:10.1029/2006gl028341, 2007 An ITCZ-like convergence zone over the Indian Ocean in boreal late autumn N. Sato, 1 K. Yoneyama,

More information

Variability of the Australian Monsoon and Precipitation Trends at Darwin

Variability of the Australian Monsoon and Precipitation Trends at Darwin 15 NOVEMBER 2014 E V A N S E T A L. 8487 Variability of the Australian Monsoon and Precipitation Trends at Darwin STUART EVANS, ROGER MARCHAND, AND THOMAS ACKERMAN Department of Atmospheric Sciences, and

More information

Monsoon. Arabic word mausim means season. Loose definition: a wind/precipitation pattern that shifts seasonally

Monsoon. Arabic word mausim means season. Loose definition: a wind/precipitation pattern that shifts seasonally Monsoon Arabic word mausim means season Loose definition: a wind/precipitation pattern that shifts seasonally Classical criteria (Ramage 1971) Prevailing wind shifts 120 o between Jan & July Average frequency

More information

The impacts of explicitly simulated gravity waves on large-scale circulation in the

The impacts of explicitly simulated gravity waves on large-scale circulation in the The impacts of explicitly simulated gravity waves on large-scale circulation in the Southern Hemisphere. Linda Mudoni Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences October 2003 Introduction In the

More information

El Niño climate disturbance in northern Madagascar and in the Comoros

El Niño climate disturbance in northern Madagascar and in the Comoros El Niño climate disturbance in northern Madagascar and in the Comoros Rabeharisoa J. M.¹, Ratiarison A.¹, Rakotovao N.¹, Salim Ahmed Ali¹ ² (*) ¹ Laboratoire de Dynamique de l Atmosphère, du Climat et

More information

Typhoon Vamei: An Equatorial Tropical Cyclone Formation

Typhoon Vamei: An Equatorial Tropical Cyclone Formation 1 Typhoon Vamei: An Equatorial Tropical Cyclone Formation C.-P. Chang, Ching-Hwang Liu 1, Hung-Chi Kuo 2 Department of Meteorology, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA Abstract. Due to the diminishing

More information

MIRAGES MONSOON. Overview. Further Reading. See also

MIRAGES MONSOON. Overview. Further Reading. See also MONSOONS / Overview 1365 Like the SAO, the theoretical understanding of the QBO is that it is forced by momentum transfer by vertically propagating waves forced in the lower atmosphere, interacting with

More information

Variance-Preserving Power Spectral Analysis of Current, Wind and 20º Isothermal Depth of RAMA Project from the Equatorial Indian Ocean

Variance-Preserving Power Spectral Analysis of Current, Wind and 20º Isothermal Depth of RAMA Project from the Equatorial Indian Ocean Variance-Preserving Power Spectral Analysis of Current, Wind and 20º Isothermal Depth of RAMA Project from the Equatorial Indian Ocean Vivek Kumar Pandey K. Banerjee Centre of Atmospheric and Ocean Studies

More information

Pos o s s i s b i l b e l e E ff f e f c e t c s t s o f o G o l b o a b l a l W a W r a mi m n i g n g o n o

Pos o s s i s b i l b e l e E ff f e f c e t c s t s o f o G o l b o a b l a l W a W r a mi m n i g n g o n o Possible Effects of Global Warming on Tropical Cyclone Activity Johnny Chan Guy Carpenter Asia-Pacific Climate Impact Centre School of Energy and Environment City University of Hong Kong Outline Background

More information

GROWING SEASON TEMPERATURES

GROWING SEASON TEMPERATURES Ag-Weather Update: Review of Summer Growing Season & Update on the Wet Forecast for Fall & Winter Paul W. Brown Extension Specialist, Biometeorology College of Agriculture & Life Sciences University of

More information

Atmosphere Warm Ocean Interaction and Its Impacts on Asian Australian Monsoon Variation*

Atmosphere Warm Ocean Interaction and Its Impacts on Asian Australian Monsoon Variation* 1195 Atmosphere Warm Ocean Interaction and Its Impacts on Asian Australian Monsoon Variation* BIN WANG International Pacific Research Center, and Department of Meteorology, University of Hawaii at Manoa,

