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1 (1 of 13) Further Reading: Chapter 10 of the text book Outline - wet tropical climate - coastal trade wind climate - wet-dry and monsoon climate - dry tropical climate

2 (2 of 13) Introduction Previously, Atmospheric parameters for defining Climate Use of mean and seasonality to characterize these parameters Controls that affect these climate parameters Methodology for classifying climate regimes Today, We want to look at low-latitude climates Tend to be uniformly warm Principally differentiated by variations in precipitation

3 Introduction (3 of 13) The circulation in the region is dominated by the Hadley Cell ITCZ and tropical low-pressures Subtropical High Easterly trades Low variability in temperature High temperatures: near equator Low seasonality: near equator High variability in precipitation Humid: ITCZ Desert/Arid: Subtropical high Wet Equatorial Regime Coastal Trade-wind Regime Wet-Dry and Monsoon Regime Dry Tropical Regime Strong seasonality between the two as the ITCZ shifts north and south Creates 4 main climate regimes

4 (4 of 13) Wet Equatorial Climate-1 Located under the ITCZ from 10N-10S Two characteristic air masses mt me ITCZ

5 Wet Equatorial Climate-2 (5 of 13) Dominated by uniform temperature and precipitation Precipitation is supplied by tropical convection High temperature due to proximity to equator Predominant vegetation type is rainforests

6 Coastal Trade Wind Climate-1 Trade Winds Subtropical High Subtropical High ITCZ ITCZ Subtropical High Subtropical High (6 of 13) Located along narrow belts on the coasts (5-25N) Persistent precipitation supplied by orographic lifting as easterlies flow over the coasts In addition these regions are strongly influenced by the presence of tropical cyclones

7 (7 of 13) Coastal Trade Wind Climate-2 Precipitation influenced by trade-winds Temperature is persistently warm, although there is summer seasonality due to changes in insolation Also note that there is a break in the precipitation due to the southerly movement of the subtropical high Predominant vegetation type is also rainforests

8 (8 of 13) Wet-Dry and Monsoon Climates-1 Located between equatorial and subtropics Strongly influenced by the movement of the ITCZ Summer: ITCZ moves north and the weather is dominated by convective precipitation and mt,me air Winter: ITCZ moves south and the weather is dominated by the sub-tropical high, ct air Technically, wet-dry region is in the continental interior while monsoon region is closer to the coasts LH HL

9 Wet-Dry and Monsoon Climates-2 (9 of 13) Temperature is persistently warm, although there is summer seasonality due to changes in insolation Note the strong seasonality in precipitation Wet-dry region dominated by precipitation associated with the ITCZ Monsoon region dominated by precipitation associated with winds coming off the ocean (hence the relation to coastal wind regime)

10 Wet-Dry and Monsoon Climates-3 (10 of 13) Dominant vegetation type is savanna, open grassland

11 Located poleward of the wet-dry region (15-25N) Strongly influenced by the subtropical high (11 of 13) Dry Tropical Climate-1 Associated with the descending limb of the Hadley circulation Produces clear sky, warm stable air Two subtypes Western litteral - west coasts of Africa and S. America where cold-air reinforces the atmospheric stability -> very dry Semi-Arid - transition between dry tropical and wet-dry tropics Very short rainy season which sometimes doesn t come for years Subtropical High Subtropical High

12 (12 of 13) Dry Tropical Climate-2 Moderate range in temperature due to changes in declination Persistently low precipitation Dominant vegetation type is shrubland

13 (13 of 13) Summary Overall there is a fairly simple set of controls Temperature is controlled by distance from equator Generally warm everywhere Higher seasonality as one moves away from the equator Precipitation is dominated by 4 factors ITCZ - wet equatorial regime Sub-tropical high - Dry tropical regime Easterly trade winds - trade wind regime Seasonal shift in ITCZ - wet-dry and monsoon regime Could also define by variability in precipitation Low variability - wet equatorial and trade-wind regime Moderate variability - wet-dry and monsoon regime High variability - dry tropical regime

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