Propagation of Big Island eddies

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Propagation of Big Island eddies"

Transcription

1 JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 106, NO. C1, PAGES , JANUARY 15, 2001 Propagaton of Bg Island eddes Chrstna L. Holland and Gary T. Mtchum College of Marne Scence, Unversty of South Florda, St. Petersburg, Florda Abstract. Usng satellte altmetry data, we have observed a seres of antcyclonc eddes as they form at the Bg Island of Hawa and have tracked them as they move away from the sland. Whle smlar eddes have been observed near the Hawaan Islands n prevous studes, the fate of the antcyclonc eddes has prevously been unclear. The eddes that we observed ntally propagated to the southwest but consstently changed propagaton drecton to the northwest later n ther lfetmes. Ths was ntrgung to us, as theoretcally, the decay of solated antcyclonc eddes on a/3 plane should cause them to contnually move toward the southwest. Such solated eddy dynamcs are unable to account for the observed change to northwestward eddy propagaton, and the presence of the westward flowng North Equatoral Current turns out to be mportant to the Bg Island eddy dynamcs. The eddes are not passvely advected by the North Equatoral Current; rather, the mean flow changes the propagaton characterstcs of the eddes. An exstng theory that ncludes merdonally varyng, purely zonal mean flow s shown to account for the observed propagaton of the Bg Island eddes f the zonal varaton of the mean flow s consdered. 1. Introducton It has been known for some tme [Patzert, 1969; Wyrtk, 1982] that there s an actve area of eddy generaton n the lee of the Bg Island of Hawa. The eddy feld s comprsed of both cyclonc and antcyclonc eddy events, and several of these Hawaan eddes were descrbed n detal by Patzert [1969], although that study focused manly on the cyclonc events. The cyclonc eddes moved away from the Bg Island n a west/ northwestward drecton and essentally stayed near the Hawaan Island chan throughout ther lfetmes. There was a rather dstnct boundary between the areas west of the Bg Island that were domnated by cyclonc eddes (to the north) and by antcyclonc eddes (to the south). Whle the cyclonc eddes have been relatvely well studed, the fate of the antcyclonc eddes after leavng the vcnty of the Bg Island s unclear. Snce mesoscale eddes carry both water mass and energy wth them as they propagate, the speed and drecton of ther propagaton as well as the length of ther lfe could have mportant mplcatons for the crculaton and varablty far away from ther formaton at the Hawaan Islands. It was just such a potental long-dstanceffect that ntally prompted the present nvestgaton nto the propagaton of these antcyclonc Bg Island eddes. A seres of epsodc 90 day events was observed n the tde gauge sea level tme seres at Wake Island [Mtchurn, 1995], whch s located km due west of the Bg Island of Hawa at øN, 165øE. It was shown that the 90-day sgnals at Wake Island were consstent wth an energy source at the Hawaan Rdge, and t was further hypotheszed that the 90-day sgnals mght be the remnants of the antcyclonc eddes generated at the Bg Island. It was not known, however, f the eddes could persst and propagate from Hawa to Wake Island and thus be responsble for the observatons there. For ths to occur, the net merdonal propagaton of the eddes would have to be essentally zero. Copyrght 2001 by the Amercan Geophyscal Unon. Paper number 2000JC /01/2000JC In addton to the eddy feld, the Hawaan Islands le on the northern boundary of the equatoral current system and at the northern edge of the North Equatoral Current (NEC), specfcally. The mean structure of the NEC was surveyed and descrbed as part of the Hawa-to-Taht shuttle experment by Wyrtk and Klonsky [1984], who reported NEC flow between 9 ø and 18øN wth an annual mean speed of 8.2 cm s -. We note as well that the NEC has strong seasonal varablty, varyng from cm s- n the boreal fall to ---5 cm s -1 n the boreal sprng [Seckel, 1975]. In addton, the NEC s home to other mesoscale eddy varablty, as descrbed by Wyrtk [1982]. Wyrtk [1982] was most nterested n a subset of the eddes that appeared to be formed wthn the NEC tself, at lattudes between 14 ø and 19øN. The NEC eddes were farly frequent events, occurrng n ---50% of the cruse sectons across the NEC. These eddes moved km/day, whch s smlar to both the zonal speed of advecton by the NEC and the baroclnc long Rossby wave propagaton speed. As wll be descrbed n secton 2, we observed a consstently westward component of propagaton for the antcyclonc Bg Island eddes usng TOPEX/Posedon (T/P) altmetry data. Intally, the eddes moved to the southwest. Eddy dynamcs on a/3 plane predct a southward component of propagaton for antcyclonc eddes, as we wll also dscuss later. Of course, eddes propagatng contnually southwest from the Bg Island of Hawa could never reach Wake Island, as the two slands are at approxmately the same lattude. When we tracked the eddes for longer perods of tme, however, we were surprsed to see them change drecton. The early propagaton was to the southwest, but somewhere between the longtudes of 170øE and 170øW, every one of the observed eddes stopped movng to the south. In fact, after reachng that crtcal regon, they all began to propagate to the northwest. There was sgnfcant varaton n detal between the ndvdual eddy tracks, but ths change n drecton from southwestward to northwestward was a consstent feature of all of the eddy tracks (Fgure 1). Ths turn to northwestward propagaton means that t mght be possble for some of the Bg Island eddes, or at least some 935

2 936 HOLLAND AND MITCHUM: PROPAGATION OF BIG ISLAND EDDIES Eddy # 1 Eddy # 5 20 N 20 N 140 E 16 ) E 18'0 16 W 140 E 16 ) E 18'0 166 W Eddy # 2 Eddy # 6 2O N 20 N -! 140 E 160 E ( W 140 E 160 E W Eddy # 3 Eddy # 7 2O N 2O N -! 140 E 160 E W 140 E 160 E W 2O N Eddy # 4 2O N Eddy # 8 '4. I 140 E 160 E W 140 E 160 E 18'0 160W Fgure 1. The observed tracks of the Bg Island eddes. The postons of the eddes are plotted every 5 days from the tme of ther formaton at the Bg Island of Hawa. The tracks were obtaned usng maps of grdded TOPEX/Posedon altmetry data. Supermposed on the tracks s a composteddy track, whch was computed by averagng the eddy lattudes n 1 ø bns and smoothng by fttng a sum of snusodal functons to that curve by least squares. resdual sgnal assocated wth ther decay, to have reached Wake Island. Only one of the eght observed eddes could be tracked to the vcnty of Wake Island. At ths tme, gven the avalable data, we cannot determne whether or not the energy assocated wth the antcyclonc Bg Island eddes mght explan the sea level varablty at Wake Island observed by Mtchurn [1995]. Ths northwestward turn n the observed eddy trajectores does, however, ntroduce an entrely new puzzle. Dynamcs for an solated antcyclonc eddy (n the Northern Hemsphere) predct that on a/3 plane t should contnue to move southwestward throughout ts lfetme. The underlyng cause of the change we observed n the eddy propagaton drecton s therefore an ntrgung queston. Obvously, though, eddes n the real world are unlkely to exst n complete solaton, and there are other processes to consder. In ths case, an mportant factor s lkely to be nteracton wth the NEC. After the eddes form at the Bg Island of Hawa, they propagate southwestward and approach the west- ward flowng NEC, and nteracton wth the mean current mght affect the propagaton behavor. We have chosen to smplfy the problem, treatng the eddes as f they were solated except for the NEC, to explore the possbltes afforded by those dynamcs. In ths study, we wll examne the dynamcs of nteracton wth a mean current lke the NEC to determne whether that can account for the change n the merdonal component of the observed eddy propagaton. In so dong, prevou studes of nteractons between vortces and varous types of mean flows wll be partcularly useful and these studes are brefly revewed below. Future work n ths area should nclude other nterestng possbltes, such as nteractons between the antcyclonc eddes and the cyclonc eddes whch also form at the Bg Island. Secton 2 descrbes the observatons and the analyss that led to the eddy tracks shown n Fgure 1. Followng that s a dscusson of some of the dynamcal studes relevant to the problem of eddy propagaton n Secton 3. Specfcally, we wll

