SAN JUAN WATERFRONT MARINE TRAFFIC STUDY UPDATE. June 10, 2010

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1 SAN JUAN WATERFRONT MARINE TRAFFIC STUDY UPDATE June 10, 2010 Prepared by 223 North Graham Street Charlotte, NC 28202

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Project Background Physical Parameters of Channels and Operations Vessel Traffic in the Port Harbor Navigation Current and Forecast Shipping Channel Capacity Conclusions and Recommendations.. 18 Appendix A AMEC Marine Traffic Study (2008) 19 Redevelopment Marine Traffic Study Update Page 1 of 19 June, 2010

3 1.0 PROJECT BACKGROUND LandDesign, Inc., has assembled the following update to the Marine Traffic Study prepared by AMEC Americas Ltd. (AMEC) through AMEC E&E Caribe, LLP. In December, 2007, a master plan was assembled for the Redevelopment Area by Colliers International. The 2007 Master Plan advanced through a series of follow-on analysis and studies inclusive of AMEC s Marine Traffic Study dated as part of the project s entitlement effort. Redevelopment of Pier 6 was pursued as specified under the 2007 Master Plan. No other redevelopment efforts, however, were undertaken. In February, 2010, a major revision of the plan (the Vision Book) was completed. This major revision was undertaken to address a number of weaknesses with the 2007 effort and to account for changing market conditions. This report update brings forward the work and analysis prepared by AMEC American Ltd. (attached as Appendix A) and compares its findings against the Redevelopment Area 2010 revised plan. 1.1 Project Site The project site is located on San Juan Isleta, Puerto Rico, on the north side of the San Antonio channel in San Juan Harbor as shown on Exhibit 1. The redevelopment area is comprised of approximately 82 acres of property bounded by Pier 6 and Old San Juan on the west, south and east of Avenida Fernandez Juncos and north of the San Antonio Channel. Exhibit 2 shows the proposed block configuration of the Redevelopment Area. The majority of upland properties as well as submerged lands within the slips of Piers 7/8 and 9/10 are under the ownership and/or administration of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, inclusive of large holding by the Puerto Rico Ports Authority (PRPA). PRPA s holding includes Piers numbers 6 to 14 located along the northern side of the San Antonio channel. These facilities are generally in a deteriorated structural condition. The 2010 revised plan calls for the return of the waterfront to the people of San Juan and Puerto Rico through creation of a series of vibrant and diverse neighborhoods supporting commercial, residential, hospitality and civic uses interlinked by a unique paseo and green park system. Residential neighborhoods will be comprised of an eclectic and varied product mix. Connectivity and accessibility is a key component of the project s Redevelopment Marine Traffic Study Update Page 2 of 19 June, 2010

4 Exhibit 1. San Juan Harbor Redevelopment Marine Traffic Study Update Page 3 of 19 June, 2010

5 Exhibit Revised Plan Redevelopment Marine Traffic Study Update Page 4 of 19 June, 2010

6 sustainable development approach; residents and visitors will be able to get to and from the by foot, bicycle, car, light rail and water taxi. 1.2 Current User Groups The user groups with direct access to San Antonio Channel have not materially changed from those identified in AMEC s Marine Traffic Study (2008). These user groups include: Club Nautico, a private yacht club located at the east end of the San Antonio Channel. This facility comprises 117 regular and 5 mega boat slips. The San Juan Bay Marina, a second recreational facility club located adjacent to Club Nautico. This facility accommodates approximately 130 boat slips and has approximately 20 land storage bays on the southeastern side of the inlet. The Department of Homeland Security boathouse, which is located at the eastern end of Club Nautico A number of government agencies who occupy properties on or adjacent to the waterfront (north and west of Club Nautico) in San Antonio Channel such as DNER, FDA, USACE and the Puerto Rico Police. The San Juan Bay Pilots who have a pilot launch berth facility (for three boats) at the western end of the Frontier Pier. Cruise ship and general cargo ships which occasionally berth at the Frontier Pier. Cruise Ship operators using the east and west Pan American berths (PAD E & W) with onshore passenger terminal structures on the north side of Isla Grande. Bulk Cargo Operators, who infrequently use Piers 13 and 14 and the Isla Grande C berth for bulk cargo handling operations. Commercial fishermen, in particular those fishermen who use the La Coal area located between Piers 10 and 11. Gondoleros, (Goleta Owners and/or Operators) who operate interisland shipping and use the basin between Piers 9 and 10, and the storage area on Pier 10. Redevelopment Marine Traffic Study Update Page 5 of 19 June, 2010

7 A number of private enterprise operations such as cargo handling companies who operate at the Frontier Pier or at Piers 11 to 14, San Juan Bay Fuel who operate refueling barges, and Sea-Borne airlines, who operate a seaplane base at the eastern end of Pier 6. Cruise Ship Operators, who currently dock at Piers 1-4 on a regular basis. 2.0 PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF CHANNELS AND OPERATIONS The physical parameters of San Juan Harbor are fully documented AMEC s Marine Traffic Study (2008) and are presented in Appendix A, Section 3.0. No substantive changes of note have occurred to channels, navigation or other elements described in this section. 3.0 VESSEL TRAFFIC IN THE PORT 3.1 Current Traffic Section 4.0 of AMEC s Marine Traffic Study (2008) fully documented the three main types of marine traffic within the harbor area (attached as Appendix A). These included: 1. Deep-sea or regional commercial ship movements including all cruise ship and cargo ship/barge traffic. 2. Smaller port related or commercial marine traffic such as pilot craft, fishermen, ferry operators, the US Coast Guard, Homeland Security and Police. 3. Recreational craft, which is predominantly small mono-hull or catamaran boats, but includes personal water craft such as jet skis, canoes and kayaks. For the update to the Marine Traffic Study, we have assumed that levels observed in the 2008 effort have remained effectively unchanged and serve as a primary baseline for our assessment of future trends in Port vessel traffic and potential impacts to marine traffic associated with the 2010 revised plan. This assumption is grounded in the following: Redevelopment Marine Traffic Study Update Page 6 of 19 June, 2010

8 Port of San Juan Cargo Movement at Port Authority facilities have shown a reduction over levels observed in Cargo movements overall recorded a 6% reduction over the and period reviewed (see table below). This reduction is thought to have held steady or reduced the number of ship movements within the port overall as well as had a spillover effect on the vessels supportive of these operations (e.g., pilots, tugs, et.al.). Exhibit 3. Port of San Juan Cargo Movement at Port Authority Facilities Source: PRPA, Difference % of Change July 714, ,898 (51,934) -6.8 August 654, ,651 (67,634) -9.4 September 643, ,502 (106,408) October 776, ,740 (6,937) -0.9 November 635, ,878 13, December 619, ,691 (22,897) -3.6 January 576, ,144 (67,873) February 613, ,732 (21,249) -3.3 March n/a n/a n/a April n/a n/a n/a May n/a n/a n/a June n/a n/a n/a Year to Date 5,236,657 5,568,236 (331,579) -6.0 Port of San Juan cruise calls have shown a small decline over levels observed in Cruise calls recorded a 1.3% reduction over the and period reviewed (see table below). This reduction in cruise ship calls is thought to have a spillover effect on the vessels supportive of these operations (e.g., pilots, tugs, et.al.). Redevelopment Marine Traffic Study Update Page 7 of 19 June, 2010

9 Exhibit 4. Port of San Juan Cruise Calls at Port Authority Facilities Source: PRPA, Difference % of Change July (8) August (3) September October November December (7) January February (1) -1.8 March n/a n/a n/a April n/a n/a n/a May n/a n/a n/a June n/a n/a n/a Year to Date (4) -1.3 Source: PRPA, 2010 Facilities along the San Antonio Channel supporting smaller port related or commercial marine traffic (e.g., pilot craft, fishermen, ferry operators, the US Coast Guard, Homeland Security and Police) and recreational craft at Club Nautico and the San Juan Bay Marina have effectively remained unchanged between issuance of AMEC s Marine Traffic Study (2008) and the 2010 revised plan. Thus, observations and data review conducted in the 2008 effort are thought to remain indicative of current vessel traffic in each of the three marine traffic categories observed for the San Antonio Channel. 3.2 Future Trends Future port development, including the development of the Redevelopment Area as envisioned under the 2010 revised plan will change the location of certain facilities, and therefore, alter the movement of traffic within the harbor. Specific proposals which are components of the 2010 revised plan include the following: Development of between 100 and 200 marina positions within the slips of Piers 7/8 and 9/10. We assume an average if 150 will be developed and include a mix of small and medium marine craft up to 50-ft in length. Redevelopment Marine Traffic Study Update Page 8 of 19 June, 2010

