1 WELCOMES YOU TO YOUR FREE TRAINING MORNING WE HOPE YOU WILL FIND IT INFORMATIVE AND USEFUL 1
2 Who are we?
3 About Us PMANZ is an association run by pest managers for pest managers. The association was formed in 1976 to provide a unified voice when important issues arose that required our industry's input.
4 4 Our Mission Our mission as an association of pest management firms is to communicate the role of our industry as protectors of food, health, property and the environment and affect the success of our members through education and advocacy.
5 From its beginning PMANZ has been a clear, consistently positive voice for the industry, providing support services, consumer information, access to technical information and education training material for its members. Through the efforts of PMANZ, the pest management industry is stronger, more professional and more unified. 5
6 6 Rodent Euthanasia on Glue boards and Live Capture Traps
7 7 Animal Welfare Act 1999 Inspection of traps 36 Obligations relating to traps (1) A person who, for the purpose of capturing alive a mammal, bird, reptile, or amphibian, sets a trap or causes a trap to be set must inspect that trap, or cause a competent person to inspect that trap, within 12 hours after sunrise on each day the trap remains set, beginning on the day immediately after the day on which the trap is set. (2) A person who, for the purpose of capturing alive a mammal, bird, reptile, or amphibian, sets a trap or causes a trap to be set must (a) remove, or cause to be removed, any live animal found in that trap; or (b) attend properly to the care of the animal or, without delay, kill the animal.
8 (3) A person who, without reasonable excuse, fails to comply with subsection (1) commits an infringement offence. (4) A person who, without reasonable excuse, fails to comply with subsection (2) commits an offence and is liable on conviction, (a) in the case of an individual, to a fine not exceeding $5,000; or (b) in the case of a body corporate, to a fine not exceeding $25,000. 8
9 9 pest means (a) any animal in a wild state that, subject to subsection (2), the Minister of Conservation declares, to be a pest for the purposes of this Act: (b) any member of the family Mustelidae (c) any feral cat: (d) any feral dog: (e) any feral rodent: (f) any feral rabbit: (g) any feral hare: (h) any grass carp: (i) any koi or European carp: (j) any silver carp: (k) any mosquito fish: (l) any animal in a wild state that is a pest or unwanted organism within the meaning of the Biosecurity Act 1993 trap (a) means a net, cage, snare, pen, pitfall, or mechanical or adhesive thing used for the purpose of killing, entrapping, capturing, entangling, restraining, or immobilising an animal;
10 10 What is a Glueboard trap glueboard trap means a trap, whether or not commercially manufactured, consisting of an adhesive glue layer on a base material and that is intended to capture and hold live rodents Glueboard traps are made up of a base (usually plastic) with a sticky glue layer to capture and hold live rodents. The main animal welfare concerns are injury and distress associated with being trapped, and the potential for inhumane disposal. Applications for ministerial approval to sell or use glueboard traps for rodents must be made to the Ministry for Primary Industries.
11 11 Live Capture Traps
12 Animal Welfare (Glueboard Traps) Order Restriction on use of glueboard traps from 1 January Use of glueboard traps until close of 31 December 2014 The following persons may use a glueboard trap in the course of their work until the close of 31 December 2014: (a) a commercial pest control operator: (b) a person employed to conduct pest control on food production premises: (c) a Department of Conservation contractor or employee: (d) a boat operator transporting persons or goods to, from, or in close proximity to mammalian pest-free islands. 7 Restriction on sale or use of glueboard traps from 1 January 2015 No person may, on or after 1 January 2015, sell or use a glueboard trap unless the sale or use is pursuant to and in accordance with the conditions of an approval given under clause 8. 12
13 8 Approval for use or sale of otherwise restricted glueboard trap (1) The Minister may, (a) approve the use by a specified person or class of persons, in any specified situation or for any specified purpose, (b) approve the sale by a specified person or class of persons, in any specified situation or for any specified purpose, (2) The Minister may give an approval only if the Minister considers that (a) approval of the relevant use or sale is in the public interest (including for biosecurity, conservation, public health, or animal health purposes); and (b) no viable alternative is available in the circumstances. 13
14 (3) The Minister may approve the use or sale of a glueboard trap subject to any 1 or more of the following conditions: (a) that the trap must be used only for a specified duration: (b) that the trap must be used only in a specified area or a specified layout: (c) that the trap must be used only to target certain species of animal: (d) that the trap must be used only for a specific purpose: (e) that only a specified number of traps must be used: (f) that the trap must be of a specified make, type, or size: (g) that the trap must be set in a specified way: (h) that the trap must meet any guidelines set by the National Animal Welfare Advisory Committee: (i) any other conditions that the Minister considers necessary to reduce the risk to animal welfare. 14
15 Under new regulations coming into force in October 2018, you can be fined $300 for failing to do a daily inspection. Remote monitoring of live-capture traps (with a web cam) is allowed. Remote monitoring of live-capture traps guidance 15 If you fail to remove trapped animals from a live-capture trap and do not treat them in accordance with the Animal Welfare Act, you may be fined up to $5,000 for an individual or $25,000 for a body corporate.