3 HOLLAND AND MITCHUM: PROPAGATION OF BIG ISLAND EDDIES 937 dscuss both the propagaton of solated eddes on a/3 plane and the possbl effects of eddes nteractng wth a mean zonal current. Fnally, we wll present calculatons from clmatologcal data n an attempt to dagnose the dynamcs behnd the observed eddy propagaton. temperature were used. There were stll only a lmted set of AVHRR maps for the relevant regon and tme perod wth enough data to be useful. The set of AVHRR maps was nsuffcent for trackng the eddes from AVHRR alone, but comparsons could be made between the AVHRR and T/P maps at 2. Observed Eddy Paths a number of specfc tmes. The mesoscale features n these monthly AVHRR maps were qualtatvely smlar to those n the T/P grdded maps. The eddes can be seen n the same The ntal observatons of the Bg Island eddes by Patzert [1969] were made from hydrographc surveys, but such data are not avalable for trackng the eddes over long dstances and tmes. The eddes, do, however, have readly observable sea surface heght sgnatures and can therefore be observed at tde gauges or by satellte altmeters. The altmeters have an obvlocaton n each data set and are of the same approxmate sze. As a second ndependent check, sea level data from the tde gauge at Johnston Island (16.7øN, 169.5øW) was examned n relaton to the T/P grdded maps. Fve of the observed eddes passed wthn 100 km of the Johnston Island staton. Postve sea level anomales, whch correspond to antcyclonc features, ous advantage due to the global spatal and quas-synoptc of the correct ampltude are observed n the tde gauge tme coverage provded by TOPEX/Posedon (T/P) and other satellte altmeters. Thus T/P s the prmary tool that we used to observe the eddes as they propagated away from the Bg Island. There s a problem, though, n that the average dstance between the T/P passes at 19øN s 150 km, whch s comparable to the sze of the eddes, so that reconstructng the eddy sgnatures n tme and space can be dffcult. Ths problem can be partally overcome by usng data from multple altmeters, and we also used data from the European Space Agency's ERS-1 msson n the early phases of our work. Vsualzaton of the eddy propagaton s acheved wth grdded sea surface maps. Intally, altmetrc data from T/P and ERS-1 were merged and grdded to form a seres of 5-day sea surface heght anomaly maps. Whle the ERS-1 data set has a longer repeat perod, 35 days, than does the T/P data set, the spatal resoluton s much better than that of T/P, so that the two complement one another. Usng ths blended data set, we were able to track ndvdual eddes wthout dffculty, owng seres at the tmes at whch these eddes passed Johnston Island (Fgure 2). Note that the seasonal varaton has been removed from the sea level seres n Fgure 2 n order to emphasze the mesoscale events. Also note that there are clearly many other smlar features n the Johnston record, but our man concern s that the tde gauge records the passage of the Bg Island eddes at the same tmes as the T/P grdded felds do. The other events n the tde gauge record are also observed n the T/P maps (.e., the tme seres correlate well), but these events are not of nterest n the present context. Gven the lack of senstvty to the data used to make the maps and the corroboratng evdence from the AVHRR and tde gauge data, we concluded that we could safely track the Bg Island eddes from the grdded sea surface heght maps. Usng these maps, we were able to track eght antcyclonc eddes from the Bg Island. These eght eddes formed between November of 1992 and July of 1996, whch mples an average rate of just over two eddes per year. Intally, all of the obpartly to the relatvely large dameters and ampltudes assoc- served eddes moved off to the southwest from the Bg Island ated wth the Bg Island eddes. We also made maps from the T/P data alone, and whle the maps from only T/P data appeared rougher than those comprsed of both T/P and ERS-1 of Hawa, although the ndvdual trajectores were rather vared. Later, all eght of the eddes turned to the northwest between the longtudes of 170øE and 170øW and contnued to data, the observed postons of the eddy tracks were nsenstve propagate northwestward from that pont (Fgure 1). It s natto ths dfference. Also, regardless of whether we use T/P and ERS-1 or T/P alone, t s mportant to take care n grddng the data to be sure that the analyzed heght feld s not unduly dstorted. Several dfferent grddng methods were therefore used n ths analyss, and we found that the postons of the eddy tracks were nsenstve to the partcular scheme used. Snce T/P has a longer data record than ERS-1, the fnal grdded map seres was made usng only the T/P data, whch enabled us to observe a larger total number of eddes. In addton to testng the grdded sea surface heght felds by evaluatng the senstvty of our results to whch data was ncluded (.e., T/P and ERS-1 or T/P alone) and to what type of grddng algorthm was used, we also attempted to verfy the eddy locatons usng ndependent data. Frst, satellte sea surural to ask whether these eght eddes that we tracked were all that were formed or whether our sample mght be based n some fashon. To address ths queston, we note that Patzert [1969] used data from a number of cruses near the Hawaan Islands between 1949 and Three cruses between September 1952 and August 1953 each observed a sngle antcyclonc eddy. Then between May 1965 and May 1967 a total of fve antcyclonc eddes were observed out of measurements made by eght dfferent cruses. The frequency of antcyclonc eddes at the Bg Island of Hawa appears from these data to be approxmately two to three eddes per year. We are therefore reasonably confdent that wth the T/P grdded data we were able to observe all of the antcyclonc eddes that were formed durng our study perod. face temperature from the advanced very hgh resoluton radometer (AVHRR) satelltes was examned for ndependent confrmaton of what the grdded T/P maps showed. The 3. Dynamcs of Eddy Propagaton AVHRR data, unlke data from T/P and other mcrowave Several studes have dscussed the effects of a/3 plane and altmeters, are receved n a wde swath beneath the satellte rather than along a narrow nadr track. These data can be dsplayed as a map wthout any artfcal grddng, whch makes t a useful data set wth whch to evaluate the grdded T/P maps. The usefulness of the AVHRR data are lmted, though, by large data gaps whenever clouds were n the sky. For ths reason, monthly composte maps of the AVHRR sea surface nonlneartes on the zonal and merdonal propagaton of solated eddes [Flerl, 1977; McWllams and Flerl, 1979; Flerl, 1984; McWllams et al., 1986]. None of these studes consdered the potental effect of any mean flow on the eddy propagaton; they dealt nstead wth the behavor of solated eddes. A study by Chang and Phlander [1989] addresses ths gap. These authors consdered the propagaton of packets of

4 938 HOLLAND AND MITCHUM: PROPAGATION OF BIG ISLAND EDDIES 3OO 2OO IO0 -IO0-2OO ! 1994 Eddy # 3 I I oo 2oo loo 0 -loo -2oo -300 Eddy # 7 Eddy # 8 19' Fgure 2. Fve of the Bg Island eddy events as seen n the tme seres of sea surface heght taken from the tde gauge staton at Johnston Island (16.7øN, 169.5øW). The best ft (n the least square sense) of the annual cycle has been removed from the sea surface heght tme seres. The tmes at whch the eddes, as observed n the TOPEX/Posedon grdded maps, most closely approached Johnston Island are shown as thn vertcal lnes. Rossby waves n the presence of a mean, purely zonal, geostrophc current. Eddes can be vewed as a packet of Rossby waves, and the results of Chang and Phlander [1989] are thus relevant to the case currently under consderaton, that of an eddy approachng the NEC. We wll frst summarze the solated eddy dynamcs and then turn to the case of an eddy n a merdonally varyng zonal mean flow. and Fled, 1979; Fled, 1984; McWllams et al., 1986; Sutyrn and Fled, 1994]. Frst, the speed of westward propagaton ncreases more rapdly than n the lnear case and more closely approaches the expected long Rossby wave speed Cx = -tx n whch X s the Rossby radus of deformaton wrtten as 3.1. An Isolated Eddy X = (g'h/f ) /2, (2) An solated eddy wll propagate westward on a/3 plane, even where #' and H are the reduced gravty and the upper layer under lnear dynamcs [Fled, 1977]. In the study of Fled thckness. Second, nonlnearty also nduces a merdonal com- [1977], mesoscale eddes are thought of as packets of Rossby ponent of propagaton, through the development of a beta gyre waves, and as the ndvdual Rossby wave components propa- [Sutyrn and Fled, 1994]. The potental vortcty of the eddy gate westward, so does the complete eddy. The speed of the eddy's westward moton s smply the group speed of the Rossby waves makng up the eddy. Intally the eddy s com- Q = (f + )/H, (3) prsed of many dfferent Rossby waves, and whle all travel westward, ther phase speeds are vared. Intally, then the where (7 s the relatve vortcty, s conserved. The nonvortex part of the flow conssts of the beta gyre, formed prmarly by westward propagaton of the eddy s found to be at only ---30% the advecton of planetary vortcty and secondarly by dstorof the long Rossby wave speed. Ths varety of propagaton tons n the shape of the vortex. The merdonal eddy propaspeeds n the wave components of the eddy causes the eddy to gaton s controlled by the sgn of the eddy's vortcty. An be dspersve and therefore to decay. As t propagates, t antcyclonc eddy propagates to the southwest under these evolves, leavng behnd a tral of slower Rossby waves. As those dynamcs n the absence of any mean flow. The maxmum slower wave components are shed, the eddy ampltude de- magntude of the merdonal propagaton speed, for ether creases, and the westward propagaton speed of the eddy n- cyclonc or antcyclonc eddes, s gven by creases toward the long Rossby wave speed. Everythng dslev: (1/4)/3x 2 (4) cussed here thus far s true even for a lnear eddy, but nonlnear effects can change the eddy evoluton and propaga- [McWllams and Fled, 1979]. Fo; cyclonc eddes, Cy ton substantally. The nonlnear case, whle t s a bt more complcated, s also more true to the real world of eddy propagaton dynamcs than the lnear, so t s approprate that we now address the effects of nonlnearty on the propagaton of an solated eddy. Nonlnear effects change the propagaton tve, whle for antcyclonc eddes t s a negatve quantty. Nothng about the dynamcs of an solated eddy, however, offers any explanaton for antcyclonc eddes propagatng to the northwest. If the eddes were only very weakly nonlnear, then ther southward translaton mght be nearly nonexstent. behavor of antcyclonc eddes n two man ways [McWllams Even f that were so, however, there s no reason n the theory s pos-

5 HOLLAND AND MITCHUM: PROPAGATION OF BIG ISLAND EDDIES 939 dscussed up to ths pont for the eddes' merdonal propagaton to change drecton as was observed. As dscussed n secton l, though, the presence of the NEC probably cannot be gnored, so we wll now consder mean flow effects on eddy propagaton characterstcs Effect of a Mean Current Chang and Phlander [1989] use essentally the same equatons as the studes dscussed above. Ther model s nonlnear, on a/3 plane, and quas-geostrophc for a sngle actve layer above a lower layer assumed to be at rest. They use these dynamcs to consder packets of Rossby waves nteractng wth a background mean flow. The mean flow U o s constraned to be geostrophc, purely zonal, and only varable merdonally; that s, = r0(y). (5) The exstence of a mean current ntroduces a quantty B, whch Chang and Phlander term the "effectve"/3. The quantty B s defned as B -- (f/q)oq/oy = [f/(f- OUo/Oy)] ß [13-- (02Uo/Oy 2) - Q(OHo/Oy)], (6) where Q s the mean state potental vortcty, Q -- [(f- OUo/Oy)/Ho], (7) whch s dependent upon the planetary vortcty f, the mean relatve vortcty OUo(y)/Oy, and the merdonally varable part of the mean thermoclne depth Ho(y ). If the length scale L o over whch the flow speed changes s large compared to the Rossby radus X, (6) can be smplfed. The term f/[ f - 0 Uo/ Oy] reduces to one, and the last term wthn the brackets n (6) s Q(OHo/Oy), where Q, the potental vortcty, s approxmately equal to f/ho. If the mean flow s assumed to be geostrophc, then ths term can be approxmated as Q(OHo/Oy) - (f/ho)oho/oy -(f2/#'ho)uo -U0 x-2, (8) where X agan represents the Rossby radus of deformaton, so (6) becomes B = 13-02eo/Oy 2 + x-2e0. (9) Recall from (19) that the merdonal speed s drectly propor- The above dscusson n terms of packets of Rossby waves tonal to/3'. If the mean flow s eastward, then the/3' s larger encounterng a background current. It s more approprate, than/3, and the merdonal propagaton speed s ncreased. If however, to dscuss nonlnear vortex dynamcs n the context of an eddy were approachng such an eastward current from a the eddy-current nteractons rather than smply treatng the regon of slower or nonexstent mean flow, then ths ncrease n eddes as packets of Rossby waves. The followng dscusson merdonal propagaton would serve to carry t further nto the starts from these nonlnear vortex dynamcs [McWllams and current, thus ncreasng the mean flow t feels even more and Flerl, 1979; Sutyrn and Flerl, 1994] and wll show that the so on. On the other hand, f the mean flow s westward lke same effectve /3 can be derved. Startng wth the quas- NEC,/3' s less than/3, and the merdonal propagaton speed geostrophc equaton for the streamfuncton q, s therefore decreased and eventually goes to zero at the lat- (V 2- X-2)Oqt/Ot + J(qt, V2qt) + 130qt/Ox = 0 (10) [Sutyrn and Flerl, 1994], where X s the Rossby radus of deformaton and J s the Jacoban, expressed as J(q,, v q,) _-(oq,/ox)[o/oy(v q,)] - (oq,/oy)[o/ox(v q,)], t can easly be shown that the relatve vortcty of the flow, r = (v: - x-:) q,, ( 2) obeys the relatonshp DF/Dt = OF/Ot + J(q,, F) = -t Oq,/Ox. (13) Wth the ntroducton of a zonal mean flow Uo(y), such that the vortcty equaton becomes Oq /Oy = Oq '/Oy- Uo, (14) DF'/Dt = ar'/at + J(q,, r') = -t 'aq,/ax, (15) F'= (V 2- A-2)½ ' (16) 13' _ Uo/Oy 2 + X-2Uo. (17) Expresson (17) s dentcal to (9) for the effectve/3, B, from the Chang and Phlander [1989] dscusson for packets of Rossby waves. Expresson (15) for conservaton of potental vortcty for the anomalous flow (wth respecto a mean flow) s dentcal to (13) for the no mean flow case, wth the substtuton of/3' for/3, so that the eddy propagaton speeds (1) and (4) now become Cx- U0 = -/3'X 2 (18) cy = -1/4/3'A 2 (19) for an antcyclonc eddy. Clearly, the speed and drecton of propagaton s dependent on the magntude and sgn of/3', the effectve/3. Understandng the merdonal propagaton of the Bg Island eddes requres an understandng of the value of/3' and how t changes throughout the lfetmes of the eddes. To that end, we wll now consder some smplfcatons to (17), the expresson for/3'. If L o s larger than A, the shear of the mean flow s small and the second-term the rght-hand sde of (9), 02Uo/Oy 2, can be neglected. In most cases ths s reasonable. At 10øN, for example, f s 2.5 x 10 -s, and f the nternal gravty wave speed s taken as 2.7 m s -1 (a reasonable value but used here only for llustraton), then the Rossby radus of deformaton s 107 km, or just under 1 ø of lattude. The wdth of the mean flow, on the other hand, s usually several degrees. Except n regons of hghest mean flow shear, the second term can be neglected, and/3' can be approxmated as /3' /3 + U0 x-2. (20) tude where/3' = 0. The degree to whch the merdonal propagaton s slowed depends manly on the strength of the cur- rents, except as noted earler n regons of very strong merdonal shear n the mean flow. The expresson for the zonal propagaton speed (18) has two terms, one equal to the mean flow and one analogous to the long Rossby wave speed at whch t propagates n the no mean flow case. The second term, lke the expresson for the merdonal propagaton speed, s drectly proportonal to/3' rather than/3, as t would be n the no mean flow case. As the strength

