# 4.2. Forces That Can Act on Structures. B10 Starting Point. Gravity Is a Force

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1 4.2 Forces That Can Act on Structures Here is a summary of what you will learn in this section: A force is any push or pull. Forces act on structures. Forces can be classified as external (wind, gravity) or internal. The magnitude of forces, their direction, and their point and plane of application influence how they affect structures. Shear, tension, compression, and torsion are types of internal forces that can affect structures. Figure 4.16 It is hard to believe that this barn was once strong and useful. You may hear news stories about a buckled road, homes destroyed by tornadoes, or the collapse of an old building (Figure 4.16). What do these things have in common? They are the result of forces that acted on a structure but the structure could not resist the force. A force is any push or pull. Forces act on all structures. Whether the structure is small or large, it must be designed and built to withstand the forces it will face. If the structure is not strong enough, it may experience structural failure. If it is too strong, time and resources might be wasted. Understanding forces helps you to design and build better structures. All structures experience forces at all times. Sometimes the effects of those forces are not apparent until time has passed. That is why it is important to design a structure carefully, build it skilfully, and monitor it diligently throughout its useful life. B10 Starting Point Skills A C Gravity Is a Force When you were younger, building towers of blocks and knocking them down may have fascinated you. You were experimenting with gravity. Use some things from your pencil case and around your desk to make a tall and stable structure on your desk. Keep going until your structure fails. What caused your structure to fail? Build another structure and wave a piece of paper at it to simulate wind, or build it on a desk and then jiggle the desk to simulate an earthquake. Describe what happens. Discuss with a classmate why your structures failed. What do you think you could have done to delay the failure of your structures? 108 UNIT B Structures: Form and Function

2 B11 During Reading Note Taking Scan through this chapter looking for the topic headings. As you find each one, rewrite each topic heading in the form of a How? What? or Why? sentence. Write the questions in a chart like the one in Table 4.2. As you read the chapter, record your notes in the appropriate column. When you record your notes, remember that you are trying to record the main ideas. Instead of using sentences, use key words and phrases. Table 4.2 Chart for Note Taking Topic Heading in the Form of a Question Point-form Notes Internal and External Forces Structures should be designed to withstand the forces that can act on them. Some of those forces come from outside the structure. These are external forces. An external force acts on an object from outside the object. Gravity is an external force that acts on all structures all the time. Gravity is the natural force of attraction between two objects. Gravity constantly pulls structures toward Earth s centre. As well, you have probably seen wind blow papers and plastics around. Figure 4.17 shows that wind can even blow people around! Everyday use of a structure can also involve external forces. For example, a ladder is designed to support the weight of the person climbing it. The person is applying a force to the ladder. When you pull out a drawer, you are exerting an external force on the drawer. Other forces are caused by one part of a structure acting on other parts of the structure. This type of force is called an internal force. Examples include the tension in a stretched elastic and the compression caused by the weight of a roof pressing down on the walls of a building. Figure 4.17 The wind is an external force acting on these girls and their umbrella. Designers consider the form and the function of a structure and the forces that act on it. 109

5 Figure 4.20 Internal forces that can affect an object. (a) Compression: A force that squeezes or presses something together (b) Tension: A force that stretches apart to expand or lengthen (c) Shear: A force that pushes in opposite directions (d) Torsion: A force that twists Depending on the direction in which they act, internal forces can be classified as compression, tension, shear, or torsion (see Figure 4.20 for definitions). The twisting motion of the skater in Figure 4.21 causes torsion inside the skater s body. During other parts of the routine, the skater will experience other internal forces. During a lift, the skater doing the lifting experiences compression. Stretching of the arms to perform gestures may cause tension or shear, depending on the direction of the arms. Figure 4.21 The twisting motion causes torsion inside this skater. Designing for Forces When engineers design structures such as bridges and large buildings, they consider all the forces that could affect it over its lifespan. For example, a bridge in winter has to support snow as well as the cars and trucks. Buildings in areas with a lot of earthquakes must be able to withstand the shaking without losing their windows or falling down. The engineers often design large structures to withstand what they call a 100-year storm. This is an event that is likely to happen only once in 100 years. Storm damage you see on the television news is often from storms of this size. 112 UNIT B Structures: Form and Function

7 B13 Quick Lab Raise the Flag Earlier, you observed the effect of wind on various plants. In this activity, you will study in more detail how wind affects structures. Procedure 1. With a partner, make a model of a flag and flagpole out of the tissue paper, pencil, string, and tape, simulating the dimensions and the connections (see Figure 4.23). 2. Use the sheet of paper to make a fan. Wave the fan to create a wind effect on the flag. Record your observations. 3. Blow through the straw at different parts of the flag. Record your observations. Questions Figure 4.23 Purpose To investigate the effects of wind on a model flag Materials & Equipment pencil piece of tissue paper string tape scissors plastic drinking straw sheet of note paper 4. Describe how the flag moves when you use the fan. How does it change when you wave the fan at different parts of the structure (bottom, middle, and top of the pencil)? 5. Describe how the flag moves when you blow through the straw. How does it change when you blow through the straw at different parts of the structure (bottom, middle, and top of the pencil)? 6. How does using the paper fan demonstrate plane of application of a force? 7. How does using the straw demonstrate point of application of a force? 114 UNIT B Structures: Form and Function

8 4.2 CHECK and REFLECT Key Concept Review 1. Define force in your own words. 2. What types of forces can act on structures? Give examples of each of these types of forces. 3. Categorize each of the following forces as internal or external. (a) gravity (b) compression (c) a strong wind (d) tension 4. A family of beavers builds a dam across a stream. Describe the forces that would act on this dam. Describe the magnitude, direction, and point and plane of application of each force. Connect Your Understanding 5. Some roads have signs that specify a maximum load for the vehicles that travel on them. Why might this be? 6. Which forces are easier to anticipate and design for, internal or external? Why do you think this is so? 7. Describe the most common types of injuries sustained by players in your favourite sport. What does this tell you about the types of internal forces that affect the players bodies? Practise Your Skills 8. Draw a simple diagram of a climbing structure in a schoolyard. Describe the structure and its function, and classify it as frame, solid, or shell. On your diagram, show the internal and external forces it might be subjected to. For more questions, go to ScienceSource. B14 Thinking about Science and Technology ST S E Damaged Structures Every day, structures bear the brunt of external forces. Some are damaged by those forces; others are not. What to Do 1. Describe a structure that you think was subjected to a large external force. What evidence causes you to think that it was subjected to this force? 2. What steps could have been taken to protect that structure from the force? 3. How might technology be used to prevent further damage to the structure? 4. Share your thoughts with a classmate or the whole class. Designers consider the form and the function of a structure and the forces that act on it. 115

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