Lornshill Academy. Geography Department Higher Revision Physical Environments - Atmosphere

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Lornshill Academy. Geography Department Higher Revision Physical Environments - Atmosphere"

Transcription

1 Lornshill Academy Geography Department Higher Revision Physical Environments - Atmosphere

2 Physical Environments Atmosphere Global heat budget The earth s energy comes from solar radiation, this incoming heat energy is balanced by the amount of heat escaping back into space. This balance is called the Earth s Heat Budget. Incoming solar heat, insolation, from the sun is absorbed and reflected meaning not all the heat reaches the earth s surface. 26% of the energy is reflected back into space by the atmosphere and 18% of the heat is absorbed by the atmosphere due to dust particles retaining the heat. This leaves 56% which travels to the earth s surface. Not all of this is absorbed. 6% is reflected from the earth s surface and this makes up the earth s albedo. This means only 50% reaches the earth s surface and is balanced out by the long wave radiation escaping back into the atmosphere. Latitudal Variation As well as variations in the amount of energy received from the Sun across the Atmosphere. There is also variations in the amount of energy received from the Sun across the latitudes of the Planet. Between approx. 35 N and 35 S there is a surplus of energy because insolation exceeds outgoing radiation. The curvature of the Earth means the same amount of insolation is spread over a much great surface area the further north or south from the equator. The Sun s heat is more concentrated nearer to the Equator. The angle the insolation has less atmosphere to travel through near to the equator and so less energy is lost by reflection and absorption. Due to the different land covering more reflection (albedo) takes place near the Poles (ice / snow covered) than near the Equator (tropical forests). This means there is a surplus of energy at the equator and a deficit at the poles. Energy is therefore transferred from areas of surplus to areas of deficit in two ways: By atmospheric circulation By oceanic currents. 2 P a g e

3 Atmospheric Circulation We have established that some parts of the globe receive more heat from the sun than others. It is this difference in temperature that leads to the formation of winds. Global winds account for 80% of heat transfer Rising air = low air pressure Sinking air = high air pressure The Hadley Cell 1. At the Hadley Cell intense heating at the equator causes warm air to rise into the upper atmosphere creating low pressure areas called the Doldrums. 2. The rising air is forced north and south due to the coriolis force where it cools and sinks at 30 o North and 30 o South creating a high pressure area called the Horse Latitudes. 3. On reaching the earth s surface the Hadley cell is completed as some of the air is returned back to the equator via the north-east and south-east trade winds where the cycle is repeated. Thermally direct cell, powered by warm air rising at equator. The Polar Cell 4. At the Polar Cell, cold, dense air sinks creating a high pressure area. Some air moves north and south to lower latitudes via the Polar Easterlies where it expands as it moves into more space and is warmed by the earth s surface. The air eventually meets warmer air brought via the North and South Westerlies at 60 o North and 60 o South where upon it rises and creating a low pressure area. Also a Thermally direct cell powered by cold air sinking at the Poles. 3 P a g e

4 The Ferrel Cell 5. The final cell involved is the Ferrel Cell. It obtains its energy from the Hadley and Polar Cells. This cell feeds warm air to high latitudes and transfers cold air back to the sub-tropics for warming. This cell is Thermally indirect and is powered by the other two cells. Coriolis Force Air is deflected by the spinning of the earth (CORIOLIS FORCE), which means that in the Northern Hemisphere winds are deflected to the right, and in the Southern Hemisphere to the left. Rossby Waves These are large belts of fast moving winds traversing the globe at high altitudes of between 10,000 and 12,000 metres. The pattern is wavelike due to the influence of temperature and pressure differences between land and sea areas. Jet Streams There are streams of very fast moving air known as jet streams within these waves. These occur due to differences in temperature between the air masses. These waves and jet streams contribute greatly to the movement of energy throughout the world. Ocean Currents You should be able to describe and explain the general pattern of ocean currents on a world map. The currents form a pattern of large loops. Each loop is called a GYRE! 4 P a g e

5 Land Masses If there were no landmasses, the ocean circulation would be largely controlled by surface wind system, with 3 closed loops in each hemisphere. The distribution of the major land masses break down this pattern and only in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, where there is sufficient room, do we see the development of loops or gyres which are controlled by pressure cells. When currents meet land masses their waters tend to diverge and flow away in opposite directions. Rotation of the Earth The coriolis force deflects winds and currents to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. The currents therefore move clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and anticlockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. Winds Prevailing winds tend to move waters in the same direction. In the Tropics, the Trade Winds push them westward towards the equator and in the higher latitudes the Westerlies drive them in the opposite direction. Temperature difference and convection The water at the equator is warmer and less dense compared to polar waters where it is colder and dense. Due to this convection currents are set up resulting in the poleward flow of warm light water. The warm water will eventually cool, become dense and sink. The cold water will eventually warm, become less dense and return to the equator. This cycle is repeated over and over. This process is essential for maintaining the energy balance and bringing up vital nutrients from the depths in Polar Regions which are then redistributed to lower latitudes. Case study Atlantic Ocean In the Northern Atlantic a series of currents combine to circulate water in a clockwise direction called a Gyre. At the equator water warmed by the overhead sun starts to move in a north westerly direction towards the Caribbean by the North equatorial current, transferring warm seas to higher latitudes. The current then hits the North American continent and is deflected in a north easterly direction towards Europe forming the warm Gulf Stream current. Again higher latitudes receive warmer water. Cooler water from the Arctic & Northern Canada flow south and mix with the gulf stream cooling it, which is then sent southwards to Africa as the gulf stream is deflected by Europe. This cooler current flows towards Africa as the Canaries current, which is then deflected by Africa towards the equator. This spreads cooler water to the equatorial region, where it is then heated up by the sun. 5 P a g e