6 940 HOLLAND AND MITCHUM: PROPAGATION OF BIG ISLAND EDDIES 20 I 19 o oo o o, -, -,, Levtus zonal flow, 18 at 135.5øE, ø E, and 154.5øW. 'o., Zonal flow from 17 I WOCE surface drfters. 0 0 Observed eddy zonal 16 I propagaton, ths study.!,! ~ l] ll Eddy zonal propagaton, I from Lumpkn, Zonal Speed (m/s) Fgure 3. The zonal speed of the eddes, computed from the observed trajectores wth a tme step of 2 months. Also shown are the zonal eddy speeds computed by Lumpkn [1998], the Levtus et al. [1994] geostrophc U0, and the mean zonal speeds of the World Ocean Crculaton Experment (WOCE) surface drfters between ø and 160øW, between 160 ø and 168øW, and between 170 ø and 180øW [Lumpkn, 1998]. of the westward mean flow that the eddy encounters ncreases, are faster than the geostrophc U0 computed from the Levtus the value of the parameter/3' decreases, and as ths happens, et al. [1994] clmatologcal dynamc heghts owng to the the zonal propagaton speed approaches the lmt of smooth nature of the clmatology. As can be seen n Fgure 3, however, the eddy propagaton speeds do agree well wth the Cx = u0 World Ocean Crculaton Experment (WOCE) surface drfter at the same lattude where the merdonal propagaton com- derved zonal speeds [Lumpkn, 1998]. Chang and Phlander ponent goes to zero. In a westward mean flow, t s therefore [1989] suggesthat the Rossby waves should be absorbed nto possble for the eddy paths to asymptote toward a crtcal the mean flow at the crtcal lattude as they cannot propagate lattude, whch s smply the lattude where /3' - 0. After away from t. In our observatons, however, the eddes conreachng ths pont, the zonal propagaton contnues at a con- tnue to be vsble as dstnct features n the sea surface heght stant rate equal to the mean flow speed at that lattude. The anomaly felds. merdonal speed s zero, and so the eddes are unable to leave As dscussed earler, the Bg Island eddes propagate to the that crtcal lattude. If the eddy s thought of as a packet of southwest ntally. Later, the southward component of ther Rossby waves as descrbed by Chang and Phlander [1989], all moton decreases, comes to a halt, and n fact, reverses, so that of the Rossby wave components of a packet of waves such as a these antcyclonc eddes propagate to the northwest. On the mesoscaleddy would then be travelng at the same speed, that bass of the above theory, nteracton wth a strong westward of the mean current at the crtcal lattude. The zonal propa- mean current such as the NEC seems to be a lkely cause for gaton speeds of the antcyclonc eddes obs6rved n ths study ths haltng of the southward moton, but the northwestward

7 HOLLAND AND MITCHUM: PROPAGATION OF BIG ISLAND EDDIES 941 1ON 140 E 160 E W Fgure 4. The composte eddy track compared to vrtual drfter trajectores. The vector feld s the surface geostrophc flow computed from the clmatologcal [Levtus et al., 1994] dynamc heght relatve to 1000 m. The thckest lne s the compost eddy track, as n Fgure 1. Vrtual drfters were nserted nto the clmatologcal surface geostrophc flow at several locatons along the composte eddy tracks. The daly postons of these vrtual drfters, as nferred by the clmatologcal flow, are shown. propagaton that follows that wll requre addtonal consderaton Advecton by the North Equatoral Current The effectve/3 from Sutyrn and Flerl [1994] and Chang and Phlander [1989] appears to offer a possble explanaton for at least some of the observed propagaton characterstcs of the Bg Island eddes, and later we wll address the effect of a more complcated mean flow that s allowed to vary zonally n sze and strength. Frst, though, t s natural to wonder whether there mght be another, smpler way to account for the observed propagaton. One possblty s that the eddes do not actvely propagate at all but are smply advected passvely to the northwest by the mean flow. We wll therefore dgress brefly to determne whether the eddy propagaton mght nstead be accounted for by a smple advecton processes. From Secton 3.2 [Chang and Phlander, 1989; Sutyrn and Flerl, 1994] we know that for the case where Uo, Ho, and/3' are all functons of lattude only, the eddy propagaton speeds at the pont where/3' approaches zero can be wrtten as Cx = Uo Cy = 0. (22) In ths scenaro, the eddy can be thought of as nondspersve and freely propagatng at exactly the mean flow speed. Con- versely, t could be magned that the eddy s not freely propagatng at all but rather s smply beng advected along by the mean current after the pont when t reaches the crtcal lattude. If the mean flow s a functon of lattude only, t s mpossble to test whch of these vews s correct. If, on the other hand, the mean flow Uo vares wth both lattude and longtude, then these two hypotheses can be easly tested aganst one another. All eght of the eddes observed n ths study were ncorporated nto a composteddy track (Fgure 1) n order to more easly compare the eddy propagaton to the mean flow. The mean flow used s the geostrophc flow at the surface, relatve to the 1000 m depth level, computed from the Levtus et al. [1994] clmatology. We nserted vrtual drfters nto ths mean feld at several locatons along the composte eddy track and plotted the drfter locatons every day (Fgure 4). If one supposes that the eddes, n movng northwestward, were smply advected by the mean flow of the NEC, then the vrtual drfter trajectores should also turn to the northwest. Those trajectores should, n fact, le alongsde the eddy path, but ths does not appear to be true for any part of the eddes' lfetme. Instead, the clmatologcal drfters move consstently to the southwest even after the eddy path has turned to the northwest. Ths does not elmnate the possblty that nstantaneous varatons n the NEC could advect eddes to the northwest, but for ths to be a reasonable explanaton for the very consstent northwestward turn of all of the observed eddes, we would expect to see some ndcaton of northwest flow n the clmatologcal current. Smple advecton processes appear to be unable to account for the northwestward eddy moton, and so we now return to/3', the effectve/3, and dscuss the case where the zonal flow s allowed to vary wth longtude Zonal Varaton n the Mean Flow To attempt to explan why an antcyclonc eddy mght move northwestward, we want to take the deas of Sutyrn and Flcrl [1994] and Chang and Phlander [1989] a step further. That s, can these dynamcs, when extended to a mean flow that s nether purely zonal nor varyng solely n the merdonal d- recton, account for the observed change n the eddy propagaton drecton? Zonal varaton n the mean flow alters/3', the effectve /3 parameter, and therefore can further affect the propagaton of mesoscal eddes. The NEC does n fact have spatal varablty, wth zonal varatons n the flow speeds and n the lattude of the strongest flow (Fgure 5). The speeds shown are the geostrophc speeds at the surface relatve to 1000 m, agan computed from the Levtus et al. [1994] clmatologcal dynamc heght data. Recall that Sutyrn and Flerl [1994] and Chang and Phlander [1989] deal only wth a purely zonal and purely merdonally varyng flow Uo(y), whch s n geostrophc balance wth the merdonally varyng nterface depth Ho(y ). Exposed to such a mean flow, the merdonal moton of antcyclonc eddy depends on the effectve/3 parameter,/3', whch was shown above to be approxmately 13' (y) = 13 - Q(y)OHo(y)/Oy. (23) The lattude at whch/3' = 0 was of partcular nterest, as that defned the expected path of the eddes n the presence of the mean flow. A more realstc case to consder s a current that

