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1 Table of Contents Career Overview Basic Lesson Plans Hot-Air Balloons Activity 1 Your First Hot-Air Balloon Activity 2 Surface Area and Volume Activity 3 Balloons and Payloads Activity 4 Buoyancy vs Temperature Challenge 1 Greatest Total Flight Time Airplanes Activity 5 Paper Airplanes Activity 6 Delta Dart Activity 7 Your First Balsa Glider Activity Challenge 2 Balsa Glider Competition Activity 9 Foam Wing Testing Challenge 3 Foam Wing Glider Competition Standards Addressed...72 Puzzle(s) Glossary Assessment Links of Interest Resources

2 Teacher Procedure Objective Students test a glider, collect flight data, and design an new glider. Procedure Students will begin this activity by drawing their glider from the top down and determining the aspect ratios. After the ratios are determined, students will throw their gliders three times, take an average, and determine if there is a correlation between aspect ratios and flight distance. d. The distance from the back of the wing to the front of the s should be 2 or 3 times the chord length. e. The area of the horizontal should be 20 percent, or 1/5, of the area of the wing. f. The area of the vertical should be about 10 percent, or 1/10, the area of the wing. 2This is also a good time to talk about the aspect ratios given in Step 1. Be sure students include all dimensions. 1Be sure students measure everything to the nearest 10th of a centimeter. The measurements should provide enough information for anyone viewing the drawing to know all the glider s measurements. Do not give the following ratios to the students until they have calculated and tested their own planes. In the discussion that follows, you should find that the planes that went the farthest had the following aspect ratios. a. The wing of a glider should have an aspect ratio of 6:1. In other words, the length of the wing should be 6 times longer than the chord, or width, of the wing. b. The length of the fuselage should be 4 to 6 times as long as the chord, or width, of the wing. c. The distance from the nose of the plane to the front of the wing should be 1 to 1-1/2 times the chord length. 53

3 Student Procedure Vocabulary aspect ratio chord fuselage horizontal vertical Materials Completed balsa glider from Activity 7 Tape measure (to measure distance thrown) Ruler (for drawing the glider) Graph paper Pencil Balsa Gliders Aspect Ratio Data Sheet Procedure 5Next, move the wing up or down the fuselage approximately 6 cm and record the new measurements and aspect ratio on your data sheets. 6Throw your glider three more times and record the distance traveled. 7Take an average of the three throws and record this on your sheet. 8Did the plane fly better or worse after the wing was moved? 1Draw your glider to scale from the top down (as seen from above) on the 11" x 17" graph paper. 9Based on your findings of what aspect ratios flew the best, design and sketch a new glider to scale that has a 2-, 3-, or 4-meter wingspan. 2Record all measurements on the Balsa Gliders Aspect Ratio Data Sheet, and perform all calculations required on the data sheet. 3 Throw your glider three times and record the distance traveled. 4Take an average of the three throws and record this on your data sheet. 54

4 Student Procedure Balsa Gliders Aspect Ratio Data Sheet Record all measurements to the nearest 10th of a centimeter. Glider part Width (chord) Length Aspect ratio Area (cm²) Wing Vertical Horizontal Fuselage Nose to front of plane Back of wing to Ratio of the vertical area to wing area Ratio of the horizontal area to wing area Ratio of the fuselage length to wing chord Throw your glider three times and record the distance. Be sure you mark your wing placement on the fuselage with a pencil in case a crash landing moves the wing. Calculate and record the average distance flown before and after moving the wing. Airplane Name: Flight # Average: Distance flown (meters) before moving wing Distance flown (meters) after moving wing 55