6 The prevailing North Easterly Trade & Westerly winds, from falling air at the sub tropics, help to circulate the currents. The Coriolis Effect, whereby the earth spins from the west to east also aids the clockwise circulation of the currents. The combined effect of these two factors help to circulate the warm and cold water around the globe. Density differences due to differential heating result in chilled water sinking to the ocean floor and returning equatorwards. Cold dense polar water sinks, then spreads towards the equator where it pushes up the less dense warmer water which moves off towards the polar areas Intertropical Convergence Zone Air Masses Air masses are large volumes of air with relatively uniform characteristics. Air masses originate where the surface geography is constant such as; over oceans, deserts, large plains and ice covered areas. As air slowly moves over these areas it acquires uniform temperature and humidity characteristics. The ITCZ is where the North Easterly trade winds meet the South Easterly trade winds. The air at the equator is being heated by the overhead sun and therefore rises, the ITCZ can therefore also be described as a band of low pressure. Due to the earth spinning on a tilted axis the position of the overhead sun migrates northwards, when we have our summer solstice (longest day) and then migrates southwards, our winter solstice (shortest day). This means the ITCZ is also going to travel north and south throughout the year. This means the heavy rain showers on the West coast of Africa are very seasonal. Origin, Nature and Characteristics of Air Masses Tropical Maritime Origin - Atlantic Ocean in Tropical Latitudes. Nature (what it is like before it moves) - Warm, moist and unstable (water picked up through evaporation over Atlantic). Weather Characteristics - Brings warm, humid and rainy weather. 6 P a g e

7 Tropical Continental Origin- Sahara Desert (large land mass in tropical latitudes). Nature (what it is like before it moves) - Warm, dry and stable (no water picked up through evaporation due to being over land). Weather Characteristics - Brings dry and warm weather. The ITCZ moves to follow the Thermal Equator. This moves due to the tilt of the Earth (23½ ), moving north towards June / July and then south. This means it passes over some places (near the actual equator) twice. When the ITCZ moves North the Tropical maritime air mass follows influencing the weather. When the ITCZ moves South the Tropical continental air mass has more influence. The Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is where the North-East Trade Winds (Tropical Continental ct air mass) and the South-West Trade Winds (Tropical Maritime mt air mass) meet. At this point an area of uplift is created. This causes instability and periods of heavy rainfall. Variations The Rainfall patterns vary for a number or reasons: The further North the less the peak rainfall due to the lessening impact of the ITCZ. The less annual rainfall due to the increase influence of the Tropical continental air mass. The earliest peak rainfall is in Lagos as the ITCZ passes this first. Lagos has two peaks as the ITCZ passes overhead twice. Further South the larger annual rainfall due to the influence of the Tropical maritime air mass. July In July, the sun moves to the Tropic of Cancer and drags the ITCZ with it. The result is that moist mt air penetrates quite far north. 7 P a g e

8 January In January, the sun moves to the Tropic of Capricorn and drags the ITCZ with it. The result is that dry ct air from the Sahara almost extends to the coast. Farmers in North Africa rely on the ITCZ (especially this) and the mt to reach them in July. Over the last few decades it has been noted that the ITCZ is not travelling as far north as it used to, causing obvious disastrous consequences. ITCZ's effect on the region's climate The ITCZ has varying effects on climates. Gao Gao, with around 200 mm of rainfall per year, is a hot desert climate, with only a limited amount of precipitation in summer as the ITCZ migrates north. Gao s climate is influenced by the hot, dry ct air for most of the year and as can be seen in the graph below, it therefore has fewer days of rain and very low total annual precipitation. This is because it is to the north of the ITCZ for most of the year. 8 P a g e

9 Abidjan Abidjan, with around 1700 mm of rainfall per year, is a tropical rainforest climate. As the graph below displays, it has a twin-peak regime with a major peak in June and a smaller peak in October/November. It is on the Gulf of Guinea coast and is therefore influenced by hot, humid mt air for most of the year. This results in a higher total annual precipitation and a greater number of rain days. The twin precipitation peaks happen because the ITCZ moves north in the early part of the year, bringing rainfall and then south later in the year, again bringing rainfall. Bobo-Dioulasso Bobo-Dioulasso has a total annual precipitation of around 1000 mm and has a clear wet season/dry season regime. As the graph above shows, it receives more rain days and heavy summer precipitation from June until August when the ITCZ is furthest north. This brings rainfall to the area as the mt air mass is dominant. 9 P a g e

Higher Atmosphere. Earth s Heat Budget. Global Insolation. Global Transfer Of Energy. Global Temperatures. Inter Tropical Convergence Zone

Higher Atmosphere. Earth s Heat Budget. Global Insolation. Global Transfer Of Energy. Global Temperatures. Inter Tropical Convergence Zone Higher Atmosphere Earth s Heat Budget Global Insolation Global Transfer Of Energy Global Temperatures Inter Tropical Convergence Zone Climate Graph Earth s Heat Budget Task 1 Use the Power Point to help