8 HOLLAND AND MITCHUM: PROPAGATION OF BIG ISLAND EDDIES ø E ø E ø W! 20 2 '"15 lo 1 1 5_ ' o U(y) n m/s Fgure 5. Zonal varaton n the surface geostrophc flow of the NEC computed from the Levms et al. [1994] clmatologcal dynamc heght relatve to 1000 m. The x axs of each panel s the strength of the zonal component of the mean flow Uo(y) (n m s- ). The y axs n every case s lattude. The panelshow the mean flow at (left) 135.5øE, (mddle) 170.5øE, and (rght) 154.5øW. can vary n strength and wdth wth longtude. The NEC, for nstance, wdens and strengthens as t moves westward. In ths case, the lattude at whch/3' s approxmately zero s no longer constant but rather vares wth longtude; that s, there s a curve y (x) defned by compute rro profles versus depth at each lattude and longtude. Inspecton of these profles suggested that rro values of between 26.0 and 26.2 kg m -3 serve as a reasonable defnton of the pycnoclne n our study area, and the depth of these sopycnals are therefore used to defne Ho(y) at each grd 13'[x, y(x)] = 0. (24) pont n the Levtus clmatology. These Ho(y) can then be merdonally dfferentated at each zonal poston to obtan By analogy wth the smpler/3' (y) case, we expecthat fy(x) s slowly changng zonally, then the eddy placed n such a mean flow feld should follow the/3' = 0 contour, once reachng t, for the remander of ts lfetme. The NEC has both zonal and merdonal flow, but t s stll prmarly a zonal current, as can be seen n a vector map of geostrophc flow relatve to 1000 m, computed from the Levtus et al. [1994] clmatology (Fgure 4). Ths greatly smplfes matters; f the NEC were not prmarly a zonal current, the dsperson relaton would dffer from the estmates of/3' at each grd pont. In determnng the postons at each longtude where/3' = 0, whch defne the y(x) curve that we need, we frst dentfed the regon where/3' decreases from 2 to 0 x m - s - as we approach the core of the NEC from the north. These regons are shown on Fgure 6 for two calculatons: one uses rro = 26.0 kg m -3 and the other uses rro = 26.2 kg m -3 as the defnton of the pycnoclne. There can, of course, be zero contours of B on both the north and south flanks of the NEC, but snce the eddes are approachng form dscussed earler and would be much more complcated. the NEC from the north sde, only the contours of/3' on the As t stands, contours of/3' and thus the expected path y(x) north sde of the core of the NEC are shown because these are can be estmated from the Levtus et al. [1994] clmatology. In order to make ths estmate, we recall that the mean flow potental vortcty Q s approxmately f/ho. Ths allows us to wrte (23) as consdered to be the dynamcally mportant ones. For comparson, the composte of the observed eddy tracks s also ncluded on Fgure 6, and the close correspondence between the average eddy path and the y(x) estmates sup- 13' 13 - (f/ho)oho/oy, (25) ports the dea that the basc Sutyrn and Flerl [1994] and Chang and Phlander [1989] theory can account for the general propwhch s a more convenent form snce t only nvolves the nterface depth. Ths quantty can be estmated from the Levtus et al. [1994] clmatology. We could have nferred Ho from the dynamc heght relatve to 1000 m from Levtus et al. [1994]. A better choce, however, s to use the actual depth of the agaton characterstcs of the Bg Island eddes. In fact, t appears from ths analyss that the Bg Island eddes are never truly solated; they are formed n close proxmty to the/3' = 0 contour and reman wth t throughout ther lfetmes. It does not appear to be necessary to nvoke/3 plane dynamcs for an pycnoclne or at least the best estmate of that depth possble solated'eddy all to explan the zonal propagaton n ths from the clmatologcal data. The clmatologcal values of temperature and salnty from Levtus et al. [1994] were used to case. The zonal propagaton s controlled, along the zero /3' contour, by the mean zonal flow component. The merdonal

9 HOLLAND AND MITCHUM: PROPAGATION OF BIG ISLAND EDDIES 943 Contours for 0 < B < 2xl 0-12(ms) I I I I... oe = 26.0 kg/m 3 '1-20N E 170 E W 160 W 150 W longtude Fgure 6. The composte eddy track compared to the zero contour of B, the effectve /3 of Chang and Phlander [1989]./3' s computed from the Levtus et al. [1994] clmatology of temperature and salnty accordng to/3' = /3 - (f/ho)oho/oy, where H o s the thermoclne depth, estmated from the depths of cr o contours. The sold lne s the compost eddy track, and the medum and lght shaded lnes curves are the zero contours of B on the north sde of the north equatoral current based on the depths of cr o equal to 26.0 and 26.2 kg m -3, respectvely. propagaton, on the other hand, depends on the zonally varable poston of the gradent of the Corols parameter and of the poston, strength, and lattudnal shear of the background mean current. From the pont of ther formaton at the Bg Island of Hawa the eddes appear to reman on the zero contour of/3' through much, f not most, of ther lfetmes. 4. Future Work The propagaton of the antcyclonc Bg Island eddes can be explaned by ther followng the/ ' = 0 contour, where/ ' s the effectve/. Ths effectve/ dffers from the planetary/ owng to the presence of a mean background current, the NEC. Ths s, of course, not the only possble explanaton, and further research s needed. One topc requrng further study s the stablty of the NEC. It s possble that for a large-scale current, such as the NEC, f t s stable, the merdonal gradent of potental vortcty and the advecton effects balance, producng only small net effects on vortex propagaton. Snce we found that/3' has a zero contour, though, the NEC may be an unstable current. In fact, the Charney-Stern condton for nstablty of a flow s that the merdonal gradent of the potental vortcty, whch has been desgnated here as/3', must change sgn somewhere wthn the flow [Charney and Stem, 1962]. Ths s a necessary but not a suffcent condton of nstablty, so we cannot say from ths alone whether or not the NEC s unstable. The queston of the stablty or nstablty of the NEC could have mportant consequences when eddy-current nteractons and subsequent eddy propagaton are consdered. The data for the mean NEC avalable at the tme of ths study [Levtus et al., 1994] are not suffcent owng, n partcular, to ther heavly smoothed nature to determne whether the NEC s stable or unstable. Better clmatologcal data sets, such as the recently released World Ocean Database [Levtus et al., 1998] may allow ths queston to be answered. Another approach to the nsght nto the nature of the eddy-current nteractons and the stablty of the mean current. The altmetrc data used n ths study, whle suffcent for determnng the poston of the eddes as they propagate, wll not allow such detaled plots of the eddy structure as would be requred for ths purpose owng to the cross-track resoluton of the altmeter and the dffculty of separatng the eddes from the surroundng varablty. New data products, such as the recent hgh-resoluton mappng usng combnatons of T/P, ERS-1, and ERS-2 [Ducet et al., 2000], may make ths a practcal approach. Another nterestng area for future work s the possblty of nteractons between ndvdual eddes. In ths study, we have focused exclusvely on the effect of the NEC on the eddy propagaton, treatng these antcyclonc eddes as f they were otherwse solated, n order to see how much of ther behavor could be explaned n that way. These eddes are not solated, however, and eddy-eddy nteractons may be an mportant factor n the eddy propagaton. One possblty s that the antcyclonc eddes may be nteractng wth one another. Two vortces of the same sgn, otherwse solated and wth all moton except for the vortex rrotatonal and nvscd, wll tend to rotate about a statonary pont between the two [Kundu, 1990]. Under the rght crcumstances n a rotatng basn, two vortces of the same rotatonal sense wll merge nto one [Nof and Smon, 1987]. Cyclonc eddes are also formed at the Bg Island, and nteractons between the antcyclonc eddes and the cyclonc eddes are also possble, although the cyclonc eddes, unlke the antcyclonc eddes, ntally move to the northwest from the Bg Island. Vortces of opposte sgn n close proxmty to one another tend to mantan ther dstance, wth the weaker rotatng about the stronger, or movng n parallel lnes f they are of smlar strength [Kundu, 1990]. On a /3 plane, there s the added tendency for southward and northward merdonal moton for antcyclonc and cyclonc eddes, respecproblem would be to examne the sea surface heght expresson tvely, so the relatve poston of the eddes s mportant to of the eddes n detal as they propagate and evolve. The consder. All of the above vortex nteractons could complcate evoluton of the structure of the eddes would provde further the propagaton of the antcyclonc Bg Island eddes, along

10 944 HOLLAND AND MITCHUM: PROPAGATION OF BIG ISLAND EDDIES wth the /3 plane dynamcs and the effect of the mean NEC. References Improved altmetrc products such as that of Ducet et al. [2000], Chang, P., and S. G. H. Phlander, Rossby wave packets n baroclnc wth fne enough resoluton to capture the detaled structure of mean currents, Deep Sea Res., Part A, 36, 17-37, the varous vortces and any evolutons as they nteract, mght Charney, J. G., and M. E. Stern, On the stablty of nternal baroclnc allow one to address ths possblty n future studes. jets n a rotatng atmosphere, J. Atmos. Sc., 19, , Ducet, N., P. Y. Le Traon, and G. Reverdn, Global hgh-resoluton Ths study was ntally concerned wth determnng whether mappng of ocean crculaton from TOPEX/Posedon and ERS-1 or not the antcyclonc Bg Island eddes could account for the and -2, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 19,477-19,498, sea level varablty at Wake Island noted by Mtchum [1995]. Flerl, G. R., The applcaton of lnear quasgeostrophc dynamcs to Of the eght eddes observed n ths study, only one (number 2) Gulf Stream rngs, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 7, , was tracked to the vcnty of Wake Island. In the tde gauge Flerl, G. R., Rossby wave radaton from a strongly nonlnear warm eddy, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 14, 47-58, sea level tme seres at Wake Island, wth the annual cycle Kundu, P. K., Flud Mechancs, 638 pp., Academc, San Dego, Calf., removed, there s a peak at the tme suggested by the eddy trajectory. Ths provdes some addtonal valdaton of the eddy Levtus, S., R. Gelfeld, T. Boyer, and D. Johnson, Results of the trackng, as wth the tme seres at Johnston Island, dscussed NODC and IOC Oceanographc Data Archaeology and Rescue Projects, Key to Oceanographc Records Documentaton 19, Natl. prevously, but ths s only one peak among all the varablty of Oceanogr. Data Center, Washngton, D.C., the Wake Island sea level tme seres. We cannot conclude Levtus, S., T. P. Boyer, M. E. Conkrght, T. O'Bren, J. Antonov, C. from the currently avalable data whether or not the antcy- Stephens, L. Stathoplos, D. Johnson, and R. Gelfeld, World Ocean clonc Bg Island eddes or energy assocated wth ther decay Database 1998, vol. 1, Introducton, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 18, Natl. reach Wake Island, but ths queston should be reconsdered as Oceanc and Atmos. Admn., Slver Sprng, Md., Lumpkn, C. F., Eddes and Currents of the Hawaan Islands, Ph.D. better data become avalable, such as the Ducet et al. [2000] dssertaton, 281 pp., Unv. of Hawa at Manoa, Honolulu, mappng. We have found that the eddy propagaton s conss- McWllams, J. C., and G. R. Flerl, On the evoluton of solated, tent wth movement along the/3' = 0 contour, and as Fgure 6 shows, ths contour does not curve suffcently northward for nonlnear vortces, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 9, , McWllams, J. C., P. R. Gent, and N.J. Norton, The evoluton of balanced, low-mode vortces on the/3-plane, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 16, the eddes to reach Wake Island f they follow t. In ths study, , however, /3' was computed from the Levtus et al. [1994] cl- Mtchum, G. T., The source of 90-day oscllatons at Wake Island, J. matologcal felds, and t s apparent n Fgure 3 that Geophys. Res., 100, , geostrophc veloctes computed from ths data set can be Nof, D., and L. M. Smon, Laboratory experments on the Mergg of much slower than nstantaneous measurements from such nonlnear antcyclonc eddes, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 17, , Patzert, W. C., Eddes n Hawaan waters, Rep. HIG-69-8, Hawa Inst. sources as the WOCE surface drfters. The strength, posof Geophys., Unv. of Hawa at Manoa, Honolulu, ton, and shear of the mean current affect the value of/3'. Seckel, G. R., Seasonal varablty and parameterzaton of the Pacfc Better estmates of/3' and the locaton of the/3' = 0 contour may be avalable from the World Ocean Database [Levtus et al., 1998] or from other clmatologcal data sets, and ths mght allow future studes to address whether or not the hypothess presented here, that the eddes follow the/3' = 0 contour, s consstent wth the Bg Island eddes reachng Wake Island. North Equatoral Current, Deep Sea Res., 22, , Sutyrn, G. G., and G. R. Flerl, Intense vortex moton on the beta plane: Development of the beta gyres, J. Atmos. Sc., 51, , Wyrtk, K., Eddes n the Pacfc North Equatoral Current, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 12, , Wyrtk, K., and B. Klonsky, Mean water and current structure durng the Hawa-to-Taht Shuttle Experment, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 14, , Acknowledgments. Ths work was supported by NASA through the Jet Propulson Laboratory as part of the TOPEX Altmeter Research n Ocean Crculaton Msson. Conversatons wth several people n the Department of Oceanography at the Unversty of Hawa and n the College of Marne Scence at the Unversty of South Florda were very helpful. The paper was also sgnfcantly mproved by suggestons from two anonymous revewers. C. L. Holland and G. T. Mtchum, College of Marne Scence, Unversty of South Florda, 140 Seventh Avenue South, St. Petersburg, FL (Receved January 14, 2000; revsed August 21, 2000; accepted August 31, 2000.)

