# AEROSPACE MICRO-LESSON

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

2 GRADES 3-5 Airplanes fly by generating lift using a scientific law called Bernoulli s Principle. Bernoulli was an 18 th -century Swiss scientist who determined that as a stream of air speeds up, its pressure drops. Pressure is a way of describing how much the air is pushing or pulling on something so, a fast stream of air moving past something will tend to push it less than a slower stream of air. Airplanes use Bernoulli s principle to produce an upward force called lift. Airplane wings have a very special shape called an airfoil. If you were to cut through an airplane s wing from front to back and look at the cross section, this is what you would see: an airfoil. What makes the airfoil special? Airfoils generate lift as air flows over them. Because of their shape, air flows much more quickly around the top than around the bottom. Due to Bernoulli s principle, the slower air pushes harder on the bottom than the faster air on the top. Since there is more force on the bottom than the top, the wing is pushed upwards. You can construct a simple airfoil demonstration using some construction paper, a string, and a straw (see image). Pay careful attention to the airfoil shape; try to match the wing section shown (flat bottom, rounded front, pointy rear). Blowing over the airfoil with a blow-dryer (or your mouth) will produce lift, making it rise up on the string. Experiment with your students to see the effect of how faster and slower airflows. GRADES 6-8 Airplanes use Bernoulli s principle to produce lift. What is Bernoulli s principle? Simply put, it states that a faster-moving fluid (i.e. liquid or gas) will have a lower static pressure. This means that an object in a fast-moving fluid will feel less force perpendicular to the flow than a slow-moving object (it is important to note that the object will feel more force parallel to the fluid because the fluid motion creates dynamic pressure, but that does not concern us. More detail can be found in the Grades 9-12 section below). Bernoulli s principle may sound a little confusing, but it s something we encounter every day. For

3 GRADES 6-8 (CONTINUED) example, have you ever turned on your shower and had the curtain swing inward? Maybe it seemed mysterious at the time, but this is Bernoulli s principle in action the moving water (and air) inside the shower create a lower pressure which sucks the curtain inwards. Believe it or not, airplane wings work on the same basic principle as your shower curtain! Wings all have a similar cross-sectional shape (that is, the shape you would see if you were to cut a slice of an airplane wing) called an airfoil. Look at the shape of an airfoil (click the image for a larger version. Do you think that air flows more quickly around the top or the bottom? You might be surprised to find that air flows much more quickly over the top than around the bottom, but it does, and here s why. Think of a garden hose if you want to make the water shoot really far, you can put your thumb over the end in other words, you force the water through a smaller hole to make it go more quickly. Take another look at the lines surrounding the airfoil shape these are called streamlines, and they show engineers how air is flowing over the airfoil the airflow is basically following these lines. Look at the top of the wing do you see how bunched-up the streamlines are? The air here gets forced through a smaller space, just like the water in a garden hose with the garden hose, you are making a smaller space by putting your thumb on the end; with the airfoil, air flowing over the top is forced through the narrowing space between streamlines. This makes it speed up more than the air on the bottom, where the streamlines are farther apart. If this is hard to visualize, look at this animation, where you can actually see the difference in speed. One common misconception is that air flows more quickly over the top of the wing because it has to travel further to meet up with air flowing underneath the bottom. Since it travels further in the same amount of time, it must be going faster. While it might sound reasonable, this explanation is wrong! In reality, the air from the upper and lower surfaces does not meet up at the back of the wing the air going over the top arrives at the back of the wing much more quickly than the bottom, so the air is effectively split in half. This great video from renowned University of Cambridge aerodynamicist Holger Babinsky illustrates this excellently.