More information

Nevis Hulme Gairloch High School John Smith Invergordon Academy. Gairloch High School / Invergordon Academy

Nevis Hulme Gairloch High School John Smith Invergordon Academy. Gairloch High School / Invergordon Academy Nevis Hulme Gairloch High School John Smith Invergordon Academy 1 Gairloch High School / Invergordon Academy ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION The Three Cell Model Global Winds The ITCZ The purpose of this presentation

More information

CfE Higher Geography Physical Environments. The Inter-tropical Convergence Zone

CfE Higher Geography Physical Environments. The Inter-tropical Convergence Zone CfE Higher Geography Physical Environments The Inter-tropical Convergence Zone * We already know that the Equator is a belt where the trade winds converge, bring air from the Tropics to the Equator. It

More information

ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION. WIND = The horizontal movement of air. Results from the differences in air pressure. Always moves from HIGH to LOW.

ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION. WIND = The horizontal movement of air. Results from the differences in air pressure. Always moves from HIGH to LOW. ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION WIND = The horizontal movement of air. Results from the differences in air pressure. Always moves from HIGH to LOW. Pressure differences result from variations in temperature. AIR

More information

Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation-

Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- Overview: Atmosphere & Climate Atmospheric layers Heating at different latitudes Atmospheric convection cells (Hadley, Ferrel, Polar) Coriolis Force Generation of winds

More information

Atmosphere Circulation

Atmosphere Circulation Atmosphere Circulation Winds What Causes Winds? Difference in air pressure due to unequal heating of the atmosphere. Temperatures vary according to the amount of sun it gets. Uneven heating of the Earth

More information

Assessment Schedule 2016 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate understanding of processes in the ocean system (91413)

Assessment Schedule 2016 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate understanding of processes in the ocean system (91413) NCEA Level 3 Earth & Space Science (91413) 2016 page 1 of 6 Assessment Schedule 2016 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate processes in the ocean system (91413) Evidence Statement Q Evidence with with Excellence

More information

CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction

CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction What causes Earth s seasons? Tilt (23.5 ) responsible for seasons 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Distribution of Solar Energy Distribution of Solar Energy Atmosphere absorbs

More information

W3 Global Circulation Systems

W3 Global Circulation Systems W3 Global Circulation Systems Which regions of Earth receive the most energy from the Sun? If not for global circulation systems There would only be two narrow regions that would support life What

More information

Section 1. Global Wind Patterns and Weather. What Do You See? Think About It. Investigate. Learning Outcomes

Section 1. Global Wind Patterns and Weather. What Do You See? Think About It. Investigate. Learning Outcomes Chapter 5 Winds, Oceans, Weather, and Climate Section 1 Global Wind Patterns and Weather What Do You See? Learning Outcomes In this section, you will Determine the effects of Earth s rotation and the uneven

More information

Chapter 6: Atmospheric Pressure, Wind, and Global Circulation

Chapter 6: Atmospheric Pressure, Wind, and Global Circulation Discovering Physical Geography Third Edition by Alan Arbogast Chapter 6: Atmospheric Pressure, Wind, and Global Circulation Factors That Influence Air Pressure Air Pressure is the measured weight of air

More information

Ocean Currents that Redistribute Heat Globally

Ocean Currents that Redistribute Heat Globally Ocean Currents that Redistribute Heat Globally Ocean Circulation Ocean Currents Fig. CO7 OCEAN CURRENTS Surface ocean currents are similar to wind patterns: 1. Driven by Coriolis forces 2. Driven by winds

More information

The atmospheric circulation system

The atmospheric circulation system The atmospheric circulation system Key questions Why does the air move? Are the movements of the winds random across the surface of the Earth, or do they follow regular patterns? What implications do these

More information

Lesson: Atmospheric Dynamics

Lesson: Atmospheric Dynamics Lesson: Atmospheric Dynamics By Keith Meldahl Corresponding to Chapter 8: Atmospheric Circulation Our atmosphere moves (circulates) because of uneven solar heating of the earth s surface, combined with

More information

Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- I

Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- I Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- I First: need to understand basic Earth s Energy Balance 1) Incoming radiation 2) Albedo (reflectivity) 3) Blackbody Radiation Atm/ Ocean movement ultimately derives from

More information

McKnight's Physical Geography 11e

McKnight's Physical Geography 11e Chapter 2 Lecture McKnight's Physical Geography 11e Lectures Chapter 5 Atmospheric Pressure and Wind Michael Commons Ohio Northern University Atmospheric Pressure and Wind The Nature of Atmospheric Pressure

More information

ESCI 107 The Atmosphere Lesson 11 Global Circulation

ESCI 107 The Atmosphere Lesson 11 Global Circulation Reading: Meteorology Today, Chapter 10 THE GLOBAL CIRCULATION ESCI 107 The Atmosphere Lesson 11 Global Circulation Latitudinal heat imbalance The tropics receive more radiation than they emit. The polar

More information

Meteorology. Circle the letter that corresponds to the correct answer

Meteorology. Circle the letter that corresponds to the correct answer Chapter 7 Worksheet 2 Meteorology Name: Circle the letter that corresponds to the correct answer 1) Which of the following factors contributes to the general subsidence in the latitude zone 20 degrees