Evaluation of a Center Pivot Variable Rate Irrigation System

Evaluation of a Center Pivot Variable Rate Irrigation System Evaluaton of a Center Pvot Varable Rate Irrgaton System Ruxu Su Danel K. Fsher USDA-ARS Crop Producton Systems Research Unt, Stonevlle, Msssspp Abstrat: Unformty of water dstrbuton of a varable rate center

More information

Cross-shore Structure of Longshore Currents during Duck94

Cross-shore Structure of Longshore Currents during Duck94 CHAPTER 283 Cross-shore Structure of Longshore Currents durng Duck94 Falk Feddersen 1, R.T. Guza 2, Steve Elgar 3, and T.H.C Herbers 4 Abstract The cross-shore structure of the mean longshore current on

More information

First digit of chosen number Frequency (f i ) Total 100

First digit of chosen number Frequency (f i ) Total 100 1 4. ANALYSING FREQUENCY TABLES Categorcal (nomnal) data are usually summarzed n requency tables. Contnuous numercal data may also be grouped nto ntervals and the requency o observatons n each nterval

More information

Proceedings of the ASME nd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering OMAE2013 June 9-14, 2013, Nantes, France

Proceedings of the ASME nd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering OMAE2013 June 9-14, 2013, Nantes, France Proceedngs of the ASME nd Internatonal Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctc Engneerng OMAE June 9-,, Nantes, France OMAE-6 ROLL DAMPING COEFFICIENTS ASSESSMENT AND COMPARISON FOR ROUND BILGE AND HARD

More information

Risk analysis of natural gas pipeline

Risk analysis of natural gas pipeline Rsk analyss of natural gas ppelne Y.-D. Jo 1, K.-S. Park 1, J. W. Ko, & B. J. Ahn 3 1 Insttute of Gas Safety Technology, Korea Gas Safety Corporaton, South Korea Department of Chemcal Engneerng, Kwangwoon

More information

High Speed 128-bit BCD Adder Architecture Using CLA

High Speed 128-bit BCD Adder Architecture Using CLA Hgh Speed 128-bt BCD Archtecture Usng CLA J.S.V.Sa Prasanth 1, Y.Yamn Dev 2 PG Student [VLSI&ES], Dept. of ECE, Swamy Vvekananda Engneerng College, Kalavara, Andhrapradesh, Inda 1 Assstant Professor, Dept.

More information

Equilibrium or Simple Rule at Wimbledon? An Empirical Study

Equilibrium or Simple Rule at Wimbledon? An Empirical Study Equlbrum or Smple Rule at Wmbledon? An Emprcal Study Shh-Hsun Hsu, Chen-Yng Huang and Cheng-Tao Tang Revson: March 2004 Abstract We follow Walker and Wooders (200) emprcal analyss to collect and study

More information

Aerator Performance in Reducing Phenomenon of Cavitation in Supercritical Flow in Steep Channel Bed

Aerator Performance in Reducing Phenomenon of Cavitation in Supercritical Flow in Steep Channel Bed Engneerng Internatonal Conference UNNES Conservaton 13 Proceedng Aerator Performance n Reducng Phenomenon of Cavtaton n Supercrtcal Flow n Steep Channel Bed Yer Sutopo 1, Bud Wgnyosukarto, Istarto, dan

More information

Mass Spectrometry. Fundamental GC-MS. GC-MS Interfaces

Mass Spectrometry. Fundamental GC-MS. GC-MS Interfaces Mass Spectrometry Fundamental GC-MS GC-MS Interfaces Wherever you see ths symbol, t s mportant to access the on-lne course as there s nteractve materal that cannot be fully shown n ths reference manual.

More information

Comparisons of Means for Estimating Sea States from an Advancing Large Container Ship

Comparisons of Means for Estimating Sea States from an Advancing Large Container Ship Downloaded from orbt.dtu.dk on: Jan 31, 18 Comparsons of Means for Estmatng Sea States from an Advancng Large Contaner Shp Nelsen, Ulrk Dam; Andersen, Ingrd Mare Vncent; Konng, Jos Publshed n: Proceedngs

More information

SEAKEEPING BEHAVIOUR OF A FRIGATE-TYPE TRIMARAN

SEAKEEPING BEHAVIOUR OF A FRIGATE-TYPE TRIMARAN Desgn & Operaton of Trmaran Shps, London, UK SEAKEEPNG BEHAVOUR OF A FRGATE-TYPE TRMARAN W Pastoor, Det Norske Vertas AS, Norway R van 't Veer, Martme Research nsttute Netherlands, The Netherlands E Harmsen,

More information

Response based sea state estimation for onboard DSS Safe and Efficient Marine Operations

Response based sea state estimation for onboard DSS Safe and Efficient Marine Operations Response based sea state estmaton for onboard DSS Safe and Effcent Marne Operatons Ulrk Dam Nelsen AMOS Workshop, NTNU, Trondhem, 13 th and 14 th November, 2014 Contents Introducton: Context Montorng and

More information

COMPENSATING FOR WAVE NONRESPONSE IN THE 1979 ISDP RESEARCH PANEL

COMPENSATING FOR WAVE NONRESPONSE IN THE 1979 ISDP RESEARCH PANEL COMPENSATING FOR WAVE NONRESPONSE IN THE 1979 ISDP RESEARCH PANEL 1. Introducton Graham Kalton, Unversty of Mchgan ames Lepkowsk, Unversty of Mchgan Tng-Kwong Ln. Natonal Unversty of Sngapore The choce

More information

A comparison study on the deck house shape of high speed planing crafts for air resistance reduction

A comparison study on the deck house shape of high speed planing crafts for air resistance reduction csnak, 2014 Int. J. Nav. Archt. Ocean Eng. (2014) 6:867~875 http://dx.do.org/10.2478/ijnaoe-2013-0218 pissn: 2092-6782, eissn: 2092-6790 A comparson study on the deck house shape of hgh speed planng crafts

More information

PERFORMANCE AND COMPENSATION ON THE EUROPEAN PGA TOUR: A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

PERFORMANCE AND COMPENSATION ON THE EUROPEAN PGA TOUR: A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS PERFORMANCE AND COMPENSATION ON THE EUROPEAN PGA TOUR: A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS C. Barry Pftzner and Chrs Spence, Department of Economcs/Busness, Randolph-Macon College, Ashland, VA, bpftzne@rmc.edu, cspence@rmc.edu

More information

Cost theory and the cost of substitution a clarification

Cost theory and the cost of substitution a clarification Cost theory and the cost of substtuton a clarfcaton Walter J. ReMne The cost of substtuton has been wdely msnterpreted, whch has lmted ts utlty. Ths paper clarfes the cost concept and re-establshes ts

More information

Major League Duopolists: When Baseball Clubs Play in Two-Team Cities. Phillip Miller. Department of Economics. Minnesota State University, Mankato

Major League Duopolists: When Baseball Clubs Play in Two-Team Cities. Phillip Miller. Department of Economics. Minnesota State University, Mankato Major League Duopolsts: When Baseball Clubs Play n Two-Team Ctes Phllp Mller Department of Economcs Mnnesota State Unversty, Mankato September 2006 Abstract: Ths paper focuses on examnng the attendance

More information

ALASKA DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND GAME DIVISION OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES NEWS RELEASE

ALASKA DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND GAME DIVISION OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES NEWS RELEASE ALASKA DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND GAME DIVISION OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES NEWS RELEASE Cora Campbell, Commssoner Jeff Regnart, Drector Contact: Cordova ADF&G Steve Mofftt, PWS Fnfsh Research Bologst 401 Ralroad

More information

Comparative Deterministic and Probabilistic Analysis of Two Unsaturated Soil Slope Models after Rainfall Infiltration

Comparative Deterministic and Probabilistic Analysis of Two Unsaturated Soil Slope Models after Rainfall Infiltration Jordan Journal of Cvl Engneerng, Volume 11, No. 1, 2017 Comparatve Determnstc and Probablstc Analyss of Two Unsaturated Sol Slope Models after Ranfall Infltraton Manoj Kr. Sahs 1) and Partha Pratm Bswas

More information

WHOI MOORING OPERATIONS TECHNIQUES OF THE BUOY PROJECT AT THE WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION. Robert H. Heinmi11er, Jr.

WHOI MOORING OPERATIONS TECHNIQUES OF THE BUOY PROJECT AT THE WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION. Robert H. Heinmi11er, Jr. WHO-76-69 )' MOORNG OPERATONS TECHNQUES OF THE BUOY PROJECT AT THE WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHC NSTTUTON by Robert H. Henm11er, Jr. ~" co ft co.. Õ ru :~ cr :: 3: c: c: == ld-,-c,. ft c: -C WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHr'C

More information

CAREER DURATION IN THE NHL: PUSHING AND PULLING ON EUROPEANS?

