Deserts. Locations of deserts WORDS

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1 1 WORDS certain =special cover =here: make up create = make cut off =separate little = not very much rise = go up surface =the top layer of an object trade wind = a tropical wind that blows to the equator from the northeast or the southeast Tropic of Cancer = a line around the world that lies 23½ north of the equator Tropic of Capricorn = a line around the world that lies 23½ south of the equator A desert is a hot area of land that gets very little rain not more than 200 mm a year. Temperatures during the daytime can get as high as 55 C. At night, deserts cool down, sometimes even below 0 C. cover about 20% of the world s land. The biggest is the Sahara desert, which is about the same size as urope. Because deserts are very dry only certain kinds of plants and animals can live there. Locations of deserts Most deserts lie between 15 and 35 north and south of the equator. They were created by air that rises over the equator and comes down over the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. All over the world many deserts lie in these regions. Tropic of Cancer quator Tropic of Capricorn 1. Land over the equator becomes very hot. The hot and wet air rises and it rains a lot in these areas. 2. The air cools down and moves north and southwards. It gets drier. 3. The cool air sinks to the ground. It dries out over the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the south. 4. Warm air near the surface moves back to the equator. These winds are called trade winds. Some deserts are formed in regions that are cut off from the ocean by high mountains. Winds carry wet air from the ocean to the land. When the air climbs

2 2 WORDS among =together with average =normal, usual common = you can find something very often consist of =to be made up of cut =hack, chop develop =build up distance =the area from one place to another drop = go down dune = a hill made of sand evaporate = water changes into gas fog = cloudy air near the ground. It is difficult to see through it gravel = small stones heavy = very strong landscape =an area or countryside of a special type lose = it doesn t have something any more moisture = small parts of water that exist in the air or on the ground northwards = to the north oasis = a place with water and trees in a desert path = way plant crops =to grow plants like wheat or corn which farmers use as food raise = to look after animals rocky =stony, full of rocks sediment = small stones and sand that rivers carry with them spot = place, area stream = a very small river surface =the top layer of an object thunderstorm = a storm with thunder and lightning over high mountains it loses most of its moisture and when it falls down on the other side it becomes very warm and dry. on the western coast of North America were formed by such winds. Many areas have become dry because they are too far away from the ocean. Air loses its moisture by the time it reaches places that are thousands of kilometres from the coast. can also develop near the coast. Cold water moves from the Antarctic northwards along the African and South American coast. The warm air in these places cools down and mixes with the cool water. There is a lot of fog, but no rain. That s why the Atacama desert in Chile and the Namib desert in Africa are among the driest deserts in the world. Landscapes of the desert Only about 10% of all deserts are made up of sand. Most of them are rocky places that consist of gravel and larger stones. Desert landscapes are formed mostly by the power of the wind and water. Strong winds form rocks in strange ways. They also build up dunes made of sand. Such dunes can be up to 200 m tall and they can travel large distances every year. After rainy times, small streams carry water. They cut their paths through the desert and carry sediments with them.these streams often end in lakes where the water evaporates and salt and minerals are left over. Sometimes underground water comes to the surface. Such a place is called an oasis. It is the only spot where people can live, plant crops and raise animals. Climate In summer, temperatures may reach up to 55 C during the daytime, but at night they drop below 0 C. Most deserts get very little rainfall on average, not more than 20 cm a year. There may be years without any rainfall at all. Sometimes a lot of rain falls during thunderstorms that last for a few hours. When the desert dries up after heavy rainfall, salt and other minerals are left behind on the ground. Salt lakes are very common in these places. That is why some desert areas have yellow, brown and red colours.

3 3 WORDS blossom = to produce flowers dryness =the situation of being dry, without any water fit =good enough; the right ones get used to =here: to be in a new place so long that you can live there without any problems heat =high temperatures hump = the high part of a camel in search of = to look for mammal = an animal that drinks milk from its mother s body when it is young mud = wet earth that is soft and sticky needle =special kind of leaf that is very sharp nomad = a person who travels from place to place to find grass and water for animals protect =defend, guard reptile = an animal that changes its body temperature, like a snake root = the part of a plant or a tree that grows under the ground and gets water there seed = a small hard object of a plant. A new plant can grow from this shade = out of the sunlight stem = the long, thin part of a plant store = to put away until you need it surface =the top layer of an object tent =a shelter you put up when you go camping; it is covered with cloth and you hang it to the ground with ropes and poles water holes = a small place where animals drink wool = the soft thick hair of some animals Living in the desert People who live in deserts must protect themselves from high temperatures during the daytime and low temperatures at night and in the winter. Some people live in mud houses that are painted white. They keep out the heat during the daytime and protect people from cold evenings. Nomads in Africa live in tents and move around all year in search of areas with water. Many of them wear long coats that protect them from the sun and the wind. Plant life Desert plants must change their way of life and get used to the heat and the dryness. Some flowers only live for a few days. The seeds may be in the desert ground for years and when it rains they start to blossom. Plants of the desert usually have small leaves that look like needles. Such plants can live with very little water, which they store in the needles or stems. Some plants have long roots that reach up to 80 metres below the surface. Animals Many kinds of animals live in the desert: spiders, reptiles, birds and some mammals. Most animals stay in the shade during the daytime and look for food at night when it gets cooler. They get water from the food they eat or from the water holes in the desert. Some animals sleep during the summer. Camels are animals that are fit to live in the desert. They can go on for days without drinking water and need only little to eat. They carry their food in their humps. They also give nomads wool and tents are made out of their skin.