More information

Atmospheric Circulation

Atmospheric Circulation Atmospheric Circulation Why do we say Earth's temperature is moderate? It may not look like it, but various processes work to moderate Earth's temperature across the latitudes. Atmospheric circulation

More information

Prevailing Winds. The Coriolis Effect

Prevailing Winds. The Coriolis Effect Prevailing Winds 1. Wind: a movement of air in the atmosphere. Bill Nye wind (2 minutes) 2. Local or regional wind: occur in fairly small areas. 3. Prevailing winds: Major wind pattern that affect large

More information

Meteorology I Pre test for the Second Examination

Meteorology I Pre test for the Second Examination Meteorology I Pre test for the Second Examination MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A primary reason why land areas warm up more rapidly than water areas is that a) on land, all solar energy is absorbed in a shallow

More information

Trade winds Prevailing westerlies east

Trade winds Prevailing westerlies east Warm-up Page: 528, 1. What is the major wind belt that is nearest the equator? Trade winds Page: 528, 2. What is the major wind belt that the most of the USA belongs to: Prevailing westerlies Page: 528,

More information

3/22/11. General Circulation of the Atmosphere. General Circulation of the Atmosphere

3/22/11. General Circulation of the Atmosphere. General Circulation of the Atmosphere Chapter 10 General refers to the average air flow, actual winds will vary considerably. Average conditions help identify driving forces. The basic cause of the general circulation is unequal heating of

More information

Horizontal movement of air between cooler and warmer regions. - horizontal movement of air Convection over areas where is

Horizontal movement of air between cooler and warmer regions. - horizontal movement of air Convection over areas where is Winds and Water Chapter 9 continued... Uneven Heating The various materials of the earth absorb and emit energy at different rates Convection Heated air expands; density reduced; air rises Upward movement

More information

Wind is caused by differences in air pressure created by changes in temperature and water vapor content.

Wind is caused by differences in air pressure created by changes in temperature and water vapor content. Topic 8: Weather Notes, Continued Workbook Chapter 8 Wind is caused by differences in air pressure created by changes in temperature and water vapor content. Wind blows from high pressure areas to low

More information

Atmosphere & Weather. Earth Science

Atmosphere & Weather. Earth Science Atmosphere & Weather Earth Science Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Earth s energy is provided by the SUN! Energy is important to us because it 1. Drives winds and ocean currents. 2. Allows plants to

More information

3 Global Winds and Local Winds

3 Global Winds and Local Winds CHAPTER 15 3 Global Winds and Local Winds SECTION The Atmosphere BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What causes wind? What is the Coriolis effect?

More information

Wednesday, September 20, 2017 Reminders. Week 3 Review is now available on D2L (through Friday) Exam 1, Monday, September 25, Chapters 1-4

Wednesday, September 20, 2017 Reminders. Week 3 Review is now available on D2L (through Friday) Exam 1, Monday, September 25, Chapters 1-4 Wednesday, September 20, 2017 Reminders Week 3 Review is now available on D2L (through Friday) Exam 1, Monday, September 25, Chapters 1-4 PLEASE don t memorize equations, but know how to recognize them

More information

Weather Unit Study Guide

Weather Unit Study Guide Weather Unit Study Guide - 2018 Weather vs Climate What does weather measure? The condition of the earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place. How are climate and weather different? Climate is the

More information

Finish Characteristics of Climate

Finish Characteristics of Climate Bell Ringer Finish Characteristics of Climate Wind Coriolis Effect Newton s second law: a body in motion will continue in motion (unchanged) unless acted upon by an outside force. Liquid (water) and gas

More information

Section 3: Atmospheric Circulation

Section 3: Atmospheric Circulation Section 3: Atmospheric Circulation Preview Key Ideas The Coriolis Effect Global Winds Local Winds Maps in Action Key Ideas Explain the Coriolis effect. Describe the global patterns of air circulation,

More information

Warm-up. color mass. albedo. mirage

Warm-up. color mass. albedo. mirage Warm-up Page: 523, 1. The amount of solar energy reflected or absorbed depends on the, texture, composition, volume,, transparency and other properties. color mass Page: 523, 2. The fraction of solar radiation

More information

9/25/2014. Scales of Atmospheric Motion. Scales of Atmospheric Motion. Chapter 7: Circulation of the Atmosphere

9/25/2014. Scales of Atmospheric Motion. Scales of Atmospheric Motion. Chapter 7: Circulation of the Atmosphere Chapter 7: Circulation of the Atmosphere The Atmosphere: An Introduction to Meteorology, 12 th Lutgens Tarbuck Lectures by: Heather Gallacher, Cleveland State University Scales of Atmospheric Motion Small-

More information

Lecture 13 El Niño/La Niña Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction. Idealized 3-Cell Model of Wind Patterns on a Rotating Earth. Previous Lecture!

