1 Air moves towards ITCZ in tropics because of rising air - convection Horizontal extent of Hadley cell is modified by Friction Coriolis Force
2 Speed from rotation Objects at rest on Earth move at very different speeds depending on their latitude: Latitude Poles (90 ) 0 Seattle (47 N) Equator (0 ) speed 1400 km/hr (1000 miles/hr!) 1700 km/hr
3 Coriolis Effect Toss a ball straight up while you are walking Does it move horizontally with you as you walk? What about when air at rest at latitude A is pushed toward latitude B?
4 Coriolis Effect for North-South Motions Red Arrows represent motion of objects at rest on the surface The yellow arrow shows the deflection to the right of the tip of the upper red arrow head The green arrow shows the deflection to the left of the tip of the middle arrow head
5 Coriolis Effect for East-West Motions Fig 4-10 Not expected to repeat argument for this one
6 Facts about the Coriolis Effect Displaces winds to the right in the NH (left in the SH) - Think tropical trade winds Only acts on something (like the wind) when it is in motion on a rotating body It is zero on the equator It s a fictitious force, but a useful concept Doesn t affect water in your sink What if the Earth were a cylinder? Where would the Coriolis effect act?
7 Midlatitude Circulations Cold sinking air - leads to high pressure at surface. Surface flow is toward the tropics. H L H Surface flow causes polar front zone to slope Front is wavy in the horizontal - high temperature gradient on rotating plane fuels atmospheric waves
8 Polar front causes jet stream The j stands for jet stream Strong temperature gradient causes Large horizontal pressure gradient along the red dashed line Large pressure gradient must be balanced by Coriolis force j L H
9 Horizontal Plane through Jet Low pressure (to the north) P G isobars V G C High pressure (to the south) Forces in balance give Geostrophic Flow P G = C The Jet Stream is a Geostrophic Wind
10 isobars Low pressure P G High pressure C V G Remember the rule: Low on the left In the Northern Hemisphere
11 Like isobars 300 mb Height Map - Contours of topography of the 300mb pressure surface at a snapshot Wind direction is along contours Wind speed is highest where contours are close Winds, while meandering, are westerly Jet stream is very wavy
12 Surface has friction F, which causes real surface winds V to deflect towards L but away from H Low pressure F P G High pressure C V V G
13 Surface Low - Storm Short-lived roughly circular isobars L Geostrophic flow is circular But friction destroys geostrophic balance isobars So actual flow is converges slightly into low. Air has to go somewhere, so it goes UP, making lows cloudy. Opposite for high
14 Earth-Sun relationship Eccentricity = Difference of orbit from a perfect circle Earth s orbit is slightly elliptical closest to sun during January so sun is slightly brighter in SH than NH summer Obliquity = Tilt of earth s axis of rotation Causes seasons Currently 23.5 Anybody recognize that number?
15 Obliquity Eccentricity 152 mi km 147 mi km Fig 4-15
16 Seasonal movement of Hadley Circulation Fig 4-16 Wet season follows the ITCZ
17 Land/Ocean Contrasts: Ocean surfaces change temperature far more slowly than land surfaces Two main reasons: Specific heat capacity of water is higher than soil Turbulent transfer of heat (absent for land) mixes heat downward, away from surface Minor reasons: Thermal conductivity of water is higher Solar radiation is transmitted many meters into the ocean, transferring heat away from the surface
18 Daily or diurnal effect: Fig 4-17
19 Land/Ocean Contrasts and their implications Albedo - which is higher? Thermal inertia which is higher? Friction at interface with atmosphere - which is higher? Implications Sea breeze on diurnal (daily) cycle Cold land - warm ocean in winter (vice versa in summer) Surface high over land - low over ocean in winter (vice versa in summer)
20 Continentality: Seasonal range of temperature extremes is much greater over land than ocean. The range is largest in the middle of large continents - Gobi Desert is largest of all. Seasonal range of temperature is larger in the high latitudes than the midlatitudes, and midlatitudes over the tropics - Why?
21 Fig 4-19 What direction is flow around: Low? Cyclonic or counterclockwise High? Anticyclonic or clockwise
22 Things to note about Fig 4-19 Highs over land and lows over ocean in winter (vice versa in summer) So little land in southern hemisphere that it is more zonal (flow along latitude circles) These are averages over a month - instantaneous pressure maps are more messy
23 Monsoon Circulations: seasonal reversal of the winds - concentrated rainy season Circulation explanation is same as for land/sea breeze but on seasonal timescale and larges spatial scale Largest at about 10 deg N and S - location of ITCZ in summer (latitude of peak solar flux plus surface convergence Largest one is the Indian Monsoon owing to Tibetan Plateau a source of evaporation (and then condensation) at high elevation
24 Water cycle picture Fig 4-24a Advection: Horizontal transport by atmospheric winds. Can transport things other than clouds too.
25 January Note highest precipitation is approx. colocated with ITCZ (except for Seattle) Rainy season is high in summer in continental climates due to convection Fig 4-26 July
26 Deserts Fig N 30S Descending arm of the Hadley cell (30 N/S) Continental interior Downwind of major mountain West coast with cold ocean (not upwind of mountains)
27 One more desert: Antarctica receives about 5 cm precipitation as water equivalent per year So cold that humidity is low High elevation dries out air on upslope path Zonal flow in the Southern Hemisphere allows few storms to reach the pole
28 Chapter 5 The Ocean 1. Wind driven circulation 2. Thermohaline circulation This figure shows bathymetry (or depth), red is shallow shelf and blue is deepest
29 Circulation Drivers Heat transfer - sensible, latent, radiation Water transfer - evaporation and precipitation Momentum transfer - winds All from the surface!