16 16 Check-In Getting it! Keep Going? If you have a question (please ask) or just tell me if you are not really clear on what we just covered. 16
17 Concerns about traps and devices 17 Internationally and within New Zealand, animal welfare concerns have been raised about the use of some traps and devices.
18 Live Capture Traps 18
19 Glueboard Traps 19
24 5.2.4 Boats providing transport to or around pest free sanctuaries The Department of Conservation (DOC) has responsibility for many high-conservation-value offshore islands that are pest free. It maintains that status for those islands through its biosecurity and surveillance programmes for both the boats that service those islands and the staff and equipment and supplies that are transported to and from them (Broome 2007; E. Kennedy, pers. comm.). This involves the use of enclosed quarantine facilities at points of departure and arrival that are used to search equipment and supplies. Glueboards are the principal tool used to detect and catch invasive rodents on the boats and in and around island quarantine facilities, particularly targeting mice. 24
25 Management and prevention of rodents on jetties and wharfs associated with boat transport is usually undertaken using bait boxes and anticoagulant toxins. Dogs trained to detect rodents are also being used increasingly by DOC for detection of rodents after incursions and for ongoing surveillance of pest-free islands. DOC s use of glueboards is projected to increase as it intensifies efforts to protect pest-free islands (E. Kennedy, pers. comm.). DOC s concerns about incursions of invasive species on pestfree islands extend beyond rodents. Reptiles (see Section 5.4) and invertebrates (e.g. invasive ants) are major concerns and glueboards are also used for monitoring and capture of such species as part of routine biosecurity and surveillance. 25
26 26 Glueboards are live traps and their operation therefore requires the handling and humane killing of captured rodents, with associated risks to both rodents and handlers. Although Frantz and Padula (1983) noted mice trapped on glueboards surviving for up to 24h, those experiments were conducted at temperatures in the thermoneutral zone of mice. In mice, the thermoneutral zone lies at approximately 30 C. At ambient temperatures outside the thermoneutral zone, a large fraction of total energy is used for thermoregulation; already at normal animal house conditions (18 22 C), this fraction is an additional % above the basal metabolic rate.
27 In New Zealand PCOs report that most mice die overnight. 27 Experiments by Bartlett et al (1953) suggest low ambient temperature and confinement (such as experienced by a mouse trapped on a glueboard in NZ winter) may reduce time to death to a few hours. The situation with rats is not clear, but the physiological consequences of their larger size suggest they probably survive for longer than mice when trapped on glueboards.
28 28 UPDATE ON GLUEBOARD TRAP APPROVALS The approvals for use are for limited circumstances for: biosecurity and conservation purposes use in and around food storage and processing facilities specialist applications where high hygiene is required. The table shows the number of approval issued by year. The 2018 figures are as at 25 January Year Approvals Allowed for sale
29 Action to be taken in event of rodent captures 29 Any live animal found in the trap must be removed, properly attended to or, without delay, killed as humanely as possible. Where pest control results in animals being caught alive and contained (for example, in a cage or trap) and not immediately killed or removed, the obligations in the Act relating to animals in people's care or charge apply (for example, food and water appropriate to the circumstances) for sustenance. Rodents trapped on rodent glueboards must be dispatched quickly and humanely. Drowning is an unacceptable and unprofessional method of killing a mammal pest, and mice are quite adept at escaping during these attempts and can reinfest the area.
