An ITCZ-like convergence zone over the Indian Ocean in boreal late autumn

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "An ITCZ-like convergence zone over the Indian Ocean in boreal late autumn"

Transcription

1 Click Here for Full Article GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 34, L10811, doi: /2006gl028341, 2007 An ITCZ-like convergence zone over the Indian Ocean in boreal late autumn N. Sato, 1 K. Yoneyama, 1 M. Katsumata, 1 R. Shirooka, 1 and Y. N. Takayabu 2,3 Received 2 October 2006; revised 2 April 2007; accepted 19 April 2007; published 26 May [1] We examined the convective activity over the tropical Indian Ocean in boreal autumn using satellite-observation data. In November and December, we detected an intertropical convergence zone-like (ITCZ-like) precipitation zone between Maldives and Somalia that is unobserved in the other periods of the year. It accompanied a high sea-surface temperature (SST) north of the equator, and a cold tongue near the equator, similar to the ITCZs over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. However, the formation mechanism of the SST anomalies over the Indian Ocean is not the same as that in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The high-sst region forms in early November corresponding to weak sea-surface wind during the monsoon transition. The low SST along the equator appears, associated with the upwelling of the subsurface water. Citation: Sato, N., K. Yoneyama, M. Katsumata, R. Shirooka, and Y. N. Takayabu (2007), An ITCZ-like convergence zone over the Indian Ocean in boreal late autumn, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L10811, doi: /2006gl Introduction [2] The ITCZ is a convection zone over the tropical ocean. Many previous studies have been conducted on the ITCZ over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans [e.g., Waliser and Gautier, 1993]. According to these studies, the ITCZ is more active on the northern side of the equator over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. This asymmetricity was examined by Mitchell and Wallace [1992] in terms of the annual cycle. Previous studies do not recognize the northward shift of the oceanic convergence zone near the equator over the Indian Ocean. The convergence zone is clearer south of the equator almost throughout the year. However, Zhang [2001] found a convective zone on the northern side in November only, and regarded this as a part of the double ITCZs. Zhang [2001] investigated the formation mechanism of the double ITCZs over the Pacific Ocean and revealed that the local SST minimum at the equator is necessary for the double ITCZ. However, the appearance of the ITCZ north of the equator in the Indian Ocean was not well examined. [3] Xie and Philander [1994] suggested that the ITCZ shifts northward due to the wind-evaporation-sst (WES) 1 Institute of Observational Research for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan. 2 Center for Climate System Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Japan. 3 Also at Institute of Observational Research for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union /07/2006GL028341$05.00 feedback. They believe the asymmetricity of the ITCZ is related to the warmer SST on the northern side of the equator, and the cooler one on the southern side. Once the warmer SST reaches the northern side, the northward surface-pressure gradient is created. The easterly wind is decelerated (accelerated) through the balance of the pressure-gradient force and the Coriolis force, resulting in warming (cooling) of the sea surface through suppressed (enhanced) evaporation in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere. The anomalous latent heat flux associated with the wind-speed difference maintains and strengthens the SST anomalies across the equator. [4] According to Murakami and Matsumoto [1994], a westerly wind prevails in the lower troposphere over the North Indian Ocean as part of the Southeast Asian summer monsoon (SEAM) during boreal summer, which retreats in October. Corresponding to the withdrawal of the summer monsoon, the low-level westerly wind weakens in autumn over the North Indian Ocean. The lower wind speed in boreal autumn may cause relatively high SST over the North Indian Ocean. [5] In general, more precipitation is observed south of the equator than north over the tropical Indian Ocean. However, if the relatively warm SST is maintained north of the equator in boreal autumn, it may cause an ITCZ-like convergence zone on the northern side. The northern part of the double ITCZs was not examined sufficiently over the tropical Indian Ocean. In the present study, we first verified that an ITCZ-like convergence zone appears over the North Indian Ocean in boreal autumn. We then examined the airsea interaction contributing to the convergence zone by analyzing satellite-observation data. 2. Data [6] We first investigated the horizontal distribution of convective activity over the Indian Ocean using Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) rain rate data. The precipitations averaged from 2000 to 2005 for November 1 to 15, 16 to 30, and December 1 to 15 were examined. We focused on the convergence zone appearing in late November. We also confirmed the existence of the precipitation zone using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) near-surface rain data. We used the PR Heating (PRH) grid dat [Kodama et al., 2005]. [7] Corresponding to the convergence zone, we then examined the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) sea surface temperature (SST) data for the same periods. [8] We also analyzed the latitude-time section of rain rate and atmospheric water vapor from the SSM/I data and TMI SST at 55 to 70 E to examine their annual cycles. When we investigated the latitude-time sections, we used 11-day L of6

2 Figure 1. Rain rate averaged for (top) November 1 to 15, (middle) November 16 to 30, and (bottom) December 1 to 15, from 2000 to The contour interval is 0.1 mm/hr. running means to remove short-range variations. Similarly, the QuikSCAT sea-surface wind data were also examined. Here, we analyzed the latitude-time sections of scalar wind speed and zonal wind. [9] Furthermore, we analyzed the time-zonal section of TMI SST at 2.5 S to2.5 N to examine the SST variation along the equator. Here, we also used 11-day running means. The day filtered values were indicated together, in order to show the intraseasonal-scale variability. Figure 2. SST averaged for November 16 to 30, from 2000 to The contour interval is 0.2 C. 2of6-158-