CAREER DURATION IN THE NHL: PUSHING AND PULLING ON EUROPEANS? UNC CHARLOTTE ECONOMICS WORKING PAPER SERIES CAREER DURATION IN THE NHL: PUSHING AND PULLING ON EUROPEANS? Crag A. Depken II Johnny Duckng Peter A. Groothus Workng Paper No. 2016-005 THE UNIVERSITY OF

More information

Modeling the Performance of a Baseball Player's Offensive Production

Modeling the Performance of a Baseball Player's Offensive Production Brgham Young Unversty BYU ScholarsArchve All Theses and Dssertatons 006-03-09 Modelng the Performance of a Baseball Player's Offensve Producton Mchael Ross Smth Brgham Young Unversty - Provo Follow ths

More information

Stability Analysis for the Design of 5000-Tonnes Offshore Work Barge

Stability Analysis for the Design of 5000-Tonnes Offshore Work Barge Internatonal Journal of Engneerng and echnology Volume No. 9, September, Stablty Analyss for the Desgn of 5-onnes Offshore Work arge Ntonye Samson a, Ezenwa Ogbonnaya b, uve Ejabefo a a Department of arne

More information

arxiv: v1 [cs.ne] 3 Jul 2017

arxiv: v1 [cs.ne] 3 Jul 2017 Modelng preference tme n mddle dstance trathlons Iztok Fster, 1 Andres Iglesas, 2 Suash Deb, 3, 4 Dušan Fster, 5 and Iztok Fster Jr. 6 1 Unversty of Marbor, Faculty of Electrcal Engneerng and Computer

More information

2017 GIRLS DISTRICT-SPECIFIC PLAYER DEVELOPMENT GUIDE

2017 GIRLS DISTRICT-SPECIFIC PLAYER DEVELOPMENT GUIDE 2017 GIRLS DISTRICT-SPECIFIC PLAYER DEVELOPMENT GUIDE GENERAL OVERVIEW USA Hockey Grls Player Development Dstrct-Specfc Gude The USA Hockey Grls Player Development Dstrct-Specfc Gude outlnes the 2017 grls

More information

Mass Transfer of CO 2 into Water and Surfactant Solutions

Mass Transfer of CO 2 into Water and Surfactant Solutions Mass Transfer of CO 2 nto Water and Surfactant Solutons Rouhollah Farajzadeh, Al Barat, Harm A. Dell, Johannes Brunng, Pacell L.J. Ztha Delft Unversty of Technology, Department of Geotechnology, Mjnbouwstraat

More information

English Premier League (EPL) Soccer Matches Prediction using An Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for

English Premier League (EPL) Soccer Matches Prediction using An Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for Englsh Premer League (EPL) Soccer Matches Predcton usng An Adaptve Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for Amadn, F. I 1 and Ob, J.C. 2 Department of Computer Scence, Unversty of Benn, Benn Cty. Ngera.

More information

Hydraulic DTH Fluid Hammer Drilling as a Seismic While Drilling (SWD) Source for Geothermal Exploration and Drilling Prediction

Hydraulic DTH Fluid Hammer Drilling as a Seismic While Drilling (SWD) Source for Geothermal Exploration and Drilling Prediction Proceedngs World Geothermal Congress 2015 Melbourne, Australa, 19-25 Aprl 2015 Hydraulc DTH Flud Hammer Drllng as a Sesmc Whle Drllng (SWD) Source for Geothermal Exploraton and Drllng Predcton Poletto

More information

An Enforcement-Coalition Model: Fishermen and Authorities forming Coalitions. Lone Grønbæk Kronbak Marko Lindroos

An Enforcement-Coalition Model: Fishermen and Authorities forming Coalitions. Lone Grønbæk Kronbak Marko Lindroos An Enforcement-Coalton Model: Fshermen and Authortes formng Coaltons Lone Grønbæ Kronba Maro Lndroos December 003 All rghts reserved. No part of ths WORKING PAPER may be used or reproduced n any manner

More information

Investigating Reinforcement Learning in Multiagent Coalition Formation

Investigating Reinforcement Learning in Multiagent Coalition Formation Investgatng Renforcement Learnng n Multagent Coalton Formaton Xn L and Leen-Kat Soh Department of Computer Scence and Engneerng Unversty of Nebrasa-Lncoln 115 Ferguson Hall, Lncoln, NE 66588-0115 {xnl,

More information

Valuing Beach Quality with Hedonic Property Models

Valuing Beach Quality with Hedonic Property Models Valung Beach Qualty wth Hedonc Property Models Crag E. Landry* Department of Economcs Center for Natural Hazards Research East Carolna Unversty, Greenvlle, NC 27858 landryc@ecu.edu; 252-328-6383 and Paul

More information

HUMAN POWER TECHNICAL JOURNAL OF THE IHPVA. Number 50 Spring 2000 $5.50 NUMBER 50, SPRING 2000

HUMAN POWER TECHNICAL JOURNAL OF THE IHPVA. Number 50 Spring 2000 $5.50 NUMBER 50, SPRING 2000 HUMAN POWER TECHNICAL JOURNAL OF THE IHPVA NUMBER 50, SPRING 000 Number 50 Sprng 000 $5.50 Summares of artcles n ths ssue; mast................ Contrbutons to Human Power....................... Artcles

More information

Chapter 3 Reserve Estimation. Lecture notes for PET 370 Spring 2012 Prepared by: Thomas W. Engler, Ph.D., P.E.

Chapter 3 Reserve Estimation. Lecture notes for PET 370 Spring 2012 Prepared by: Thomas W. Engler, Ph.D., P.E. Chapter 3 Reserve Estmaton Lecture notes for PET 370 prng 2012 Prepared by: Thomas W. Engler, Ph.D., P.E. Volumetrc N ol n 7758A B o place, n h f (1 1 ) here, N = ol n place, stb A = dranage area, acres

More information

SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE THIRTEENTH REGULAR SESSION. Rarotonga, Cook Islands 9-17 August, 2017

SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE THIRTEENTH REGULAR SESSION. Rarotonga, Cook Islands 9-17 August, 2017 SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE THIRTEENTH REGULAR SESSION Rarotonga, Cook Islands 9-17 August, 2017 Relatve abundance of yellowfn tuna for the purse sene and handlne fsheres operatng n the Phlppnes Moro Gulf (Regon

More information

FK240 FLAT SOLAR COLLECTORS ROOF-TOP INSTALLATION FOR WORCESTER SOLAR SYSTEMS

FK240 FLAT SOLAR COLLECTORS ROOF-TOP INSTALLATION FOR WORCESTER SOLAR SYSTEMS FK240 FLAT SOLAR COLLECTORS ROOF-TOP INSTALLATION FOR WORCESTER SOLAR SYSTEMS G INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS About ths manual Ths nstallaton manual contans mportant nformaton for the safe and approprate nstallaton

More information

EXPLAINING INTERNATIONAL SOCCER RANKINGS. Peter Macmillan and Ian Smith

EXPLAINING INTERNATIONAL SOCCER RANKINGS. Peter Macmillan and Ian Smith EXPLAINING INTERNATIONAL SOCCER RANKINGS Peter Macmllan and Ian Smth School of Economcs and Fnance Unversty of St Andrews St Andrews Ffe, KY16 9AL Unted Kngdom Tel: + 44 1334 46430 (Smth), + 44 1334 46433

More information

IBIS: ATestbed for the Evolution of Intelligent Broadband Networks toward TINA

IBIS: ATestbed for the Evolution of Intelligent Broadband Networks toward TINA BS: ATestbed for the Evoluton of ntellgent Broadband Networks toward TNA Marc0 Lstant, Unversty of Roma "La Sapenza" Stefan0 Salsano, CoRTeL ABSTRACT Ths artcle analyzes a possble path for the evoluton

More information

Product Information. Gripper for small components MPG 80

Product Information. Gripper for small components MPG 80 Product Informaton MPG 80 MPG Precse. Compact. Relable. MPG grpper for small components 2-fnger parallel grpper wth smooth roller gudes of the base jaws Feld of applcaton Grppng and movng of small to medum-szed

More information

Contractor's Material and Test Certificate for Underground Piping

Contractor's Material and Test Certificate for Underground Piping UNDERGROUND PPNG 13-97 Contractors Materal and Test Certfcate for Underground Ppng PROCEDURE Upon completon of work, nspecton and tests shall be made by the contractors representatve and wtnessed by an

More information

Aalborg Universitet. CLIMA proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress Heiselberg, Per Kvols. Publication date: 2016

Aalborg Universitet. CLIMA proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress Heiselberg, Per Kvols. Publication date: 2016 Aalborg Unverstet CLIMA 2016 - proceedngs of the 12th REHVA World Congress Heselberg, Per Kvols Publcaton date: 2016 Document Verson Publsher's PDF, also known as Verson of record Lnk to publcaton from

More information

AMP-O-MATIC* Side-Feed Stripper-Crimper III Machine No [ ] customer manual TOOLING ASSISTANCE CENTER

AMP-O-MATIC* Side-Feed Stripper-Crimper III Machine No [ ] customer manual TOOLING ASSISTANCE CENTER AMP-O-MATIC* Sde-Feed Strpper-Crmper III Machne No. 1320895-[ ] Customer Manual 409-10012 28 DEC 11 SAFETY A. PRECAUTIONS READ THIS FIRST!............................ 2 customer manual 1. INTRODUCTION.......................................................

More information

Algorithms of Digital Processing and the Analysis of Underwater Sonar Images

Algorithms of Digital Processing and the Analysis of Underwater Sonar Images 9 Algorthms of Dgtal Processng and the Analyss of Underwater Sonar Images S.V. Sa, A.G. Shoberg and L.A. Naumov 2 Pacfc natonal unversty 2 Insttute of Marne Technology Problems FEB RUS Russa Open Access

More information

CIVL Paragliding and Hang-Gliding Committees CIVL GAP. Centralised Cross-Country Competition Scoring for Hang-Gliding and Paragliding

CIVL Paragliding and Hang-Gliding Committees CIVL GAP. Centralised Cross-Country Competition Scoring for Hang-Gliding and Paragliding CIVL Paragldng and Hang-Gldng Commttees CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng 2014 Edton Revson 1.1 Publshed March 23, 2014 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton

More information

Product Information. Gripper for small components MPG-plus 40

Product Information. Gripper for small components MPG-plus 40 Product Informaton MPG-plus 40 MPG-plus More powerful. Faster. Longer fngers. MPG-plus grpper for small components 2-fnger parallel grpper wth smooth roller gudes of the base jaws Feld of applcaton Grppng

More information

Introduction Match analysis is used to investigate technical and tactical behaviors within judo studies, and it can also be applied to improve

Introduction Match analysis is used to investigate technical and tactical behaviors within judo studies, and it can also be applied to improve Introducton Match analyss s used to nvestgate techncal and tactcal behavors wthn judo studes, and t can also be appled to mprove athletc performance. Ths type of data can be used n a varety of means to

More information

MODEL : LDF7810WW/ LDF7810BB/ LDF7810ST LDF7811WW/LDF7811BB / LDF7811ST LDS5811WW/ LDS5811BB/ LDS5811ST LDF6810WW/LDF6810BB / LDF6810ST

MODEL : LDF7810WW/ LDF7810BB/ LDF7810ST LDF7811WW/LDF7811BB / LDF7811ST LDS5811WW/ LDS5811BB/ LDS5811ST LDF6810WW/LDF6810BB / LDF6810ST _/ / _ III IRL III" Dshwasher MODEL : LDF7810WW/ LDF7810BB/ LDF7810ST LDF7811WW/LDF7811BB / LDF7811ST LDS5811WW/ LDS5811BB/ LDS5811ST LDF6810WW/LDF6810BB / LDF6810ST Please read ths manual carefully Retan

More information

2.4. Applications of Boundary Layer Meteorology

2.4. Applications of Boundary Layer Meteorology 2.4. Applications of Boundary Layer Meteorology 2.4.1. Temporal Evolution & Prediction of the PBL Earlier, we saw the following figure showing the diurnal evolution of PBL. With a typical diurnal cycle,

More information

Autumn Antics Open Play Day Horse Show

Autumn Antics Open Play Day Horse Show Slver Knolls Spurs 4-H Club Presents The Twenty Frst Annual Autumn Antcs Open Play Day Horse Show Saturday, October 7, 2017 Start Tme: 9:00 AM UNR Equestran Center 1290 Valley Rd, Reno, NV 89512 Corner