4 GRADES 9-12 How do airplanes fly? Airplane wings are specially designed to produce lift by manipulating Bernoulli s principle. You are probably familiar with Bernoulli s principle roughly speaking, it states that if you accelerate a fluid flow (such as moving air), its pressure drops. In reality, the full story is a little bit more complex. Bernoulli s principle can be written mathematically as follows: The first term here is the static pressure, the second is the dynamic pressure, and the last term is the potential energy. The potential energy term might look familiar to you if you have ever learned about Newtonian mechanics the symbol ρ represents the fluid density, so really ρgh is the same principle as writing mgh for gravitational potential energy. P is the static pressure, or how much force the fluid is exerting on whatever it touches. The second term is the dynamic pressure, or the pressure created by the motion of the fluid. This is the kind of pressure you feel if you stick your hand out of the window of a moving car. You don t normally feel static pressure because you are used to it, but if you swim to the bottom of a deep pool, you would feel a much higher static pressure. So what does this all mean? It means that if you add up static pressure, dynamic pressure, and potential energy at any point in an airflow, the answer will be constant. This might sound confusing, but it is really just a special form of something with which you are probably familiar the conservation of energy! Static pressure is like an internal energy, dynamic pressure is like a kinetic energy (it even has the same form ½mv 2 ), and as we discussed, the potential energy is the same (mgh). So Bernoulli s principle tells us something we already know that energy should always be conserved! For an airplane s wings, the changes in potential energy are very small, because air flowing over the wing does not get much higher or lower above the ground. If we ignore potential energy (it is usually much smaller than the other two terms on that side of the equation), Bernoulli s equation looks like this: Think of a stream of air flowing around a wing. If the velocity increases, we know that the dynamic pressure will increase, so to balance it out according to Bernoulli s equation, the

5 GRADES 9-12 (CONTINUED) static pressure must decrease (internal energy is converted to kinetic energy). Airplane wings manipulate this fact to create lift. Wings have a special cross-sectional shape called an airfoil. When air flows around an airfoil, it goes much more quickly around the top than around the bottom. Why is that? You can see a simple explanation in the Grades 6-8 section, but the scientific reason is simple as well it s all because of the conservation of mass! At low speeds, the amount of mass in any given chunk (volume) of air will always be the same. The amount of air flowing through a given space is equal to the density times the velocity times the cross-sectional area if this doesn t click, examine the units and you will see that they are in units of mass per unit time. Now, if the same chunk of air flows through two sections, the mass flow must be equal and so ρv 1 A 1 = ρv 2 A 2. As long as density stays the same, it cancels out and we find that v 1 A 1 = v 2 A 2 = constant. What does this tell us? It tells us that if the cross-sectional area of a flow decreases, the air must speed up in that section. This is how nozzles work think of a squirt gun, where water is forced down a tube and through a small nozzle at the end. This is pretty similar to how air flows over an airfoil air flowing over the top is bunched together as the airfoil pushes it out of the way, while air on the bottom flows by without being affected as much (see the picture in Grades 6-8 section). Since the air over the top of the wing is constricted, it speeds up and - according to Bernoulli s principle the static pressure drops. Since the pressure on top of the wing is lower than on the bottom, the wing is pushed up from the bottom by air pressure and voila! We have lift! By the time they reach high school, many students may have heard the erroneous explanation that air flowing over the top of the wing accelerates because it has a longer distance to travel. You may find it worthwhile to explain that this is false notion the real explanation is the conservation of mass principle outlined above. Airflows over the top and bottom surfaces of the wing do not meet up at the rear of the wing as you might imagine look at renowned University of Cambridge aerodynamicist Holger Babinsky s great video of air flowing over a wing for a very clear illustration of this.

### Bernoulli s Principle at Work

Diagram of demonstration Denise Winkler and Kim Brown July 25, 2003 Bernoulli s Principle at Work *Airflow should be straight on the edge of the airfoil. pivot rod airflow counter weight support rod airfoil

### What happens to a fluid (water or air) when it moves from entering a wide opening to entering a narrow opening?

What happens to a fluid (water or air) when it moves from entering a wide opening to entering a narrow opening? The water (or air) speeds up. Since the same amount of water/air has to travel through a

### CASE STUDY FOR USE WITH SECTION B

GCE A level 135/01-B PHYSICS ASSESSMENT UNIT PH5 A.M. THURSDAY, 0 June 013 CASE STUDY FOR USE WITH SECTION B Examination copy To be given out at the start of the examination. The pre-release copy must