3 Figure 3. Time-meridional sections of (top) rain rate and (bottom) SST at 55 to 75 E averaged for 2000 to The contour intervals are 0.1 mm/hr for rain rate, and 0.2 C for SST. [10] In recent years, the vertical profiles for sea-water temperature and salinity are automatically obtained over all the oceans in 10-day intervals using the Argo profiling floats [Argo Science Team, 2001]. In the present study, realtime quality-controlled data from Argo floats deployed in the Indian Ocean were examined. We compared the vertical profiles of temperature and salinity for October and November from 2003 to 2005, averaged over 2.5 S to 2.5 N, 55 to 70 E. The T-S diagrams were also examined. 3. Results [11] Figure 1 plots the rain rate for November 1 to 15 (top), 16 to 30 (middle), and December 1 to 15 (bottom). In Figure 1 (middle and bottom), we see a precipitation zone around 5 N between 50 and 80 E. The maximum value reaches 200 to 300 mm per month. Another precipitation belt is detected on the southern side of the equator. Both correspond to the double ITCZs over the Indian Ocean found by Zhang [2001]. The double ITCZs can be identified in most of the years (five out of six), even if we analyze data for each year. The northern part of them is detected in all of the six years. The precipitation zone is identified also in the TRMM near-surface rainfall data (not displayed). The precipitation zone on the northern side is not identified in the other seasons of the year, although that on the southern side is detected in the annual mean field (not displayed). [12] Figure 2 depicts the TMI SST for November 16 to 30. The SST is higher than 29 C over the subtropical western North Indian Ocean. The high SST is observed also in early November (not shown). It precedes the convection zone in Figure 1 (middle and bottom) by a half month. However, a low-sst region appears near the equator in November, where the cold tongue extends eastward along the equator from Africa. [13] Figure 3 indicates the time-meridional sections of rain rate measured by SSM/I (top), and TMI SST (bottom), averaged for 55 to 70 E. We confirmed the existence of the precipitation zone from late November to early December in Figure 3 (top). Corresponding to the precipitation zone, maxima of water vapor and SST are identified. The water vapor has already increased in middle November (not shown). The water-vapor maximum precedes the appearance of the precipitation zone. In addition, the water-vapor maximum follows the peak of the warm SST in early to middle November (Figure 3, bottom). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the high SST causes the increase of water vapor, resulting in the precipitation peak. However, a minimum of SST is observed in 5 S to 2.5 N in November. [14] In addition, Figure 4 illustrates the time-meridional sections of the zonal component of the QuikSCAT seasurface wind (top) and the scalar mean of the sea-surface wind speed (bottom), averaged for 55 to 70 E. Consistent with the results demonstrated by Matsumoto [1992], the sign of zonal wind changes over the North Indian Ocean during October and November, corresponding to the monsoon transition. Associated with the changes in the zonal wind, the scalar wind speed is low over the western North Indian Ocean in late October and early November (Figure 4). The SST increases during this period in Figure 3 (bottom). [15] From Figure 5 (left), we understand that the low SST at the equator extends from west to east, and the SST decreases between 55 to 90 E in November. Moreover, the eastward propagation of the intraseasonal-scale signal is clear in November in the right panel. Although another low SST is observed after late December as a part of the long-range seasonal march (Figure 3), the low SST in 3of6-159-

4 Figure 4. Time-meridional sections of (top) sea-surface wind speed and (bottom) zonal wind at 55 to 70 E averaged for 2000 to The contour interval is 1 m/s. Negative contours are dotted. November seems to be separated from that after late December. [16] Figure 6 illustrates vertical profiles of the temperatures and salinities obtained by Argo floats in October (thick line) and November (thin line), averaged over 55 to 70 E near the equator. The number of samples is 96 (101) in October (November). By comparing both temperature profiles, we can infer that the water in the subsurface layer is lifted upward. The changes in salinity are consistent with those in temperature. This upward shift of the profile corresponds to the cooling of near-surface water. Vertical mixing and adiabatic cooling do not largely contribute to the low SST, since the mixed layer becomes shallow. Figure 7 depicts the T-S diagrams for 55 to 70 E in October (thick line) and November (thin line), and that for 40 to 55 E in October (dotted line). The T-S diagram does not largely differ between October and November 55 to 70 E, compared with the differences between 55 to 70 E (solid lines) and 40 to 55 E (dotted line). It is suggested that horizontal advection from the west is not a predominant process contributing to the decrease of SST. 4. Discussion [17] In the present study, the existence of a zonallyelongated precipitation zone reported by Zhang [2001] was confirmed over the western North Indian Ocean in Figure 5. (left) Time-zonal sections of SST and (right) day filtered SST at 2.5 S to 2.5 N averaged for 2000 to The contour interval is 0.2 C for Figure 5 (left) and 0.1 C for Figure 5 (right). Positive values are shaded in Figure 5 (right). 4of6-160-

5 Figure 6. Averaged vertical profiles of sea-water temperature (solid line) and salinity (dotted line) in 2.5 Sto2.5 N, 55 to 70 E in October (thick line), and November (thin line) from 2003 to the mean field during late autumn. The present analyses revealed that the convergence zone is accompanied by high SST north of the equator. Furthermore, a cold tongue is identified near the equator, as displayed in Figure 2. These surface conditions are consistent with the necessary conditions for the formation of double ITCZs mentioned by Zhang [2001]. [18] However, the sea-surface wind field associated with the ITCZ-like convergence zone over the western Indian Ocean is quite different from those over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The northern part of the double ITCZs over the western Indian Ocean corresponds to the higher SST north of the equator in late autumn when the convection of the ITCZs is active (Figure 2). The SST increases when the precipitation is suppressed and the wind speed is low during the westerly to easterly monsoon transition in middle autumn (Figure 4). [19] In contrast, the low-sst region seems to extend from west to east in November (Figures 2 and 5), when a strong westerly wind and an eastward current called Wyrtki Jet are observed [Wyrtki, 1973]. It appears that the eastward advection of clod sea-surface water contributes to the low- SST. However, according to the T-S diagrams (Figure 7), the effect of the advection from the west is not predominant. O Brien and Hurlburt [1974] demonstrated that the westerly sea-surface wind excites not only the eastward current along the equator, but also the upwelling of subsurface water in the western part of the basin. In Figure 6, the low- SST actually accompanies the upward shift of the subsurface water. However, the T-S diagram does not largely change during this period (Figure 7). The low SST is supposed to be brought by the upwelling of the subsurface water. The upwelling has a local maximum near the thermocline (100 db), suggesting that it mainly corresponds to the wave propagation as the first baroclinic mode. It is inferred that the upwelling, eastward current, and the resultant low SST are caused as a dynamic response of the ocean basin to the westerly wind. In the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, the cold tongue forms associated with the equatorial upwelling corresponding to the zonally-uniform easterly wind without the effects of the coasts. Therefore, the formation mechanism of the cold tongue is different from that in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. [20] It has been argued that the meridional location of the ITCZ is maintained by the WES feedback in the climatological Pacific and Atlantic Oceans [Xie and Philander, 1994], and in the equatorially asymmetric SST pattern that forms in boreal winter and spring in the Indian Ocean [Kawamura et al., 2001]. Easterly wind in the tropics is a necessary condition for the WES feedback. However, the precipitation zone analyzed here does not accompany easterly wind over the equator. At this point, the formation mechanism of the precipitation zone between Maldives and Somalia is not the same as the WES feedback. [21] The southward evolution of the winter-monsoon easterly is halted in November (Figure 4). The westerly wind caused by the convective activity over the ITCZ-like convergence zone may block the onset of the easterly wind regime during this period, resulting in persistent, weak wind speed. [22] Twin tropical cyclones may be observed over the western North Pacific and the eastern Indian Ocean [e.g., Ferreira et al., 1996]. In general, the double ITCZ-like precipitation pattern may be derived as a statistic of twin tropical cyclones. However, the cyclones are less frequently observed over the western Indian Ocean than the eastern Indian Ocean. [23] The eastward-propagating intraseasonal-scale disturbances are observed in boreal winter [e.g., Zhang, 2005]. It appears that the ITCZ-like convergence zone over the western Indian Ocean does not directly correspond to such intraseasonal disturbances, since it does not propagate eastward. [24] The weak wind speed just north of the equator is also observed in boreal spring corresponding to the other monsoon transition (Figure 4). However, water vapor is less before April (not shown), resulting in weak convective activity. Moreover, after the Asian summer monsoon onset in April, the larger-scale monsoon dynamics are predominant. Therefore, the convection region is recognized as a part of the monsoon system. The ITCZ-like precipitation zone does not appear in boreal spring (not displayed). 5. Conclusions [25] We identified an ITCZ-like convergence zone over the western Indian Ocean from late November to early December using satellite observation data. It is not observed in other periods of the year, and accompanies a high SST Figure 7. T-S diagrams for the averaged vertical profiles in 2.5 S to2.5 N, 55 to 70 E in October (thick line) and November (thin line), and that in 2.5 S to2.5 N, 40 to 55 E in October (dotted line) from 2003 to of6-161-