More information

Power Generation Scheduling of Thermal Units Considering Gas Pipelines Constraints

Power Generation Scheduling of Thermal Units Considering Gas Pipelines Constraints World Academy of Scence, Engneerng and Technology Internatonal Journal of Electrcal and Computer Engneerng Vol:3, No:1, 29 ower Generaton Schedulng of Thermal Unts Consderng Gas pelnes Constrants Sara

More information

ATMS 310 Tropical Dynamics

ATMS 310 Tropical Dynamics ATMS 310 Tropical Dynamics Introduction Throughout the semester we have focused on mid-latitude dynamics. This is not to say that the dynamics of other parts of the world, such as the tropics, are any

More information

Multi-Criteria Decision Tree Approach to Classify All-Rounder in Indian Premier League

Multi-Criteria Decision Tree Approach to Classify All-Rounder in Indian Premier League Internatonal Journal of Adanced Scence and Technology Mult-Crtera Decson Tree Approach to Classfy All-Rounder n Indan Premer League Pabtra Kumar Dey 1, Dpendra Nath Ghosh 2, Abhoy Chand Mondal 3 1 Assstant

More information

Influence of Gas Density on Hydrodynamics in a Bubble Column

Influence of Gas Density on Hydrodynamics in a Bubble Column Smulaton and Optmzaton Chna Petroleum Processng and Petrochemcal Technology 01, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp 66-70 March 30, 01 Influence of Gas Densty on Hydrodynamcs n a Bubble Column Tang Xaojn; Hou Shuand; Zhang

More information

BICYCLE MANUAL ROAD BIKE

BICYCLE MANUAL ROAD BIKE PURE CYCLING BICYCLE MANUAL ROAD BIKE 1 13 14 2 3 4 5 c a 15 16 17 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 e d b 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Attenton! Assembly nstructons page 10. Before your frst rde please read pages 5-9.! Your

More information

Quantitative gas saturation estimation by frequencydependent

Quantitative gas saturation estimation by frequencydependent Quanttatve gas saturaton estmaton by requencydependent AVO analyss Xaoyang Wu, * Mark Chapman, Xang-Yang L, and Patrck Boston Ednburgh Ansotropy Project, Brtsh Geologcal Survey, Murchson House, West Mans

More information

By BETTY DEBNAM. All About Japan. Many tourists visit Mount Fuji, Japan's highest mountain.

By BETTY DEBNAM. All About Japan. Many tourists visit Mount Fuji, Japan's highest mountain. 4-1 (98) Especally and for famles ther e 1998 by Unversal Press Syndcate By BETTY DEBNAM from The Mn Page by Betty Debnam @1998 Unversal Press Syndcate The Host Country of the Wnter Olympcs All About Japan

More information

THE POLARIMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BOTTOM TOPOGRAPHY RELATED FEATURES ON SAR IMAGES

THE POLARIMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BOTTOM TOPOGRAPHY RELATED FEATURES ON SAR IMAGES THE POLARIMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BOTTOM TOPOGRAPHY RELATED FEATURES ON SAR IMAGES Taerim Kim Professor, Ocean System Eng. Dept. Kunsan University Miryong Dong San 68, Kunsan, Jeonbuk, Korea, trkim@kunsan.ac.kr

More information

Experimental Testing and Model Validation for Ocean Wave Energy Harvesting Buoys

Experimental Testing and Model Validation for Ocean Wave Energy Harvesting Buoys Expermental Tetng and Model Valdaton for Ocean Wave Energy Harvetng Buoy Dougla A. Gemme 1, Steven P. Baten 1, Raymond B. Sepe, Jr. 1, John Montgomery 2, Stephan T. Grll 2, Annette Grll 2 1 Electro Standard

More information

Ocean Currents Unit (4 pts)

Ocean Currents Unit (4 pts) Name: Section: Ocean Currents Unit (Topic 9A-1) page 1 Ocean Currents Unit (4 pts) Ocean Currents An ocean current is like a river in the ocean: water is flowing traveling from place to place. Historically,

More information

CAUTION When using any equipment, always follow the manufacturer s instructions for safe operation.

CAUTION When using any equipment, always follow the manufacturer s instructions for safe operation. Cleanng 3M Controltac Decorated Graphc Vnyl Awnng Flmand Sgn Facngs Instructon Bulletn 6.1 Release I, Effectve March 2017 (replaces H, Oct 03) These cleanng nstructons are furnshed as a gude. The end-user

More information

u.s. til_rala Seni.ce Al_1taa o.t.r CoIItlM11tal Shelf legion U.S. u.,c. of Iat.dor 603,,., EMt 36tla A.-... A8eb0ra, Aluke or luis SIA PI.

u.s. til_rala Seni.ce Al_1taa o.t.r CoIItlM11tal Shelf legion U.S. u.,c. of Iat.dor 603,,., EMt 36tla A.-... A8eb0ra, Aluke or luis SIA PI. OCSt.., "'1~2 Ecologc.1 Allocue. SY'tUsS 0' ~c. (( 1'B PnCfS OP MOSE Al) DsmuA1K2 a, Uc. ADLOft m.::da1'ons or lus SA P.-Pms fr LGL Muke rda Aaeoc:at_, nc 505 "-t ortbera Lllbta.1,"Sat. 201 ABdaonp, AlMke

More information

Intrusion of the Southwest Monsoon Current into the Bay of Bengal

Intrusion of the Southwest Monsoon Current into the Bay of Bengal JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 104, NO. C5, PAGES 11,077 11,085, MAY 15, 1999 Intrusion of the Southwest Monsoon Current into the Bay of Bengal P. N. Vinayachandran, 1 Yukio Masumoto, 1,2 Tetsuya

More information

Municipal solid waste and dung cake burning: discoloring the Taj Mahal and human health impacts in Agra

Municipal solid waste and dung cake burning: discoloring the Taj Mahal and human health impacts in Agra Envronmental Research Letters LETTER OPEN ACCESS Muncpal sold waste and dung cake burnng: dscolorng the Taj Mahal and human health mpacts n Agra To cte ths artcle: Raj M Lal et al Envron. Res. Lett. 00

More information

Offensive Strategy in the 2D Soccer Simulation League Using Multi-group Ant Colony Optimization

Offensive Strategy in the 2D Soccer Simulation League Using Multi-group Ant Colony Optimization Internatona Journa of Advanced Robotc Systems ARTICLE Offensve Strategy n 2D Soccer Smuaton League Usng Mut-group Ant Coony Optmzaton Reguar Paper Shengbng Chen *, Gang Lv Xaofeng Wang Key Lab of Network

More information

Characteristics of natal and non-natal kit fox dens in the northern Chihuahuan Desert

Characteristics of natal and non-natal kit fox dens in the northern Chihuahuan Desert Great Basn Naturalst Volume 59 Number 3 Artcle 6 7-19-1999 Characterstcs of natal and non-natal kt fox dens n the northern Chhuahuan Desert Penny J. Rodrck Unversty of Wsconsn Madson Nancy E. Mathews Unversty

More information

20 fascinating facts about the Paralympics

20 fascinating facts about the Paralympics 20 fascnatng facts about the Paralympcs By James Moore Fled under: Holdays, Stayng n After the drama of the Olympcs come the equally mpressve Paralympcs. Ths year s set to be the bggest ever staged. But

More information

Traveling on a Rotating Sphere

Traveling on a Rotating Sphere Traveling on a Rotating Sphere Table of Contents Page Click the titles below to jump through the lesson 2 Spin-offs of a Rotating Sphere 3 What Do You Know? 3 Heated Fluid Circulation 4 Where Do The Trade

More information

Coastline Direction, Interannual Flow, and the Strong El Niño Currents along Australia s Nearly Zonal Southern Coast

Coastline Direction, Interannual Flow, and the Strong El Niño Currents along Australia s Nearly Zonal Southern Coast 2373 Coastline Direction, Interannual Flow, and the Strong El Niño Currents along Australia s Nearly Zonal Southern Coast JIANKE LI ANDALLAN J. CLARKE Oceanography Department, The Florida State University,

More information

#16 - Profiles & HMMs 9/28/07

#16 - Profiles & HMMs 9/28/07 # - Profles & HMMs 9/28/7 BCB 444/544 Lecture Profles & Hdden Markov Models (HMMs) #_Sept28 Requred Readng (before lecture) Mon & Wed Sept 24 & 2- Lecture 4 & 5 Revew: Nucleus, Chromosomes, Genes, RNAs,

More information

An Atlas of Oceanic Internal Solitary Waves (February 2004) by Global Ocean Associates Prepared for Office of Naval Research Code 322 PO

An Atlas of Oceanic Internal Solitary Waves (February 2004) by Global Ocean Associates Prepared for Office of Naval Research Code 322 PO Overview The is located in the North Atlantic Ocean between southern Ireland and southwest England (Figure 1). The Sea s western edge covers a continental shelf region characterized by rough and irregular

More information

Global Flow Solutions Mark Zagar, Cheng Hu-Hu, Yavor Hristov, Søren Holm Mogensen, Line Gulstad Vestas Wind & Site Competence Centre, Technology R&D

Global Flow Solutions Mark Zagar, Cheng Hu-Hu, Yavor Hristov, Søren Holm Mogensen, Line Gulstad Vestas Wind & Site Competence Centre, Technology R&D Global Flow Solutions Mark Zagar, Cheng Hu-Hu, Yavor Hristov, Søren Holm Mogensen, Line Gulstad Vestas Wind & Site Competence Centre, Technology R&D vestas.com Outline The atmospheric modeling capabilities

More information

Seismic Survey Designs for Converted Waves

Seismic Survey Designs for Converted Waves Seismic Survey Designs for Converted Waves James A. Musser* GMG/AXIS Inc., Denver, CO 1720 Red Cloud Road, Longmont, CO, 80501, USA jmusser@gmg.com ABSTRACT Designing converted wave 3D surveys is considerably

More information

Sea and Land Breezes METR 4433, Mesoscale Meteorology Spring 2006 (some of the material in this section came from ZMAG)

Sea and Land Breezes METR 4433, Mesoscale Meteorology Spring 2006 (some of the material in this section came from ZMAG) Sea and Land Breezes METR 4433, Mesoscale Meteorology Spring 2006 (some of the material in this section came from ZMAG) 1 Definitions: The sea breeze is a local, thermally direct circulation arising from

More information

ENTRY PACK. Oulton Park Little Budworth, Tarporley, Cheshire, CW6 9BW. Rounds 8 & 9 29 th July Enclosed:

ENTRY PACK. Oulton Park Little Budworth, Tarporley, Cheshire, CW6 9BW. Rounds 8 & 9 29 th July Enclosed: ENTRY PACK Rounds 8 & 2 th July 201 Oulton Park Lttle Budworth, Tarporley, Cheshre, CW BW Enclosed: Fnal Instructons Supplementary Regulatons Paddock Plan Tmetable Entry Lst Ste Map Thank you for enterng