### Bernoulli's Principle

Bernoulli's Principle Bernoulli's Principle states that as the speed of a moving fluid increases, the pressure within the fluid decreases. Introduction The Bernoulli's Principle explains the behavior of

### How An Airplane Wing Creates Lift

2004 Transportation Education Academy Activity: How An Airplane Wing Creates Lift Standards being met for technological literacy: 1. Number 8 2. Number 9 3. Number 11 4. Number 18 Description: In this

### PRE-TEST Module 2 The Principles of Flight Units /60 points

PRE-TEST Module 2 The Principles of Flight Units 1-2-3.../60 points 1 Answer the following questions. (20 p.) moving the plane (4) upward / forward. Opposed to that is 1. What are the names of the four

### The Science of Golf. Test Lab Toolkit The Ball: Aerodynamics. Grades 6-8

The Science of Golf Test Lab Toolkit The Ball: Grades 6-8 Science Technology Engineering Mathematics Table of Contents Welcome to the Test Lab 02 Investigate: Bernoulli s Principle 03 Investigate: Wind

### Static Fluids. **All simulations and videos required for this package can be found on my website, here:

DP Physics HL Static Fluids **All simulations and videos required for this package can be found on my website, here: http://ismackinsey.weebly.com/fluids-hl.html Fluids are substances that can flow, so

### Flying High. HHJS Science Week Background Information. Forces and Flight

Flying High HHJS Science Week 2013 Background Information Forces and Flight Flight Background Information Flying is defined as controlled movement through the air. Many things can become airborne but this

### Lift generation: Some misconceptions and truths about Lift

Review Article Lift generation: Some misconceptions and truths about Lift Federico Bastianello St. Paul s School, London, England. E-mail: bastiaf@stpaulsschool.org.uk DOI: 10.4103/0974-6102.107612 ABSTRACT

### Cadette. The Great Paper Clip Airlift. Breathe. STEM Kits

Sponsored By Cadette These activities are from the Leader Guide Book, How to Guide Cadettes Through Breathe. Additional activities were developed exclusively by Girl Scouts - Western Oklahoma to correlate

### Daniel and the Old Lion Hunter

Daniel and the Old Lion Hunter Theme When the speed of a moving fluid increases, pressure in the fluid decreases, and vice versa. Goal Daniel Bernoulli Swiss mathematician and scientist (1700 1782) Students

### Chapter 13 Fluids. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13 Fluids 13-7 Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle This is an object submerged in a fluid. There is a net force on the object because the pressures at the top and bottom of it are different. The

### Transcript for the BLOSSMS Lesson. An Introduction to the Physics of Sailing

[MUSIC PLAYING] Transcript for the BLOSSMS Lesson An Introduction to the Physics of Sailing Do you ever wonder how people manage to sail all the way around the world without a motor? How did they get where

### Lesson Plan: Bernoulli s Lift

Lesson Plan: Bernoulli s Lift Grade Level: 5-6 Subject Area: Time Required: Science Preparation: 30 minutes Activity: 3 40-minute classes National Standards Correlation: Science (grades 5-8) Physical Science

### Properties of Fluids. How do ships float?

How do ships float? Despite their weight ships are able to float. This is because a greater force pushing up on the ship opposes the weight or force of the ship pushing down. How do ships float? This supporting

### Pressure is defined as force per unit area. Any fluid can exert a force

Physics Notes Chapter 9 Fluid Mechanics Fluids Fluids are materials that flow, which include both liquids and gases. Liquids have a definite volume but gases do not. In our analysis of fluids it is necessary

### Parts of a Plane Bernoulli s Principle

Parts of a Plane Bernoulli s Principle Prep Time: 10 minutes Lesson Time: 60 minutes Essential Questions: What is Bernoulli s Principle? What are the main parts of an airplane and how do they help a plane

### Fluids. How do fluids exert pressure? What causes objects to float? What happens when pressure in a fluid changes? What affects the speed of a fluid?