More information

How to Measure the Strength of the East Asian Summer Monsoon

How to Measure the Strength of the East Asian Summer Monsoon 1SEPTEMBER 2008 W A N G E T A L. 4449 How to Measure the Strength of the East Asian Summer Monsoon BIN WANG,* ZHIWEI WU, JIANPING LI, JIAN LIU, # CHIH-PEI CHANG, @ YIHUI DING, & AND GUOXIONG WU * Department

More information

Atmospheric and Ocean Circulation Lab

Atmospheric and Ocean Circulation Lab Atmospheric and Ocean Circulation Lab name Key Objectives: The main goal of this lab is to learn about atmospheric and oceanic circulation and how these two processes are strongly inter-dependent and strongly

More information

CHAPTER 7 Ocean Circulation

CHAPTER 7 Ocean Circulation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 CHAPTER 7 Ocean Circulation Words Ocean currents Moving seawater Surface ocean currents Transfer heat from warmer to cooler areas Similar to pattern of major wind belts

More information

Climatic and marine environmental variations associated with fishing conditions of tuna species in the Indian Ocean

Climatic and marine environmental variations associated with fishing conditions of tuna species in the Indian Ocean Climatic and marine environmental variations associated with fishing conditions of tuna species in the Indian Ocean Kuo-Wei Lan and Ming-An Lee Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries Science,

More information

A comparison of regional monsoon variability using monsoon indices

A comparison of regional monsoon variability using monsoon indices Clim Dyn DOI 10.1007/s00382-013-1956-9 A comparison of regional monsoon variability using monsoon indices So-Young Yim Bin Wang Jian Liu Zhiwei Wu Received: 4 August 2013 / Accepted: 23 September 2013

More information

Annual amphidromes observed in the atmosphere with remote sensing data

Annual amphidromes observed in the atmosphere with remote sensing data Click Here for Full Article JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 113,, doi:10.1029/2008jd009864, 2008 Annual amphidromes observed in the atmosphere with remote sensing data Caiyun Zhang, 1,2 Ge Chen,

More information

Climatic and marine environmental variations associated with fishing conditions of tuna species in the Indian Ocean

Climatic and marine environmental variations associated with fishing conditions of tuna species in the Indian Ocean Climatic and marine environmental variations associated with fishing conditions of tuna species in the Indian Ocean Kuo-Wei Lan and Ming-An Lee Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries Science,

More information

ESCI 485 Air/sea Interaction Lesson 9 Equatorial Adjustment and El Nino Dr. DeCaria

ESCI 485 Air/sea Interaction Lesson 9 Equatorial Adjustment and El Nino Dr. DeCaria ESCI 485 Air/sea Interaction Lesson 9 Equatorial Adjustment and El Nino Dr. DeCaria Reference: El Nino, La Nina, and the Southern Oscillation, Philander THE TWO-LAYER SHALLOW WATER MODEL The ocean can

More information

Impact of different El Niño types on the El Niño/IOD relationship

Impact of different El Niño types on the El Niño/IOD relationship Impact of different El Niño types on the El Niño/IOD relationship Article Accepted Version Zhang, W., Wang, Y., Jin, F. F., Stuecker, M. F. and Turner, A. G. (2015) Impact of different El Niño types on

More information

Lecture 13. Global Wind Patterns and the Oceans EOM

Lecture 13. Global Wind Patterns and the Oceans EOM Lecture 13. Global Wind Patterns and the Oceans EOM Global Wind Patterns and the Oceans Drag from wind exerts a force called wind stress on the ocean surface in the direction of the wind. The currents

More information

Role of Antecedent Land Surface Conditions in Warm Season Precipitation over Northwestern Mexico

Role of Antecedent Land Surface Conditions in Warm Season Precipitation over Northwestern Mexico 1774 J O U R N A L O F C L I M A T E VOLUME 20 Role of Antecedent Land Surface Conditions in Warm Season Precipitation over Northwestern Mexico CHUNMEI ZHU Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,

More information

Climatology of the 10-m wind along the west coast of South American from 30 years of high-resolution reanalysis

Climatology of the 10-m wind along the west coast of South American from 30 years of high-resolution reanalysis Climatology of the 10-m wind along the west coast of South American from 30 years of high-resolution reanalysis David A. Rahn and René D. Garreaud Departamento de Geofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas

More information

Simple Mathematical, Dynamical Stochastic Models Capturing the Observed Diversity of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Andrew J.

