AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL DESIGN & ANALYSIS K. RAMAJEYATHILAGAM

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1 AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL DESIGN & ANALYSIS K. RAMAJEYATHILAGAM

2 To invent an airplane is nothing To build one is something But to fly is everything Lilienthal

3 DAY 1

4 WHAT IS AN AIRCRAFT? An aircraft is a vehicle, which is capable of flying through the air (or through any other atmosphere)

5 KINDS OF FLYING MACHINES Aerostat : Flying machines (systems), which are lighter than air Balloons (Unpowered aerostat) Airships (Powered aerostat) Aerodyne: Flying machines (systems), which are heavier than air Airplanes Helicopter

6 WORKING PRINCIPLE AEROSTAT Aerostats use the concept of buoyancy to float in the air in much the same manner as ships float on the water. Use lighter than air gases such as hot air, hydrogen, helium AERODYNE Aerodynes use the concept of pushing the air or gas downwards so that due to Newton s law of motion to generate an upward force to push the aircraft upwards

7 AIRSHIP

8 TYPES OF AIRSHIPS Rigid airships (Airships with rigid frames containing multiple, non-pressurized gas cells or balloons to provide lift) Non-rigid airships (Airships that use pressure level in excess of the surrounding air pressure to retain their shape) Semi-rigid airships (Airships that use internal pressure to maintain their shape, but having articulated keel frames running along the bottom of the envelope) Metal clad airships (Airships utilizing a very thin, airtight metal envelope, rather than the usual rubbercoated fabric envelope) Hybrid airships ( is a general term for an aircraft that combines characteristics of heavier-than-air (airplane or helicopter) and lighter than air technology Zeppelin Blimp

9 SOME AIRCRAFTS Wright brothers (1903) Douglas DC9 (1965) Aero A10 (1922) Airbus 380 (2007) Boeing 247 (1933) Boeing 787 (2008)

10 CLASSIFICATION BASED ON POWER Unpowered Propeller powered (20000 ft) Jet engine powered (40000 ft)

11 CLASSIFICATION OF CIVILIAN A/C Airliner Boeing / Airbus/ ATR / Bombardier / Douglas Cargo Boeing / Airbus Boeing 747 Airbus A300 Business aircraft Gulf stream / Bombardiar / Dassault Agricultural aircraft Grumman / Transavia / Pacific aerospace General aviation Bombardiar BD700 Fletcher FD25

12 CLASSIFICATION OF MILITARY AIRCRAFT Bombers Fighters Transportation Air support / counter insurgency Patrol Military trainers Reconnaissance

13 PARTS OF AN AIRCRAFT

14 MAJOR COMPONENTS OF AN AIRCRAFT Wings (to provide lift) Fuselage (to carry payload) Empennage (Directional stability) Landing gear (to land / takeoff /Taxiing) Flaps (High lifting devices) Ailerons (to control roll) Elevators (to control pitch) Rudders (to control yaw)

15 PARTS OF AN AIRCRAFT

16 WINGS

17 WINGS Wing is essentially a beam which gathers and transmits all the aerodynamic loads to the central fuselage attachment

18 WING TYPES Straight wing : If the leading edge of a wing is perpendicular to the airflow, it is called a straight wing Swept wing : If the leading edge of a wing meets the airflow at an angle, it is called a swept wing Straight wing Swept wing

19 TYPICAL WING FORMS Rectangle (Wright brothers) 9.8 Compound (Space shuttle) 30.5 Trapezoid (Boeing 747) S=40 C=6 Trapezoid (F18) S=13 Cr=15 Ct=6 Triangle (Concorde) S=42.5 Cr= S=81.3 Cr=54.3 Ct=13.3

20 PARTS OF A WING Wing box Fixed leading edge Fixed trailing edge Ailerons Spoilers Flaps Slats

21 WING TERMINOLOGY Root Leading edge SPAN (b) Tip Trailing edge Leading edge is the portion of the wing front of the front spar Trailing edge is the portion of the wing back of rear spar The chord is the distance between the leading edge and trailing edge Wing box is portion of the wing between the front spar and rear spar Ribs are the airfoil shaped members from leading edge to trailing edge Span is the distance between the root and tip of the wing Aspect ratio AR = B2/A

22 WING STRUCTURE Wing structure consists of Internal structure Spars Ribs Stringers External structure Upper skin Lower skin Wing structure should posses Sufficient strength Stiffness Light weight Minimum manufacturing problems

23 WING BOX DESIGN PRIMARY ISSUES Rib direction Perpendicular to rear spar Parallel to flight path Bending load carrying members Spar only Spar and skin

24 WING BOX Front spar Rear spar Ribs Stringers Span wise beam Fuel tank Wing skins Stringers

25 SPARS Spars are generally a beam running from root to the tip of the wing There are two spars Front spar Rear spar Multi-spar designs are used on larger wings and on military aircraft Spars carry the aerodynamic loads developed on a wing Spars consists of spar cap (flange) and web Spar cap carries bending loads and web carries shear loads Spars are generally I beams, some times C beams are also used All the structural parts of wing are attached to the spars Spars are of two types namely Shear web Truss type

26 TYPES OF SPAR c) Bent up channel f) Integrally machined web a) Built up spar d) Frame truss b) Truss type g) Integrally machined truss e) Sine wave web

27 SPARS Spars consist of Spar cap Spar web Web stiffener

28 SPAR CAPS Spar caps are nothing but the flange of a beam Spar caps carry the bending load as axial load Spars caps are designed to have maximum radius of gyration High local crippling stress Typical spar caps