CHAPTER 3 SECTION 3 States of Matter Fluids KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: How do fluids exert pressure? What causes objects to float? What happens when pressure in a

### Detailed study 3.4 Topic Test Investigations: Flight

Name: Billanook College Detailed study 3.4 Topic Test Investigations: Flight Ivanhoe Girls Grammar School Questions 1 and 2 relate to the information shown in the diagram in Figure 1. z Question 1 y Figure

### Exercises The Atmosphere (page 383) 20.2 Atmospheric Pressure (pages )

Exercises 20.1 The Atmosphere (page 383) 1. The energizes the molecules in Earth s atmosphere. 2. Why is gravity important to Earth s atmosphere? 3. What would happen to Earth s atmosphere without the

### The Physics of Flight. Outreach Program Lesson Plan

The Physics of Flight Outreach Program Lesson Plan WAAW Foundation is non-profit organization dedicated to bringing hands-on STEM education to girls all over Africa. Our Mission: To increase the pipeline

### Atmospheric Pressure. Conceptual Physics 11 th Edition. Atmospheric Pressure. Atmospheric Pressure. The Atmosphere

Atmospheric Pressure Conceptual Physics 11 th Edition Chapter 14: GASES Atmospheric pressure Caused by weight of air Varies from one locality to another Not uniform Measurements are used to predict weather

### Helicopter & Launcher

Helicopter & Launcher Category: Physics: Force & Motion Type: Make & Take Rough Parts List: 2 Large craft sticks or paint paddles 12 Dowel, ¼ 1 Dowel, 1 long, ¼ 1 Wood block, 8 x 1 x 1 1 Wood block, tiny

### Lecture Outline Chapter 15. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outline Chapter 15 Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker Chapter 15 Fluids Density Units of Chapter 15 Pressure Static Equilibrium in Fluids: Pressure and Depth Archimedes Principle and Buoyancy

### Chapter 15 Fluid. Density

Density Chapter 15 Fluid Pressure Static Equilibrium in Fluids: Pressure and Depth Archimedes Principle and Buoyancy Applications of Archimedes Principle By Dr. Weining man 1 Units of Chapter 15 Fluid

### WONDERLAB: THE EQUINOR GALLERY. The science and maths behind the exhibits 30 MIN INFORMATION. Topic FORCES. Age

WONDERLAB: THE EQUINOR GALLERY and maths s INFORMATION Age 7 11 11 14 Topic FORCES 30 MIN Location LEVEL 3, SCIENCE MUSEUM, LONDON What s the science? What more will you wonder? and maths s Wonderlab:

### L-14 Fluids [3] Fluids in Motion Fluid Dynamics Hydrodynamics Aerodynamics

L-14 Fluids [3] Fluids in Motion Fluid Dynamics Hydrodynamics Aerodynamics Archimedes Principle F B W A buoyant force F B equal to the weight of displaced water is exerted on a submerged object. Will it

### From and

From http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/fluidpressure.htm and http://www.school-forchampions.com/science/fluidfloating.htm by Ron Kurtus, School for Champions Pressure in Fluids by Ron Kurtus

### L 15 Fluids [4] The Venturi Meter. Bernoulli s principle WIND. Basic principles of fluid motion. Why does a roof blow off in high winds?

Basic principles of fluid motion L 15 Fluids [4] >Fluid flow and Bernoulli s s principle >Airplanes and curveballs >viscosity (real fluids) v 1 Continuity equation: v A = constant A 1 A 2 v 2 Bernoulli

### PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT

CHAPTER 3 PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT INTRODUCTION Man has always wanted to fly. Legends from the very earliest times bear witness to this wish. Perhaps the most famous of these legends is the Greek myth about

### 4.1.7 Flight. Forces and Motion. Introduction Choose one of the following options to demonstrate Bernoulli s principle:

4.1.7 Flight Forces and Motion OBJECTIVES Students will be able to apply Bernoulli s principle to flight. describe how thrust, drag, lift, and weight work in flight. explain how a plane accelerates. VOCABULARY

### 6C Science Fair Knowledge

6C Science Fair Knowledge Our Science Paragraph By: Bella,Heidi and Jasjot Our science fair experiment was if we could study the features of the flying squirrel and how it glides so we could apply that

### Relevent SOL s. Materials and Resources:

Title: Bernoulli s Principle Lab Supplemented with Digital Video Designed by Burke Green and Megan Ward Purpose/Rationale: Bernoulli s Principle is useful in predicting several physical phenomena. It makes

### Middle East Technical University Department of Mechanical Engineering ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Fall 2018 Section 4 (Dr.

