Rapid Intervention Teams

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1 Rapid Intervention Teams High Country Training Center Training On Demand Captain T. Houston, LDFR

2 Objectives Review air management principles Identify the components of a Mayday call Describe the steps of responding to a Mayday Identify self survival techniques Describe RIT roles and responsibilities prior to activation Describe RIT roles and responsibilities in responding to a Mayday Describe the principles of AWARE Identify needed skills for extrication/extraction

3 The Reality Phoenix Fire Studies after Brett Tarver showed us: Mayday to RIT entry: 3 minutes Time to find FF: 6 minutes 1 in 5 RIT members will call a Mayday 12 rescuers for 1 downed FF 21 minutes from activation to rescue While sobering, RIT is not futile. With the right tactics, training, and execution it is possible to save our own.

4 Air Management Have an air management plan Know yourself and your air pack before hand Our bottles hold 4500psi. You ll most likely find them with only 4000psi: Scott HUD lights give indicators of: 2 Green lights= 100% 1 Green= 75% or 3375psi Yellow flashing Light = 50% or 2250 psi Red fast flashing light = 25% or 1125psi Know your physical capacity. How long do you have at each of these levels? When your low air alarm activates you have minimal time left on air If you are following the ROAM policy, you should already be out of IDLH If not, you should declare a MAYDAY

5 ROAM Air Management Rules of Air Management (ROAM) is each member s responsibility and is closely related to situational awareness. ROAM policy is designed to create a margin of safety that includes the final 25% of the bottle left when the low air alarm goes off. Firefighters must make sure that they have a full cylinder before they enter the hazardous atmosphere. Once inside the hazardous atmosphere, members must look at their pressure gauges at a minimum of 5 minute intervals and inform their company officer as to their air pressure remaining Firefighters are NOT to utilize the final 25% of their bottle capacity and Officers must direct members to exit the hazardous atmosphere before their team s low-air warning bell begins to ring.

6 ROAM In Summit County SFA policy reviewed by all three depts indicates that all personnel utilizing SCBA will: Check their air levels before they enter the hazardous atmosphere. Members must have a minimum of 4300 psi in their cylinder in order to make initial entry into a hazardous atmosphere. This check can be done during the pre-entry READY check. Follow the Rule of Air Management when operating in any hazardous/contaminated atmosphere. When the first member of any team hits 50% or their Heads-Up Display (HUD) light activate (two flashing amber lights), the officer/team leader shall radio to the proper ICS functionary (Command, Division, etc.) that the team is at 50% air. This allows the ICS functionary to pre-plan for replacing that team in the hazardous atmosphere. If a team member works into their reserve air and their low-air warning bell begins to ring in the hazard area, the officer/team leader shall report over the radio to the proper ICS functionary (Command, Division, etc) their unit signature, their location, that a team member s low-air warning bell is ringing, and an estimation of how close they are to the exit. Every effort should be made to be outside the hazardous atmosphere prior to their low air alarm sounding.

7 R.E.A.D.Y to ROAM All members shall be trained to operate in accordance with the ROAM Know how much air is in your SCBA and manage that air so that you exit the IDLH environment BEFORE the activation of your low air alarm. Prior to entry, perform a R.E.A.D.Y check: Radio Equipment Air Duties Yes A final go from all members they are set and ready to enter. Team leader and individuals shall perform routine check of air status during operations in IDLH atmosphere. All team members shall exit the IDLH atmosphere before the activation of any low air alarms. At no time will any firefighter be permitted to exit without being accompanied by another firefighter

8 Emergency Communications Emergency Communications Procedure are defined by SOPs at all three Summit County fire departments This gives Incident Commander as well as fire fighters general guidelines on how to conduct an emergency radio traffic and attempts to put everyone on an incident on the same page This communication terminology is to be used to describe the emergency. Emergency traffic and Mayday transmissions help to alert all on the fire ground that hazardous conditions or situations are in progress. All members operating within the hazard zone should be equipped with a portable radio and be on the fire ground operations channel that is being used. "MAYDAY" transmissions have priority over "EMERGENCY" transmissions.

9 MAYDAY Traffic This transmission is an indication that a life threatening situation has developed. It should be used in the following situations: Disoriented or lost fire fighter. Tangled, pinned, or stuck Fall through a roof or floor Primary exit is blocked Medical emergency PPE failure A firefighter is unconscious or suffers a life threatening injury. Any life threatening situation that needs or may need IMMEDIATE assistance.

10 EMERGENCY Traffic This transmission is used to inform members of a serious change in the emergency incident conditions. It should be used in the following situations: When evacuation of the structure or hazard zone is immediately necessary. A member suffers an injury that is not immediately life threatening but which requires medical attention and transport to the hospital. Discovery of a structural problem indicating the danger of collapse. Fire is discovered entering an exposure to a degree that any delay may considerably enlarge the fire problem. Loss of water which could endanger members. Sudden changes in weather or wind that would seriously affect the incident.