Simple Mathematical, Dynamical Stochastic Models Capturing the Observed Diversity of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Andrew J. Simple Mathematical, Dynamical Stochastic Models Capturing the Observed Diversity of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Andrew J. Majda Co-instructors: Nan Chen and Sulian Thual Center for Atmosphere

More information

National Weather Service

National Weather Service National Weather Service Gulf of California Moisture Surges Gulf of California moisture surges, or simply Gulf Surges, are one of the most researched components of the North American Monsoon. As early

More information

4. SUMMER MONSOONS IN EAST ASIA, INDOCHINA AND THE WESTERN NORTH PACIFIC

4. SUMMER MONSOONS IN EAST ASIA, INDOCHINA AND THE WESTERN NORTH PACIFIC 43 4. SUMMER MONSOONS IN EAST ASIA, INDOCHINA AND THE WESTERN NORTH PACIFIC TIANJUN ZHOU LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China E-mail: zhoutj@lasg.iap.ac.cn

More information

Pacific East Asian Teleconnection: How Does ENSO Affect East Asian Climate?*

Pacific East Asian Teleconnection: How Does ENSO Affect East Asian Climate?* 1MAY 2000 WANG ET AL. 1517 Pacific East Asian Teleconnection: How Does ENSO Affect East Asian Climate?* BIN WANG, RENGUANG WU, AND XIOUHUA FU Department of Meteorology and International Pacific Research

More information

Climate Science INTER-ANNUAL TO DECADAL CLIMATE VARIABILITY/COASTAL UPWELLING AND COASTAL CLIMATES. MONITORING EL NIÑO and LA NIÑA

Climate Science INTER-ANNUAL TO DECADAL CLIMATE VARIABILITY/COASTAL UPWELLING AND COASTAL CLIMATES. MONITORING EL NIÑO and LA NIÑA Climate Science INTER-ANNUAL TO DECADAL CLIMATE VARIABILITY/COASTAL UPWELLING AND COASTAL CLIMATES MONITORING EL NIÑO and LA NIÑA Background: Before 1982, few Americans had ever heard of the term El Niño,

More information

Intra-seasonal oscillation of north east monsoon over southern peninsular India-an investigation

Intra-seasonal oscillation of north east monsoon over southern peninsular India-an investigation International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 2, Issue 8, August 2012 1 Intra-seasonal oscillation of north east monsoon over southern peninsular India-an investigation B. V. Charlotte

More information

Meteorology. Circle the letter that corresponds to the correct answer

Meteorology. Circle the letter that corresponds to the correct answer Chapter 7 Worksheet 2 Meteorology Name: Circle the letter that corresponds to the correct answer 1) Which of the following factors contributes to the general subsidence in the latitude zone 20 degrees

More information

Abrupt Change in the First Tropopause Height over Xinjiang in 1960J1999

Abrupt Change in the First Tropopause Height over Xinjiang in 1960J1999 Advances in Climate Change Research Articles Article ID: 1673-1719 (2006) Suppl. 1-0041-05 Abrupt Change in the First Tropopause Height over Xinjiang in 1960J1999 Zhang Guangxing 1, Li Juan 1, Cui Caixia

More information

Stable isotopes in precipitation in the Asian monsoon region

Stable isotopes in precipitation in the Asian monsoon region JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 110,, doi:10.1029/2005jd006022, 2005 Stable isotopes in precipitation in the Asian monsoon region M. Vuille Climate System Research Center, Department of Geosciences,

More information

McKnight's Physical Geography 11e

McKnight's Physical Geography 11e Chapter 2 Lecture McKnight's Physical Geography 11e Lectures Chapter 5 Atmospheric Pressure and Wind Michael Commons Ohio Northern University Atmospheric Pressure and Wind The Nature of Atmospheric Pressure

More information

Response of the Indian Ocean Basin Mode and Its Capacitor Effect to Global Warming*

Response of the Indian Ocean Basin Mode and Its Capacitor Effect to Global Warming* 6146 J O U R N A L O F C L I M A T E VOLUME 24 Response of the Indian Ocean Basin Mode and Its Capacitor Effect to Global Warming* XIAO-TONG ZHENG Physical Oceanography Laboratory, Ocean Atmosphere Interaction

More information

Indian Ocean Seasonal Cycle Jérôme Vialard (IRD) LOCEAN Paris France From Schott & McCreary (Prog. Oc.