32 Fig 5-2 Gyres are not symmetric Warm water Cold water stagnant water
33 North America Gulf Stream Colors show Temperature AVHRR satellite
34 Fig 5-3a Ekman drift (in the NH!) Surface water is dragged along with the wind deflected somewhat to the right by Coriolis effect Friction drags layers beneath Also deflected to the right by Coriolis effect Spiraling pattern Net transport of water to the right of the wind.
35 Vertical slice Horizontal view
36 NH Vertical slice PGF PGF Ekman transport Ekman transport downwelling Constant density lines PGF = Pressure Gradient Force - due to the sea surface height gradient
37 PGF Gyre circ. Into page X Coriolis Force Gyre circ. Out of page PGF Balanced of PGF and Coriolis Forces gives Gyre Circulation, a Geostrophic Current Analogous to the Geostrophic Wind
38 The Ekman mechanism is also responsible for coastal upwelling and downwelling. North wind Water transported away from the coast Deeper water will be pulled up to compensate for the loss Coastal waters are COLD Opposite for South wind Northern Hemisphere
39 West coast of North America in summer Upwelling cold water In what direction are the winds blowing?
40 Equatorial Upwelling Trade winds blow toward the west Ekman flow transports water poleward in both hemispheres Upwelling cold water fills gap
41 How gyres get their shape Circulation Surface height low high high Gyre with no rotation low high Gyre with Ekman transport (coriolis force taken as a constant) high Gyre with Ekman transport and coriolis force increases with latitude
42 Thermohaline Circulation Driven by density gradients Density is a function of both temperature and salinity. Temperature - thermal expansion Salt water is heavier than fresh (pure) water, so density increases with salinity.
43 Thermohaline circulation or conveyor belt (also strengthens gulf stream)
44 What causes sinking? Is conveyor belt a bad name? It s not a nice ribbon, Downwelling in plumes, Upwelling is messy, Communication is not instant, etc
45 The ocean is heated from above. Because warmer water is lighter, this helps create a stable environment, with little vertical motion. Unlike the atmosphere!
46 Fig 5-6 Vertical distributions of Density Temperature Salinity depth (m)
47 With no vertical circulation If we waited a long time What would happen to the temperature? depth (m)
48 Temperature cross section through Atlantic Ocean Where is it cold?
49 Where is it salty? Salinity is measured in parts per thousand
50 Sea ice influence on the ocean Reduces the influence of the winds Insulates the ocean (prevents it from losing heat) Rejects salt when it grows / Adds freshwater when it melts
51 Deep water production Takes place at high latitudes during the wintertime Cold atmosphere extracts huge quantities of heat Sea ice expelled salt as it grows If it becomes dense enough, it will sink to the depths of the ocean in small-scale chimneys or plumes This dense water spreads throughout the global ocean Eventually upwelling over such a large area that is nearly impossible to detect
52 Thermohaline Circulation Facts(?) Takes about 1000 years for a chunk of water to make the circuit Sinking occurs in North Atlantic not Pacific because (still debated) Atlantic has higher salinity, Better connected to Arctic Ocean, etc The Southern Ocean is also a site of deep water formation.
54 Heat transport by the ocean (in order from tropics) Ekman transport along the equator transports warm water poleward Gyre circulations (warm water goes poleward on western side of gyre, cool water goes equatorward on eastern side) Thermohaline circulation warm surface water moves poleward in the Atlantic
55 Ocean influence on climate: Warm ocean (cold land) in winter keeps coastal areas warmer than contenent interiors Northern North Atlantic is warmer than it would be without the thermohaline circulation
56 So how can the ocean influence climate? Short time scales (less than a few years) The contrast in the heat capacity of the land and ocean has a profound effect on our climate s seasonality and its response to increasing greenhouse gases. The ocean plays a critical role in the El Niño phenomenon, a periodic climate oscillation centered in the equatorial Pacific. Long time scales (greater than a few years) Changes in the global thermohaline circulation, which warms the North Atlantic when it is strong, can affect temperatures in that region. Long-term changes in sea ice coverage can affect the planet s energy balance. Changes in ocean ecosystems because of ocean circulation changes probably have a large influence on climate on time scales of hundreds to thousands of years. Ocean ecosystems help regulate CO 2 concentrations in the atmosphere, and hence the greenhouse effect.
57 Phytoplankton photosynthesize - use sunlight and intake CO 2 to produce O 2. Deplete surface waters of nutrients Deposit nutrients at depth when they die and sink So deep water is nutrient rich Hence phytoplankton serve as a marker for upwelling. Fish Food
58 Ocean color from Seawifs satellite lighter colors are high in phytoplankton indicating upwelling Why are phytoplankton high in the northern North Atlantic?
59 Recall that the temperature (and density) of the high latitude ocean is relatively constant with depth. In addition to sinking plumes, the ocean here also allows deep mixing or convection, which brings up nutrients.
60 Isotopes - are atoms of a given element that have different mass (or number of neutrons). Carbon on Earth comes in 12 C, 13 C, and 14 C (for example 12 is for 6 protons and 6 neutrons). Unstable isotopes spontaneously (though perhaps slowly) change into another isotope or element via radioactive decay.
61 What does this have to do with climate? Examples: Evaporation of heavy water is more likely if the ocean is warmer Photosynthesis consumes CO 2 isotopes at different rates depending on a number of things 14 C is all about its decay to 12 C. Live biota acquire 14 C 2 O from breathing. Once they die, the source of 14 C is gone
62 Halflife of 14 C is 5730 years
63 Radiocarbon difference with respect to surface Orange = most recently at surface
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