Middle East Technical University Department of Mechanical Engineering ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Fall 2018 Section 4 (Dr. Sert) Study Set 3 Reading Assignments You can find the answers of some of the following

### PHYS 101 Previous Exam Problems

PHYS 101 Previous Exam Problems CHAPTER 14 Fluids Fluids at rest pressure vs. depth Pascal s principle Archimedes s principle Buoynat forces Fluids in motion: Continuity & Bernoulli equations 1. How deep

### Wingin It. Students learn about the Bernoulli effect by building an airfoil (airplane wing) and making it fly.

Wingin It Students learn about the Bernoulli effect by building an airfoil (airplane wing) and making it fly. Grade Levels 5 8 Science Topics Aerodynamics of lift Bernoulli effect Force Velocity Pressure

### 1/4/18. Density. Density. Density

Density Density Important property of materials (solids, liquids, gases) Measure of compactness of how much mass an object occupies "lightness" or "heaviness" of materials of the same size Density Equation:

### Chapter 13. liquids. gases. 1) Fluids exert pressure. a) because they're made up of matter and therefore forces are applied to them

\ Chapter 13 Fluids 1) Fluids exert pressure a) because they're made up of matter and therefore forces are applied to them liquids gases b) they are made of matter in constant motion colliding with other

### ACTIVITY 1: Buoyancy Problems. OBJECTIVE: Practice and Reinforce concepts related to Fluid Pressure, primarily Buoyancy

LESSON PLAN: SNAP, CRACKLE, POP: Submarine Buoyancy, Compression, and Rotational Equilibrium DEVELOPED BY: Bill Sanford, Nansemond Suffolk Academy 2012 NAVAL HISTORICAL FOUNDATION TEACHER FELLOWSHIP ACTIVITY

### Learning Objectives. Key Concepts: Momentum, Pressure, Aerodynamic Forces

Water Rockets Launch rockets high into the sky using nothing but air pressure and a bit of water! There s no better way to demonstrate the principle of momentum exchange. Suggested grade level: 7-8 Activity

### TEACHING SCIENCE BY OCEAN INQUIRY Pressure

TEACHING SCIENCE BY OCEAN INQUIRY Pressure Nine activities are described below. Explanations are provided after the instructions. Goals: The activities below address different aspects of pressure. Activity

### Chapter 9. Forces and Fluids

Chapter 9 Forces and Fluids Key Terms hydraulic systems incompressible mass neutral buoyancy pascal pneumatic systems pressure unbalanced forces weight Archimedes principle average density balanced forces

### Post-Show FLIGHT. After the Show. Traveling Science Shows

Traveling Science Shows Post-Show FLIGHT After the Show We recently presented a flight show at your school, and thought you and your students might like to continue investigating this topic. The following

### Aerodynamic Terms. Angle of attack is the angle between the relative wind and the wing chord line. [Figure 2-2] Leading edge. Upper camber.

Chapters 2 and 3 of the Pilot s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge (FAA-H-8083-25) apply to powered parachutes and are a prerequisite to reading this book. This chapter will focus on the aerodynamic fundamentals

### Grade 8 Science: Unit 2-Fluids Chapter 9: Force, Pressure Area

Grade 8 Science: Unit 2-Fluids Chapter 9: Force, Pressure Area Key Terms: hydraulic systems, incompressible, mass, neutral buoyancy, pascal, pneumatic systems, pressure, unbalanced forces, weight, Archimedes

### A child places a car of mass 95 g on the track. She adjusts the controller to a power of 4.2 W so the car accelerates from rest for 0.40 s.