11 Mayday, Mayday, Mayday All members shall use the term MAYDAY three times to initiate radio traffic that communicates a fire fighter or crew is lost, injured, trapped or missing and needs IMMEDIATE assistance. All further radio traffic shall then be limited to the IC and member(s) calling MAYDAY. Wait for Command to reply with a go ahead with info from the LUNAR acronym L Location U Unit N Name A Air Remaining R Resources needed Then Activate your PASS Alarm Turn off PASS when you talk on the radio, but remember to reactivate it when done

12 Self-Survival Techniques YOU are responsible for your own survival Stay calm, conserve your air supply Be familiar with: Rapid room orientation and awareness of exits Wall breaching SCBA profile reduction Disentanglement Window bailout techniques Ladder bailout Rope bailout SOS 3 taps Flashlight Tool or debris

13 Self-Survival Techniques Attempt to locate an exit / Seek area of refuge Move towards visible light Listen for audible sounds Search walls for windows, doors, etc. Search for hose line Attempt to locate a life line Go down steps unless in a basement or sub-floor Communicate your movement with Command or Rescue Branch Assume defensive posture Right lateral side (RIT UAC) Protect facepiece

14 RIT The purpose of a designated RIT team is to provide firefighters at an emergency incident with the pre-assigned duties aimed at rescuing downed, lost or trapped firefighters (RWB SOG 509A). Should consist of at least three people outside the structure on standby while firefighters are within an IDLH atmosphere. RIT personnel should always be designated as RIT Group and may consist of more than one group when deemed necessary by Incident command. Remember RIT is a designated function and should remain so. Ensure that RIT groups are fully equipped and are placed strategically to be a dedicated on-site the rescue team.

15 RIT Being A.W.A.R.E Know what saves firefighters. The acronym AWARE helps remind RIT teams what is most important. Air- Everyone must breath so in an IDLH atmosphere we must bring it with us and do so quickly when a firefighter needs it Water- Creates defendable space for our fellow firefighters with hoselines keeping the fire from overrunning their position A Radio- Dedicated radio service to the trapped or injured firefighter. No competition and people to answer their calls when they call Extrication- Extrication may be simple or complex but the point is to remove the firefighter from the building with as much haste as possible. This could take hours or mere minute, but it must begin as soon as possible. If the AWARE principle is followed from the initial report of a trapped firefighter will has the best chance of surviving the incident.

16 RIT. Being Proactive Know what is occurring on the fireground What stage of the fire are crews in? Are there known specific hazards; floor holes, hazmat? collapsed ceilings? Probable hazards based on the occupancy Dynamite factories are dangerous Monitor radio traffic Assign at least one RIT member to monitor radios and to know where each company is working RIT Officer performs a 360 / building size-up Get a feel for what the inside may look like. Bedroom, bathroom, stairwell windows all look different FFs deploy RIT Tarp and begin assembling equipment Forcible Entry tools appropriate for the type of structure Stokes, ropes, lights, heavy tools, and other equipment that may be needed based upon the building type All LDFR and RWB apparatus carry SCOTT RIT bags Set up spare cylinders in case they are needed.

17 More RIT Proaction Soften the structure (w/o compromising ventilation) Ladders exit points; Force exits; Remove security bars Advise the fire ground of what you have done. HAVE A PLAN; AND MAKE IT ROCK SOLID Everyone on the RIT team should be well informed on what they are assigned Everyone on the RIT team should also be well practiced at their assignment

18 RIT Team Activation RIT will likely be a multi-phase operation that will become an incident within the incident Needless to say a working RIT situation will tax ALL resources RIT TEAM 1 (RIT Recon): Primarily reconnaissance search team Fast moving small RIT group with only minimal equipment Locate Establish a traceable means of access to victim (Rope bag) Determine additional needs (air, water, extrication) Remove if possible RIT TEAM 2 (RIT Rescue): Primarily a stabilization removal team Provide equipment and personnel as requested by Recon team Begin extrication/extraction process

19 RIT Activation RIT Recon Duties: Search Be quiet and LISTEN Locate the FF If conscious and mobile attach a tether Officer Tie off rope bag near FF Search for nearby exit Notify command (CAN Report) Firefighter Assess face mask/scba Provide Air

20 Extrication/Extraction RIT Rescue Duties: Provide means to protect in place Create a Defensible Space Hose lines, Distributor nozzles Additional Emergency Air Supplies Each RIT takes its own RIT bag Continually reassess air supply Movement can dislodge face piece Use doorways & corners as benchmarks for reassessing Bring in necessary equipment for extrication/extraction

21 Extrication/Extraction RIT must be familiar with: Emergency Air Supply Every connection Ropes Handcuff knot Simple mechanical advantage systems (Aztec) Moving a downed FF Drags Down a ladder Through a window From below grade Up & down stairs Window to Door conversions Etc

22 RIT A Practiced Skill DON T LET THIS BE YOUR ONLY DISCUSSION/PRACTICE THIS YEAR! Officers: Please review these skills with your crews: SCBA confidence course Disentanglement SCBA Profile reduction Window removal (Denver drill or other variation) Ladder removal

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