# COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) INVESTIGATION TO ASSESS WIND EFFECTS ON A TALL STRUCTURES (WIND FORCE PARAMETERS)

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2 where I u = turbulent intensity σ u = standard deviation Ū z = mean velocity at height 'z' Z o = terrain roughness length Wind velocity has two components which are mean velocity that increases with height and turbulent velocity that remains same after gradient height. The variation of wind velocity with time has been illustrated in Fig. 3.3 and is given in equation Fig. 1 Basic Wind Speed 2.2 Gradient Wind Speed: The gradient wind is a balance of the Pressure Gradient Force, centrifugal and Carioles. A geotropic wind becomes a gradient wind when the wind begins flowing through curved height contours. The curving motion introduces a centrifugal (outward fleeing) force. The centrifugal effect can be felt when turning through a curve in a car. You stay with the car but it feels like you are being pushed sideways. 2.3 Gust Factor: Only the method of calculating load along wind or drag load by using gust factor method is given in the code since methods for calculating load across-wind or other components are not fully matured for all types of structures. However, it is permissible for a designer to use gust factor method to calculate all components of load on a structure using any available theory. However, such a theory must take into account the random nature of atmospheric wind speed. 2.4Turbulence characteristics Gustiness occurs due to the velocity fluctuations present in the wind flow and this renders the forces exerted on the structure as dynamic forces. The degree of gustiness is given by standard deviation or RMS velocity value. The turbulent intensity can be obtained from SD and mean velocity and is given in equation. V t = V + V Where, V t = wind velocity at any given instant of time t V = average wind V = wind gusts Fig. 2 Variation of wind velocity with time As wind pressures are proportional to the square of velocities, with variation of mean Wind velocity, the mean pressures also fluctuate. The variation of pressure has been shown in Fig.2 and is given by: P t = P + P Where, P t = pressure at any instant of time t P = Mean pressure P = Gust pressure I u =( ) or I u =( ) 2016, IRJET Impact Factor value: 4.45 ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal Page 2234

3 Fig 3. Schematic representation of mean and gust pressure at any instant of time t Along wind and across wind motions Under the action of wind flow, structure experience aerodynamic forces that include the drag force and lift force. Drag (along-wind) force acting in the direction of the mean wind and the lift (across-wind) force acting perpendicular to that direction. The Along-wind motion primarily results from pressure fluctuations in the windward and the leeward faces, which generally follow the fluctuations in the approach flow. The Across-wind motion is introduced by pressure fluctuations due to vortex shedding in the separated shear layers and wake flow field. 2.5 Wind force F Along Wind Load - Along wind load on a structure on a strip area ( A e ) at any height (Z) is given by: F S = C f A e P z G where F S = along wind load on the structure at any height z corresponding to strip area A e C f = force coefficient for the building, A e = effective frontal area considered for the structure at height Z, P z = design pressure at height z due to hourly mean wind obtained as 0.6 V 2 z (N/m 2 ) 3. Data Collection Evaluation of wind force LEVELS Z/H HEIGHT in cm Fig. 4 Forces acting on building Fx1987(0 0 ) Fy1987(90 0 ) Table 7 Calculation of force as per IS-875(part-3) 1987 Provisions Level Leeward (90 ) Windward(0 ) Fig.10 (IS Pg.51) shows the different faces of angles considered for the pressure measurement study. The chord length for each face is given as follows: Face A: 0-10cm, Face B: 10-25cm, Face C: 25-35cm, Face D: 35-50cm 2016, IRJET Impact Factor value: 4.45 ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal Page 2235