Indian Ocean Seasonal Cycle Jérôme Vialard (IRD) LOCEAN Paris France From Schott & McCreary (Prog. Oc. Indian Ocean Seasonal Cycle Jérôme Vialard (IRD) LOCEAN Paris France jerome.vialard@ird.fr From Schott & McCreary (Prog. Oc. 2001) Outline The monsoon cycle The basin-scale dynamical response Thermocline

More information

Understanding the Role of Water Vapor Transport Anomalies in Asian and African Monsoon Droughts Using New Satellite Observations

Understanding the Role of Water Vapor Transport Anomalies in Asian and African Monsoon Droughts Using New Satellite Observations Understanding the Role of Water Vapor Transport Anomalies in Asian and African Monsoon Droughts Using New Satellite Observations Chris Funk, USGS EROS, UCSB CHG NASA PMM meeting, Salt Lake City, Oct. 27

More information

A Diagnostic Comparison of Alaskan and Siberian Strong Anticyclones

A Diagnostic Comparison of Alaskan and Siberian Strong Anticyclones 15 MAY 2011 J O N E S A N D C O H E N 2599 A Diagnostic Comparison of Alaskan and Siberian Strong Anticyclones JUSTIN E. JONES AND JUDAH COHEN Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Lexington, Massachusetts

More information

THE EFFECT OF THE OCEAN EDDY ON TROPICAL CYCLONE INTENSITY

THE EFFECT OF THE OCEAN EDDY ON TROPICAL CYCLONE INTENSITY TE EFFECT OF TE OCEAN ON TROPICAL CYCLONE INTENSITY 3C.1 Chia-Ying Lee and Chun-Chieh Wu* Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 1. INTRODUCTION It has been widely

More information

Air Pressure and Wind

Air Pressure and Wind Air Pressure and Wind 19.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air. Air pressure is exerted in all directions down, up, and sideways. The

More information

A 10-15year Modulation Cycle of ENSO Intensity

A 10-15year Modulation Cycle of ENSO Intensity A 10-15year Modulation Cycle of ENSO Intensity Fengpeng Sun and Jin-Yi Yu Department of Earth System Science University of California, Irvine Irvine, California, USA Revised on July, 23 th, 2008 Submitted

More information

El Niño/La Niña and their Effect on monsoon precipitation over Indian subcontinent Speaker: Jitendra Kumar Meher,

El Niño/La Niña and their Effect on monsoon precipitation over Indian subcontinent Speaker: Jitendra Kumar Meher, Seminar: II Course: AGM-692 El Niño/La Niña and their Effect on monsoon precipitation over Indian subcontinent Speaker: Jitendra Kumar Meher, Chairman: Prof. L. Das Ph.D. 4 th Semester Seminar Leader:

More information

Chapter. Air Pressure and Wind

Chapter. Air Pressure and Wind Chapter Air Pressure and Wind 19.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air. 19.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure

More information

El Niño Lecture Notes

El Niño Lecture Notes El Niño Lecture Notes There is a huge link between the atmosphere & ocean. The oceans influence the atmosphere to affect climate, but the atmosphere also influences the ocean, which can also affect climate.

More information

Influence of atmospheric circulation on the Namibian upwelling system and the oxygen minimum zone

Influence of atmospheric circulation on the Namibian upwelling system and the oxygen minimum zone International Liege colloquium Influence of atmospheric circulation on the Namibian upwelling system and the oxygen minimum zone Nele Tim, Eduardo Zorita, Birgit Hünicke 09.05.2014 / University of Liège

More information

Leeuwin Current - Reading

Leeuwin Current - Reading Leeuwin Current At 5,500 kilometres, the Leeuwin is our longest ocean current! One of Australia s most influential natural features, the Leeuwin Current, has been confirmed as the longest continuous coastal

More information

Cold tongue and warm pool ENSO events in CMIP5: mean state and future projections

Cold tongue and warm pool ENSO events in CMIP5: mean state and future projections 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Cold tongue and warm pool ENSO events in CMIP5: mean state and future projections Andréa S. Taschetto