1 The picture shows a track for racing toy electric cars. A guide pin fits in a groove in the track to keep the car on the track. A small electric motor in the car is controlled, with a hand-controller,

### L-14 Fluids [3] Buoyancy why things float. Buoyant Force F B. Archimedes principle. Archimedes Principle

Buoyancy why things float L-14 Fluids [3] Review fluid statics Pascal s Principle hy things float Fluids in Motion Fluid Dynamics Hydrodynamics Aerodynamics TITANIC The trick is to keep the water on the

### explore AerodYnAmics Texas Alliance for Minorities in Engineering, Trailblazer II

explore AerodYnAmics EXPLORE AERODYNAMICS YOUR MISSION: Help students understand why aerodynamics are important. Encourage them to imagine themselves with a job in this field, designing cars, buildings,

### LAB 13: FLUIDS OBJECTIVES

217 Name Date Partners LAB 13: FLUIDS Fluids are an important part of our body OBJECTIVES OVERVIEW Fluid Properties To learn how some fundamental physical principles apply to fluids. To understand the

### Chapter 13 Fluids. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13 Fluids Phases of Matter Density and Specific Gravity Pressure in Fluids Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure Pascal s Principle Units of Chapter 13 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the

### Section 3: Fluids. States of Matter Section 3. Preview Key Ideas Bellringer Pressure

Section 3: Fluids Preview Key Ideas Bellringer Pressure Buoyant Force Comparing Weight and Buoyant Force Pascal s Principle Math Skills Fluids in Motion Key Ideas How do fluids exert pressure? What force

### ConcepTest PowerPoints

ConcepTest PowerPoints Chapter 10 Physics: Principles with Applications, 6 th edition Giancoli 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for

### AP Physics B Ch 10 Fluids. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Name: Period: Date: AP Physics B Ch 10 Fluids 1) The three common phases of matter are A) solid, liquid, and vapor. B) solid, plasma, and gas. C) condensate, plasma, and gas. D) solid, liquid, and gas.

### Boomerang Tutorial Sunday, May 30,

Boomerang Tutorial Sunday, May 30, 2010 1 OUTLINE Slide No. What is boomerang? 3 History of boomerang. 4 Features of boomerang. 5 Aerodynamics of boomerang. 8 Physics of boomerang. 12 Material used. 20

### Group Size ( Divide the class into teams of four or five students each. )

Subject Area(s) Science & technology Associated Unit Engineering Associated Lesson What is engineering Activity Title Rocket Cars Grade Level 6 (5-7) Activity Dependency What is Engineering Time Required

### Conceptual Physics Fundamentals

Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 7: FLUID MECHANICS This lecture will help you understand: Density Pressure Pressure in a Liquid Buoyancy in a Liquid Pressure in a Gas Atmospheric Pressure Pascal

### What is a boomerang? History of boomerangs Features and types of a boomerang Basic aerodynamics of a boomerang Why does a boomerang work?

Outline What is a boomerang? History of boomerangs Features and types of a boomerang Basic aerodynamics of a boomerang Why does a boomerang work? Fabrication of a boomerang Throwing techniques What is

### 20 Gases. Gas molecules are far apart and can move freely between collisions.

Gas molecules are far apart and can move freely between collisions. Gases are similar to liquids in that they flow; hence both are called fluids. In a gas, the molecules are far apart, allowing them to

### Chapter 15 Fluids. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 15 Fluids Density Units of Chapter 15 Pressure Static Equilibrium in Fluids: Pressure and Depth Archimedes Principle and Buoyancy Applications of Archimedes Principle Fluid Flow and Continuity

### Chapter 14 Fluids Mass Density Pressure Pressure in a Static Fluid Pascal's Principle Archimedes' Principle

Chapter 14 Fluids Mass Density Pressure Pressure in a Static Fluid Pascal's Principle Archimedes' Principle Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity DEFINITION OF MASS DENSITY The mass density ρ is

### Gas molecules are far apart. collisions The Atmosphere

Gas molecules are far apart and can move freely between collisions. Gases are similar to liquids in that they flow; hence both are called fluids. In a gas, the molecules are far apart, allowing them to