5 Balsa Gliders Aspect Ratio Data Sheet continued Student Procedure Move the wing up or down the fuselage about 6 cm and record the new measurements and aspect ratio. Glider part Width (chord) Length Aspect ratio Area (cm²) Wing Vertical Horizontal Fuselage Nose to front of plane Back of wing to Ratio of the vertical area to wing area Ratio of the horizontal area to wing area Ratio of the fuselage length to wing chord Based on your findings, did the planes fly better or worse after moving the wing? Typically, in aircraft design, you will find that the planes that went the farthest had the following aspect ratios: a. The wing of a glider should have an aspect ratio of 6:1. In other words, the length of the wing should be 6 times longer than the chord, or width, of the wing. b. The length of the fuselage should be 4 to 6 times as long as the chord, or width, of the wing. c. The distance from the nose of the plane to the front of the wing should be 1 to 1-1/2 times the chord length. d. The distance from the back of the wing to the front of the s should be 2 or 3 times the chord length. e. The area of the horizontal should be 20 percent, or 1/5, of the area of the wing. f. The area of the vertical should be about 10 percent, or 1/10, the area of the wing. Design and sketch a new glider to scale that has a 2-, 3-, or 4-meter wingspan. Be sure to include all dimensions. 56

6 Aeronautical Engineering Crossword II Puzzle ACROSS 1 the spinning blades typically at the nose of an airplane that provide thrust to propel the airplane forward 5 a vertically oriented airfoil at the back of an airplane that resists left and right movements 8 to fill an object with air or gas so as to make it swell 10 to set or thrust in motion 13 the major horizontal surface on an airplane that provides lift 15 the forward-most portion of a plane 16 the force that pushes an aircraft forward 19 the front, usually rounded, edge of an airplane wing or airfoil 20 the act or process of rising to a higher position 21 an airfoil mounted vertically toward the rear of an airplane that controls left and right movements 22 the total weight of passengers and cargo that an aircraft can carry 23 the resistance of an airplane to change from its normal course of flight 24 an airfoil (usually at the back of an airplane) that resists up and down changes in motion ACROSS 1 the spinning blades typically at the nose of an airplane that provide thrust to propel the airplane forward 5 a vertically oriented airfoil at the back of an airplane that resists left and right movements 8 to fill an object with air or gas so as to make it swell 10 to set or thrust in motion 13 the major horizontal surface on an airplane that provides lift 15 the forward-most portion of a plane 16 the force that pushes an aircraft forward 19 the front, usually rounded, edge of an airplane wing or airfoil 20 the act or process of rising to a higher position 21 an airfoil mounted vertically toward the rear of an airplane that controls left and right DOWNmovements 2 the relationship between quantity, amount, or size between two or 23 the resistance of an airplane to change from its normal course of flight 24 an airfoil (usually at the back of an airplane) that resists up and down changes in motion DOWN 2 the relationship between quantity, amount, or size between two or more thing 89 more things 3 the distance from the center of a circle or sphere to the edge of the circle or sphere circle 4 a geometric or sphere shape composed of all points equal distance from a center point 5 the amount of space occupied by a three-dimensional object center 6 the back point edge of an airplane wing or airfoil typically where the top and bottom surfaces come gradually to a point 7 a force applied uniformly over a surface bottom surfaces come gradually to a point 9 the measured heat of an object 11 the extent of a two-dimensional surface enclosed within a boundary 12 a change in design, hypothesis, or prototype 13 and the bottom force of gravity surfaces pulling come downward gradually on an object to a point 14 an airfoil that maintains stability of an aircraft in flight 17 a device for measuring temperature 18 the area of overlap where two balloon gores are attached along their edges 19 the overall force to which a structure is subjected in supporting a weight or mass or in resisting externally applied forces; the amount of weight or mass supported by the lift of an airplane or airplane wing 3 the distance from the center of a circle or sphere to the edge of the 4 a geometric shape composed of all points of an equal distance from a 5 the amount of space occupied by a three-dimensional object and 6 the back edge of an airplane wing or airfoil typically where the top 7 a force applied uniformly over a surface 9 the measured heat of an object 11 the extent of a two-dimensional surface enclosed within a boundary 12 a change in design, hypothesis, or prototype 13 the force of gravity pulling downward on an object 14 an airfoil that maintains stability of an aircraft in flight 17 a device for measuring temperature 18 the area of overlap where two balloon gores are attached along their edges 19 the overall force to which a structure is subjected in supporting a weight or mass or in resisting externally applied forces; the amount of weight or mass supported by the lift of an airplane or airplane wing

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