6 north of the equator, and a cold tongue near the equator. The SST north of the equator increases corresponding to the suppressed precipitation and the weak sea-surface wind during the monsoon transition from October to November. However, the low SST at the equator appears associated with the upwelling of subsurface water as a dynamic response to the westerly sea-surface wind along the equator. [26] Acknowledgments. M. Yoshizaki of the Institute of Observational Research for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (IORGC/JAMSTEC) gave us useful advice and encouragement. N. Shikama, E. Oka, and K. Sato of IORGC/JAMSTEC kindly helped us obtain and utilize the Argo data. Y.-M. Kodama of the Department of Earth and Environment Science, Hirosaki University, kindly helped us obtain and utilize the TRMM data. The authors also thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments. The SSM/I, TMI, and QuikSCAT data were provided by Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) (available at It was produced by RSS under the sponsorship of the Ocean Vector Winds Science Team at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The TRMM data were provided by NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Earth Observation Research and Application Center (JAXA-EORC). The Argo data were provided by IORGC/JAMSTEC (available at ftp://ftp.jamstec. go.jp/pub/argo/). The GFD-DENNOU Library was utilized for drawing the figures. References Argo Science Team (2001), Argo: The global array of profiling floats, in Observing the Oceans in the 21st Century, edited by C. J. Koblinsky and N. P. Smith, pp , GODAE Proj. Off., Melbourne, Aust. Ferreira, R. N., W. H. Schubert, and J. J. Hack (1996), Dynamical aspects of twin tropical cyclones associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation, J. Atmos. Sci., 53, Kawamura, R., T. Matsumura, and S. Iizuka (2001), Role of equatorially asymmetric sea surface temperature anomalies in the Indian Ocean in the Asian summer monsoon and El Niño-Southern Oscillation coupling, J. Geophys. Res., 106, Kodama, Y.-M., A. Ohta, M. Katsumata, S. Mori, S. Satoh, and H. Ueda (2005), Seasonal transition of predominant precipitation type and lightning activity over tropical monsoon areas derived from TRMM observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L14710, doi: /2005gl Matsumoto, J. (1992), The seasonal changes in Asian and Australian monsoon regions, J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn., 70, Mitchell, T. P., and J. M. Wallace (1992), The annual cycle in equatorial convection and sea surface temperature, J. Clim., 5, Murakami, T., and J. Matsumoto (1994), Summer monsoon over the Asian continent and western North Pacific, J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn., 72, O Brien, J. J., and H. E. Hurlburt (1974), Equatorial jet in the Indian Ocean: Theory, Science, 184, Waliser, D. E., and C. Gautier (1993), A satellite-derived climatology of the ITCZ, J. Clim., 6, Wyrtki, K. (1973), An equatorial jet in the Indian Ocean, Science, 181, Xie, S.-P., and S. G. H. Philander (1994), A coupled ocean-atmosphere model of relevance to the ITCZ in the eastern Pacific, Tellus, Ser. A, 46, Zhang, C. (2001), Double ITCZs, J. Geophy. Res., 106, 11,785 11,792. Zhang, C. (2005), Madden-Julian Oscillation, Rev. Geophys., 43, RG2003, doi: /2004rg M. Katsumata, N. Sato, R. Shirooka, and K. Yoneyama, Institute of Observational Research for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 2-15 Natsushima-cho, Yokosuka , Japan. Y. N. Takayabu, Center for Climate System Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa , Japan. 6of6-162-

ATMS 310 Tropical Dynamics

ATMS 310 Tropical Dynamics ATMS 310 Tropical Dynamics Introduction Throughout the semester we have focused on mid-latitude dynamics. This is not to say that the dynamics of other parts of the world, such as the tropics, are any

More information

Analysis of 2012 Indian Ocean Dipole Behavior

Analysis of 2012 Indian Ocean Dipole Behavior Analysis of 2012 Indian Ocean Dipole Behavior Mo Lan National University of Singapore Supervisor: Tomoki TOZUKA Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo Abstract The Indian Ocean

More information

ENSO Cycle: Recent Evolution, Current Status and Predictions. Update prepared by Climate Prediction Center / NCEP 4 September 2012

ENSO Cycle: Recent Evolution, Current Status and Predictions. Update prepared by Climate Prediction Center / NCEP 4 September 2012 ENSO Cycle: Recent Evolution, Current Status and Predictions Update prepared by Climate Prediction Center / NCEP 4 September 2012 Outline Overview Recent Evolution and Current Conditions Oceanic Niño Index

More information

Lecture 13. Global Wind Patterns and the Oceans EOM

Lecture 13. Global Wind Patterns and the Oceans EOM Lecture 13. Global Wind Patterns and the Oceans EOM Global Wind Patterns and the Oceans Drag from wind exerts a force called wind stress on the ocean surface in the direction of the wind. The currents

More information

The General Circulation and El Niño. Dr. Christopher M. Godfrey University of North Carolina at Asheville

The General Circulation and El Niño. Dr. Christopher M. Godfrey University of North Carolina at Asheville The General Circulation and El Niño Dr. Christopher M. Godfrey University of North Carolina at Asheville Global Circulation Model Air flow broken up into 3 cells Easterlies in the tropics (trade winds)

More information

ESCI 485 Air/sea Interaction Lesson 9 Equatorial Adjustment and El Nino Dr. DeCaria

ESCI 485 Air/sea Interaction Lesson 9 Equatorial Adjustment and El Nino Dr. DeCaria ESCI 485 Air/sea Interaction Lesson 9 Equatorial Adjustment and El Nino Dr. DeCaria Reference: El Nino, La Nina, and the Southern Oscillation, Philander THE TWO-LAYER SHALLOW WATER MODEL The ocean can