4 Table 7 Calculation of force as per IS-875(part-3) 1987 Provisions Fig. 5 Forces for manual solutions 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Unsteady numerical simulations have been carried out for a 1:2:5 rectangular building model under uniform wind flow condition using two types of turbulence models available in FLUENT 6.3 software: (i) Realizable k-ε turbulence model, which is single scale type turbulence model and (ii) DES turbulence model with Realizable k-ε option, which is multiscale type hybrid turbulence model. For the evaluation of pressure coefficients and drag and lift force coefficients, the reference wind velocity is taken as 10 m/s (same as the uniform input wind velocity) and reference area of projected area, i.e. 0.1 m x 0.5 m. Unsteady simulations have been carried out until stabilized mean and standard deviation values of Cd and Cl are obtained with respect to time as shown in Fig.9 in IS Pg.50 for Realizable k-ε turbulence model. Fig 7: Variation of lift coefficient with time - Realizable k- ε turbulence model Velocity Vector Plots Figs. 6 and 7 show the velocity vector plot on center vertical plane for Realizable k-ε case. It can be seen over the roof of building significant increase in wind velocity due to separation from the windward edge of the roof. Further in the wake region, i.e. rear side of the building, flow with recirculation is observed with wind in opposite direction along with vertical wind near to building rear side Fig.10 in IS Pg.51 shows the velocity vector plot for DES case. Unlike for Realizable k- ε case, it Can be seen multiple eddies in the wake region of the building, which is due to DES model can simulate multi-scale turbulence, i.e. eddies with different sizes. A MATLAB program has been developed for processing the numerically simulated Cp values to obtain distributions of mean Cp and standard deviation Cp values at 5 selected levels, viz m, 0.15 m, 0.25 m, 0.35 m, 0.45 m, respectively (correspond to z/h values of 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 ref. Level 1, Level 2, Level 3, Level 4, Level 5). Further mean Cd and standard deviation Cl values have been at these 5 levels and also for the overall building also. The following sections discuss some these results. Fig. 8: Velocity vector plot on center vertical plane Realizable k- ε turbulence model Fig. 6: Variation of drag coefficient with time - Realizable k-ε turbulence model Fig. 9 Close up view of velocity vector plot near building roof on center vertical plane Realizable k-ε turbulence model 2016, IRJET Impact Factor value: 4.45 ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal Page 2236

5 Fig. 10 Velocity vector plot on center vertical plane DES turbulence model Vorticity Contours Vorticity is a measure of the rotation of a fluid element as it moves in the flow field and is defined as the curl of the velocity vector. It is show the vorticity contour plots in horizontal plane at Level 1, Level 3 and Level 5, respectively for Realizable k-ε turbulence model. It can be seen that the vortex shedding is predominant at Level 1 and as the height of the level increases, the vortex shedding phenomenon is observed to be affected. This is due to the wind flow from the top of the building into the wake region affecting the vortex shedding in the top region of the wake. Similarly Fig.9 in IS Pg.50 show the vorticity contour plots in horizontal plane at Level 1, Level 3 and Level 5, respectively for DES turbulence model. Similar to Realizable k-ε predictions, the vortex shedding phenomenon is observed to be affected in the top region of the wake. However, DES predictions show vortex shedding with multiple eddies in the wake region. Fig. 12 Vorticity Contour in horizontal plane at Level 3 Realizable k-ε turbulence model Fig. 13 Vortices Contour in horizontal plane at Level 5 Realizable k-ε turbulence model Fig. 14 Vorticity Contour in horizontal plane at Level 1 DES turbulence model Fig. 11 Vorticity Contour in horizontal plane at Level 1 Realizable k-ε turbulence model Fig. 15 Vorticity Contour in horizontal plane at Level 3 DES turbulence model 2016, IRJET Impact Factor value: 4.45 ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal Page 2237

6 LEVELS Z/H HEIGHTS in cm Fx 1987(0 0 ) FY 1987(90 0 ) Fig. 16 Vorticity Contour in horizontal plane at Level 5 DES turbulence model Mean Cp Distributions Fig.10 in IS Pg.51 show the mean Cp contour on the rectangular building obtained using Realizable k-ε and DES turbulence models, respectively. It can be seen that on the front face, the mean Cp variation along the height is observed to be mostly uniform except at top and bottom regions, where the edge effects are expected. On the back face, the mean Cp values are observed to be negative, i.e suction pressure and their magnitudes are observed to be increasing with increase in height. However, on the side faces, difference in the mean Cp distributions is observed between the two turbulence models. Further, mean Cp distributions along the circumference of the building at 5 levels, viz. Level 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, have been shown in Fig.10 in IS Pg.51 based on the Realizable k-ε and DES turbulence models, respectively. It can be seen that for both the turbulence models, on the front face, the mean Cp values are almost same for Levels 2, 3 and 4, whereas at Levels 1 and 5, the mean Cp values are less. On the back face, in general, the mean Cp suction magnitudes are observed to be increasing with increase in height. On the side face, the mean Cp values are observed to be same for all the levels except for Level 1 in the case of Realizable k-ε turbulence model Table 7 Calculation of force as per IS-875(part-3) 1987 Provisions Level Leeward (90 ) Windward(0 ) Table 7 Calculation of force as per IS-875(part-3) 1987 Provisions Fig.10 in IS Pg.51 show the distribution of mean Cp along the circumference for levels 1, 3 and 5, respectively, to study the difference between the predictions of Realizable k- ε and DES turbulence models. It can be seen that on the front face both the turbulence models predict almost same mean Cp values. However, the mean Cp suction magnitudes on the side and back faces are observed to be more in the case of DES turbulence model than those in the case of Realizable k-ε turbulence model. At Level 1, Realizable k-ε turbulence model is observed to predict pressure recovery on the side faces from the windward edge. At Level 5, the mean Cp distribution along the side and back faces are observed to be nearly uniform based on both the turbulence models. 2016, IRJET Impact Factor value: 4.45 ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal Page 2238