10 Development of between 20 and 45 marina positions adjacent to Club Nautico. We assume an average of 33 will be developed and include a mix of small, medium and large marine craft up to 115-ft in length. Provision of a water taxi service at 2 locations along the Redevelopment Area Pier 10 and Pier 14. A third water taxi location is also planned to the west of the Redevelopment Area at Pier 6. Relocation of the Goleta/Gondoleros cargo handling facilities at Pier 10 to other areas of the harbor. Over the next decade, relocation over the next decade of bulk cargo handling operations at Piers 11 to 14 as well as other cargo operations at Frontier Pier. These operations are anticipated to move to other permanent facilities within San Juan Harbor. Relocation of pilot boat moorings from San Antonio channel to another part of the harbor. The impact of these and other smaller changes on vessel movements within the San Antonio basin is presented in Exhibit 5. The results show a 72.7% increase in average traffic levels and 50.7% increase in peak traffic levels. The construction of and average of 183 marina slips at multiple locations along the San Juan Waterfront Redevelopment Area as well as the introduction of water taxi services contributes to the majority of estimated increases to peak levels of traffic. Some amount of this increase is estimated to be off-set by the relocation of the pilot boat and other ship handling facilities to alternative port locations. 1 The introduction of water taxi services has the primary impact on the estimated increase to average moves per day. 1 An estimated maximum of 245 marina slips could be developed within the Redevelopment Area. This represents an anticipated maximum of marina slips within the project area if all facilities are developed to support small vessels of under 30-ft in length overall. It is anticipated that the actual number of slips ultimately developed will be below this number as a mix of slips sizes are incorporated into these waterfront areas to meet market demand. We assume under this analysis that an average of 183 will be developed. Redevelopment Marine Traffic Study Update Page 9 of 19 June, 2010

11 Exhibit 5. San Antonio Channel Current & Forecast Daily Vessel Movements *As reported in AMEC s Marine Traffic Study, 2008 Current Movements* Deep Sea Ship Movements Average Moves/Day Peak Moves/Day 4 7 Remarks Cruise ships to Pad Berths & minor deep-sea shipping until 2020 (or sooner). Miscellaneous 1 2 Yacht & research vessel calls Goleta 3 5 To be relocated Pilot Boats boat moves for 75% of all port ship movements Fishermen 9 23 Avg. 10%, Peak 25% of total 45 boats USCG, Police & Homeland Security 2 10 Security patrol movements Recreational Small Craft (Cataño) 8 16 Minor visits to San Antonio Channel movements Recreational Small Craft (San Antonio) Berthing Tugs 3 5 Avg. 2 moves at 5% of slips, peak 2 moves at 20% of 275 slips Avg. 1.5 tugs & 2 moves for 25% of ship movements Ferries 0 0 Currently no ferry service Subtotal Forecast Movements Deep Sea Ship Movements 1 2 Cruise ships to Pad Berths & minor deep-sea shipping until 2020 (or sooner). Miscellaneous 1 2 Bounty, Yacht & research vessel calls Goleta 0 0 Relocated to other areas of the harbor Pilot Boats 0 0 Relocated to other areas of the harbor Fishermen 9 23 Remain at Pier 10 or relocated to east end of San Antonio Channel USCG, Police & Homeland Security 2 10 Security patrol movements Recreational Small Craft (Cataño)* Minor visits to San Antonio Channel movements Recreational Small Craft (San Antonio) Avg. 2 moves at 5% of slips, peak 2 moves at 20% of 458 ( ) slips Berthing Tugs 0 0 Not Required Ferries (Water Taxis) Water Taxi to Piers 6, 10 and 14 (2 per hour for 16 hours per day). Subtotal Change: Current vs. Forecast The variance is primarily related to water traffic. Redevelopment Marine Traffic Study Update Page 10 of 19 June, 2010

12 4.0 HARBOR NAVIGATION As presented AMEC s Marine Traffic Study (2008), shipping channel dimensions are designed to allow safe transit of deep-sea ships. Typical parameters used in the design of these channel are: Ship maneuvering lane(s) typically a width of 2 to 3 times the beam (width) of the design vessel in straight channels. The width will normally be increased in channels subject to cross winds or currents, and will also be increased in channel bends (as is the case in the Bar Channel). Passing clearance (clearance allowance between ships) typically equal to the beam of the largest design ship. Bank clearance on either side of the maneuvering lane(s) which can be a clearance to the dredged channel bank, or possible between a ship in a channel and a ship berthed at a facility within the channel. A typical clearance would be equal to 0.5 to times the design ship beam. A typical, straight, one way channel would therefore have a width equal to 4 to 5 times the beam (width) of the design ship, and a two way channel is typically 7 to 8 times the design ship beam. These design parameters are also applicable in assessment of small craft traffic movements. As noted, navigation channel widths are calculated as a function of the design beam of the vessel using the channel. It is therefore evident that while the Bar Channel is considered a one way channel for large ships having design a design beam in excess of 90-ft, it has adequate width for a two lane channel if used by passing ships of Goleta size, and capable of providing four transit maneuvering lanes for simultaneous transits of small yachts and most recreational traffic. In areas adjacent to ship berths or where ships are normally maneuvered, ship turning (swing) basins are incorporated into the design of ship navigation areas. These turning basins will typically have a diameter of 1.5 to 2.0 times the overall length of the design ship. The navigation channels used for marine traffic bound to or departing from berths or marinas in the area of the San Antonio Channel are the Bar, Anegado, San Antonio Approach and finally the San Antonio Channel. Redevelopment Marine Traffic Study Update Page 11 of 19 June, 2010

13 The Bar Channel is used as a one way channel for large ships primarily because this channel is exposed to ocean swell (which results in heading yaw, and therefore a wider ship path) and higher transit speed conditions (in the order of 11 knots for deep-sea ships) which dictate wider ship maneuvering lanes. A typical cross-section showing a cruise ship of maximum beam transiting this channel is shown in Exhibit 6. It is noted that the areas immediately outside the marked (buoyed) channel have adequate width and water depth to allow simultaneous transit movement of smaller vessels such as recreational vessels. Exhibit 6. Bar Channel Typical One Way Channel Criteria for all Deep Sea Shipping Source: AMEC s Marine Traffic Study, 2008 At average speeds of 10 to 11-knots the Bar Channel section can be transited in approximately 6 to 8 minutes (allowing for clearance lengths of 0.25-miles seaward and inshore of this channel section). The Anegado Channel is considered a two way channel and has adequate width for this purpose for the majority of deep-sea shipping calling at the port. A typical cross-section showing a passing ship configuration in this channel is shown in Exhibit 7. As noted for the Bar Channel, the Anegado Channel also has maneuvering room immediately outside the marked (buoyed) channel with adequate width and water depth to allow simultaneous movement of smaller vessels such as recreational vessels. At an average speed of 6-knots (the limiting ship speed in the harbor inside of buoy number 9) the Anegado Channel section between buoy 9 and the San Antonio Channel can be transited in approximately 7.5 minutes; and in approximately 12 minutes over its full length. Redevelopment Marine Traffic Study Update Page 12 of 19 June, 2010

14 Exhibit 7. Anegado Channel Typical Two Way Channel Criteria for Passing General Cargo Ships Source: AMEC s Marine Traffic Study, 2008 The San Antonio Approach Channel has an official width of 600-ft, but the actual cross sectional water width is approximately 2,500-ft at the southern end (at the Anegado Channel) and approximately 800-ft at the northern (at the end adjacent to Pier 4). This general navigation area is used as a swing basin for the large cruise ships berthing at Piers 1, 3 and 4, and when these maneuvers are in process, there is limited navigation room for other ship transits except in the area immediately adjacent to the western end of Isla Grande (in water depth of 20 to 30-ft). If ships are transiting direct to San Antonio Channel, the transit of the Approach Channel can be made in approximately 6 minutes. If a ship is transiting this channel to one of the passenger berths, it may occupy the channel for a period of 15 to 30 minutes, depending on whether the ship is being turned, or going directly on to the berth. The San Antonio Channel is considered a one way channel for deep-sea shipping, but as shown in Exhibits 8 and 9, has adequate width and water depth to allow simultaneous movement (passing) of smaller recreational vessels. In all cases, when channels is not occupied by larger deep-sea ships, they are capable of accommodating the safe navigation of at least two navigation lanes for Goletas and large yachts, and at least maneuvering four lanes for recreational vessels. The existing navigation channels are considered adequate for use by increased volumes of commercial ships similar in dimensions to those currently calling at the port, and for increase in small craft traffic. There is no requirement for channel dredging to widen or deepen these channels for small craft operations. Redevelopment Marine Traffic Study Update Page 13 of 19 June, 2010

15 Exhibit 8. San Antonio Channel Typical Pax Plus Two Way Small Craft Transit Lanes Source: AMEC s Marine Traffic Study, 2008 Exhibit 9. San Antonio Channel Typical Berthed Ships Small Craft Transit Lanes Source: AMEC s Marine Traffic Study, 2008 Redevelopment Marine Traffic Study Update Page 14 of 19 June, 2010