More information

Asymmetry in zonal phase propagation of ENSO sea surface temperature anomalies

Asymmetry in zonal phase propagation of ENSO sea surface temperature anomalies Click Here for Full Article GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 36, L13703, doi:10.1029/2009gl038774, 2009 Asymmetry in zonal phase propagation of ENSO sea surface temperature anomalies Michael J. McPhaden

More information

Influence of El Nino Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean Dipole in biennial oscillation of Indian summer monsoon

Influence of El Nino Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean Dipole in biennial oscillation of Indian summer monsoon Influence of El Nino Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean Dipole in biennial oscillation of Indian summer monsoon 4.1 Introduction The main contributors to the interannual variability of Indian summer

More information

Meteorology. Circle the letter that corresponds to the correct answer

Meteorology. Circle the letter that corresponds to the correct answer Chapter 7 Worksheet 2 Meteorology Name: Circle the letter that corresponds to the correct answer 1) Which of the following factors contributes to the general subsidence in the latitude zone 20 degrees

More information

Currents. History. Pressure Cells 3/13/17. El Nino Southern Oscillation ENSO. Teleconnections and Oscillations. Neutral Conditions

Currents. History. Pressure Cells 3/13/17. El Nino Southern Oscillation ENSO. Teleconnections and Oscillations. Neutral Conditions Teleconnections and Oscillations Teleconnection climate anomalies being related to each other over a large scale Oscillations: Macroscale movement of atmospheric systems that can influence weather, climate,

More information

McKnight's Physical Geography 11e

McKnight's Physical Geography 11e Chapter 2 Lecture McKnight's Physical Geography 11e Lectures Chapter 5 Atmospheric Pressure and Wind Michael Commons Ohio Northern University Atmospheric Pressure and Wind The Nature of Atmospheric Pressure

More information

Propagation of planetary-scale zonal mean wind anomalies and polar oscillations

Propagation of planetary-scale zonal mean wind anomalies and polar oscillations Article Atmospheric Science July 2012 Vol.57 No.20: 2606 261 doi: 10.1007/s113-012-5168-1 SPECIAL TOPICS: Propagation of planetary-scale zonal mean wind anomalies and polar oscillations QIAN WeiHong *

More information

Indian Ocean Seasonal Cycle Jérôme Vialard (IRD) LOCEAN Paris France From Schott & McCreary (Prog. Oc.

Indian Ocean Seasonal Cycle Jérôme Vialard (IRD) LOCEAN Paris France From Schott & McCreary (Prog. Oc. Indian Ocean Seasonal Cycle Jérôme Vialard (IRD) LOCEAN Paris France jerome.vialard@ird.fr From Schott & McCreary (Prog. Oc. 2001) Outline The monsoon cycle The basin-scale dynamical response Thermocline

More information

CHAPTER 7 Ocean Circulation

CHAPTER 7 Ocean Circulation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 CHAPTER 7 Ocean Circulation Words Ocean currents Moving seawater Surface ocean currents Transfer heat from warmer to cooler areas Similar to pattern of major wind belts

More information

ENSO Wrap-Up. Current state of the Pacific and Indian Ocean

ENSO Wrap-Up. Current state of the Pacific and Indian Ocean 18-11-2014 ENSO Wrap-Up Current state of the Pacific and Indian Ocean Tropical Pacific Ocean moves closer to El Niño The Pacific Ocean has shown some renewed signs of El Niño development in recent weeks.

More information

Annual amphidromes observed in the atmosphere with remote sensing data

Annual amphidromes observed in the atmosphere with remote sensing data Click Here for Full Article JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 113,, doi:10.1029/2008jd009864, 2008 Annual amphidromes observed in the atmosphere with remote sensing data Caiyun Zhang, 1,2 Ge Chen,

More information

Traditional El Niño and El Niño Modoki Revisited: Is El Niño Modoki Linearly Independent of Traditional El Niño?

Traditional El Niño and El Niño Modoki Revisited: Is El Niño Modoki Linearly Independent of Traditional El Niño? ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC SCIENCE LETTERS, 2010, VOL. 3, NO. 2, 70 74 Traditional El Niño and El Niño Modoki Revisited: Is El Niño Modoki Linearly Independent of Traditional El Niño? LI Gen, REN Bao-Hua,

More information

GEOS 201 Lab 13 Climate of Change InTeGrate Module Case studies 2.2 & 3.1

GEOS 201 Lab 13 Climate of Change InTeGrate Module Case studies 2.2 & 3.1 Discerning Patterns: Does the North Atlantic oscillate? Climate variability, or short term climate change, can wreak havoc around the world. Dramatic year to year shifts in weather can have unanticipated

More information

Atmospheric Circulation

Atmospheric Circulation Atmospheric Circulation Why do we say Earth's temperature is moderate? It may not look like it, but various processes work to moderate Earth's temperature across the latitudes. Atmospheric circulation

More information

Chapter 7: Circulation And The Atmosphere

Chapter 7: Circulation And The Atmosphere Chapter 7: Circulation And The Atmosphere Highly integrated wind system Main Circulation Currents: series of deep rivers of air encircling the planet Various perturbations or vortices (hurricanes, tornados,

More information

Monsoon. Arabic word mausim means season. Loose definition: a wind/precipitation pattern that shifts seasonally

Monsoon. Arabic word mausim means season. Loose definition: a wind/precipitation pattern that shifts seasonally Monsoon Arabic word mausim means season Loose definition: a wind/precipitation pattern that shifts seasonally Classical criteria (Ramage 1971) Prevailing wind shifts 120 o between Jan & July Average frequency

More information

Global Winds AOSC 200 Tim Canty

Global Winds AOSC 200 Tim Canty Global Winds AOSC 200 Tim Canty Class Web Site: http://www.atmos.umd.edu/~tcanty/aosc200 Topics for today: Global Wind Patterns Deserts Jet Stream Monsoons Ocean transport Ocean cycles Lecture 16 Oct 24

More information

MFE 659 Lecture 2b El Niño/La Niña Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction. El Niño La Niña Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction. Intro to Ocean Circulation

MFE 659 Lecture 2b El Niño/La Niña Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction. El Niño La Niña Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction. Intro to Ocean Circulation MFE 659 Lecture 2b El Niño/La Niña Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction El Niño La Niña Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction Outline Ocean Circulation El Niño La Niña Southern Oscillation ENSO 1 2 Intro to Ocean Circulation

More information

Atmospheric and Ocean Circulation Lab

Atmospheric and Ocean Circulation Lab Atmospheric and Ocean Circulation Lab name Key Objectives: The main goal of this lab is to learn about atmospheric and oceanic circulation and how these two processes are strongly inter-dependent and strongly