30 30 Check-In Getting it! Keep Going? If you have a question (please ask) or just tell me if you are not really clear on what we just covered. 30
31 31 Euthanasia The term euthanasia is derived from the Greek terms eu, meaning good and thanatos meaning death. A good death would be one that occurs with minimal pain and distress. Euthanasia is the act of inducing humane death in an animal.
32 32 Objectives of euthanasia:- The primary criteria for euthanasia in terms of animal welfare are that the method be: painless, achieve rapid unconsciousness and death, require minimum restraint, avoid excitement, is appropriate for the age, species, and health of the animal, must minimize fear and psychological stress in the animal, be reliable, reproducible, irreversible, simple to administer (in small doses if possible) and safe for the operator, and, so far as possible, be aesthetically acceptable for the operator.
33 33 Methods of Euthanasia:- Methods of euthanasia fall into two broad categories. Chemical methods. Physical methods.
34 Chemical methods Use of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 34 This technique is fairly simple: the animal/rodent is placed in an enclosed space into which carbon dioxide gas is added at a controlled rate. When the animal breathes this gas, it quickly loses consciousness and then dies. The entire process takes five to eight minutes. Comprehensive CO2 gas in cylinders is the only acceptable source of CO2 because the inflow to the enclosure can be regulated precisely. CO2 delivery must be monitored to ensure CO2 does not displace air by more than 10-30% of the enclosure volume per minute. Typically 2 litres per minute for a mouse and 7.5 litres per minute for a rat if a flow meter is used.
35 Phyisical methods Physical methods:- Penetrating Captive Bolt Euthanasia by a blow to the head Gunshot Cervical dislocation Decapitation Electrocution Microwave Irradiation Thoracic (Cardiopulmonary, Cardiac) Compression Kill Traps Maceration Adjunctive Methods Exsanguination Stunning Pithing 35
36 36 Euthanasia by a blow to the head Stunning the animal by a blow to the head may be acceptable in small animals with a soft skull (e.g. rats and mice). A single, sharp blow should be delivered to the central skull bones. This can be achieved with a hard and heavy, blunt instrument. A suitable instrument should be carried at all times for this function (e.g. hammer, metal pipe, wooden club etc.) Alternatively, small animals can be held by the hind quarters and swung in an arc so that the back of the head is struck on the edge of a hard object. In the interests of hygiene place the trap and rodent into a clear plastic bag first. Stunning may only render an animal unconscious; therefore it must be immediately followed by a second method that ensures death (e.g. exsanguination, cervical dislocation, pithing)
37 37 When properly performed with sufficient force, immediate depression of the central nervous system and destruction of brain tissue occurs. Loss of consciousness is rapid. It must be properly applied to be effective and humane, therefore, training and skill of operator is essential. If not performed correctly, various degrees of consciousness with accompanying pain can occur. Death must be assured/checked before disposal; by looking for either complete physical destruction and/or lack of blinking reflex invoked by gently touching or blowing air onto the surface of the eye (cornea). NOTE: There are aesthetic considerations with this method and is best done out of view of other people
39 39 Cervical dislocation Acceptable for small animals which are easily handled e.g. Rodents. The operator must be confident of performing this technique quickly and effectively. It requires mastering of technical skills to ensure that loss of consciousness is rapidly induced. This method involves separation of the skull and the brain from the spinal cord by pressure applied, posterior to the base of the skull. The brain stem which controls respiration and heart activity is consequently damaged, stopping breathing and reducing blood flow to the brain, leading to death.