16 5.0 CURRENT AND FORECAST SHIPPING CHANNEL CAPACITY As outlined in AMEC s Marine Traffic Study (2008), any estimation of the capacity of the channels to handle vessel movements must be prefaced with the basic criteria used in the assessment. This particular evaluation relates specifically to the San Antonio Channel Waterfront development, of which the principal component influencing vessel traffic will be the development of the an estimated 183 slips along the waterfront and the addition of water taxi activities. Secondary impacts would be the possible redistribution of traffic such as Goleta shipping (which call at Pier 10) or the general cargo and dry bulk shipping (which call at Piers 13 and 14 extension and at the Isla Grande C berth). The criteria used follows work established within AMEC s in the capacity assessment is summarized as follows: The Bar, Anegado and San Antonio Channels are all treated as discrete channels with respect to transit times for deep-sea shipping. The Bar Channel and the San Antonio Approach Channel are classed as one way channels for large (deep-sea) ship transits. Also the channel is considered to be occupied for the length of time a ship is in the channel - no other ship may enter the channel until it is clear of the deep-sea ship. (A clear channel may be required by the USCG or the Harbor Master for safety reasons such as transits of specialized naval vessels or of ships carrying hazardous or explosives cargo. These events are expected to have a negligible impact on overall channel capacity.) All channels can be classed as two way (passing) channels for simultaneous transits of vessels with a design beam less than 50-ft (which generally includes Goletas and large yachts), but in the capacity analysis Goletas and Yacht traffic were analyzed as deepsea traffic (capacity was conservatively based on these vessels operating in a one way channel). All channels can be classed as four lane (two inbound and two outbound maneuvering lanes) channels for simultaneous transits for vessels with a design beam less than 20-ft (which generally includes fishing boats, pilot boats and most recreational boats). Channel availability is 100%. Redevelopment Marine Traffic Study Update Page 15 of 19 June, 2010

17 Deep-sea shipping uses the channel on a 24 hour basis with 43% of movements in daylight hours and 57% of moves at night. To allow for growth in port shipping the peak ship movement forecast was increased by 25% between the year 2010 and the forecast year of An effective channel utilization level is estimated at 65%--a level at which vessel waiting time (for access to a channel) is anticipated to be minimal. Transit speeds are estimated at 11-knots in the Bar Channel, 7-knots in the Anegado Channel, 3 knots in The San Antonio Approach Channel, and 5-knots in the San Antonio Channel. In addition, a delay factor was included in transits of the San Antonio Approach Channel to allow for cruise ship turning maneuvers. The attainable flow rate (frequency of small craft transits in a single maneuvering lane) is estimated at 40 per hour (i.e. - a vessel every 1.5 minutes which at speeds of 5-knots in the San Antonio Channel will give a separation distance of 750-ft). It is noted that measurements of peak rates in excess of 60 per hour have been recorded in controlled events (such as a sail past ). Through application of the same approach taken under AMEC s Marine Traffic Study (2008), a simple analysis of the current and forecast capacity of the shipping channel used to access the small craft facilities in the San Antonio Channel are presented in Exhibit 10. As shown, existing and future utilization levels as measured by average occupancy during daylight hours) are highest for the Bar and Anegado Channels. The key metric under this analysis is measurement of the attainable increase (% of peak moves during daylight hours) possible for each of the channels reviewed. Under the Current Ship / Berth Allocation, this figure is on the order of 3.00 times peak daily volume of 209 small craft movements per day. Under the Future Ship / Berth Allocation, this figure is on the order of 2.75 times the conservatively estimated peak daily volume of 315 small craft movements per day for the Bar and Anegado Channels. It is therefore concluded that the impact on vessel traffic movements associated planned marina and water taxi activities under the 2010 revised plan is negligible. Redevelopment Marine Traffic Study Update Page 16 of 19 June, 2010

18 Exhibit 10. Navigation Channel Capacities *As reported in AMEC s Marine Traffic Study, 2008 Attainable Increase (% of Peak Moves/Daylight Day) 310% 300% 340% 510% 276% 274% 350% 389% Peak Moves (Small Craft / Daylight Day) Capacity (Small Craft / Daylight Day) Flow Rate (Small Craft Lane / Hour) Available Small Craft (Transit Lanes) Availability 65% (Daylight Hours / Day) Average Occupancy (Daylight Hours / Day) Forecast Average (Ship Moves / Day) n/a n/a n/a n/a Current Average (Ship Moves / Day) Transit Time (Hours) Average Speed (knots) Length (NM) Channel Name Based on Current Ship / Berth Allocation* Bar (+0.5NM Approaches) Large Ships Anegado (to San Antonio) San Antonio Approach (inc. turning delays) San Antonio Based on Future Ship / Berth Allocation Bar (+0.5NM Approaches) Large Ships Anegado (to San Antonio) San Antonio Approach (inc. turning delays) San Antonio Redevelopment Marine Traffic Study Update Page 17 of 19 June, 2010

19 Similar to AMEC s Marine Traffic Study (2008), this assessment of traffic is premised on increased level of small craft movements during periods when larger ships are not using the critical Bar Channel sections, but it is recognized that movements of for small craft are random (whereas large ships must provide ETA s and therefore the timing of these movements can be scheduled to some degree). This implies that increasing levels of traffic will result in increased risk of traffic conflict. It is also anticipated that this risk could be mitigated if small craft operators have adequate information on the timing of ship transits from a source such as the Marine Safety Office or the Vessel Traffic Management group. 6.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS It is estimated that the current utilization of navigation channels within the port is on average less than 10% of available time, and increases to approximately 19% of available time during peak periods. These are relatively low levels of operational activity. Even with a conservative estimate of a 25% increase in deep-sea shipping activity, and increased small craft traffic associated with the development of the Redevelopment Area, the navigation channels still have adequate capacity to accommodate a substantial increase in small craft movements. Project marina and water taxi facilities require no channel dredging to accommodate small craft traffic. Similarly, there is no requirement for additional navigation aids. It is concluded that the development under the 2010 revised plan will have a relatively low impact on vessel movements within the harbor. Redevelopment Marine Traffic Study Update Page 18 of 19 June, 2010

20 APPENDIX A AMEC Marine Traffic Study (2008) Redevelopment Marine Traffic Study Update Page 19 of 19 June, 2010

21 SAN JUAN WATERFRONT Marine Traffic Study April, 2008 Submitted: April 21 st, 2008 Prepared for: Colliers TMT of Puerto Rico 221 East 4 th Street 27 th Floor Cincinnati, OH (513) Submitted by: AMEC E&E Caribe, LLP 530 Ave de la Constitución San Juan, PR (787) Document Number COLL

22

23 Marine Traffic Report TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 PROJECT BACKGROUND Project Site Current User Groups STUDY OBJECTIVES PHYSICAL PARAMETERS General Port Description Navigation Channels and Aids to Navigation Commercial Port Berth Facilities Small Craft Facilities Other Port Areas Port Regulations VESSEL TRAFFIC IN THE PORT San Juan Port Ship Traffic Statistics Small Craft Traffic Future Trends HARBOR NAVIGATION CURRENT AND FORECAST SHIPPING CHANNEL CAPACITY CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page i

24 Marine Traffic Report List of Figures Figure 1a San Juan Harbor Plan Figure 1b Project Site Plan 1 of 2 Figure 1c Project Site Plan 2 of 2 Figure 5a Figure 5b Figure 5c Figure 5d Bar Channel: Typical One-Way Channel Criteria for all Deep Sea Shipping Anegado Channel: Typical Two-Way Channel Criteria for Passing General Cargo Ships San Antonio: Typical Pax plus Two-Way Small Craft Transit Lanes San Antonio: Typical Berth Ships Small Craft Transit Lanes List of Tables Table 4-1: Table 4-2: Table 4-3: Table 4-4: Table 4-5: Table 6-1: Ship Calls & Dimensions San Juan Ship Berth Destinations Observed Small Craft Movements Daily Vessel Movements (All Harbor Movements) San Antonio Channel Current & Forecast Daily Vessel Movements Navigation Channel Capacities List of Graphs Graph 4.1 San Juan Harbor Arrivals & Departures (Jane Oct 2007) SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page ii

25 Marine Traffic Report 1.0 PROJECT BACKGROUND AMEC Americas Ltd. (AMEC) through AMEC E&E Caribe, LLP has performed a marine traffic study required for the Project for Colliers TMT of Puerto Rico (Colliers). This report details the findings of this study which aims to identify current and forecasted marine traffic demand in the San Juan Harbor and compare incremental marine traffic demand from the project. 1.1 Project Site The project site is located on San Juan Isleta, Puerto Rico on north side of the San Antonio channel in San Juan Harbor as shown on Figure 1a. The redevelopment area is located adjacent to Old San Juan on the west, south and east of Avenida Fernandez Juncos and north of the San Antonio channel and comprises approximately 10,000-ft of existing waterfront. The existing waterfront is currently not accessible to the public and was previously developed for various port related industrial and government uses that included cruise ship piers, shipping piers, warehousing and government offices. Figures 1b and 1c show the proposed Waterfront Project Site. The Puerto Rico Ports Authority (PRPA) currently controls a majority of the site and plans to redevelop the area as an upscale, high density, mixed use, urban environment. The redevelopment plan comprises public and private facilities, multi-story hotels, residential and commercial units, a waterfront park, pedestrian promenade and a Waterfront Marina. 1.2 Current User Groups There are a number of user groups with direct access to San Antonio Channel which may be impacted by the project including: 1. Club Nautico, a private yacht club located at the east end of the San Antonio Channel. This facility comprises 117 regular and 5 mega boat slips. 2. The San Juan Bay Marina, a second recreational facility club located adjacent to Club Nautico. This facility accommodates approximately 130 boat slips and has approximately 20 land storage bays on the southeastern side of the inlet. 3. The Department of Homeland Security boathouse, which is located at the eastern end of Club Nautico 4. A number of government agencies who occupy properties on or adjacent to the waterfront (north and west of Club Nautico) in San Antonio Channel such as DNER, FDA, USACE and the Puerto Rico Police. SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 1