More information

Equatorial upwelling. Example of regional winds of small scale

Equatorial upwelling. Example of regional winds of small scale Example of regional winds of small scale Sea and land breezes Note on Fig. 8.11. Shows the case for southern hemisphere! Coastal upwelling and downwelling. Upwelling is caused by along shore winds, that

More information

MIRAGES MONSOON. Overview. Further Reading. See also

MIRAGES MONSOON. Overview. Further Reading. See also MONSOONS / Overview 1365 Like the SAO, the theoretical understanding of the QBO is that it is forced by momentum transfer by vertically propagating waves forced in the lower atmosphere, interacting with

More information

Semiannual Cycle in Zonal Wind over the Equatorial Indian Ocean

Semiannual Cycle in Zonal Wind over the Equatorial Indian Ocean 15 DECEMBER 2011 O G A T A A N D X I E 6471 Semiannual Cycle in Zonal Wind over the Equatorial Indian Ocean TOMOMICHI OGATA AND SHANG-PING XIE International Pacific Research Center, University of Hawaii

More information

General Introduction to Climate Drivers and BoM Climate Services Products

General Introduction to Climate Drivers and BoM Climate Services Products General Introduction to Climate Drivers and BoM Climate Services Products Climate Information Services Australian Bureau of Meteorology Yuriy Kuleshov El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) El Niño Southern

More information

Pacific East Asian Teleconnection: How Does ENSO Affect East Asian Climate?*

Pacific East Asian Teleconnection: How Does ENSO Affect East Asian Climate?* 1MAY 2000 WANG ET AL. 1517 Pacific East Asian Teleconnection: How Does ENSO Affect East Asian Climate?* BIN WANG, RENGUANG WU, AND XIOUHUA FU Department of Meteorology and International Pacific Research

More information

Air Pressure and Wind

Air Pressure and Wind Air Pressure and Wind 19.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air. Air pressure is exerted in all directions down, up, and sideways. The

More information

Global Impacts of El Niño on Agriculture

Global Impacts of El Niño on Agriculture Global Impacts of El Niño on Agriculture Presented to the University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture s Food and Agribusiness Series Webinar Series Presented by: Mark Brusberg and Brian Morris USDA

More information

Climate model errors over the South Indian Ocean thermocline dome and their. effect on the basin mode of interannual variability.

Climate model errors over the South Indian Ocean thermocline dome and their. effect on the basin mode of interannual variability. Climate model errors over the South Indian Ocean thermocline dome and their effect on the basin mode of interannual variability Gen Li* State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute

More information

Lesson: Ocean Circulation

Lesson: Ocean Circulation Lesson: Ocean Circulation By Keith Meldahl Corresponding to Chapter 9: Ocean Circulation As this figure shows, there is a connection between the prevailing easterly and westerly winds (discussed in Chapter

More information

- wet tropical climate

- wet tropical climate (1 of 13) Further Reading: Chapter 10 of the text book Outline - wet tropical climate - coastal trade wind climate - wet-dry and monsoon climate - dry tropical climate (2 of 13) Introduction Previously,

More information

Chapter. Air Pressure and Wind

Chapter. Air Pressure and Wind Chapter Air Pressure and Wind 19.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air. 19.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure

More information

The Tropospheric Biennial Oscillation and Asian Australian Monsoon Rainfall

The Tropospheric Biennial Oscillation and Asian Australian Monsoon Rainfall 722 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE The Tropospheric Biennial Oscillation and Asian Australian Monsoon Rainfall GERALD A. MEEHL AND JULIE M. ARBLASTER National Center for Atmospheric Research,* Boulder, Colorado (Manuscript

More information

Atmosphere Warm Ocean Interaction and Its Impacts on Asian Australian Monsoon Variation*

Atmosphere Warm Ocean Interaction and Its Impacts on Asian Australian Monsoon Variation* 1195 Atmosphere Warm Ocean Interaction and Its Impacts on Asian Australian Monsoon Variation* BIN WANG International Pacific Research Center, and Department of Meteorology, University of Hawaii at Manoa,

More information

A Theory for the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode

A Theory for the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode A Theory for the ndian Ocean Dipole Mode Tim Li, Bin Wang, C.-P. Chang*, and Yongsheng Zhang nternational Pacific Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii *Department of Meteorology, Naval

More information

Name Date L.O: SWBAT explain what breezes, planetary winds, ocean currents & monsoons are.

Name Date L.O: SWBAT explain what breezes, planetary winds, ocean currents & monsoons are. Name Date L.O: SWBAT explain what breezes, planetary winds, ocean currents & monsoons are. 1. A cool breeze is blowing toward the land from the ocean on a warm, cloudless summer day. This condition is

More information

Variance-Preserving Power Spectral Analysis of Current, Wind and 20º Isothermal Depth of RAMA Project from the Equatorial Indian Ocean

Variance-Preserving Power Spectral Analysis of Current, Wind and 20º Isothermal Depth of RAMA Project from the Equatorial Indian Ocean Variance-Preserving Power Spectral Analysis of Current, Wind and 20º Isothermal Depth of RAMA Project from the Equatorial Indian Ocean Vivek Kumar Pandey K. Banerjee Centre of Atmospheric and Ocean Studies

More information

Circulation of the Atmosphere

Circulation of the Atmosphere Circulation of the Atmosphere World is made up of three regions: Atmosphere (air) Hydrosphere (water) Lithosphere (land) - Geosphere All regions interact to produce weather (day to day variations) and

More information

Wind and Air Pressure

Wind and Air Pressure Wind and Air Pressure When air moves above the surface of the Earth, it is called wind. Wind is caused by differences in air pressure. When a difference in pressure exists, the air will move from areas

More information

NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE. Contributions of Indian Ocean and Monsoon Biases to the Excessive Biennial ENSO in CCSM3

NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE. Contributions of Indian Ocean and Monsoon Biases to the Excessive Biennial ENSO in CCSM3 1850 J O U R N A L O F C L I M A T E VOLUME 22 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE Contributions of Indian Ocean and Monsoon Biases to the Excessive Biennial ENSO in CCSM3 JIN-YI YU, FENGPENG SUN,* AND HSUN-YING

More information

Tropical Pacific Ocean remains on track for El Niño in 2014

Tropical Pacific Ocean remains on track for El Niño in 2014 1 of 10 3/06/2014 3:33 PM ENSO Wrap-Up Current state of the Pacific and Indian Ocean Tropical Pacific Ocean remains on track for El Niño in 2014 Issued on Tuesday 3 June 2014 Product Code IDCKGEWWOO The

More information

Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation-

Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- Overview: Atmosphere & Climate Atmospheric layers Heating at different latitudes Atmospheric convection cells (Hadley, Ferrel, Polar) Coriolis Force Generation of winds

More information

Historical Analysis of Montañita, Ecuador for April 6-14 and March 16-24

Historical Analysis of Montañita, Ecuador for April 6-14 and March 16-24 Historical Analysis of Montañita, Ecuador for April 6-14 and March 16-24 Prepared for the ISA by Mark Willis and the Surfline Forecast and Science Teams Figure 1. Perfect Right- hander at Montañita, Ecuador

More information

OCEANOGRAPHY 101. Map, and temperature, salinity & density profiles of the water column at X, near mouth of the Columbia River.