More information

Evaluation of Sustainable Development in the Member States of the European Union. Ocena poziomu zrównoważenia rozwoju krajów Unii Europejskiej

Evaluation of Sustainable Development in the Member States of the European Union. Ocena poziomu zrównoważenia rozwoju krajów Unii Europejskiej PROBLEMY EKOROZWOJU PROBLEMS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2015, vol. 10, no 2, 71-78 Evaluaton of Sustanable Development n the Member States of the European Unon Ocena poomu równoważena rowoju krajów Un

More information

Wind and Air Pressure

Wind and Air Pressure Wind and Air Pressure When air moves above the surface of the Earth, it is called wind. Wind is caused by differences in air pressure. When a difference in pressure exists, the air will move from areas

More information

Standard atmosphere Typical height (m) Pressure (mb)

Standard atmosphere Typical height (m) Pressure (mb) Standard atmosphere Pressure (mb) Typical height (ft) Typical height (m) 1013.25 0 0 1000 370 110 850 4780 1460 700 9880 3010 500 18280 5570 300 30050 9160 Whiteman 2000 Pressure decreases exponentially

More information

Waves, Turbulence and Boundary Layers

Waves, Turbulence and Boundary Layers Waves, Turbulence and Boundary Layers George L. Mellor Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Princeton University Princeton NJ 8544-71 phone: (69) 258-657 fax: (69) 258-285 email: glm@splash.princeton.edu

More information

ESCI 343 Atmospheric Dynamics II Lesson 10 - Topographic Waves

ESCI 343 Atmospheric Dynamics II Lesson 10 - Topographic Waves ESCI 343 Atmospheric Dynamics II Lesson 10 - Topographic Waves Reference: An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology (3 rd edition), J.R. Holton Reading: Holton, Section 7.4. STATIONARY WAVES Waves will appear

More information

Atmospheric Circulation

Atmospheric Circulation Atmospheric Circulation Why do we say Earth's temperature is moderate? It may not look like it, but various processes work to moderate Earth's temperature across the latitudes. Atmospheric circulation

More information

Unsteady Wave-Driven Circulation Cells Relevant to Rip Currents and Coastal Engineering

Unsteady Wave-Driven Circulation Cells Relevant to Rip Currents and Coastal Engineering Unsteady Wave-Driven Circulation Cells Relevant to Rip Currents and Coastal Engineering Andrew Kennedy Dept of Civil and Coastal Engineering 365 Weil Hall University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 phone:

More information

2, ELEMENTS IN THE ABOVE TYPICAL SECTION MAY BE DELETED WHERE THEY ARE NOT REQUIRED AND

2, ELEMENTS IN THE ABOVE TYPICAL SECTION MAY BE DELETED WHERE THEY ARE NOT REQUIRED AND ROAD EASEMENT (see NOTE 7) LL ot L ol l-lo 10' 't2' 12' 8 Fl(J 10' tl ot ol o- ûa BORDER OR SDEWALK (see NOTE 2) PARKNG (see NOTE 2) - 2k% \EHCLE ES (see NOTE 6 i q SEE NOTE 4 2%% + FNSHED GROUND L 5 1

More information

DOMINIQUE MALTAIS DETERMINATION OLYMPIAN STORIES CANADIAN OLYMPIC SCHOOL PROGRAM 2014/2015. SILVER LEVEL Grades 4-5.

DOMINIQUE MALTAIS DETERMINATION OLYMPIAN STORIES CANADIAN OLYMPIC SCHOOL PROGRAM 2014/2015. SILVER LEVEL Grades 4-5. OLYMPIAN STORIES DOMINIQUE MALTAIS DETERMINATION CANADIAN OLYMPIC SCHOOL PROGRAM 2014/2015 SILVER LEVEL Grades 4-5 www.olympc.ca/educaton JUSTIN WADSWORTH FAIR PLAY TEACHERS GUIDE CREATING A CANADIAN OLYMPIC

More information

KAYAKS.PADDLES.CLOTHING.ACCESSORIES

KAYAKS.PADDLES.CLOTHING.ACCESSORIES 50 Jahre Years 2012 KAYAKS.PADDLES.CLOTHING.ACCESSORIES 3 WELCOME 50 Jahre Years DEAR WATERSPORT FANS, MADE IN GERMANY Made n Europe Our famly s a famly of sports enthusasts and ths enthusasm s reflected

More information

Instrumentation. Pumps Valves Instrumentation

Instrumentation. Pumps Valves Instrumentation Instrumentaton Pumps Valves Instrumentaton Standards n perfecton and safety ASV Stübbe s an nternatonal manufacturer of pumps, valves, nstrumentaton and control systems made of thermoplastcs. As a system

More information

Comparison of volume controlled with pressure controlled ventilation during one-lung anaesthesia

Comparison of volume controlled with pressure controlled ventilation during one-lung anaesthesia Brtsh Journal of Anaesthesa 1997; 79: 306 310 Comparson of volume controlled wth pressure controlled ventlaton durng one-lung anaesthesa M. TUĞRUL, E. ÇAMCI, H. K ARADENI Z, M. ŞENTÜRK, K. PEMBECI AND

More information

Variability of surface transport in the Northern Adriatic Sea from Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponents" Maristella Berta

Variability of surface transport in the Northern Adriatic Sea from Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponents Maristella Berta Variability of surface transport in the Northern Adriatic Sea from Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponents" Maristella Berta Marseille, 29 November 2011 Outline Geographical setting (winds and circulation of Adriatic

More information

Analysis of 2012 Indian Ocean Dipole Behavior

Analysis of 2012 Indian Ocean Dipole Behavior Analysis of 2012 Indian Ocean Dipole Behavior Mo Lan National University of Singapore Supervisor: Tomoki TOZUKA Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo Abstract The Indian Ocean

More information

Global Structure of Brunt Vaisala Frequency as revealed by COSMIC GPS Radio Occultation

Global Structure of Brunt Vaisala Frequency as revealed by COSMIC GPS Radio Occultation ICGPSRO, May 14-16, 2013, Taiwan Session 3A; U3-2B-208-05 14:10-14:25, May 14 Global Structure of Brunt Vaisala Frequency as revealed by COSMIC GPS Radio Occultation Noersomadi National Institute of Aeronautics

More information

Observations and Modeling of Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction over the California Current System

Observations and Modeling of Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction over the California Current System Observations and Modeling of Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction over the California Current System Cape Blanco Dudley Chelton 1, Xin Jin 2, Jim McWilliams 2 & Tracy Haack 3 1 Oregon State University

More information

Engineering Flettner Rotors to Increase Propulsion

Engineering Flettner Rotors to Increase Propulsion Engineering Flettner Rotors to Increase Propulsion Author: Chance D. Messer Mentor: Jeffery R. Wehr Date: April 11, 2016 Advanced STEM Research Laboratory, Odessa High School, 107 E 4 th Avenue, Odessa

More information

By BETTY DEBNAM. In-Line Skating

By BETTY DEBNAM. In-Line Skating 49- (94) Especally for and famles ther e I 994 by Unversal Press Syndcate By BETTY DEBNAM from The Mn Page by Betty Debnam 994 Unversal Press Syndcate In. It'S In, In,., In-Lne Skatng In-lne skatng s the

More information

Zonal (East-West) Currents. Wind-Driven Ocean Currents. Zonal (East-West) Currents. Meridional (N-S) Currents

Zonal (East-West) Currents. Wind-Driven Ocean Currents. Zonal (East-West) Currents. Meridional (N-S) Currents Wind-Driven Ocean Currents Similarities between winds & surface currents Zonal (East-West) Currents Trade winds push currents westward north & south of the equator Equatorial currents. Up to 100 cm/sec.

More information

Climatic and marine environmental variations associated with fishing conditions of tuna species in the Indian Ocean

Climatic and marine environmental variations associated with fishing conditions of tuna species in the Indian Ocean Climatic and marine environmental variations associated with fishing conditions of tuna species in the Indian Ocean Kuo-Wei Lan and Ming-An Lee Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries Science,

More information

TESTIMONIES OF. I was able to baptize my sister at Creation, definitely a memory we ll both keep forever.

TESTIMONIES OF. I was able to baptize my sister at Creation, definitely a memory we ll both keep forever. TESTIMONIES OF J O I N T H O U SA N D S O F B E L I E V E R S FO R A L I F E- C H A N G I N G E X P E R I E N C E AT My wfe and I ave been gong to Creaton from te very begnnng n 1979. You may say, Yea,

More information

ESCI 485 Air/sea Interaction Lesson 9 Equatorial Adjustment and El Nino Dr. DeCaria

ESCI 485 Air/sea Interaction Lesson 9 Equatorial Adjustment and El Nino Dr. DeCaria ESCI 485 Air/sea Interaction Lesson 9 Equatorial Adjustment and El Nino Dr. DeCaria Reference: El Nino, La Nina, and the Southern Oscillation, Philander THE TWO-LAYER SHALLOW WATER MODEL The ocean can

More information

Available online at ScienceDirect. Procedia Engineering 116 (2015 )

Available online at  ScienceDirect. Procedia Engineering 116 (2015 ) Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Engineering 116 (2015 ) 320 325 8th International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2015) Department of Ocean Engineering, IIT

More information

THE OFFSHORE DRIFT OF LARVAE OF THE CALIFORNIA SPINY LOBSTER PANULIRUS INTERRUPTUS

THE OFFSHORE DRIFT OF LARVAE OF THE CALIFORNIA SPINY LOBSTER PANULIRUS INTERRUPTUS THE OFFSHORE DRFT OF LARVAE OF THE CALFORNA SPNY LOBSTER PANULRUS NTERRUPTUS MARTN W. JOHNSON The information that have to offer regarding the drift of the larvae of the California spiny lobster Panulirus

More information

The Kentucky High School Athlete, September 1938

The Kentucky High School Athlete, September 1938 Eastern Kentucky Unversty Encompass The Athlete Kentucky Hgh School Athletc Assocaton 9-1-1938 The Kentucky Hgh School Athlete, September 1938 Kentucky Hgh School Athletc Assocaton Follow ths and addtonal

More information

ports card: a must You can obtain your sports card at the Sports Secretariat (contacts at the backside of this sports guide).

ports card: a must You can obtain your sports card at the Sports Secretariat (contacts at the backside of this sports guide). S ports Gude 2 S ports card: a must EVERYBODY WHO PRACTISES SPORTS AT THE UNIVERSITY SPORTS CENTRE OR IN KHLEUVEN SPORTS HALL MUST POSSESS A PERSONALIZED SPORTS CARD FOR THE CURRENT ACADEMIC YEAR. Wth

More information

Coupled Rossby Waves in the Indian Ocean on Interannual Timescales

Coupled Rossby Waves in the Indian Ocean on Interannual Timescales 2972 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY Coupled Rossby Waves in the Indian Ocean on Interannual Timescales WARREN B. WHITE Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla,

More information