29 SPAR WEBS Spars webs are of two types Shear resistant type (No buckling of the web takes place) i.e The shear stress acting on the web is not more than the buckling shear of the web Web stiffeners are designed to resist overall instability Diagonal tension field type In this type of web construction, a diagonal member can take the excess load by tension

30 WEB STIFFENER Webs stiffeners are provided to Prevent the overall instability of the web Increase the buckling strength of web

31 RIBS Ribs are used to define and produce the airfoil shape Carry inertial loads (fuel, equipment, missiles, rockets) Support skin-stringer panel in compression and tension Prevents wing skin buckling Transfers primary loads from the control surfaces and undercarriage to the spars

32 WING RIB DIRECTIONS Perpendicular to rear spar Parallel to flight path

33 WING RIB DIRECTIONS Advantages Perpendicular to rear spar Rib length is less Connection is easy Parallel to flight path Provides better aerodynamic shape Disadvantages Parallel to flight path Rib length is more (nearly 28%) Maintaining 90 at joints Skin gauge is more

34 TYPE OF RIBS Shear type rib Web acts as fuel slosh inhibiter Eliminates stress concentration by having a gradual cross section change from rib cab to shear web Continuous support for the wing panels Truss type rib Heavier

35 WING RIB CONSTRUCTION

36 RIB SPACING Preliminary rib spacing is arrived based on the structural weight The location of control surface and heavy weight location, ribs are provided to support Larger rib spacing leads to cost saving and less fatigue hazards The final rib spacing is arrived based on wing skin buckling

37 RIB LOADS Air loads Inertial load due to fuel, equipment, structure Crushing loads due to wing bending Concentrated loads (nacelle, landing gear) Diagonal tension loads from skin

38 STRINGERS Stringers are stiffening members in the wing which run from root to the tip Stringers are made from forming or extrusion Extrusion Forming

39 SPAN WISE BEAMS Span wise beams are members in the wing which run from root to the tip Span wise beams are provided for additional support as well as to support the fuel tank

40 FUEL TANK ARRANGEMENT

41 WING SKIN Gives the wing it s shape Carries loads Bending and shear loads Torsional loads caused by control surfaces and other features attached to the wing Creates walls for the wing mounted fuel tanks

42 WING SKIN PANEL

43 WING SKIN STRINGERS Z- Type I- Type J- Type Y- Type Hat Type J- Splice

44 WING SKIN - EDGE SKIN ATTACHMENT

45 LEADING EDGE Leading edge : The portion of the wing front of the spar is called as leading edge

46 LEADING EDGE COMPONENTS Leading edge consists of Ribs Slats Skin Plenum beam Piccolo tube Clips

47 LEADING EDGE RIBS

48 SLATS Slats Slats are aerodynamic surfaces on the leading edge of the wings, which, when deployed, allow the wing to operate at a higher angle of attack A higher coefficient of lift is produced as a product of angle of attack and speed Used while landing or performing maneuvers which take the aircraft close to the stall Retracted in normal flight to minimize drag

49 TRAILING EDGE The portion of the wing behind the rear spar It consists of Fixed trailing edge Ailerons Flaps Spoilers

50 FLAPS Flaps are hinged surfaces on the trailing edge of the wings of a fixed wing aircraft As flaps are extended so the stalling speed of the aircraft is reduced A stall is a sudden reduction in the lift forces generated by an airfoil Flaps are also used on the leading edge of the wings of some high-speed jet aircraft, where they may be called slats Flaps reduce the stalling speed by increasing the camber of the wing and thereby increasing the maximum lift coefficient Some trailing edge flaps also increase the area of the wing and, for any given aircraft weight, this reduces the stalling speed The Fowler flap is an example of one which increases the area of the wing

51 TYPES OF FLAPS Plain Flap rotates on a simple hinge Split flap upper and lower surfaces are separate, the lower surface operates like a plain flap, but the upper surface stays immobile or moves only slightly Fowler flap slides backwards before hinging downwards, thereby increasing both camber and chord, creating a larger wing surface better tuned for lower speeds Slotted flap A slot (or gap) between the flap and the wing enables high pressure air from below the wing to re-energize the boundary layer over the flap

52 COMPARISON OF FLAPS

53 FLAP ARRANGEMENT

54 AILERONS Ailerons are hinged control surfaces attached to the trailing edge of the wing of a fixed wing aircraft Aileron is a French word meaning little wing There are two ailerons Ailerons are used to control the aircraft in roll Down going aileron increases the lift and up going aileron reduces the lift in the respective wings causing rolling movement about the longitudinal axis of the aircraft Aileron operation causes an additional yawing moment Aileron

55 AILERONS

56 SPOILERS SPOILERS are small, hinged plates on the top portion of wings Spoilers can be used To slow an aircraft To make an aircraft descend To generate rolling motion

57 SPOILERS

58 WING ROOT JOINT Spliced plate Tension bolts Lug Splice plate & tension bolt

59 TYPES OF LUG ARRANGEMENTS

60 WING GROUP CENTRE OF GRAVITY Centreline Fuselage skin Wing group CG at 0.7 (Xrs -Xfs ) Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC) Front Spar at 0.25 C Rear Spar at 0.55 C to 0.6 C 0.35b/2 YMAC b/2

61 WING LOADS Air pressure (Lift loads) Drag Bending moment Pitching moment

62

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