Name Date L.O: SWBAT explain what breezes, planetary winds, ocean currents & monsoons are.

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1 Name Date L.O: SWBAT explain what breezes, planetary winds, ocean currents & monsoons are. 1. A cool breeze is blowing toward the land from the ocean on a warm, cloudless summer day. This condition is most likely caused by A) a high-pressure system over the land B) a hurricane approaching from the ocean C) a cold front that is slowly approaching the land from the ocean D) the air temperature being higher over the land than over the ocean 2. Which conditions are most likely to develop over a land area next to an ocean during a hot, sunny afternoon? A) The air temperature over the land is lower than the air temperature over the ocean, and a breeze blows from the land. B) The air temperature over the land is higher than the air temperature over the ocean, and a breeze blows from the land. C) The air pressure over the land is higher than the air pressure over the ocean, and a breeze blows from the ocean. D) The air pressure over the land is lower than the air pressure over the ocean, and a breeze blows from the ocean. 3. Why are most beaches often considerably cooler than nearby inland locations on hot summer afternoons? A) A land breeze develops due to the lower specific heat of water and the higher specific heat of land. B) A sea breeze develops due to the higher specific heat of water and the lower specific heat of land. C) The beaches are closer to the Equator than the inland locations are. D) The beaches are farther from the Equator than the inland locations are. 4. On sunny summer days, a breeze often develops that blows from large bodies of water toward nearby land masses because the A) temperature of the air above the land masses is greater B) specific heat of the land masses is greater C) temperatures of the bodies of water are greater D) air over the bodies of water becomes heavier with additional water vapor 5. The cross section below shows a sea breeze blowing from the ocean toward the land. The air pressure at the land surface is 1013 millibars. The air pressure at the ocean surface a few miles from the shore is most likely A) 994 mb B) 1005 mb C) 1013 mb D) 1017 mb 6. The Earth's planetary winds are deflected as a result of the Earth's A) revolution around the Sun B) seasonal changes C) rotation on its axis D) tilted axis

2 7. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which represents the planetary wind and moisture belts in Earth's Northern Hemisphere. The paths of the surface planetary winds are curved due to Earth s A) revolution B) rotation C) circumference D) size 8. What is the primary cause of the major surface currents found in the north Atlantic Ocean? A) planetary winds B) mantle plumes beneath ocean plates C) undersea earthquakes D) high winds from storms 9. The curving path of planetary winds is caused by A) the Earth's revolution B) the Earth's rotation C) ocean currents D) weather fronts 10. The deflection of planetary winds (the Coriolis effect) is a direct result of the A) rotation of Earth B) revolution of Earth C) gravitational forces within Earth D) convection currents within the asthenosphere 11. The planetary winds in Earth s Northern Hemisphere generally curve to the right due to Earth s A) orbit around the Sun B) spin on its axis C) magnetic field D) force of gravity 12. In the Northern Hemisphere, planetary winds blowing from north to south are deflected, or curved, toward the west. This deflection is caused by the A) unequal heating of land and water surfaces B) movement of low-pressure weather systems C) orbiting of Earth around the Sun D) spinning of Earth on its axis

3 Base your answers to questions 13 and 14 on the maps and the passage below. The maps show differences in trade wind strength, ocean current direction, and water temperature associated with air-pressure changes from normal climate conditions to EI Niño conditions. EI Niño Conditions EI Niño conditions occur with a buildup of warm water in the equatorial Pacific Ocean off the coast of South America. The immediate cause of this buildup is a change in air pressure that weakens the southern trade winds. These are the planetary winds that move air from 30 S to the equator. Normally, these strong, steady winds, with the help of their counterparts in the Northern Hemisphere, push equatorial water westward away from South America. But, at intervals of two to seven years, these winds weaken, causing the westward water flow to reverse. This results in an accumulation of unusually warm water on the east side of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. This warm water not only changes the characteristics of the air above it, but also is thought to be the cause of weather changes around the world. EI Niño conditions may last only a few months, but often last a year or two. 13. Under normal climate conditions, what are the characteristics of the surface ocean current that flows along most of the west coast of South America? A) cool water moving toward the equator B) cool water moving away from the equator C) warm water moving toward the equator D) warm water moving away from the equator 14. The trade winds between 30 S and the equator usually blow from the A) northeast B) southeast C) northwest D) southwest

4 15. The Florida and Gulf Stream ocean currents along the east coast of North America are both A) warm currents that flow northeastward B) warm currents that flow southwestward C) cool currents that flow northeastward D) cool currents that flow southwestward 16. Most of the Earth's surface ocean currents are caused by A) stream flow from continents B) differences in ocean water density C) the revolution of the Earth D) the prevailing winds 17. Which two climate factors are most directly responsible for the amount of snowfall normally received in Newport, Vermont? A) ocean currents and storm tracks B) mountain barriers and average temperatures C) elevation and potential evapotranspiration D) prevailing wind direction and nearness to a large body of water 18. Surface ocean currents located at 40º south latitude, 90º west longitude generally flow toward the A) northeast B) southeast C) southwest D) west 19. Ocean currents exhibit the Coriolis effect as a result of the A) rotation of the Earth B) revolution of the Earth C) unequal heating of the Earth D) variations in salinity of the Earth's oceans 20. The direction of surface ocean currents is influenced most by A) variations in density of the water B) variations in salinity of the water C) planetary winds D) land breezes and sea breezes 21. The primary cause of surface ocean currents is A) atmospheric winds B) atmospheric precipitation C) ocean water evaporation D) ocean floor earthquakes 22. Most surface ocean currents are caused by A) tides B) evaporation C) prevailing winds D) salinity differences 23. Surface ocean currents curve to the right in the Northern Hemisphere because A) the Moon spins on its axis B) the Moon travels in an orbit around Earth C) Earth spins on its axis D) Earth travels in an orbit around the Sun