26 Marine Traffic Report 5. The San Juan Bay Pilots who have a pilot launch berth facility (for three boats) at the western end of the Frontier Pier. 6. Cruise ship and general cargo ships which occasionally berth at the Frontier Pier. 7. Cruise Ship operators using the east and west Pan American berths (PAD E & W) with onshore passenger terminal structures on the north side of Isla Grande. 8. Bulk Cargo Operators, who currently use Piers 13 and 14 and the Isla Grande C berth for bulk cargo handling operations. 9. Commercial fishermen, in particular those fishermen who use the La Coal area located between Piers 10 and 11. This facility has moorage for approximately 16 boats, and a yard area with capacity for land storage of approximately 25 additional boats. The facility is reported to service approximately 41 fishermen. 10. Gondoleros, (Goleta (regional ship) Owners and/or Operators) who operate interisland shipping and use the basin between Piers 9 and 10, and the storage area on Pier A number of private enterprise operations such as cargo handling companies who operate at the Frontier Pier or at Piers 11 to 14, San Juan Bay Fuel who operate refueling barges, and Sea-Borne airlines, who operate a seaplane base at the eastern end of Pier Cruise Ship Operators, who currently dock at Piers 1-4 on a regular basis. SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 2

27 Marine Traffic Report 2.0 STUDY OBJECTIVES The purpose of this report is to facilitate the USACE permitting for the project. The report will also define marine traffic considerations which should be made in both the detailed design and construction of marine structures. In particular, the study will identify the following: Existing rules for pilotage, Current and forecasted marine traffic demand in the harbor, Change in marine traffic demand and impact of the project on the harbor operations, Requirements to dredge in order to accommodate deep draft super yachts, Requirements to widen any fairway channels to accommodate 2-way marine traffic, Requirements to add navigation aids such as buoys, ranges, lights or radar beacons (RACONS). Input data for the study has been obtained from a number of sources including: The project Master Plan, Marine Charts and Sailing Directions for the Harbor, Interviews with the US Coast Guard, Harbor Pilots and Club Nautico Yacht Club, A small craft traffic count taken during daylight hours over a weekend period (March 14 to 16, 2008). SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 3

28 Marine Traffic Report 3.0 PHYSICAL PARAMETERS San Juan Harbor is located within the metropolitan area of the city of San Juan on the north coast of Puerto Rico. The port comprises all navigation channels and ship berth facilities within San Juan Bay; it is the largest in Puerto Rico, and one of the largest in the Caribbean handling in the order of 15 million tons of waterborne commerce annually, and is operated by the Puerto Rico Ports Authority. Port infrastructure comprises a mix of berth facilities which accommodate a range of commercial shipping such as cruise, container, general cargo, tankers, roll-on roll-off and large tug and barges, as well as inter-island shipping (Goletas). The modern cargo port facilities are located at the southern end of the bay. The older port cargo Piers numbers 6 to 14 (which are in deteriorated structural condition), are located along the northern side of the San Antonio channel, in the area of the planned Waterfront Project. 3.1 General Port Description San Juan Harbor head is bound on the east by Punta del Morro on San Juan Isleta and on the west by the Isla de Cabras. South of the heads, the harbor opens to San Juan Bay. The bay extends approximately 3.0-miles to the main container port at Puerto Nuevo in the southeastern part of the bay, and varies in width from approximately 0.5-miles to 1.5-miles. The northern part of the bay is formed by Isleta San Juan with La Puntilla as the most southern point. The eastern side of the harbor is bounded primarily by the land mass of Isla Grande. The predominant feature of the western part of the bay is Punta Cataño with shoal areas in the bays to the northwest and southeast of this point of land. The project is located on the north side of the San Antonio Channel, which is located on the north-east corner of the harbor along the southern waterfront edge of Isleta San Juan. The inlet extends east of the dredged channel to the Condado bridges and the Laguna del Condado. The project site runs from the south-western end of Pier 7 for approximately 9,000-ft to the western end of the Club Nautico boat pier. This area of existing waterfront is currently not accessible to the public and was previously developed for various port related industrial and government uses that included cruise ship piers, shipping piers, warehousing and government offices. Figures 1b and 1c show the proposed Waterfront Project Site Plan. SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 4

29 Marine Traffic Report 3.2 Navigation Channels and Aids to Navigation The main access into the harbor for deep-sea shipping is via dredged navigation channels. The outer entrance channel to the port is the Bar Channel and the inner is the Anegado Channel which allows traffic to divert into the San Antonio Approach, the Army Terminal and Graving Dock Channels. The Bar Channel is aligned generally north/south and rounds the eastern side of San Juan Isleta into the main harbor. It is between 800-ft and 950-ft wide, 0.92 nautical miles (NM) in length and has a control depth of 40-ft below MLLW (mean lower-low water elevation). The Anegado Channel is aligned generally NW/SE, is 800-ft wide, 1.22 NM in length and also has a channel depth of 40-ft below MLLW. The San Antonio Approach Channel branches to the NE from the Anegado Channel passing to the south of the cruise ship berths (Piers 1 and 4) and into the San Antonio Channel, which is the location of the Waterfront Project. The San Antonio Approach Channel is 600-ft wide, 0.52 NM in length and has a depth of 35- ft below MLLW. It is noted that the area on the northern side of this channel (south of Piers 1 to 4) also has water depth in excess of 35-ft and is the maneuvering area for cruise ships berthing and unberthing at these facilities. Similarly, there is a triangular area on the south eastern side of the San Antonio approach channel which has water depth greater than 30 meters, so the effective maneuvering width in the approaches to San Antonio Channel are greater than 600-ft. The San Antonio Channel runs east from the northern limit of the San Antonio Approach Channel along the south side of San Juan Isleta and the north side of Isla Grande. It is between 500-ft and 900-ft wide, 0.61 NM in length and has an official depth of 30-ft below MLLW, though actual depths range from 32 to 35-ft. The San Antonio Channel runs adjacent to the Waterfront Project site up to Pier 14 and ends at this general location. The area between the eastern end of the channel and the western end of the marina jetty structures is defined as anchorage area D. The San Antonio channel allows access to the old commercial port piers (Piers 6 to 14 and to the Frontier Pier (east of Pier 14). It also services the two cruise berths (PAD E and W) and the dry bulk (cement) berth on the north side of Isla Grande. The USACE had plans to extend the San Antonio channel to the east and deepen it to 36-ft, however this project was deferred because it was not found to be economically justified. Within the main bay, an additional two channels branch off at the southern end of the Anegado Channel. SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 5

30 Marine Traffic Report The Army Terminal Channel (0.87 NM in length, by 350-ft in width with 40-ft water depth) runs almost due south to the Molinos grain berth and the Army terminal pier (which includes the oil berths). The Graving Dock Channel (0.87 NM in length, by 350-ft in width with 36-ft water depth) runs generally south easterly along the southern shore of Isla Grande to a location near the mouth of the Rio Puerto Nuevo providing access to the graving dock and to cargo Piers 15 and 16. These two channels are connected by the Puerto Nuevo Channel (0.89 NM in length, by 350-ft in width with 39-ft water depth) which runs along the southern boundary of San Juan bay, providing access to the main port cargo berths of Puerto Nuevo which range from berth A at the western end to berth L at the eastern end. There are three ship anchorages within the harbor area. Temporary Anchorage E on the western side of Isla Grande and the northern side of the junction of the Anegado, Army and Graving Dock channels which has water depths in excess of 36-ft. This is the general anchorage used for customs and immigration clearance. Restricted Anchorage F is located along the south side of Anegado channel and has water depth of greater than 30-ft. This anchorage is used if the Temporary Anchorage is full, or, for ships handling small quantities of explosives. Anchorage D is at the eastern end of San Antonio Channel (east of longitude 66 o W) in water depths of 36-ft. The principal aids to navigation within the harbor are the Puerto San Juan landfall light at Punta Del Morro, and the four sets of leading lights marking the centerlines of the Bar, Graving Dock, Army terminal and Puerto Nuevo channels. These are supported by navigation buoys marking the edges of the principal navigation channels in San Juan Bay and defining the limits of the anchorage areas; and by lights located on the ends of some of the shipping piers. The existing system of aids to navigation is considered adequate for vessel movements within the harbor. SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 6