Lecture 13 El Niño/La Niña Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction. Idealized 3-Cell Model of Wind Patterns on a Rotating Earth. Previous Lecture! Lecture 13 El Niño/La Niña Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction Previous Lecture! Global Winds General Circulation of winds at the surface and aloft Polar Jet Stream Subtropical Jet Stream Monsoons 1 2 Radiation

More information

GEOGRAPHY UNIT 2 REVIEW. 1. The daily atmospheric conditions, such as heat, moisture and air movement for a particular area are known as

GEOGRAPHY UNIT 2 REVIEW. 1. The daily atmospheric conditions, such as heat, moisture and air movement for a particular area are known as UNIT 2 REVIEW GEOGRAPHY Name: 1. The daily atmospheric conditions, such as heat, moisture and air movement for a particular area are known as 2. The average conditions of the weather for a long period

More information

Air Pressure and Wind

Air Pressure and Wind Air Pressure and Wind 19.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air. Air pressure is exerted in all directions down, up, and sideways. The

More information

3 Global Winds and Local Winds

3 Global Winds and Local Winds CHAPTER 6 3 Global Winds and Local Winds SECTION The Atmosphere BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What causes wind? What is the Coriolis effect?

More information

Wednesday, September 27, 2017 Test Monday, about half-way through grading. No D2L Assessment this week, watch for one next week

Wednesday, September 27, 2017 Test Monday, about half-way through grading. No D2L Assessment this week, watch for one next week Wednesday, September 27, 2017 Test Monday, about half-way through grading No D2L Assessment this week, watch for one next week Homework 3 Climate Variability (due Monday, October 9) Quick comment on Coriolis

More information

Length of day for a full year. Ocean Gyres. Wet. Adiabatic. lapse rate, starts at. dewpoint Dry Adiabatic lapse rate

Length of day for a full year. Ocean Gyres. Wet. Adiabatic. lapse rate, starts at. dewpoint Dry Adiabatic lapse rate Vernal Equinox March 20, 11:57 AM, CDT Sun will rise exactly in the east and set exactly in the west. All latitudes get 12 hours of day and 12 hours of dark. Length of day for a full year Wet Adiabatic

More information

Canada s vast size creates a diverse range of weather conditions and climatic conditions. Warming trend for last 10 years Wet Spring Dry five summers

Canada s vast size creates a diverse range of weather conditions and climatic conditions. Warming trend for last 10 years Wet Spring Dry five summers Chapter 4 Weather and Climate Canada s vast size creates a diverse range of weather conditions and climatic conditions. Weather examples: Rainy today Snow tomorrow Fog on Wednesday 23 degree C today High

More information

Chapter. Air Pressure and Wind

Chapter. Air Pressure and Wind Chapter Air Pressure and Wind 19.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air. 19.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure

More information

1.3: CLIMATE GEOGRAPHY. pgs

1.3: CLIMATE GEOGRAPHY. pgs 1.3: CLIMATE GEOGRAPHY pgs. 76-89 INTRODUCTION WEATHER: Is the combination of temperature, precipitation, cloud cover and wind that we experience EACH DAY. Example: 22 0 C and clear skies. CLIMATE: The

More information

Duckies have been found in Hawaii, Alaska, S. America, Scotland, Washington state and Australia as of 2012.

Duckies have been found in Hawaii, Alaska, S. America, Scotland, Washington state and Australia as of 2012. Duckies have been found in Hawaii, Alaska, S. America, Scotland, Washington state and Australia as of 2012. We learned that it takes 3 years to complete one circuit of the North Pacific Gyre flow in the

More information

Applied Earth Science Climate Exam Practice Questions Page 1

Applied Earth Science Climate Exam Practice Questions Page 1 Name: 1. Which combination of climate factors generally results in the coldest temperatures? A) low elevation and low latitude B) low elevation and high latitude C) high elevation and low latitude D) high

More information

Global Winds AOSC 200 Tim Canty

Global Winds AOSC 200 Tim Canty Global Winds AOSC 200 Tim Canty Class Web Site: http://www.atmos.umd.edu/~tcanty/aosc200 Topics for today: Global Wind Patterns Deserts Jet Stream Monsoons Ocean transport Ocean cycles Lecture 16 Oct 24

More information

Chapter: Atmosphere Section 3: Air Movement

Chapter: Atmosphere Section 3: Air Movement Table of Contents Chapter: Atmosphere Section 3: Air Movement We will learn about Air Movement=Wind -Why different latitudes on Earth will receive different amounts of Solar Energy -The Coriolis Effect

More information

Earth s Atmosphere. Air Currents

Earth s Atmosphere. Air Currents CHAPTER 12 Earth s Atmosphere LESSON 3 Air Currents What do you think? Read the two statements below and decide whether you agree or disagree with them. Place an A in the Before column if you agree with

More information

Greenhouse Effect Activity

Greenhouse Effect Activity Greenhouse Effect Activity Objectives: The student will: 1. Read and use weather instruments. 2. Collect and record temperature readings. 3. Describe the concept of the greenhouse effect. Materials: Fish

More information

Global Wind and Pressure Belts as a Response to the Unequal Heating of the Atmosphere

Global Wind and Pressure Belts as a Response to the Unequal Heating of the Atmosphere GRADE 11 GEOGRAPHY SESSION 3: GLOBAL AIR CIRCULATION Key Concepts In this lesson we will focus on summarising what you need to know about: The mechanics present to create global wind and pressure belts

More information

Weather & Atmosphere Study Guide

Weather & Atmosphere Study Guide Weather & Atmosphere Study Guide 1. Draw a simple water cycle diagram using the following words: Precipitation, Evaporation, Condensation, Transpiration 2. In your own words, explain the difference between