4 4 The Sahara WORDSl BC = Before Christ Berber = people who live in Northern Africa carry = to take with it copper = a metal that shines yellow and brown cover =to spread over crops =a plant like wheat or corn that farmers grow for food date = a sweet, sticky brown fruit with a long hard stone inside destroy =damage completely, ruin fertile =good, productive height =how high something is iron ore =rock from which you can make iron landscape =an area or countryside of a special type mountain range = a group of mountains nomad = a person who travels from place to place to find grass and water for animals oasis = a place with water and trees in a desert peak = the sharp top of a mountain plains = a large area of flat land plateau = a large area of flat land that is higher than the land around it raise = to look after animals raw material =things that exist in nature and which we use every day, like coal, oil, water threaten =endanger, put at risk tribe = a group of people who have the same skin colour, language and religion. They live in a small area wandering dunes = mountains of sand that move from one place to another well = a deep hole in the ground that has water in it wheat =a plant that you make white bread from The Sahara is the biggest desert in the world. The landscape is made up of mountain ranges, rocky plateaus and sandy plains called ergs. The Nile is the only river that carries water all year long. It flows through the Sahara in Sudan and gypt. The desert reaches from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Red Sea in the east over 3,500 km. The highest peaks are in the Tibesti mountains. They reach a height of about 3,500 metres. There are about 90 bigger oases in the Sahara, where water comes up from underground rivers or wells. People here live in small villages and grow crops. The Sahara also has important raw materials. Oil and gas lie under the Algerian and Libyan desert. There are also other minerals,like copper and iron ore. About 2 million people live in the desert. Most of them are Arabs or Berbers. The Tuareg are a tribe that live in the mountainous areas of the central Sahara. Most of them are nomads who raise sheep, goats or camels and travel around all year. In oases people can live the whole year. They grow dates, wheat and other crops. But, they must also fight against sand storms and wandering dunes that threaten to cover the oases with sand. The Sahara was not always a desert. During the Ice Age, when many parts of the world were covered with snow and ice, northern Africa had a much wetter climate. The Sahara had many lakes and rivers and elephants and giraffes lived in the grasslands and forests. At about 5000 BC the climate started to become drier and the Sahara turned into a desert. Many people moved south. Today the desert is growing because people destroy fertile land. They raise too many animals that eat all the grass or they cut down trees that still exist.

5 5 The most important deserts of the world Great Basin Arabian Desert Gobi Mohave Desert Sahara Atacama Namib Kalahari Patagonian Desert Australian Desert

6 6 Overhead Transparency Desert Landscapes

7 7 Overhead Transparency Plants in the Desert

8 8 Answer the following questions! What is the climate like in a desert? Describe! Hot and wet air rises over the and sinks over and. What are trade winds? Why are there deserts near the coast of South America and Africa? What material are most deserts made up of? What kind of life goes on in an oasis? How do people who live in the desert protect themselves? Where do desert plants keep their water? At which time of day are most desert animals active? Why are camels fit to live in the desert? What are ergs? Where do the Tuareg live and what do they do? What was the climate of the Sahara like during the Ice Age? Why is the Sahara desert still growing today?

9 9 The Sahara Put the lines in the correct order Sea in the east. About 2 million people live in the sandstorms and wandering dunes. During the Ice 1 The Sahara desert is the biggest in the world. It thousand years ago it started to dry out. Today or other animals. Other people live in oases all reaches from the Atlantic in the west to the Red the desert grows because fertile land is destroyed. desert. Most of them are nomads who raise sheep Age the Sahara had a lot more rain, but a few year long, but they must protect themselves from The Sahara xplain these words in nglish! Tuareg date wandering dunes well copper tribe

10 10 Crossword Across Created with clipsecrossword Down 3. an animal that drinks milk from its mother's body when it is young 5. line around the middle of the earth 8. when water change into gas 10. small stones and sand that rivers carry with them 11. cloudy air near the ground. It is difficult to see through it 12. a very small river 14. tropical wind that blows to the equator from the northeast and southeast ( 2 words) 1. an animal that is fit to live in the desert and can go on for days without food and water 2. a person who travels from place to place to find grass and water for animals 4. a group of people who have the same skin colour and language and live in a small area 6. small parts of water that exist in the air or on the ground 7. a place with water and trees in the desert 9. the part of a plan or a tree that grows under the ground and gets water there 10. small stones and sand that rivers carry with them 13. a hill made of sand

11 11 Look for 10 words about deserts ( ) and mark them. U T O X P P J X Y D B R B R B C U D Y V C A M L N M W H S D I M N T J R K G R O N F O G M T I D Z A D F M S C J R D M S A H A R A W Y I B I T H D L D B B S N Z R L U C O Z U Q C I X

12 12 Put the names of the deserts into the blanks below!

13 13 xplain how deserts are created near the equator! Tropic of Cancer quator Tropic of Capricorn

14 14 Answer keys

15 15 Crossword Key Created with clipsecrossword M A F S M R O O T M V G R T C A M L A R L Q P S A H A R A U O M D N O M A D R D T O A S I S W O T M I T R I B D U N N D M O I S T U R

16 16 Word Search Key U T O X P P J X Y D B R B R B C U D Y V C A M L N M W H S D I M N T J R K G R O N F O G M T I D Z A D F M S C J R D M S A H A R A W Y I B I T H D L D B B S N Z R L U C O Z U Q C I X

17 17 The Sahara Put the lines in the correct order 3 Sea in the east. About 2 million people live in the 7 sandstorms and wandering dunes. During the Ice 1 The Sahara desert is the biggest in the world. It 9 thousand years ago it started to dry out. Today 5 or other animals. Other people live in oases all 2 reaches from the Atlantic in the west to the Red 10 the desert grows because fertile land is destroyed. 4 desert. Most of them are nomads who raise sheep 8 Age the Sahara had a lot more rain, but a few 6 year long, but they must protect themselves from

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