5 24. Base your answer to the following question on the map below. Letters A through F are locations on Earth s surface. Ocean currents at location A move clockwise, and ocean currents at location B move counter-clockwise. These currents curve due to Earth s A) internal structure B) magnetic field C) rotation D) revolution 25. Surface ocean currents resulting from the prevailing winds over the oceans illustrate a transfer of energy from A) lithosphere to atmosphere B) hydrosphere to lithosphere C) atmosphere to hydrosphere D) stratosphere to troposphere 26. Which interaction between the atmosphere and the hydrosphere causes most surface ocean currents? A) cooling of rising air above the ocean surface B) evaporation of water from the ocean surface C) friction from planetary winds on the ocean surface D) seismic waves on the ocean surface 27. Which two ocean currents are both warm currents that primarily flow away from the equator? A) Guinea Current and Labrador Current B) Brazil Current and Agulhas Current C) Alaska Current and Falkland Current D) Canaries Current and Gulf Stream Current 28. The curvature to the right by major ocean currents in the Northern Hemisphere is primarily due to A) surface variations in ocean water salinity B) differences in ocean water temperatures C) the gravitational attraction of the Moon D) the rotation of Earth

6 29. Which coastal location experiences a cooler summer climate due to ocean currents? A) southeast coast of North America B) northeast coast of Australia C) southwest coast of South America D) northwest coast of Europe 30. The map below shows the general path of ocean currents in a portion of the Northern Hemisphere. Locations A, B, C, and D are at the shoreline. 32. Which statement best summarizes the general effects of ocean currents at 20 S latitude on coastal regions of South America? A) The east coast and west coast are both warmed. B) The east coast and west coast are both cooled. C) The east coast is warmed and the west coast is cooled. D) The east coast is cooled and the west coast is warmed. 33. The arrows labeled A through D on the map below show the general paths of abandoned boats that have floated across the Atlantic Ocean. Which location most likely has the warmest climate? A) A B) B C) C D) D 31. Waste produced by people in Delaware has been dumped into the Atlantic Ocean, where it is distributed by surface ocean currents. Which coastal area is most likely to become polluted by this waste? A) western coast of Europe B) southern coast of South America C) western coast of Mexico D) eastern coast of Africa Which sequence of ocean currents was responsible for the movement of these boats? A) South Equatorial Gulf Stream Labrador Benguela B) South Equatorial Australia West Wind Drift Peru C) North Equatorial Koroshio North Pacific California D) North Equatorial Gulf Stream North Atlantic Canaries 34. Most of the Earth's surface ocean currents are caused by A) stream flow from continents B) differences in ocean water density C) the revolution of the Earth D) the prevailing winds

7 35. The arrows on the two maps below show how the monsoon winds over India change direction with the seasons. How do these winds affect India's weather in summer and winter? A) Summer is cooler and less humid than winter. B) Summer is warmer and more humid than winter. C) Winter is warmer and less humid than summer. D) Winter is cooler and more humid than summer. 36. Base your answer to the following question on the maps below, which show areas of hurricane formation and normal hurricane paths in the Atlantic Ocean during May, July, and September. The areas of hurricane formation usually have surface ocean-water temperatures greater than 80 F. State one reason why most hurricane paths curve northeastward as hurricanes move north of 30 N latitude.

8 Base your answers to questions 37 and 38 on the map below, which shows Earth's planetary wind belts. 37. The curving of these planetary winds is the result of A) Earth's rotation on its axis B) the unequal heating of Earth's atmosphere C) the unequal heating of Earth's surface D) Earth's gravitational pull on the Moon 38. Which wind belt has the greatest effect on the climate of New York State? A) prevailing northwesterlies B) prevailing southwesterlies C) northeast trades D) southeast trades 39. According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, the prevailing winds at 45º S latitude are from the A) southwest B) northwest C) southeast D) northeast 40. The prevailing southwesterlies wind belt causes most low-pressure weather systems to travel across the United States from the A) southwest toward the northeast B) northwest toward the southeast C) northeast toward the southwest D) southeast toward the northwest 41. The map below shows a low-pressure system located over an area in the south-central United States. In the next few days, because of the prevailing winds, the air mass will probably move toward the A) southeast B) northeast C) southwest D) northwest

9 42. Base your answer to the following question on data tables I and II and on the Hurricane Tracking Map below. Table I represents the storm track data for an Atlantic hurricane. Location, wind velocity, air pressure, and storm strength are shown for the storm's center at 3 p.m. Greenwich time each day. Table II shows a scale of relative storm strength. The map shows the hurricane's path. The hurricane did not continue moving toward the same compass direction during the entire period shown by the data table. Explain why the hurricane changed direction.

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