31 Marine Traffic Report 3.3 Commercial Port Berth Facilities The principal and most commonly used berths for deep-sea shipping incorporate container, general cargo, Roll on Roll off (Ro-Ro), car carriers, tankers, and bulk carrier facilities are the Molinos grain berth, Gulf Oil and the Army Terminal berths in the southwestern corner of the harbor, and berths A to L located at Puerto Nuevo along the southern shore of San Juan Bay. Additional berth facilities (Piers 15 and 16) are located on the southern side of Isla Grande and used primarily for Roll-on Roll-off cargo operations (including car carriers); at the Crowley Maritime barge berth facilities north of Pier 15; and within San Antonio Channel at Pier 14, the Frontier Pier, and the Isla Grande C (dry bulk) Pier. Regional commercial shipping (the small coastal ships are known as Goletas and the operators of these ships are referred to as Gondoleros) call at facilities located at Pier 10 in San Antonio Channel. It is proposed that this operation be relocated to the eastern end of the Pioneer Pier (also in San Antonio Channel) until the year 2011, and will then be relocated to some other location within the main harbor area. The majority of Cruise (or Passenger) ship calls are at Piers 1, 3 and 4 located on the south side of the old town of San Juan and at the Pan American (PAD) berths on the south side of the San Antonio channel. Occasionally, passenger ships have also been berthed at the Frontier Pier. Pier 2 is the northern terminus for the cross harbor ferry known as the Cataño (or Acua) Ferry. 3.4 Small Craft Facilities Within the harbor there are a number of small craft piers, berths or launching areas which generate vessel movements. The principal facilities are as follows: Two marinas (Club Nautico and the San Juan Bay Marina) with a combined berthage of approximately 275 slips, located at the eastern end of the San Antonio Channel. These facilities have high occupancy rates of greater than 95%. Four Fishermen facilities including: 1. The la Coal area between Piers 10 and 11 which accommodates approximately 41 fishing boats, of which 16 are afloat, and 25 are landside storage. 2. A simple pier structure of 60-ft in length south of Bajo San Agustin on the western side of La Puntilla. The pier is capable of accepting approximately 4 to 6 small fishing boats, and there are moorings for an estimated 10 additional boats immediately offshore of the pier structure. SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 7

32 Marine Traffic Report 3. A municipally owned facility on the eastern side of San Juan Bay, approximately 0.5 miles southeast of the graving dock. This facility accommodates three slips for municipal police boats, and has 24 fishing boat slips, a storage yard and a boat ramp. This facility had an observed occupancy rate in the order of 50%. 4. A fisherman s facility at Cataño, which is reported to accommodate approximately 20 fishing boats (inclusive of landside storage). The San Juan Harbor pilot boat facility is located immediately east of the Navy / Frontier Pier. It has three pilot boat slips of approximately 50-ft in length and a small maintenance facility. The cross harbor passenger ferries which transit between Pier 2 on Isleta San Juan and the dock at Punta Cataño on the south side of the harbor. These ferries are reported to operate between 0500 hours and 2200 hrs with service every 30 minutes in off-peak hours, and every 15 minutes during peak hours (approximately 7 peak hours per weekday) which results in 80 to 90 cross harbor ferry movements per day on an average day. The US Coast Guard has facilities on the southern and southeastern side of La Puntilla. There is a lineal wharf of 385-ft on the southern side and six finger pier structures (2 x 150-ft, 2 x 100-ft and 2 x 45-ft) on the eastern side. It is estimated that the finger pier structures can accommodate 4 patrol boats and an additional 6 to 8 small craft. The main wharf can accept larger ships. Privately owned slips in the foreshore areas around Punta Cataño and in the small inlet and foreshore area between Punta Cataño and the Army Terminal. These are estimated to number approximately 70 to 80 slips. In addition to the existing facilities noted above, the Development Project proposes construction of a Waterfront Marina facility between existing Piers 7 and 9. This marina is designed to provide a total of 96 berth slips, with 70 slips for vessels less than 80-ft in length, and 26 slips for vessels greater than 80-ft in length. 3.5 Other Port Areas The dredged navigation channels and anchorage areas in San Juan Bay are essential for the safe navigation transit of deep-sea ship to the various berths within the harbor, but utilize only 20% of the total water surface area in San Juan Bay. The other main open water areas are those West of the Bar and Anegado Channels between Punta Palo Seco and Punta Cataño, with natural water depths in the order of 5 to 12-ft. SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 8

33 Marine Traffic Report The triangular area enclosed by the Army, Nuevo Puerto and Graving Dock channels (Bahia Puerto Nuevo), with water depths in the order of 10-ft (excepting the shoal area of less than 6-ft in the southwestern corner). North and south of the San Antonio Approach Channel with water depths in excess of 30-ft. There are other areas adjacent to but outside the limits of the main ship navigation channels which have adequate water depth for small craft with operating drafts of less than 12-ft such as in the entrance to the harbor in the area along the western shore of Isla San Juan. 3.6 Port Regulations The regulations governing the safe navigation of any watercraft are those contained in the International Regulations for the Prevention of Collision at Sea (COLREGS), which are incorporated in the US Navigation Rules (COMDTINST M D) which also includes the inland navigation rules. These regulations related to ship navigation rules of the road and specify actions which must be taken under specific situations of traffic interaction. San Juan Harbor lies within a COLREGS demarcation line, which means that the Inland Navigation rules apply to vessel movements within this harbor. Of specific interest to the navigation of small vessels in San Juan Harbor are those in the steering and sailing rules, for example :- Rule 9 Narrow Channels (a) A vessel proceeding along the course of a narrow channel or fairway shall keep as near to the outer limit of the channel or fairway which lies on her starboard side as is safe and practicable. (b) A vessel of less than 20 meters in length or a sailing vessel shall not impede the passage of a vessel which can safely navigate only within a narrow channel or fairway. (c) A vessel engaged in fishing shall not impede the passage of any other vessel navigating within a narrow passage or fairway. (d) A vessel shall not cross a narrow passage or fairway if such crossing impedes the passage of a vessel which can safely navigate only within such channel or fairway. The latter vessel may use the sound signal prescribed in Rule 34(d) if in doubt as to the intention of the crossing vessel. (i) In a narrow channel or fairway when overtaking can take place only when the vessel to be overtaken has to take action to permit safe passing, the vessel intending to overtake shall indicate her intention by sounding the appropriate signal prescribed in Rule 34(c)(i). SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 9

34 Marine Traffic Report (f) A vessel nearing a bend or an area of a narrow channel or fairway where other vessels may be obscured by an intervening obstruction shall navigate with particular alertness and caution and shall sound the appropriate signal prescribed in Rule 34(e). (g) Any vessel shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid anchoring in a narrow channel. In addition to these basic navigation rules, there are some regulations from the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) which are of some importance to mariners, and which are specified in Chapter 2 of the US Coast Pilot 5. Port Authorities or maritime agencies (such as the US Coast Guard) may have additional regulations which are specific to a particular port or particular events which may occur within the port boundaries. Some examples for the San Juan are: With the exception of deep-sea ship transits of the Bar Channel transit speeds are restricted to less than 6 knots within the harbor. There is a moving and fixed security zone of 50 yards around all cruise ships entering, departing, moored or anchored in San Juan harbor. There is a moving security zone of 0.5 NM around any LPG ship entering or leaving San Juan Harbor. There are a number of restrictions in place during special events such as the cross harbor swim If vessels of foreign registry call at the proposed Waterfront Marina, they will be required to comply with regulations relating to entry and clearance into the US unless they have been issued with a cruising license for US waters. San Juan is a Port of Entry where inbound vessels can be cleared for entry into the United States upon presentation of relevant documents. Vessels with a cruising license must also report to the customs house. In addition to the regulations relating to navigation and to customs and immigration, there are regulations which relate to the protection of the environment (40 CFR) and to Fisheries and Wildlife protection (50 CFR), which must be followed. SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 10

35 Marine Traffic Report 4.0 VESSEL TRAFFIC IN THE PORT The frequency of vessel movements and transit paths of shipping and other waterborne transport within San Juan Bay is a prime requirement in any assessment of any marine traffic study. Within the harbor area there are three main types of marine traffic 1. Deep-sea or regional commercial ship movements including all cruise ship and cargo ship/barge traffic. 2. Smaller port related or commercial marine traffic such as pilot craft, fishermen, ferry operators, the US Coast Guard, Homeland Security and Police. 3. Recreational craft, which is predominantly small mono-hull or catamaran boats, but includes personal water craft such as jet skis, canoes and kayaks. The movement of the deep-sea ships is recorded in detail in the statistical records maintained by the Puerto Rico Port Authority, and are used in the following analysis of shipping traffic. The movement of the other types of craft are not recorded, and data has been collected by various means (such as assessing ferry schedules, or inquiries of small craft owner operators or by visual count of small craft traffic movements) to evaluate the impact of this type of traffic. 4.1 San Juan Port Ship Traffic Statistics Ship traffic data for the port of San Juan was provided by the Port Authority for a period of approximately ten months; from January 1, 2007 to October 26, 2007 (299 days). This data set comprised 2,805 observations, incorporating all recorded (predominantly deep-sea, but it also includes data on visiting yachts) ship calls by ship name, type, length and draft, berthing location and arrival and departure time and date. The shipping statistics have been collated and analyzed to provide ship movement data, the results of which are presented in following tables, which show The percentage of ship calls by vessel type, and the average (and maximum) ship dimensions by type (Table 4-1). This table indicates that deep-sea and regional (Goleta type) shipping are responsible for the majority (80%) of commercial ship calls to the harbor. Cruise ship traffic is responsible for approximately 16% of total ship traffic calls. The dimensions of these ships govern the widths and depths of the various dredged channels within the port. SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 11

