Respiratory System Study Guide, Chapter 16

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1 Part I. Clinical Applications Name: Respiratory System Study Guide, Chapter 16 Lab Day/Time: 1. A person with ketoacidosis may hyperventilate. Explain why this occurs, and explain why this hyperventilation can be stopped by an intravenous fluid containing bicarbonate. 2. Barbara is rushed to the emergency room after an auto accident. The 8 th through 10 th ribs on her left side have been fractured and have punctured the lung cavity. What term is used to indicate lung collapse and why does it collapse? Will both lungs collapse? Why or why not? 3. A young boy is diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. What effect will this have on his respiratory system? 4. As a second-year nursing student you are asked to explain how each of the following might interfere with a patient s gas exchange. A) Iron deficiency that causes a decrease in the number of red blood cells. B) Cystic fibrosis in which the surfaces of the alveoli become coated with thick, sticky mucus. C) A history of heavy smoking.

2 5. I. M. Good decides to run outside all winter long in spite of the cold weather. How doe running in cold weather affect the respiratory passageways and the lungs? 6. R. U. Hurt is a 68-year-old man who has been a two-pack-a-day smoker for the last 20 years. After a series of pulmonary tests his doctor informs him that he has emphysema. Explain what emphysema is and why it results in difficulty in breathing. 7. Why does an EMT administering a Breathalyzer test for alcohol ask the person begin tested to expel one deep breathe instead of several shallow ones? 8. What effect does respiratory acidosis have on the respiratory process and what compensatory mechanisms operate to bring the body back into homeostatic ph value?

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11 Part VII 1. An increase in PCO2 of arterial blood is called: A. Hypocapnia B. Hypecapnia C. Hypoxia D. Hyperoxia 2. The principle that states, Each of the gases that contributes to the total pressure is in proportion to its relative abundance is known as: A. Henry s Law B. Bohr s Law C. Dalton s Law D. Sally s Law 3. The partial pressure of oxygen at sea level is about: A. 104 mm Hg B. 200 mm Hg C. 760 mm Hg D. 160 mmhg 4. It is important that free H+ resulting from dissociation of H2CO3 combine with hemoglobin to reduce the possibility of: A. CO2 escaping from the RBC C. an acidic condition within the blood B. Recombining with H20 D. Maintaining a constant ph in the blood 5. If there is a PO2 of 104 mm Hg and a PCO2 of 40 mm Hg in the alveoli, and a PO2 of 40 mm Hg and a PCO2 of 45 mm Hg within the pulmonary blood, there will be a net diffusion of: A. CO2 into the blood from alveoli; O2 from the blood into alveoli B. O2 and CO2 into the blood from the alveoli C. O2 and CO2 from the blood into the alveoli D. O2 into the blood from alveoli; CO2 from the blood into the alveoli 6. The effect of ph on the hemoglobin saturation curve is called the A. Henry effect B. Bohr effect C. Dalton effect D. Sally effect 7. Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood by: A. Conversion to a molecule of bicarbonate C. Dissolving in plasma B. Binding to the protein part of hemoglobin molecule D. A, B, and C are correct 8. Under normal conditions the greatest effect on the respiratory centers is initiated by: A. Increases and decreases in PCO2 C. Decreases in PO2 B. Increases and decreases in PO2 and PCO2 D. Increases in PO2 9. Factors that cause a decrease in hemoglobin saturation at a given PO2 are: A. Increasing PO2, decreasing CO2, increasing temperature B. Increasing diphosphoglycerate (DPG), increasing temperature, decreasing ph C. Decreasing DPG, increasing ph, increasing CO2 D. Decreasing temperature, decreasing CO2, decreasing PO2 10. Blood entering the systemic circuit normally has a PCO2 of 40 mm Hg, while peripheral tissues have a PCO2 of 45 mm Hg; therefore: A. CO2 diffuses out of the blood ad O2 diffuses in B. There is no net diffusion of O2 and CO2 C. O2 diffuses into the blood and CO2 diffuses out D. CO2 diffuses into the blood as O2 diffuses out 11. Explain the factors that will shift the oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve to the right and to the left.

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