7 Fig. 17: Forces for software solutions manual 90 manual 0 software 90 software Table 7 Comparison of force for both manual and soft ware solutions Fig. 18 Comparison of force for both manual and soft ware solutions 5. CONCLUSIONS Mean force value for 0 0 for Level 5 is always higher than all the other levels due to greater area of projection and edge effect at the ground level. For all other levels, values are almost same with draft code and IS: 875 (part-3) 1987 which indicates that these values are mostly governed by buffeting characteristics of approaching wind flow. Mean force value for 0 0 for Level 5 is always higher than all the other levels due to greater area of projection and edge effect at the ground level. For all other levels, values are greater than with draft code and IS: 875 (part-3) 1987 of 0.2 ratio which indicates that these values are not governed by buffeting characteristics of approaching wind flow. The mean value of drag and lift coefficients obtained from IS: 875 are and and Draft code value obtained and and experimental value obtained is and , which is in good agreement with code values for 0 0 but for 90 0, these values are differing this is due to Wake Effect. The value of force obtained from IS 875 Part for 90 0 it is the drag coefficient and 900 for 90 0 with Gambit and Fuent. This variation is due to vertex shedding at all levels. 6. REFERENCES 1. Alexandre Luis Braun and Armando Miguel Awruch, Aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses on the CAARC standard tall building model using numerical simulation. Computers and Structures, 87, Huang M.F., HLau I.W., Chan C.M., Kwok K.C.S. and G.Li, A hybrid RANS and kinematic simulation of wind load effects on full-scale tall buildings. Journal Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn, 99, Shenghong Huanga, Lib Q.S. and Shengli Xua, Numerical evaluation of wind effects on a tall steel building by CFD. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 63, Claudio Mannini, Ante Soda and Gunter Schewe, Numerical investigation on the three-dimensional unsteady flow past a 5:1 rectangular cylinder. Journal Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn, 99, S. M. Fraser and C. Carey, Numerical and experimental analysis of flow around isolated and shielded cubes. Appl. Math. Modelling, 14, Bosch G. and Rodi W., Simulation of vortex shedding past a square cylinder with different turbulence models. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids. 28, Kimura I. and Hosoda T., A non-linear k-ԑ model with realizability for prediction of flows around bluff bodies. International Journal for Numerical methods in fluids. 42, Shilpa G., Harikrishna p., Santhi A.S., Ramesh Babu G., Evaluation of Aerodynamic Pressure and Force coefficients for a 1:2:5Rectangular Building Model under Uniform Flow Condition in Wind Tunnel. Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Sustainability of Materials and Environment, Nagercoil , IS: 875 (Part3)-1987.Code of practice for design loads (other than earthquake) for buildings and structures. Standard deviation of force coefficients shows decrease in value with height which shows that these parameters depend on the decrease in turbulence intensity with height. 2016, IRJET Impact Factor value: 4.45 ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal Page 2239

8 BIOGRAPHIES G Naga Sulochana received his B.Tech in civil engineering from AVR & SVR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, NANDYAL. Under JNTU ANATAPUUR and pursuing his M.Tech in AVR & SVR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, NANDYAL. H Sarath kumar received his M.Tech in structural Engineering from Annamarachaya College Of Engineering Tirupathi,. And working as Assistant Professor with 1-years of experience as a Assistant Professor in AVR & SVR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, NANDYAL 2016, IRJET Impact Factor value: 4.45 ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal Page 2240

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