40 Euthanasia technique with side cutter pliers. Open the jaws of the pliers and place over the neck at the base of the skull from behind (dorsal surface of neck). Quickly close the pliers to instantaneously break the neck. Studies in rats have shown that electrical activity in the brain persists for about 13 seconds following cervical dislocation. This may represent a period of remaining consciousness. Violent muscular contraction may occur after cervical dislocation. Death must be assured/checked before disposal; by looking for either complete physical destruction and/or lack of blinking reflex invoked by gently touching or blowing air onto the surface of the eye (cornea). 40
41 Cervical Dislocation - pros and cons 41 Cervical dislocation is a technique that has been used for many years and, when performed by well-trained individuals, appears to be humane. There are few scientific studies to confirm this observation. Advantages- (1) cervical dislocation is a technique that may induce rapid loss of consciousness. (2) It does not chemically contaminate tissue. (3) It is rapidly accomplished. Disadvantages- (1) cervical dislocation may be aesthetically displeasing to personnel. (2) Cervical dislocation requires mastering technical skills to ensure loss of consciousness is rapidly induced. (3) Its use is limited to poultry, other small birds, mice, and immature rats and rabbits
42 42 Check-In Getting it! Keep Going? If you have a question (please ask) or just tell me if you are not really clear on what we just covered. 42
43 43 RISK ASSESSMENT (Rodent Glueboard Traps and Monitors) Description of process: Inspection and servicing of rodent glueboard traps and monitors. Task on which assessment is made: Servicing of rodent glueboard traps and monitors. Location: As required Hazard(s) identified: Back injury, cuts, disease, allergic reaction to rodents, bites Person(s) considered at risk: Field service staff, customer s staff, general public Risk rating before: Likelihood 3 x Severity 2 = Risk: 6
44 Table Risk Rating = Likelihood x Severity 44 Severity Improbable 1 Remote 2 Likelihood Occasional 3 Probable 4 Frequent 5 Insignificant 1 L 1 L 2 L 3 L 4 L 5 Low 2 L 2 L 4 L 6 M 8 M 10 Moderate 3 L 3 L 6 M 9 M 12 H 15 Significant 4 L 4 M 8 M 12 H 16 E 20 Catastrophic 5 L 5 M 10 H 15 E 20 E 25 Table shows how correlating these two factors (likelihood and severity of occurrence) give the Qualitative Levels of Risk: L = LOW M = MODERATE H = HIGH E = EXTREME
45 45 Level of Risk Risk Score Required Action Extreme Risk Stop work and review the risks and controls. Immediately notify manager. Implement controls to reduce risk before task commences. Long term control strategies to be implemented and documented High Risk Review the risks and controls. Notify manager. Identify and implement hazard controls to reduce risk before task commences. Communicate hazard details to affected personnel. Long term control strategies to be implemented and documented Moderate Risk 7-13 Manage and monitor the risks. Notify supervisor/manager. Implement controls to reduce risk before task commences. Communicate hazard details to affected personnel. Review risk assessment and hazard analysis. Low Risk 1-6 Manage and monitor the risks. Notify team leader/supervisor. Implement controls to reduce risk before task commences. Communicate hazard details to affected personnel. Review risk assessment and hazard analysis.
46 Control Measures/Safe Work Instructions: All products should be used in accordance of manufacturer s instructions and conditions of ministerial approval. All waste generated should be disposed of in a safe and approved manner. Traps should be placed in such a way as to minimise the risk to nontarget animals, service staff or others. Staff should be aware of the risks of being stabbed by sharp edges on or within traps, or have fingers caught. Some traps may have sharp edges. Care should be taken when handling these traps. Care should be taken to visually check traps before handling. After assessment, staff must select suitable access equipment to allow the task to be carried out safely Traps or Monitors will be located in areas where unauthorised access is minimized and in accordance with industry guidelines and Animal Welfare Act 1999 and any relevant Ministerial Approval. 46
47 47 PPE: Requirements must be followed. Traps should be handled using gloves where possible. Knee pads may improve comfort. Bend knees to minimize risk of back injury when servicing. Cover cuts with a waterproof dressing and wash hands before eating or smoking. Access by non-target organisms is minimised. Traps must be set and checked following existing legislation and guidance Any animals caught and still alive must be dispatched using a humane method such as a sharp blow to the back of the head using a suitable weighted blunt instrument or such other humane method. All dead pests must be handled and disposed of properly. Typical injury: Severe injury. Risk rating after: Likelihood 1 x Severity 2 = Risk: 2 Further control action requirement: Site Specific Risk Assessment to be carried out before work activity begins.