OCEANOGRAPHY 101. Map, and temperature, salinity & density profiles of the water column at X, near mouth of the Columbia River. OCEANOGRAPHY 101 EXAM 2 WINTER 00 NAME STUDENT NUMBER 1 Map, and temperature, salinity & density profiles of the water column at X, near mouth of the Columbia River. P a c i f i c O c e a n X WA Columbia

More information

Isaac Newton ( )

Isaac Newton ( ) Introduction to Climatology GEOGRAPHY 300 Isaac Newton (1642-1727) Tom Giambelluca University of Hawai i at Mānoa Atmospheric Pressure, Wind, and The General Circulation Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia

More information

Typhoon Vamei: An Equatorial Tropical Cyclone Formation

Typhoon Vamei: An Equatorial Tropical Cyclone Formation 1 Typhoon Vamei: An Equatorial Tropical Cyclone Formation C.-P. Chang, Ching-Hwang Liu 1, Hung-Chi Kuo 2 Department of Meteorology, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA Abstract. Due to the diminishing

More information

18.1 Understanding Air Pressure 18.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Measuring Air Pressure Air pressure barometer

18.1 Understanding Air Pressure 18.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Measuring Air Pressure Air pressure barometer 18.1 Understanding Air Pressure 18.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air. Air pressure is exerted in all directions down, up, and sideways.

More information

Understanding the Role of Water Vapor Transport Anomalies in Asian and African Monsoon Droughts Using New Satellite Observations

Understanding the Role of Water Vapor Transport Anomalies in Asian and African Monsoon Droughts Using New Satellite Observations Understanding the Role of Water Vapor Transport Anomalies in Asian and African Monsoon Droughts Using New Satellite Observations Chris Funk, USGS EROS, UCSB CHG NASA PMM meeting, Salt Lake City, Oct. 27

More information

Observational Studies on Association between Eastward Equatorial Jet and Indian Ocean Dipole

Observational Studies on Association between Eastward Equatorial Jet and Indian Ocean Dipole Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 66, pp. 429 to 434, 2 Short Contribution Observational Studies on Association between Eastward Equatorial Jet and Indian Ocean Dipole PETER C. CHU* Department of Oceanography,

More information

Role of Equatorial Oceanic Waves on the Activation of the 2006 Indian Ocean Dipole

Role of Equatorial Oceanic Waves on the Activation of the 2006 Indian Ocean Dipole ITB J. Sci., Vol. 44 A, No. 2, 2012, 113-128 113 Role of Equatorial Oceanic Waves on the Activation of the 2006 Indian Ocean Dipole Iskhaq Iskandar 1,2 1 Jurusan Fisika, Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Sriwijaya

More information

The ocean in climate... El Niño

The ocean in climate... El Niño The ocean in climate... El Niño We live in the atmosphere: where is it sensitive to the ocean? What I won t talk about (very much): The ocean as a heat reservoir (passive) The thermohaline circulation

More information

Chapter 4 Global Climates and Biomes

Chapter 4 Global Climates and Biomes Chapter 4 Global Climates and Biomes Global Processes Determine Weather and Climate - the short term conditions of the atmosphere in a local area. These include temperature, humidity, clouds, precipitation,

More information

WORKING PAPER SKJ 1 IMPACT OF ENSO ON SURFACE TUNA HABITAT IN THE WESTERN AND CENTRAL PACIFIC OCEAN. Patrick Lehodey

WORKING PAPER SKJ 1 IMPACT OF ENSO ON SURFACE TUNA HABITAT IN THE WESTERN AND CENTRAL PACIFIC OCEAN. Patrick Lehodey Impact of ENSO on surface tuna habitat 1 WORKING PAPER SKJ 1 IMPACT OF ENSO ON SURFACE TUNA HABITAT IN THE WESTERN AND CENTRAL PACIFIC OCEAN Patrick Lehodey Oceanic Fisheries Programme Secretariat of the

More information

Changes in the in-phase relationship between the Indian and subsequent Australian summer monsoons during the past five decades

Changes in the in-phase relationship between the Indian and subsequent Australian summer monsoons during the past five decades Ann. Geophys., 25, 1929 1933, 2007 European Geosciences Union 2007 Annales Geophysicae Changes in the in-phase relationship between the Indian and subsequent Australian summer monsoons during the past

More information

Leeuwin Current - Reading

Leeuwin Current - Reading Leeuwin Current At 5,500 kilometres, the Leeuwin is our longest ocean current! One of Australia s most influential natural features, the Leeuwin Current, has been confirmed as the longest continuous coastal

More information

Climate Science INTER-ANNUAL TO DECADAL CLIMATE VARIABILITY/COASTAL UPWELLING AND COASTAL CLIMATES. MONITORING EL NIÑO and LA NIÑA

Climate Science INTER-ANNUAL TO DECADAL CLIMATE VARIABILITY/COASTAL UPWELLING AND COASTAL CLIMATES. MONITORING EL NIÑO and LA NIÑA Climate Science INTER-ANNUAL TO DECADAL CLIMATE VARIABILITY/COASTAL UPWELLING AND COASTAL CLIMATES MONITORING EL NIÑO and LA NIÑA Background: Before 1982, few Americans had ever heard of the term El Niño,

More information

Intraseasonal variability of equatorial Indian Ocean zonal currents

Intraseasonal variability of equatorial Indian Ocean zonal currents Intraseasonal variability of equatorial Indian Ocean zonal currents Debasis Sengupta 1, Retish Senan 2 and B. N. Goswami Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore,

More information

Directed Reading. Section: Ocean Currents. a(n). FACTORS THAT AFFECT SURFACE CURRENTS

Directed Reading. Section: Ocean Currents. a(n). FACTORS THAT AFFECT SURFACE CURRENTS Skills Worksheet Directed Reading Section: Ocean Currents 1. A horizontal movement of water in a well-defined pattern is called a(n). 2. What are two ways that oceanographers identify ocean currents? 3.

More information

and the Link between Oceans, Atmosphere, and Weather

and the Link between Oceans, Atmosphere, and Weather Geography Worksheet Instructions Using a map, atlas, or any other materials your teacher suggests, label the following on the blank map provided. 1. Label East, West, North, and South. 2. Label the following

More information

Zonal (East-West) Currents. Wind-Driven Ocean Currents. Zonal (East-West) Currents. Meridional (N-S) Currents

Zonal (East-West) Currents. Wind-Driven Ocean Currents. Zonal (East-West) Currents. Meridional (N-S) Currents Wind-Driven Ocean Currents Similarities between winds & surface currents Zonal (East-West) Currents Trade winds push currents westward north & south of the equator Equatorial currents. Up to 100 cm/sec.