### 1. The principle of fluid pressure that is used in hydraulic brakes or lifts is that:

University Physics (Prof. David Flory) Chapt_15 Thursday, November 15, 2007 Page 1 Name: Date: 1. The principle of fluid pressure that is used in hydraulic brakes or lifts is that: A) pressure is the same

### Lesson: Airspeed Control

11/20/2018 Airspeed Control Page 1 Lesson: Airspeed Control Objectives: o Knowledge o An understanding of the aerodynamics related to airspeed control o Skill o The ability to establish and maintain a

### 2 Buoyant Force. TAKE A LOOK 2. Identify What produces buoyant force?

CHAPTER 3 2 Buoyant Force SECTION Forces in Fluids BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is buoyant force? What makes objects sink or float? How

### Very Basic Design Considerations for Water-Bottle Rockets

Very Basic Design Considerations for Water-Bottle Rockets The next few pages are provided to help in the design of your water-bottle rocket. Read through this packet and answer the questions on the last

### Old-Exam.Questions-Ch-14 T072 T071

Old-Exam.Questions-Ch-14 T072 Q23. Water is pumped out of a swimming pool at a speed of 5.0 m/s through a uniform hose of radius 1.0 cm. Find the mass of water pumped out of the pool in one minute. (Density

### Chapter 13 Fluids. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13 Fluids Phases of Matter Density and Specific Gravity Pressure in Fluids Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure Pascal s Principle Units of Chapter 13 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the

### 1. All fluids are: A. gases B. liquids C. gases or liquids D. non-metallic E. transparent ans: C

Chapter 14: FLUIDS 1 All fluids are: A gases B liquids C gases or liquids D non-metallic E transparent 2 Gases may be distinguished from other forms of matter by their: A lack of color B small atomic weights

### Chapter 6. You lift a 10 N physics book up in the air a distance of 1 meter at a constant velocity of 0.5 m/s. The work done by gravity is

I lift a barbell with a mass of 50 kg up a distance of 0.70 m. Then I let the barbell come back down to where I started. How much net work did I do on the barbell? A) - 340 J B) 0 J C) + 35 J D) + 340

### Spin to Win HERE S WHAT YOU LL NEED:

Spin to Win How can we use rotational motion to our advantage? You have probably seen athletes spin basketballs and make them balance on their fingers. You may have even tried it yourself. Maybe you have

### Materials: Balloon demo (optional): - balloon, string, drinking straw, flour (optional)

Lesson Plan for Water Rockets Demonstration Concepts: Momentum, aerodynamics, propulsion Applicable Classes: EPSS 9, ASTR 3 Educational (for undergraduates) and Instructional (for TAs) videos available

### A guide to science fair development

LINX Science Camps A guide to science fair development Toilet Paper Party Physics, Electricity, Flight Supplies: Hair Dryer (x1) Leaf Blower (x6) Toilet Paper Rolls (x30) Extension Cord (20 ) Power strip

### Page 1. Balance of Gravity Energy More compressed at sea level than at higher altitudes Moon has no atmosphere

Earth s Atmosphere Gases and Plasmas Balance of Gravity Energy More compressed at sea level than at higher altitudes Moon has no atmosphere Magdeburg Hemispheres Weight of Air mass of air that would occupy

### A Table Top Wind Tunnel You Can Build

A Table Top Wind Tunnel You Can Build Basic principles of aerodynamics can be studied in the classroom with this simple, inexpensive wind tunnel. All you need to build it is some cardboard boxes, glue,

### PHSC 3033: Meteorology Air Forces

PHSC 3033: Meteorology Air Forces Pressure Gradient P/ d = Pressure Gradient (Change in Pressure/Distance) Horizontal Pressure Gradient Force (PGF): Force due to pressure differences, and the cause of

### Agood tennis player knows instinctively how hard to hit a ball and at what angle to get the ball over the. Ball Trajectories

42 Ball Trajectories Factors Influencing the Flight of the Ball Nathalie Tauziat, France By Rod Cross Introduction Agood tennis player knows instinctively how hard to hit a ball and at what angle to get

### Bicycles 2. Bicycles 1. Bicycles 4. Bicycles 3. Bicycles 5. Bicycles 6

Bicycles 1 Bicycles 2 Reading Question 4.1a How would raising the height of a sport utility vehicle affect its turning stability? A. Make it less likely to tip over B. Make it more likely to tip over C.