More information

Lecture The Oceans

Lecture The Oceans Lecture 22 -- The Oceans ATMOSPHERE CIRCULATION AND WINDS Coriolis effect Prevailing winds and vertical circulation Zones of pressure, evap. & ppt. Factors modifying global winds -- Differential heating

More information

The General Circulation and El Niño. Dr. Christopher M. Godfrey University of North Carolina at Asheville

The General Circulation and El Niño. Dr. Christopher M. Godfrey University of North Carolina at Asheville The General Circulation and El Niño Dr. Christopher M. Godfrey University of North Carolina at Asheville Global Circulation Model Air flow broken up into 3 cells Easterlies in the tropics (trade winds)

More information

Global Winds and Local Winds

Global Winds and Local Winds Global Winds and Local Winds National Science Education Standards ES 1j What is the Coriolis effect? What are the major global wind systems on Earth? What Causes Wind? Wind is moving air caused by differences

More information

3 Global Winds and Local Winds

3 Global Winds and Local Winds CHAPTER 1 3 Global Winds and Local Winds SECTION The Atmosphere BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What causes wind? What is the Coriolis effect?

More information

Circulation of the Atmosphere

Circulation of the Atmosphere Circulation of the Atmosphere World is made up of three regions: Atmosphere (air) Hydrosphere (water) Lithosphere (land) - Geosphere All regions interact to produce weather (day to day variations) and

More information

Unit 2 World Climate Patterns

Unit 2 World Climate Patterns Unit 2 World Climate Patterns Weather the day to day or short term conditions of the atmosphere. Weather includes variables such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, cloud cover, wind, and air pressure.

More information

Notepack 41. Aim: What factors determine the climate of a certain area? Do Now: What is the difference between weather and climate?

Notepack 41. Aim: What factors determine the climate of a certain area? Do Now: What is the difference between weather and climate? Notepack 41 Aim: What factors determine the climate of a certain area? Do Now: What is the difference between weather and climate? WEATHER VS. CLIMATE Weather atmospheric conditions at a certain location

More information

Fluid Circulation (Student Mastery Objectives) -The most frequent type of heat transfer of energy in the atmosphere is convection.

Fluid Circulation (Student Mastery Objectives) -The most frequent type of heat transfer of energy in the atmosphere is convection. Fluid Circulation (Student Mastery Objectives) -The most frequent type of heat transfer of energy in the atmosphere is convection. -Differences in density affect the circulation of fluids. Cold air is

More information

Wind in the Atmosphere

Wind in the Atmosphere Lesson 2 Wind in the Atmosphere ESSENTIAL QUESTION What is wind? By the end of this lesson, you should be able to explain how energy provided by the sun causes atmospheric movement, called wind. p 6.ESS2.2,

More information

SIO20 - Midterm Examination 2 v1 Winter Section A. Circle the letter corresponding to the best answer. (1 point each)

SIO20 - Midterm Examination 2 v1 Winter Section A. Circle the letter corresponding to the best answer. (1 point each) NAME: Section A. Circle the letter corresponding to the best answer. (1 point each) 1. Rainbows result from: a. refraction and reflection of sunlight by water droplets b. reflection of sunlight by oceans

More information

Chapter 8 Air Masses

Chapter 8 Air Masses Chapter 8 Air Masses Air Masses - 1 1. An Air Mass is a large body of air usually about 1500 km across and several km thick, that has homogeneous physical properties. 2. The important physical properties

More information

Winds and Ocean Circulations

Winds and Ocean Circulations Winds and Ocean Circulations AT 351 Lab 5 February 20, 2008 Sea Surface Temperatures 1 Temperature Structure of the Ocean Ocean Currents 2 What causes ocean circulation? The direction of most ocean currents

More information

Atmospheric Circulation. Recall Vertical Circulation

Atmospheric Circulation. Recall Vertical Circulation Today s topics: Atmospheric circulation: generation of wind patterns on a rotating Earth Seasonal patterns of climate: Monsoons and Sea Breezes Tropical Cyclones: Hurricanes and typhoons Atmospheric Circulation

More information

Wind and Wind Patterns

Wind and Wind Patterns Wind and Wind Patterns What is Weather? Weather is the condition of Earth s atmosphere at a particular time and place. What is Wind? Wind is air moving across the surface of the Earth. It can move horizontally

More information

Earth s Atmosphere. Earth s atmosphere is a key factor in allowing life to survive here.

Earth s Atmosphere. Earth s atmosphere is a key factor in allowing life to survive here. Chapter 10.2 Earth s Atmosphere Earth s atmosphere is a key factor in allowing life to survive here. This narrow band of air has the right ingredients and maintains the correct temperature, to allow life

More information

Chapter 7: Circulation And The Atmosphere

Chapter 7: Circulation And The Atmosphere Chapter 7: Circulation And The Atmosphere Highly integrated wind system Main Circulation Currents: series of deep rivers of air encircling the planet Various perturbations or vortices (hurricanes, tornados,

More information

Write answers on your own paper. A. the Sun B. the Moon C. Earth s gravity D. Earth s rotation

Write answers on your own paper. A. the Sun B. the Moon C. Earth s gravity D. Earth s rotation The tmosphere Write answers on your own paper 1. What is the primary energy source that drives all weather events, including precipitation, hurricanes, and tornados?. the Sun. the Moon C. Earth s gravity

More information

Think it Over. Now that we have completed the activity, make any necessary changes to your prediction.