More information

SESSION THREE: FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE WEATHER IN SOUTH AFRICA

SESSION THREE: FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE WEATHER IN SOUTH AFRICA SESSION THREE: FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE WEATHER IN SOUTH AFRICA KEY CONCEPTS: In this section we will focus on the following aspects: Factors determining the weather of South Africa Influence of the oceans

More information

170 points. 38 points In your textbook, read about modern oceanography. For each item write the word that meets the description.

170 points. 38 points In your textbook, read about modern oceanography. For each item write the word that meets the description. Ch 15 Earth s Oceans SECTION 15.1 An Overview of Oceans 38 points In your textbook, read about modern oceanography. For each item write the word that meets the description. (5 points) 1. German research

More information

Convection Parameterization, Tropical Pacific Double ITCZ, and Upper-Ocean Biases in the NCAR CCSM3. Part I: Climatology and Atmospheric Feedback

Convection Parameterization, Tropical Pacific Double ITCZ, and Upper-Ocean Biases in the NCAR CCSM3. Part I: Climatology and Atmospheric Feedback 15 AUGUST 2009 S O N G A N D Z H A N G 4299 Convection Parameterization, Tropical Pacific Double ITCZ, and Upper-Ocean Biases in the NCAR CCSM3. Part I: Climatology and Atmospheric Feedback XIAOLIANG SONG

More information

Intraseasonal Variability of Equatorial Indian Ocean Zonal Currents

Intraseasonal Variability of Equatorial Indian Ocean Zonal Currents 3036 J O U R N A L O F C L I M A T E VOLUME 20 Intraseasonal Variability of Equatorial Indian Ocean Zonal Currents DEBASIS SENGUPTA Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Indian Institute of Science,

More information

The shallow wind driven overturning cell in the Indian Ocean

The shallow wind driven overturning cell in the Indian Ocean Agathe Germe Ecole Nationale Superieure de Techniques Avancees The shallow wind driven overturning cell in the Indian Ocean Supervisors: Dr Sybren Drijfhout and Dr Wilco Hazeleger KNMI: Koninklijk Nederland

More information

The East Asian Subtropical Summer Monsoon: Recent Progress

The East Asian Subtropical Summer Monsoon: Recent Progress NO.2 HE Jinhai and LIU Boqi 135 The East Asian Subtropical Summer Monsoon: Recent Progress HE Jinhai 1,3 (Û7 ) and LIU Boqi 2,4 (4ËÛ) 1 Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education,

More information

Variability of the Australian Monsoon and Precipitation Trends at Darwin

Variability of the Australian Monsoon and Precipitation Trends at Darwin 15 NOVEMBER 2014 E V A N S E T A L. 8487 Variability of the Australian Monsoon and Precipitation Trends at Darwin STUART EVANS, ROGER MARCHAND, AND THOMAS ACKERMAN Department of Atmospheric Sciences, and

More information

Sailing the Seas: Wind Driven Ocean Circulation Ocean Gyres

Sailing the Seas: Wind Driven Ocean Circulation Ocean Gyres Sailing the Seas: Wind Driven Ocean Circulation Ocean Gyres Ocean Currents What Happens at the Coast? Readings: Ch 9: 9.2-9.6, 9.8-9.13 Graphic: America's Cup sailboat race off Newport, Rhode Island. J.

More information

Global Wind and Pressure Belts as a Response to the Unequal Heating of the Atmosphere

Global Wind and Pressure Belts as a Response to the Unequal Heating of the Atmosphere GRADE 11 GEOGRAPHY SESSION 3: GLOBAL AIR CIRCULATION Key Concepts In this lesson we will focus on summarising what you need to know about: The mechanics present to create global wind and pressure belts

More information

Climatic and marine environmental variations associated with fishing conditions of tuna species in the Indian Ocean

Climatic and marine environmental variations associated with fishing conditions of tuna species in the Indian Ocean Climatic and marine environmental variations associated with fishing conditions of tuna species in the Indian Ocean Kuo-Wei Lan and Ming-An Lee Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries Science,

More information

Observations of Coupling between Surface Wind Stress and Sea Surface Temperature in the Eastern Tropical Pacific

Observations of Coupling between Surface Wind Stress and Sea Surface Temperature in the Eastern Tropical Pacific 1APRIL 2001 CHELTON ET AL. 1479 Observations of Coupling between Surface Wind Stress and Sea Surface Temperature in the Eastern Tropical Pacific DUDLEY B. CHELTON, STEVEN K. ESBENSEN, MICHAEL G. SCHLAX,

More information

Numerical Simulation of Boundary Layer Structure and Cross-Equatorial Flow in the Eastern Pacific*

Numerical Simulation of Boundary Layer Structure and Cross-Equatorial Flow in the Eastern Pacific* 1812 J O U R N A L O F T H E A T M O S P H E R I C S C I E N C E S VOLUME 62 Numerical Simulation of Boundary Layer Structure and Cross-Equatorial Flow in the Eastern Pacific* R. JUSTIN SMALL International

More information

El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)

El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Modes Indian of Indo-Pacific Ocean Capacitor: variability and predictability History, Dynamics, of East Asian and Impact climate Shang-Ping Xie 1,2 Yan Du 3,Gang Huang 4,J. Chowdary 1, Kaiming Hu 4, Jan

More information

OCEANOGRAPHY STUDY GUIDE

OCEANOGRAPHY STUDY GUIDE OCEANOGRAPHY STUDY GUIDE Chapter 2 Section 1 1. Most abundant salt in ocean. Sodium chloride; NaCl 2. Amount of Earth covered by Water 71% 3. Four oceans: What are they? Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Indian

More information

Decadal changes in the relationship between Indian and Australian summer monsoons

Decadal changes in the relationship between Indian and Australian summer monsoons Decadal changes in the relationship between Indian and Australian summer monsoons By C. Nagaraju 1, K. Ashok 2, A. Sen Gupta 3 and D.S. Pai 4 1 CES, C-DAC Pune, India 2 CCCR, IITM, Pune, India 3 Universities

More information

Intra-seasonal oscillation of north east monsoon over southern peninsular India-an investigation

Intra-seasonal oscillation of north east monsoon over southern peninsular India-an investigation International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 2, Issue 8, August 2012 1 Intra-seasonal oscillation of north east monsoon over southern peninsular India-an investigation B. V. Charlotte

More information

Response of the Indian Ocean Basin Mode and Its Capacitor Effect to Global Warming*