36 Marine Traffic Report Table 4-1: Ship Calls & Dimensions Current Operations Average Dimensions & (Max Recorded) Total Ship Calls Jan Oct 2007 Ship Calls % of Total Calls Ship Calls Avg / Day Loa Avg (Max) In feet Beam (2) Avg (Max) In feet Draft Avg (Max) In feet Deep-sea Ships Cruise Ships % (1,112) 106 (160) 26.5 (30) Container Ships % (853) 76 (104) 27.5 (38) Bulk Carrier % (633) 85 (95) 27.5 (31) Car Carrier % (702) 80 (90) 25 (30) General Cargo (GC) % (744) 75 (90) 28 (32) Tankers % (751) 70 (104) 30 (38) Ro Ro % (736) 65 (90) 20 (31) Subtotal Deep-sea 1, % 6.3 Goletas % (192) 40 (44) 9 (11) Barges % (738) 84 (90) 22.7 (27) Naval / Research Vessels % (844) 40 (100) 9 (30) Yachts & Tugs % (220) 30 (40) 7.5 (12) Total Recorded Vessel Calls Average daily ship movements 2, Other (Visual Observations) CG Cutters (3) Police & Homeland Security (3) Cataño (Acua) Ferries (3) Pilot Boats (3) Sources: San Juan Port Authority Shipping Statistics Jan 2007 to Oct 2007 (299 Days). Notes: 1) Maximum dimensions (A specific ship of maximum length will not commonly have the maximum beam or draft for that ship type) 2) Beam dimensions are estimated. 3) Draft dimensions are estimated. SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 12

37 Marine Traffic Report Table 4-2: San Juan Ship Berth Destinations Destination Berth Current Operations 2015 Operations (Est) No. of Calls Ship Calls Ship Moves Ship Moves Ship Moves Ship Moves Jan Oct % of Total No. Jan - Oct No. Average Daily No. Average Daily No. Peak Daily NE Sector San Antonio Pad E&W (Cruise Ships) % Pier 9 (Yachts & Misc.) % Pier 10 (Goleta) % Pier 11 (Deep-sea) 2 0.1% Pier 13 (Deep-sea) % Pier 14 (Deep-sea) % Frontier (Deep-sea) % Isla Grande C (Deep-sea) % Subtotal % 1, San Antonio Approach USCG Base (Naval) 2 0.1% Piers 1, 3 & 4 (Cruise Ships) % Subtotal % TOTAL NE SECTOR 1,032 2, Eastern Sector Pier % Pier % Future Goleta Pier Anchorage E % TMT (Barges) ` % TOTAL EASTERN SECTOR % Southern Sector All Piers (Deep-sea) 1, % 2, San Antonio Relocation (Deep-sea) Subtotal 1, % 2, TOTAL ALL PIERS 2, % 5, Sources: San Juan Port Authority Shipping Statistics (Jan 2007 to Oct 2007). Year 2015 Traffic premised on a 50% increase in average number of ship calls. Year 2015 Peak Traffic figures have been rounded up SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 13

38 Marine Traffic Report The number and percentage of ship calls to specific port berths, which defines the frequency and transit path of movements within the harbor area is shown in Table 4-2. This data shows the frequency of deep-sea ship movements to the principal berth locations within the harbor. The data shows that approximately 35% of vessel movements are to areas within or adjacent to San Antonio Channel and that 17% of these movements are cruise ship traffic and 14% is Goleta traffic. These deep-sea movements are based on current levels of commercial traffic within the port. It is reasonable to conclude that cargo traffic level increases will result in increase in ship traffic calls (and therefore movement levels). Conservative levels of ship traffic call increase (approximately 5% / annum [a total 25%] to the year 2015) have been are used in estimating the year 2015 ship traffic volumes noted in Table 4-2, and considered in section 4.3 of this report. The average time of deep-sea ship calls (over a 24 hour period) is shown in Graph 4.1. This data shows that ship arrivals are greater in the morning period between 0500 hrs and 0600, hrs and departures peak between 2100 hrs and 2400 hrs. It is noted that small craft movements are anticipated to take place primarily during daylight hours, which means a reduced impact on deep-sea ship movements. The data contained in the preceding data tables forms the basis for assessment of movement of passenger and cargo shipping within the harbor. In the following section, this data is combined with an estimation of the movements of small craft to give an overall picture of vessel transits in the harbor area. 4.2 Small Craft Traffic Small craft traffic within the harbor is generated by the vessels berthed at the facilities noted in Section 3.4. Some of these movements can be related directly to the number of craft berthed at specific locations (such as recreational craft); some are related to movement of deep-sea shipping (such as the operation of tugs or pilot boats) and some are service related (such as ferry traffic). A brief summary of these movements is as follows: The pilot boats located in San Antonio Channel are used to deliver pilots to ships entering the harbor, or to pick up pilots from outbound ships. The port of San Juan is a compulsory pilotage port, so all deep-sea ships will be required to take a pilot. Exceptions are vessels that regularly trade to the port such as Goletas and some tug/barge operations. The number of pilot boat movements is therefore premised on the movement of deep-sea shipping, and these movements will generally be from San Antonio Channel to and from the pilot boarding station located approximately 3.0-miles seaward of the port entrance. SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 14

39 Graph SAN JUAN HARBOR - ARRIVALS & DEPARTURES (JAN - OCT 2007) 0:00 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 Time Arrivals Departures Frequency

40 Marine Traffic Report Berthing tugs are used by many of the cargo ships for berthing and unberthing manoeuvres at the various berths within the harbor. These tugs are normally dispatched from the tender pier adjacent to Pier 15. The number of tug movements is also in direct proportion to the movement of deep-sea shipping, and usually one or two tugs are used per ship manoeuvre. Tug movements will be between the Pier 15 area and any berth within the harbor. It is anticipated there will be a lesser number of these moves into San Antonio Channel since cruise ships are normally fitted with bow thrusters and have a low demand for tug services. Fishing craft. The four small fishermen facilities within the harbor will generate movement on a regular basis. Most of the fishing grounds are outside the harbor, and it is reported that the majority of these vessels leave in the morning and return prior to nightfall. The principal movements will therefore be from the berthing float areas (the largest of which is located in San Antonio channel) to and from the harbor entrance. The US Coast Guard has a base at La Puntilla. These boats are involved in security patrols and inspections both within the harbor and along the coast. The movement of these craft is therefore anticipated to be throughout the harbor area. Homeland Security and San Juan Police boats also carry out security patrols and inspections within the harbor area. Cross harbor ferries operate a scheduled service from the ferry terminal at Cataño to Pier 2 at Isla San Juan. This is a regular daily service with service levels increasing at peak weekday periods. Once the Waterfront Project is complete, it is proposed to have small water taxis operating along San Antonio Channel with stops at Piers 6, 10 and 14 (East). The scheduling of these small craft has yet to be decided. Recreational small craft, most of which as previously noted are located at the eastern end of San Antonio Channel. It is reported that these craft primarily transit to coastal fishing locations outside the harbor entrance; that there is little or insignificant recreational boating activity within San Juan Bay; and that traffic movements are negligible on weekdays, but increase on the weekend and peak during periods of special events (such as regattas). The majority of movements are anticipated to be in daylight hours, and will mostly be direct movements from the berth slips to and from the harbor entrance. A visual traffic count was made of the small craft movements within the main harbor area (visible from Piers 1 and 4) over the weekend of Friday March 14 to Sunday March 16, 2008 during daylight hours. The results of this traffic movement analysis is summarized in Table 4.3 SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 16

41 Marine Traffic Report Table 4.3 Observed Small Craft Movements Friday Sat Sund Small Craft Movements 14/Mar/2008 Moves 15/Mar/2008 Moves 16/Mar/2008 Moves Remarks (No or % age) (No or % age) (No or % age) Observation Hours Observations from 0600 hrs to 1600 hrs (to 1830 hrs) Total Movements Average Movements/Hr Peak hourly movements Peaks movements occurred between 1300 and 1500 hrs each day Peak Day movements by V/L type No Moves % of Total Avg. Moves/hour Recreational Craft % 11 Acua Ferry % 4 Jet Skiers % 4 Tugs/ barges and misc % 2 Fishing Boats % 2 Pilot Boat % 2 Police / Security % age % 2 Kayakers % 2 Peak Day Movement Direction No Moves % of Total Avg. Moves/hour S Antonio Ch to Bar Ch % 12 S Antonio Ch to other locations % 3 Other Areas to Bar Ch % 2 North / South (Ferries) North / South (Other) East / West Other internal Average moves per hour are rounded up Average moves per hour are rounded up Notes: 1) Movements are in either direction (i.e. inbound or outbound) SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 17