Think it Over. Now that we have completed the activity, make any necessary changes to your prediction. Think it Over What do global wind patterns look like? Draw your prediction on your sheet. Now, let s try something. Does the wind turn? Let s find out! Now that we have completed the activity, make any

More information

Topic 4 Temperature, Atmospheric Circulation and Climate. Temperature Concepts and Measurement 10/2/2017. Thermometer and Instrument Shelter

Topic 4 Temperature, Atmospheric Circulation and Climate. Temperature Concepts and Measurement 10/2/2017. Thermometer and Instrument Shelter Topic 4 Temperature, Atmospheric Circulation and Climate Temperature Controls Global Temp. Patterns Atmospheric Circulation Primary High and Low Pressure Areas Global Circulation Model Local Winds Ocean

More information

CASE STUDY AREA- the ITCZ in AFRICA. You will need to be able to give very detailed answers to a question on this area in an assessment.

CASE STUDY AREA- the ITCZ in AFRICA. You will need to be able to give very detailed answers to a question on this area in an assessment. CASE STUDY AREA- the ITCZ in AFRICA You will need to be able to give very detailed answers to a question on this area in an assessment. This case study shows the way that the movement of the wind belts

More information

What is Wind? Winds are caused by differences in air pressure. This is horizontal movement of air of high pressure to low pressure. Unequal heating of

What is Wind? Winds are caused by differences in air pressure. This is horizontal movement of air of high pressure to low pressure. Unequal heating of What is Wind? Winds are caused by differences in air pressure. This is horizontal movement of air of high pressure to low pressure. Unequal heating of the atmosphere. Measuring Wind Wind direction is determined

More information

Small- and large-scale circulation

Small- and large-scale circulation The Earth System - Atmosphere II Small- and large-scale circulation Atmospheric Circulation 1. Global atmospheric circulation can be thought of as a series of deep rivers that encircle the planet. 2. Imbedded

More information

Chapter 10: Global Wind Systems

Chapter 10: Global Wind Systems Chapter 10: Global Wind Systems Three-cell model of atmospheric circulation Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) Typical surface wind patterns Upper-level pressure and winds Climatological sea-level pressure

More information

Full Name: Class: Period: Date:

Full Name: Class: Period: Date: Topic/Objective: Essential Question: Full Name: Class: Period: Date: Tutor Use Only: Air Pressure and Wind (Chapter 19) Air Pressure the weight of the atmosphere pushing down on the Earth exerting a force

More information

El Niño Lecture Notes

El Niño Lecture Notes El Niño Lecture Notes There is a huge link between the atmosphere & ocean. The oceans influence the atmosphere to affect climate, but the atmosphere also influences the ocean, which can also affect climate.

More information

Influences on Weather and Climate Weather and Climate. Coriolis Effect

Influences on Weather and Climate Weather and Climate. Coriolis Effect Influences on Weather and limate Weather and limate oriolis Effect 1 limate is defined as the common weather conditions in one area over a long period of time. Temperature, humidity, rainfall, and wind

More information

- wet tropical climate

- wet tropical climate (1 of 13) Further Reading: Chapter 10 of the text book Outline - wet tropical climate - coastal trade wind climate - wet-dry and monsoon climate - dry tropical climate (2 of 13) Introduction Previously,

More information

The student will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of the cause of winds and how winds affect climate.

The student will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of the cause of winds and how winds affect climate. The student will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of the cause of winds and how winds affect climate. In this lesson you will: 2.3.1 Define the term prevailing winds. (k) 2.3.3 State the impact

More information

Atmospheric Circulation (Ch. 8) Ocean & Atmosphere are intertwined Gases & waters freely exchanged Wind Weather Climate

Atmospheric Circulation (Ch. 8) Ocean & Atmosphere are intertwined Gases & waters freely exchanged Wind Weather Climate Atmospheric Circulation (Ch. 8) Ocean & Atmosphere are intertwined Gases & waters freely exchanged Wind Weather Climate Atmospheric Structure Consists of Layers Separated by Temperature Stratosphere: Temperature

More information

ATOMOSPERIC PRESSURE, WIND & CIRCULATION

ATOMOSPERIC PRESSURE, WIND & CIRCULATION ATOMOSPERIC PRESSURE, WIND & CIRCULATION A. INTRODUCTION Important because: pressure patterns drive wind patterns which in turn drive oceanic circulation patterns o atmospheric & oceanic circulation: major

More information

Friday, February 8 th. Winds/Coriolis Worksheet: Due Today Lab Worksheet: Finish Questions

Friday, February 8 th. Winds/Coriolis Worksheet: Due Today Lab Worksheet: Finish Questions Ocean Currents Friday, February 8 th Winds/Coriolis Worksheet: Due Today Lab Worksheet: Finish Questions Non-rotating Earth Convection cell model Add rotation and add landmasses unequal heating and cooling

More information

Introduction to Oceanography OCE 1001

Introduction to Oceanography OCE 1001 Introduction to Oceanography OCE 1001 Lecture Notes Chantale Bégin & Jessica Fry Version 2.1 10. Ocean Circulation (Trujillo, Chapter 7) Major ocean currents are stable and predictable; they have been

More information

Copy and answer the following in your marble composition book. 1. Which direction is the wind deflected in the northern hemisphere?

