# Tall Ships America Safety Under Sail Forum: Sailing Vessel Stability, Part 1: Basic Concepts

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1 Tall Ships America Safety Under Sail Forum: Sailing Vessel Stability, Part 1: Basic Concepts Moderator: Captain Rick Miller, MMA Panelists: Bruce Johnson, Co-Chair Working Vessel Operations and Safety Panel O-49, SNAME Jan C. Miles, Captain, Pride of Baltimore II Jason Quilter, Captain, R C Seamans David Bank, Director of Marine Operations, SEA

2 Your Vessel s Stability Considerations I: What is the physical basis for vessel static stability? Why must sailing vessels be very stable at small heel angles so they can carry a cloud of sail? How can the hull form be shaped in order to achieve this goal? What are the advantages of the wineglass hull form towards achieving that goal?

3 Movement of the Center of Buoyancy is the basis for stability

4 Shift in the Center of Buoyancy as the vessel heels

5 As with a real vessel, the cradle s (vessel s) center of gravity G is above its rocker, the center buoyancy B. The slightest disturbance (wind, waves, or the movement of weight on the deck) causes the cradle (vessel) to roll (heel) to one side. As the cradle (vessel) rolls to one side, the point where the rocker touches the floor (the center of buoyancy B ) shifts outboard.

6 Basic Definitions and Symbols GZ = the horizontal distance from the vessels s center of gravity to the line of actions of the buoyant force. Draft (T) The vertical distance from the bottom of the ship (Keel) to the waterline Center of buoyancy (also B) the centroid of the underwater volume Metacenter (M) The intersection of the line of action of the buoyant force with the centerline of the vessel. KB = Distance from the keel to the vertical center of buoyancy GM = height of metacenter above the center of gravity

7 The Righting Arm (GZ) Curve

8 Quote from A. F. Chapman on the Proportions of Privateers (1768) By the comparison of different species of ships, it has been found, that privateers in general, large as well as small, have the proper stability, when the distance of their metacenter from the center of gravity (GM) of the ship is 6 feet And since it is found that this center of gravity should be in the load waterline, the metacenter should be 6 feet above the load water-line (i.e. GM =1.83m and KG Draft, i.e. KG/T 1) Note: This is not an easy task and perhaps is the reason that privateers carrying cannons on deck must have low freeboards.

9 Your Vessel s Stability Considerations I: What is the physical basis for vessel static stability? Why must sailing vessels be very stable at small heel angles so they can carry a cloud of sail? How can the hull form be shaped in order to achieve this goal? What are the special features of the wineglass hull form? To help answer these questions consider the following comparison of Pride of Baltimore II with a beam to draft ratio of 2 (quite fast) with a rectangular barge with a beam to draft ratio of 3 (very slow!!).

10 beam to draft ratio, B/T = 2 is stiffer than a rectangular barge with a B/T = 3 Ratio

11 Wineglass Hullform Stiffness Note that Pride II s center of buoyancy has a KB/T of 0.77 while the barge KB/T = 0.5. Pride s heeled wedge of water as a percentage of underwater volume is roughly equal to that of the barge which has a larger wedge of water and volume. Comparing metacentric radii, BM: BM(Pride)=8.3 and BM(Barge)= 9.2 making KM(Pride)=17.8 compared with KM(Barge) = Thus the wineglass hullform increases the amount of shift in the center of buoyancy and consequently the amount of righting arm generated at low heel angles. Note the stiffness advantage of keeping the center of gravity, KG, low which results in a larger GZ The resulting higher stiffness enables the vessel to carry a larger press of sail.

12 Your Vessel s Stability Considerations II: What information is available to you? Stability book, Stability letter, Righting Arm (GZ) curve, etc Stability Guidance for Operators How old is your vessel s Stability information? Was your vessel grandfathered or built new to current regulations? Assumptions? Any weight changes? Has the distance from the keel to the center of gravity (KG) moved? Consider a new inclining & analysis When is a new inclining required?

13 Your Vessel s Stability Considerations III: Shape of GZ curve? Different Loading Conditions? What is the value of the Maximum Righting Arm (GZmax)? What angle of heel does GZ max occur? Consider a Wind Heeling Arm, (WHA), that is Tangential or Above your GZ Curve? How would an Inclined WHA look on your GZ curve?

14 Your Vessel s Stability Considerations IV: Deck Edge Immersion, (DEI), angle of heel? Slope of GZ curve generally starts to change at DEI First downflood point angle of heel? Identify all downflood points the vessel may be vulnerable to - off center hatches, closures adequate? Reserve buoyancy of deckhouses How vulnerable are these structures to water ingress? Will this change the shape of the GZ curve if water enters these deck structures? Will this lead to downflooding? Limit of positive stability, (LPS)? What is the roll period? Slow (tender) or fast (stiff)? Indication of GM & initial stability

15 R. C. Seamans (Featured in Part 2) Righting Arm Curve These points are illustrated in the slide which follows this slide Note the potential righting energy/unit displacement (area under the RA curve) gained when the watertight doors and hatches are secured as opposed to the potential righting energy/unit displacement lost when downflooding begins and the red shaded area is lost.

16 R.C.Seamans Righting Arm Curve 2 nd Rise From Deck House Buoyancy Outcome If No Deck House Buoyancy? Deck Edge 18 Max GZ 43 Down Flood 57 LPS 144

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