42 Marine Traffic Report These visual observations were calibrated to the number of slips in the various areas of the harbor, and estimates were then made of the trip or movement rates and used to estimate future growth in small craft movements as a result of the proposed Waterfront Marina facility. Estimates of small craft movements have been combined with the movement of deep-sea ship traffic and the estimated average and peak daily frequency of all vessel movements is summarized in Table 4-4. SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 18

43 Marine Traffic Report Table 4-4: Daily Vessel Movements (All Harbor Movements) Average Moves/Day Est. Peak Moves/Day % of Peak Moves/Day Remarks All Port Movements Deep-sea Ship Movements % Source PRPA statistics Barges & Miscellaneous % Source PRPA statistics Goleta 3 5 1% Source PRPA statistics Pilot Boats % 2 boat moves for 75% of all ship movements Fishermen % 2 moves at average 5%, peak 15% of total 105 boats USCG, Police and Homeland Security % Avg. 25%, Peak 75% of total 10 boats Recreational Small Craft (Cataño) Recreational Small Craft (San Antonio) % Avg. 2 moves at 5% of slips, peak 2 moves at 20% of 80 slips % Avg. 2 moves at 5% of slips, peak 2 moves at 20% of 275 slips Berthing Tugs % Ave. 1 tug & 2 moves for 60% of ship movements Ferries % Peak movements include weekday rush hour transits TOTAL % Entrance (Bar) Channel Deep-sea Ship Movements % Source PRPA statistics Barges & Miscellaneous % Source PRPA statistics Goleta 3 5 2% Source PRPA statistics Pilot Boats % 2 boat moves for 75% of all ship movements Fishermen % 2 moves at average 10%, peak 30% of total 105 boats USCG, Police and Homeland Security Recreational Small Craft (Cataño) Recreational Small Craft (San Antonio) % 2 moves at average 25%, peak 50% of total 10boats % Avg. 2 moves at 3% of slips, peak 2 moves at 15% of 100 slips % Avg. 2 moves at 3% of slips, peak 2 moves at 15% of 275 slips Berthing Tugs N/A N/A N/A - Ferries N/A N/A N/A - TOTAL % SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 19

44 Marine Traffic Report Table 4-4 Continued: Daily Vessel Movements (All Harbor Movements) San Antonio Channel Deep-sea Ship Movements 4 7 3% Source PRPA statistics Barges & Miscellaneous 1 2 1% Source PRPA statistics Goleta 3 5 3% Source PRPA statistics Pilot Boats % 2 boat moves for 75% of all ship movements Fishermen % Avg. 10%, peak 25% of total 45 boats relocated to eastern end of channel USCG, Police and Homeland Security % Avg. 25%, peak 50% of total 10 boats Recreational Small Craft (Cataño) Recreational Small Craft (San Antonio) % Minor visits to San Antonio Channel marinas % Avg. 2 moves at 2.5% of slips, peak 2 moves at 15% of 275 slips Berthing Tugs 3 5 2% Avg. 1.5 tugs and 2 moves for 25% of ship movements Ferries 0 0 0% Currently no ferry service Proposed future water taxi service TOTAL % SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 20

45 Marine Traffic Report 4.3 Future Trends Future port development, including the development of the Waterfront Project will change the location of certain facilities and therefore alter the movement of traffic within the harbor Specific proposals which are components of the Waterfront Project are the development of the 96 slip marina at Pier 8 and the potential relocation of both La Coal Fishermen s facilities and the Goleta/Gondoleros cargo handling facilities at Pier 10 initially to the Frontier Pier until 2011 and then to other areas of the harbor after year Bulk cargo handling operations which are currently transacted over Piers 11 to 14 will be relocated to the Frontier Pier in the year 2001, and remain at that facility until the year 2015, at which time they will be moved to a permanent facility within San Juan Harbor. It is also proposed to remove the pilot boat moorings from San Antonio channel and relocate this facility to another part of the harbor. It is also planned to incorporate a water taxi system within San Antonio Channel, and an estimate has been made of the small craft traffic which this would generate. The impact of these changes on vessel movements within the San Antonio basin is presented in Table 4-5. The results show a 60% increase in average traffic levels, and 35% increase in peak traffic levels. The construction of the 96 slip marina facility contributes an estimated 35% increase to peak levels of traffic, but this is off-set by the relocation of the pilot boat and other ship handling facilities to alternative port locations. The overall traffic increase is primarily related to the development of a water taxi service within San Antonio Channel. SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 21

46 Marine Traffic Report Table 4-5: San Antonio Channel Current & Forecast Daily Vessel Movements Average Moves/Day Peak Moves/Day Remarks Current Movements Deep-sea Ship Movements 4 7 Cruise ships to Pad Berths & minor deep-sea shipping until year 2015 Miscellaneous 1 2 Yacht & research vessel calls Goleta 3 5 Relocated to east Frontier Pier until year 2011 Pilot Boats boat moves for 75% of all port ship movements Fishermen 9 23 Ave. 10%, Peak 25% of total 45 boats USCG, Police & Homeland Security Recreational Small Craft (Cataño) 2 10 Security patrol movements 8 16 Minor visits to San Antonio Channel movements Recreational Small Craft (San Antonio) Ave. 2 moves at 2.5% of slips, peak 2 moves at 15% of 275 slips Berthing Tugs 3 5 Ave. 1.5 tugs & 2 moves for 25% of ship movements Ferries 0 0 Currently no ferry service TOTAL Forecast Movements Deep-sea Ship Movements 1 2 Cruise ships to Pad Berths & deep-sea shipping relocated to alternative port areas in year 2015 Miscellaneous 1 2 Minor yacht & research vessel calls Goleta 0 0 Goleta traffic relocated in year 2011 Pilot Boats 0 0 Pilot boat facilities relocated Fishermen 9 23 Fishermen s facility relocated to eastern end of San Antonio Channel USCG, Police & Homeland Security Recreational Small Craft (Cataño) 2 10 Security patrol movements Minor visits to San Antonio Channel Marinas Recreational Small Craft (San Antonio) Berthing Tugs 0 0 Not required Ave. 2 moves at 5% of slips, peak 2 moves at 20% of 371 ( ) slips Ferries (Water Taxis) Water taxi traffic to Piers 6, 10 & 14 Extension (2 per hr for 16 hrs per day) TOTAL Variance in Estimated Daily Movements The variance is primarily related to water traffic SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 22

47 Marine Traffic Report 5.0 HARBOR NAVIGATION Shipping channel dimensions are designed to allow safe transit of deep-sea ships. Typical parameters used in the design of these channel are Ship maneuvering lane(s); typically a width of 2 to 3 times the beam (width) of the design vessel in straight channels. The width will normally be increased in channels subject to cross winds or currents, and will also be increased in channel bends (as is the case in the Bar Channel). Passing clearance (clearance allowance between ships) typically equal to the beam of the largest design ship. Bank clearance on either side of the maneuvering lane(s) which can be a clearance to the dredged channel bank, or possible between a ship in a channel and a ship berthed at a facility within the channel. A typical clearance would be equal to 0.5 to 1.0 times the design ship beam. A typical, straight, one way channel would therefore have a width equal to 4 to 5 times the beam (width) of the design ship, and a two way channel is typically 7 to 8 times the design ship beam. These design parameters are also applicable in assessment of small craft traffic movements. As noted, navigation channel widths are calculated as a function of the design beam of the vessel using the channel. It is therefore evident that while the Bar Channel is considered a one way channel for large ships having design a design beam in excess of 90-ft, it has adequate width for a two lane channel if used by passing ships of Goleta size, and capable of providing four transit maneuvering lanes for simultaneous transits of small yachts and most recreational traffic. In areas adjacent to ship berths or where ships are normally manoeuvred, ship turning (swing) basins are incorporated into the design of ship navigation areas. These turning basins will typically have a diameter of 1.5 to 2.0 times the overall length of the design ship. The navigation channels used for marine traffic bound to or departing from berths or marinas in the area of the San Antonio Channel are the Bar, Anegado, San Antonio Approach and finally the San Antonio Channel. The Bar Channel is used as a one way channel for large ships primarily because this channel is exposed to ocean swell (which results in heading yaw, and therefore a wider ship path) and higher transit speed conditions(in the order of 11 knots for deep-sea ships) which dictate wider ship maneuvering lanes. A typical cross-section showing a cruise ship of maximum beam transiting this channel is shown in Figure 5a). It is noted that the areas SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 23