Copy and answer the following in your marble composition book. 1. Which direction is the wind deflected in the northern hemisphere? Copy and answer the following in your marble composition book. 1. Which direction is the wind deflected in the northern hemisphere? 2. Which direction is the wind deflected in the southern hemisphere?

More information

Chapter: Atmosphere Section 3: Air Movement

Chapter: Atmosphere Section 3: Air Movement Table of Contents Chapter: Atmosphere Section 3: Air Movement We will learn about: -Air Movement=Wind -Why different latitudes on Earth will receive different amounts of Solar Energy -The Coriolis Effect

More information

Carolina TM Coriolis Effect and Atmospheric Circulation Kit STUDENT GUIDE

Carolina TM Coriolis Effect and Atmospheric Circulation Kit STUDENT GUIDE Name: Date: Mods: Carolina TM Coriolis Effect and Atmospheric Circulation Kit STUDENT GUIDE Background Global air circulation is a major influence on the world's climates. Air circulation is caused by

More information

18.1 Understanding Air Pressure 18.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Measuring Air Pressure Air pressure barometer

18.1 Understanding Air Pressure 18.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Measuring Air Pressure Air pressure barometer 18.1 Understanding Air Pressure 18.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air. Air pressure is exerted in all directions down, up, and sideways.

More information

Local and Global Winds

Local and Global Winds PART 2 Wind Local and Global Winds Wind is the horizontal movement of air. All wind is caused by air pressure differences due to the uneven heating of Earth's surface, which sets convection currents in

More information

Enviro Sci 1A03 Quiz 3

Enviro Sci 1A03 Quiz 3 Enviro Sci 1A03 Quiz 3 Question 1 (1 point) Which of the following measure wind direction and speed? Question 1 options: a) aerovane b) anemometer c) wind vane d) all of the above Question 2 (1 point)

More information

OCN 201 Surface Circulation

OCN 201 Surface Circulation OCN 201 Surface Circulation Excess heat in equatorial regions requires redistribution toward the poles 1 In the Northern hemisphere, Coriolis force deflects movement to the right In the Southern hemisphere,

More information

Chapter 7 Weather and Climate

Chapter 7 Weather and Climate Chapter 7 Weather and Climate *Describe what weather is, what affects it, and where it occurs. *Explain the connection between air pressure and wind. * *Many factors affect a region s weather. * *atmosphere

More information

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 18 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 18 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 18 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors

More information

Geography & Climate. All species have limits to their distributions across the globe

Geography & Climate. All species have limits to their distributions across the globe Geography & Climate All species have limits to their distributions across the globe To understand species ranges, we need to understand the physical template and climate This is fundamental to biogeography

More information

EARTH SCIENCE 5.9 (WIND) WEATHER

EARTH SCIENCE 5.9 (WIND) WEATHER EARTH SCIENCE 5.9 (WIND) WEATHER Video Notes Key Points: 1. According to the video, what two factors cause wind: a. b. 2. Fill in the blanks from this quote from the video: Energy from the Sun heats the,

More information

Climate & Earth System Science. Introduction to Meteorology & Climate. Chapter 07. Lecture 14. Global Scale Winds. Simple Introductory Examples:

Climate & Earth System Science. Introduction to Meteorology & Climate. Chapter 07. Lecture 14. Global Scale Winds. Simple Introductory Examples: Climate & Earth System Science Introduction to Meteorology & Climate MAPH 10050 Peter Lynch Peter Lynch Meteorology & Climate Centre School of Mathematical Sciences University College Dublin Meteorology

More information

Circulation Patterns

Circulation Patterns Nov. 1, 2017 Today Finish Vertical Atmospheric Structure, Origin, Escape Start Atmospheric Circulation (may finish in 2nd lecture, on Friday) A few words of introduction on Pluto Friday 11AM: Student presentations

More information

Ocean Circulation. Si Hui Lee and Frances Wen. You can access ME at

Ocean Circulation. Si Hui Lee and Frances Wen. You can access ME at Ocean Circulation Si Hui Lee and Frances Wen You can access ME at http://tinyurl.com/oceancirculation Earth - the blue planet - 71% area covered by the oceans - 3/4 of ocean area between 3000-6000m deep

More information

Air Masses and Fronts. Holt Science and Technology Weather and Climate Chapter 2, Section 2

Air Masses and Fronts. Holt Science and Technology Weather and Climate Chapter 2, Section 2 Air Masses and Fronts Holt Science and Technology Weather and Climate Chapter 2, Section 2 Types of Air Masses Changes in weather are caused by the movement and interaction of air masses. An air mass is

More information

10.2 Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere

10.2 Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere 10.2 Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Learning Outcomes Understand the different layers of the atmosphere Understand how energy moves in, out, and around our atmosphere er Composi

More information

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. By Brett Lucas

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. By Brett Lucas PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY By Brett Lucas ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE AND WIND Atmospheric Pressure and Wind Atmospheric Processes The Nature of Wind General Circulation of the Atmosphere Modifications of General Circulation

More information

In Search of the Source of Wind.

In Search of the Source of Wind. In Search of the Source of Wind Role of Wind in the Voyage Atmospheric Pressure The Weight of Atmospheric Air on Earth Gravitational force helps Air to remain on Earth Variations in the Atmospheric Pressure

More information