### What do we know about air? What have we observed?

Air and Flight---Properties of Air Air: - we know it exists, - it s all around us, - we see moving trees, - it fills our lungs, - it has substance but can t be seen Air: - colourless, odourless and tasteless,

### In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position. another. A liquid takes the shape of its container. 19.

In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position to position by sliding over one another. A liquid takes the shape of its container. In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position

### In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position to position by sliding over one another. A liquid takes the shape of its container.

In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position to position by sliding over one another. A liquid takes the shape of its container. In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position

### Review: Fluids. container into which it has been poured. changes gases are compressible. pressure changes

Forces in Fluids Review: Fluids o A fluid is a substance that is able to flow and assume the form of the container into which it has been poured o A compressible fluid is one that can change its volume

### Gravity: How fast do objects fall? Teacher Version (Grade level: 4 7)

Gravity: How fast do objects fall? Teacher Version (Grade level: 4 7) *** Experiment with Audacity to be sure you know how to do what s needed for the lab*** Kinematics is the study of how things move

### Principles of Sailing

Principles of Sailing This is a PowerPoint set of charts presented by Demetri Telionis on March 21, 2015 at the Yacht Club of Hilton Head Island. The aim of this presentation was to help the audience understand

### The Science of Golf. Test Lab Toolkit The Swing: Putting. Grades Education

The Science of Golf Test Lab Toolkit The Swing: Grades 9-12 Partners in Education Science Technology Engineering Mathematics Table of Contents Welcome to the Test Lab 02 Investigate: Gravity on the Green

### Exploration Series. AIRPLANE Interactive Physics Simulation Page 01

AIRPLANE ------- Interactive Physics Simulation ------- Page 01 What makes an airplane "stall"? An airplane changes its state of motion thanks to an imbalance in the four main forces acting on it: lift,

### LAB 13: FLUIDS OBJECTIVES

205 Name Date Partners LAB 13: FLUIDS Fluids are an important part of our body OBJECTIVES OVERVIEW Fluid Properties To learn how some fundamental physical principles apply to fluids. To understand the

### The Metric Glider. By Steven A. Bachmeyer. Aerospace Technology Education Series

The Metric Glider By Steven A. Bachmeyer Aerospace Technology Education Series 10002 Photographs and Illustrations The author wishes to acknowledge the following individuals and organizations for the photographs

### Fluids. James H Dann, Ph.D. Say Thanks to the Authors Click (No sign in required)

Fluids James H Dann, Ph.D. Say Thanks to the Authors Click http://www.ck12.org/saythanks (No sign in required) To access a customizable version of this book, as well as other interactive content, visit

### The grade 5 English science unit, Speed, meets the academic content standards set in the Korean curriculum, which state students should:

This unit deals with the speed of objects. Speed is a basic concept used to quantify an object s movement, which can be measured by positional changes over time. It is important to express an object s

### This activity also connects to the following standards for Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science:

Straw Rockets Build and launch a rocket using common classroom materials! This activity is a great demonstration of momentum exchange and aerodynamic forces. Suggested grade level: 3-4 Activity length:

### AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF NACA 0012 AIRFOIL SECTION AT DIFFERENT ANGLES OF ATTACK

AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF NACA 0012 AIRFOIL SECTION AT DIFFERENT ANGLES OF ATTACK SUPREETH NARASIMHAMURTHY GRADUATE STUDENT 1327291 Table of Contents 1) Introduction...1 2) Methodology.3 3) Results...5

### Please pick up your midterm if you haven t already. Today: Finish Chapter 13 (Liquids) from last time. Start Chapter 14 (Gases and Plasmas)

Please pick up your midterm if you haven t already Today: Finish Chapter 13 (Liquids) from last time Start Chapter 14 (Gases and Plasmas) Gases and plasmas: Preliminaries Will now apply concepts of fluid

Buoyancy Additional Information Any object, fully or partially immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. Archimedes of Syracuse Archimedes principle