More information

WORKING PAPER SKJ 1 IMPACT OF ENSO ON SURFACE TUNA HABITAT IN THE WESTERN AND CENTRAL PACIFIC OCEAN. Patrick Lehodey

WORKING PAPER SKJ 1 IMPACT OF ENSO ON SURFACE TUNA HABITAT IN THE WESTERN AND CENTRAL PACIFIC OCEAN. Patrick Lehodey Impact of ENSO on surface tuna habitat 1 WORKING PAPER SKJ 1 IMPACT OF ENSO ON SURFACE TUNA HABITAT IN THE WESTERN AND CENTRAL PACIFIC OCEAN Patrick Lehodey Oceanic Fisheries Programme Secretariat of the

More information

18.1 Understanding Air Pressure 18.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Measuring Air Pressure Air pressure barometer

18.1 Understanding Air Pressure 18.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Measuring Air Pressure Air pressure barometer 18.1 Understanding Air Pressure 18.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air. Air pressure is exerted in all directions down, up, and sideways.

More information

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS LIST OF SYMBOLS LIST OF APPENDICES

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS LIST OF SYMBOLS LIST OF APPENDICES vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE AUTHOR S DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS LIST OF SYMBOLS LIST OF

More information

Climate and Floods In Myanmar. Tin Yi (Assistant Director) DMH MYANMAR

Climate and Floods In Myanmar. Tin Yi (Assistant Director) DMH MYANMAR Climate and Floods In Myanmar Tin Yi (Assistant Director) DMH MYANMAR Lat 9 30 to 28 30 N, Long - 92 10 to 101 11 E Neighbouring countries India, Bangladesh, China, Laos, Thailand, 92 94 96 100 N INDIA

More information

The impact of the El Niño Southern Oscillation. on Rainfall Variability in Timor-Leste

The impact of the El Niño Southern Oscillation. on Rainfall Variability in Timor-Leste The impact of the El Niño Southern Oscillation on Rainfall Variability in Timor-Leste A TLSA conference paper submitted by: Samuel Bacon, Florindo Morais Neto, Isabel Soares Pereira, Robert Williams. Seeds

More information

A Global Climatology of Wind Wave Interaction

A Global Climatology of Wind Wave Interaction JUNE 2010 H A N L E Y E T A L. 1263 A Global Climatology of Wind Wave Interaction KIRSTY E. HANLEY AND STEPHEN E. BELCHER Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom PETER

More information

Meridional movement of wind anomalies during ENSO events and their role in event termination

Meridional movement of wind anomalies during ENSO events and their role in event termination GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 4, 749 754, doi:./grl.536, 3 Meridional movement of wind anomalies during ENSO events and their role in event termination Shayne McGregor,, Nandini Ramesh, Paul Spence,,

More information

Tropical Cold Point Tropopause Characteristics Derived from ECMWF Reanalyses and Soundings

Tropical Cold Point Tropopause Characteristics Derived from ECMWF Reanalyses and Soundings 15 APRIL 2001 ZHOU ET AL. 1823 Tropical Cold Point Tropopause Characteristics Derived from ECMWF Reanalyses and Soundings XUELONG ZHOU, MARVIN A. GELLER, AND MINGHUA ZHANG Institute for Terrestrial and

More information

Global Winds AOSC 200 Tim Canty

Global Winds AOSC 200 Tim Canty Global Winds AOSC 200 Tim Canty Class Web Site: http://www.atmos.umd.edu/~tcanty/aosc200 Topics for today: Global Wind Patterns Deserts Jet Stream Monsoons Ocean transport Ocean cycles Lecture 16 Oct 24

More information

Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation-

Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- Overview: Atmosphere & Climate Atmospheric layers Heating at different latitudes Atmospheric convection cells (Hadley, Ferrel, Polar) Coriolis Force Generation of winds

More information

Interactions between ENSO, Monsoon and Diurnal Cycle in Rainfall Variability over Java, Indonesia

Interactions between ENSO, Monsoon and Diurnal Cycle in Rainfall Variability over Java, Indonesia 1 Interactions between ENSO, Monsoon and Diurnal Cycle in Rainfall Variability over Java, Indonesia Jian-Hua Qian 1*, Andrew W. Robertson 1, Vincent Moron 2 1 International Research Institute for Climate

More information

Name Date L.O: SWBAT explain what breezes, planetary winds, ocean currents & monsoons are.

Name Date L.O: SWBAT explain what breezes, planetary winds, ocean currents & monsoons are. Name Date L.O: SWBAT explain what breezes, planetary winds, ocean currents & monsoons are. 1. A cool breeze is blowing toward the land from the ocean on a warm, cloudless summer day. This condition is

More information