Response of the Indian Ocean Basin Mode and Its Capacitor Effect to Global Warming* 6146 J O U R N A L O F C L I M A T E VOLUME 24 Response of the Indian Ocean Basin Mode and Its Capacitor Effect to Global Warming* XIAO-TONG ZHENG Physical Oceanography Laboratory, Ocean Atmosphere Interaction

More information

Traveling on a Rotating Sphere

Traveling on a Rotating Sphere Traveling on a Rotating Sphere Table of Contents Page Click the titles below to jump through the lesson 2 Spin-offs of a Rotating Sphere 3 What Do You Know? 3 Heated Fluid Circulation 4 Where Do The Trade

More information

Impact of different El Niño types on the El Niño/IOD relationship

Impact of different El Niño types on the El Niño/IOD relationship Impact of different El Niño types on the El Niño/IOD relationship Article Accepted Version Zhang, W., Wang, Y., Jin, F. F., Stuecker, M. F. and Turner, A. G. (2015) Impact of different El Niño types on

More information

3 Global Winds and Local Winds

3 Global Winds and Local Winds CHAPTER 15 3 Global Winds and Local Winds SECTION The Atmosphere BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What causes wind? What is the Coriolis effect?

More information

El Niño Lecture Notes

El Niño Lecture Notes El Niño Lecture Notes There is a huge link between the atmosphere & ocean. The oceans influence the atmosphere to affect climate, but the atmosphere also influences the ocean, which can also affect climate.

More information

El Niño/La Niña and their Effect on monsoon precipitation over Indian subcontinent Speaker: Jitendra Kumar Meher,

El Niño/La Niña and their Effect on monsoon precipitation over Indian subcontinent Speaker: Jitendra Kumar Meher, Seminar: II Course: AGM-692 El Niño/La Niña and their Effect on monsoon precipitation over Indian subcontinent Speaker: Jitendra Kumar Meher, Chairman: Prof. L. Das Ph.D. 4 th Semester Seminar Leader:

More information

2.4. Applications of Boundary Layer Meteorology

2.4. Applications of Boundary Layer Meteorology 2.4. Applications of Boundary Layer Meteorology 2.4.1. Temporal Evolution & Prediction of the PBL Earlier, we saw the following figure showing the diurnal evolution of PBL. With a typical diurnal cycle,

More information

Influence of the Arabian Sea on the Indian summer monsoon

Influence of the Arabian Sea on the Indian summer monsoon Tellus ISSN: 0040-2826 (Print) 2153-3490 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/zela19 Influence of the Arabian Sea on the Indian summer monsoon S. K. Ghosh, M. C. Pant & B. N. Dewan

More information

The impacts of explicitly simulated gravity waves on large-scale circulation in the

The impacts of explicitly simulated gravity waves on large-scale circulation in the The impacts of explicitly simulated gravity waves on large-scale circulation in the Southern Hemisphere. Linda Mudoni Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences October 2003 Introduction In the

More information

Intraseasonal variability in the summer South China Sea: Wind jet, cold filament, and recirculations

Intraseasonal variability in the summer South China Sea: Wind jet, cold filament, and recirculations Click Here for Full Article JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 112,, doi:10.1029/2007jc004238, 2007 Intraseasonal variability in the summer South China Sea: Wind jet, cold filament, and recirculations

More information

Dynamics of wind forced intraseasonal zonal current variations in the equatorial Indian Ocean

Dynamics of wind forced intraseasonal zonal current variations in the equatorial Indian Ocean JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 116,, doi:10.1029/2010jc006864, 2011 Dynamics of wind forced intraseasonal zonal current variations in the equatorial Indian Ocean Iskhaq Iskandar 1,2 and Michael

More information

Water Budget I: Precipitation Inputs

Water Budget I: Precipitation Inputs Water Budget I: Precipitation Inputs Forest Cover Global Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP) Biomes and Rainfall Forests won t grow where P < 15 / yr Forest type depends strongly on rainfall quantity, type

More information

Air moves towards ITCZ in tropics because of rising air - convection. Horizontal extent of Hadley cell is modified by Friction Coriolis Force

Air moves towards ITCZ in tropics because of rising air - convection. Horizontal extent of Hadley cell is modified by Friction Coriolis Force Air moves towards ITCZ in tropics because of rising air - convection Horizontal extent of Hadley cell is modified by Friction Coriolis Force Speed from rotation Objects at rest on Earth move at very different

More information

Symmetry and Asymmetry of the Asian and Australian Summer Monsoons

Symmetry and Asymmetry of the Asian and Australian Summer Monsoons 15 JUNE 2004 HUNG ET AL. 2413 Symmetry and Asymmetry of the Asian and Australian Summer Monsoons CHIH-WEN HUNG * Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles,

More information

The OCEANS and Indian Monsoon. Climate Variability

The OCEANS and Indian Monsoon. Climate Variability The OCEANS and Indian Monsoon Weather, Climate and the OCEANS Climate Variability B. N. Goswami Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune 3 rd OSICON, 26-28 Nov, 2013, IITM, Pune The Sun-Earth System

More information

Weather & Atmosphere Study Guide

Weather & Atmosphere Study Guide Weather & Atmosphere Study Guide 1. Draw a simple water cycle diagram using the following words: Precipitation, Evaporation, Condensation, Transpiration 2. In your own words, explain the difference between

More information

A Global Climatology of Wind Wave Interaction

A Global Climatology of Wind Wave Interaction JUNE 2010 H A N L E Y E T A L. 1263 A Global Climatology of Wind Wave Interaction KIRSTY E. HANLEY AND STEPHEN E. BELCHER Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom PETER

More information

Global Winds and Local Winds

Global Winds and Local Winds Global Winds and Local Winds National Science Education Standards ES 1j What is the Coriolis effect? What are the major global wind systems on Earth? What Causes Wind? Wind is moving air caused by differences

More information

Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- I

Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- I Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- I First: need to understand basic Earth s Energy Balance 1) Incoming radiation 2) Albedo (reflectivity) 3) Blackbody Radiation Atm/ Ocean movement ultimately derives from

More information

Climatology of the 10-m wind along the west coast of South American from 30 years of high-resolution reanalysis

Climatology of the 10-m wind along the west coast of South American from 30 years of high-resolution reanalysis Climatology of the 10-m wind along the west coast of South American from 30 years of high-resolution reanalysis David A. Rahn and René D. Garreaud Departamento de Geofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas

More information

Newsletter of the Climate Variability and Predictability Programme (CLIVAR)

Newsletter of the Climate Variability and Predictability Programme (CLIVAR) Newsletter of the Climate Variability and Predictability Programme (CLIVAR) Exchanges No 39 (Volume 11 No 4) Indian Ocean Climate From Meyers and Boscolo, page 2: The Indian Ocean Observing System (IndOOS)

More information