48 48 Severity Improbable 1 Remote 2 Likelihood Occasional 3 Probable 4 Frequent 5 Insignificant 1 L 1 L 2 L 3 L 4 L 5 Low 2 L 2 L 4 L 6 M 8 M 10 Moderate 3 L 3 L 6 M 9 M 12 H 15 Significant 4 L 4 M 8 M 12 H 16 E 20 Catastrophic 5 L 5 M 10 H 15 E 20 E 25
49 RISK ASSESSMENT (Live Capture Traps) Description of process: Interception of Feral Animals by live trapping ( Also see Good Practice Guide - The Safe and Humane Use of Live Capture Traps) Task assessment is made on: Installation, checking, cleaning, replacing traps. Hazard(s) identified and potential harm: Potential exposure to injury and/or disease from bites, scratches and other contact. Potential exposure to products or equipment and service activities. Chemical: NA. Biological: viral, bacterial, fungal, other. Mechanical: moving machinery, uncontrolled energy. Physical: Trips, slips, falls from height, falling items, electricity, electrical shock, noise, weather, traffic, heat, cold, weather, manual handling, and work repetition. People considered at risk: Field service staff, customer s staff, and general public. Environmental risk: Pollution of ecosystem, non-target animals and areas Organisational risk: Fire, communications, biological, chemical or physical contamination. Risk rating before: Likelihood 4 x Consequence 2 = Risk Score: 8 49
50 50 Severity Improbable 1 Remote 2 Likelihood Occasional 3 Probable 4 Frequent 5 Insignificant 1 L 1 L 2 L 3 L 4 L 5 Low 2 L 2 L 4 L 6 M 8 M 10 Moderate 3 L 3 L 6 M 9 M 12 H 15 Significant 4 L 4 M 8 M 12 H 16 E 20 Catastrophic 5 L 5 M 10 H 15 E 20 E 25
51 Hazard Control Plan: Standard Operating Procedure. Basic steps/actions/measures & Safe Work Instructions: All devices should be used in accordance with manufacturer s instructions or other authorised guidelines. Traps should be placed in such a way as to minimise the risk to service staff or others. Procedures must be humane and in compliance with the Animal Welfare Act. Live capture traps must be inspected daily within 12 hours of sunrise. Any live animal found in the trap must be removed, properly attended to or, without delay, killed. Always be sensitive to staff and public perception. Communicate reasons and intentions Once caught, the removal of animal from site should see the technician place sacking material(or the likes of) over the cage to keep animal subdued and quiet during transport - Using the cage lifting handle the service technician is to then remove cage (and animal) to service vehicle using manual handling gloves to protect hands should animal attempt to escape or claw through cage 51
52 If potentially a domestic pet and re-homing is not possible the SPCA or a Vet should be contacted. Any animals caught and still alive must be despatched using a humane method. If despatch is necessary it is essential to minimise the time before unconsciousness and insensibility, such as one quick and effective physical blow to the back of the head using a suitable weighted priest. All carcasses must be handled and disposed of using approved methods After assessment, staff must select suitable access equipment to allow the task to be carried out safely. A safe working area must be established, either by informing staff present, or by the use of barriers and / or tape to cordon off the area. All equipment must be checked and functioning properly before use. 52
53 53 Comprehensive staff training undertaken. All technicians who carry out this task must have received training and deemed competent. Protective gloves should be used where there is risk of infection and injury. Typical injury: Severe injury. Risk rating after: Likelihood 2 x Consequence 2 = Risk Score: 4 Further control action requirement: Site specific work area analysis and risk assessment to be carried out before work activity begins to identify, eliminate, isolate and minimize the hazard. A Working At Height Risk Assessment may also be required.
54 54 Severity Improbable 1 Remote 2 Likelihood Occasional 3 Probable 4 Frequent 5 Insignificant 1 L 1 L 2 L 3 L 4 L 5 Low 2 L 2 L 4 L 6 M 8 M 10 Moderate 3 L 3 L 6 M 9 M 12 H 15 Significant 4 L 4 M 8 M 12 H 16 E 20 Catastrophic 5 L 5 M 10 H 15 E 20 E 25
55 In Summary 55 Euthanasia Methods Use of carbon dioxide (CO2) By a blow to the head Cervical dislocation Safe Disposal of Rodents When rodent is dead, keep, place in a plastic bag and dispose as with organic rubbish. Otherwise rodents should be discarded in an exterior dumpster or off-site whenever possible
56 56 Thank you for attending Are there any questions?