48 Marine Traffic Report immediately outside the marked (buoyed) channel have adequate width and water depth to allow simultaneous transit movement of smaller vessels such as recreational vessels. At average speeds of 10 to 11-knots the Bar Channel section can be transited in approximately 6 to 8 minutes (allowing for clearance lengths of 0.25-miles seaward and inshore of this channel section). The Anegado Channel is considered a two way channel and has adequate width for this purpose for the majority of deep-sea shipping calling at the port. A typical cross-section showing a passing ship configuration in this channel is shown in Figure 5b). As noted for the Bar Channel, the Anegado Channel also has maneuvering room immediately outside the marked (buoyed) channel with adequate width and water depth to allow simultaneous movement of smaller vessels such as recreational vessels. At an average speed of 6-knots (the limiting ship speed in the harbor inside of buoy number 9) the Anegado Channel section between buoy 9 and the San Antonio Channel can be transited in approximately 7.5 minutes; and in approximately 12 minutes over its full length. The San Antonio Approach Channel has an official width of 600-ft, but the actual cross sectional water width is approximately 2,500-ft at the southern end (at the Anegado Channel) and approximately 800-ft at the northern (at the end adjacent to Pier 4). This general navigation area is used as a swing basin for the large cruise ships berthing at Piers 1, 3 and 4, and when these manoeuvres are in process, there is limited navigation room for other ship transits except in the area immediately adjacent to the western end of Isla Grande (in water depth of 20 to 30-ft). If ships are transiting direct to San Antonio Channel, the transit of the Approach Channel can be made in approximately 6 minutes. If a ship is transiting this channel to one of the passenger berths, it may occupy the channel for a period of 15 to 30 minutes, depending on whether the ship is being turned, or going directly on to the berth. The San Antonio Channel is considered a one way channel for deep-sea shipping, but as shown in Figures 5c and 5d, has adequate width and water depth to allow simultaneous movement (passing) of smaller recreational vessels. In all cases, when channels is not occupied by larger deep-sea ships, they are capable of accommodating the safe navigation of at least two navigation lanes for Goletas and large yachts, and at least maneuvering four lanes for recreational vessels. The existing navigation channels are considered adequate for use by increased volumes of commercial ships similar in dimensions to those currently calling at the port, and for increase in small craft traffic. There is no requirement for channel dredging to widen or deepen these channels for small craft operations. SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 24

49 Marine Traffic Report 6.0 CURRENT AND FORECAST SHIPPING CHANNEL CAPACITY Any estimation of the capacity of the channels to handle vessel movements must be prefaced with the basic criteria used in the assessment. This particular evaluation relates specifically to the San Antonio Channel Waterfront development, of which the principal component influencing vessel traffic will be the development of the 96 slip marina at (the existing) Pier 8 location. Secondary impacts would be the possible redistribution of traffic such as Goleta shipping (which call at Pier 10) or the general cargo and dry bulk shipping (which call at Piers 13 and 14 extension and at the Isla Grande C berth). The criteria used in the capacity assessment is summarized as follows ;- + The Bar, Anegado and San Antonio Channels are all treated as discrete channels with respect to transit times for deep-sea shipping. + The Bar Channel and the San Antonio Approach Channel are classed as one way channels for large (deep-sea) ship transits. Also the channel is considered to be occupied for the length of time a ship is in the channel - no other ship may enter the channel until it is clear of the deep-sea ship. (A clear channel may be required by the USCG or the Harbor Master for safety reasons such as transits of specialized naval vessels or of ships carrying hazardous or explosives cargo. These events are expected to have a negligible impact on overall channel capacity.) + All channels can be classed as two way (passing) channels for simultaneous transits of vessels with a design beam less than 50-ft (which generally includes Goletas and large yachts), but in the capacity analysis Goletas and Yacht traffic were analyzed as deep-sea traffic (capacity was conservatively based on these vessels operating in a one way channel). + All channels can be classed as four lane (two inbound and two outbound maneuvering lanes) channels for simultaneous transits for vessels with a design beam less than 20-ft (which generally includes fishing boats, pilot boats and most recreational boats). + Channel availability is 100%. + Deep-sea shipping uses the channel on a 24 hour basis with 43% of movements in daylight hours and 57% of moves at night. To allow for growth in port shipping the peak ship movement forecast was increased by 25% between the year 2008 and the forecast year of SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 25

50 Marine Traffic Report + An effective channel utilization level is estimated at 65% - a level at which vessel waiting time (for access to a channel) is anticipated to be minimal. + Transit speeds are estimated at 11-knots in the Bar Channel, 7-knots in the Anegado Channel, 3 knots in The San Antonio Approach Channel, and 5-knots in the San Antonio Channel. In addition, a delay factor was included in transits of the San Antonio Approach Channel to allow for cruise ship turning manoeuvres. + The attainable flow rate (frequency of small craft transits in a single maneuvering lane) is estimated at 40 per hour i.e. - a vessel every 1.5 minutes which at speeds of 5-knots (in the San Antonio Channel) will give a separation distance of 750-ft. (It is noted that measurements of peak rates in excess of 60 per hour have been recorded in controlled events [such as a sail past ]). A simple analysis of the current and forecast capacity of the shipping channel used to access the small craft facilities in the San Antonio Channel are presented in Table 6.1. The results show that for existing operations, the Bar Channel, which has the highest utilization level, will be occupied on average for 2.5 hours per day, and on average for y 1.4 hours during peak daylight operating hours. It is projected that the navigation channels can operate without excessive delays at utilization levels in the order of 65%, which would be 15.6 hours per day (and 7.8 hours/day during daylight hours), and if the peak ship occupancy is excluded, the channels would be available for a daily daylight period ranging from 4.0 hours in the Bar Channel, to 7.5 hours in the San Antonio Channel for small craft traffic movements. Since of channels are capable of providing 4 small craft maneuvering lanes and small craft can attain flow rates in excess of 40 craft per hour in each lane the results show that the navigation channels are capable of handling in the order of 3 (three) times the conservatively estimated peak daily volume of 209 small craft movements per day or the forecast peak of 279 small craft movements per day. It is therefore concluded that the impact on vessel traffic movements associated with the 96 slip Waterfront Marina facility will be negligible. This assessment of traffic is premised on increased level of small craft movements during periods when larger ships are not using the critical Bar Channel sections, but it is recognized that movements of for small craft are random (whereas large ships must provide ETA s and therefore the timing of these movements can be scheduled to some degree). This implies that increasing levels of traffic will result in increased risk of traffic conflict. It is also anticipated that this risk could be mitigated if small craft operators have adequate information on the timing of ship transits from a source such as the Marine Safety Office or the Vessel Traffic Management group. SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 26

51 Marine Traffic Report To offer a comparison between the proposed facility development in San Antonio Channel, and developments which have been in place and operational for a number of years, the San Juan Waterfront project can be compared to the False Creek waterfront development in Vancouver Canada. False Creek is a narrow relatively shallow inlet with a total length of approximately 10,000 feet (similar in length to the San Antonio Channel). The navigable width of this waterway is approximately 300 feet (or less than half the average width of the San Antonio Channel). False Creek was originally an industrial waterfront zone, and still has three commercial barge operations and a fisherman s boat harbor. Since the early 1970 s the area has been developed for residential and commercial activities including the construction of additional marinas. False Creek inlet now contains eight marinas; three on the northern side and five on the southern side, with a total capacity in the order of 1,100 floating boat slips (including approximately 250 fisherman slips) plus 150 land storage bays. In addition to the commercial barges and recreational boat traffic there are four cross inlet water taxi routes in operation with sailings every 5 to 15 minutes (on weekends) giving an estimated 400 water taxi movements per day during weekend daylight hours. SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 27

52 Attainable Increase (% of Peak Moves / Daylight Day) Peak Moves (Small Craft / Daylight Day) Marine Traffic Report Table 6-1 Navigation Channel Capacities 310% % % % % % % % 279 Capacity (Small Craft / Daylight Day) Flow Rate (Small Craft Lane / Hour) Available Small Craft (Transit Lanes) Availability 65% (Daylight Hours / Day) Average Occy (Daylight Hours / Day) Forecast Average (Ship Moves / Day) N/A N/A N/A N/A Current Average (Ship Moves / Day) Transit Time (Hours) Average Speed (knots) Length (NM) Channel Name Based on Current Ship / Berth Allocations Bar (+ 0.5NM Approaches) Large Ships Anegado (to San Antonio) San Antonio Approach (inc. turning delays) San Antonio Based on Future Ship / Berth Allocation Bar (+ 0.5NM Approaches) Anegado (to San Antonio) San Antonio Approach (inc. turning delays) San Antonio SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 28

53 Marine Traffic Report 7.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS It is estimated that the current utilization of navigation channels within the port is on average less than 10% of available time, and increases to approximately 19% of available time during peak periods. These are relatively low levels of operational activity. Even with a conservative estimate of a 25% increase in deep-sea shipping activity, and increased small craft traffic associated with the development of the Marina, the navigation channels still have adequate capacity to accommodate a substantial increase in small craft movements - in the order of 3 times the forecast peak daylight hours volume. With the exception of any construction activities required in the development of the Waterfront Project marina facility (which involves the demolition of Pier 8), there is no requirement for channel dredging to accommodate small craft traffic. Similarly, there is no requirement for additional navigation aids. It is concluded that the development of the Project will have a relatively low impact on vessel movements within the harbor. SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 29

54 Marine Traffic Report Figures SJW - Marine Traffic Study (Final).doc Page 30

55

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