Respiration - Human 1

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Respiration - Human 1"

Transcription

1 Respiration - Human 1

2 At the end of the lectures on respiration you should be able to, 1. Describe events in the respiratory processes 2. Discuss the mechanism of lung ventilation in human 3. Discuss the factors that control the respiration. 2

3 Three basic processes in respiration 1. Pulmonary ventilation 2. External respiration 3. Internal respiration 3

4 1. Pulmonary ventilation The process by which gases are exchanged between the atmosphere and the lung alveoli (breathing) 4

5 2. External respiration Exchange of O 2 & CO 2 between the alveoli of lungs & pulmonary blood capillaries 5

6 3. Internal respiration Exchange of O 2 & CO 2 between tissue capillaries & tissue cells 6

7 Why do we need continuous supply of oxygen to the tissues? Why do we need to get rid of carbondioxide frequently from the body? 7

8 Pulmonary ventilation Air flows between the atmosphere & lung alveoli through a pressure gradient Breath in when the pressure inside the lung is less than the atmospheric pressure Breath out when the pressure inside the lungs is greater than the atmospheric pressure 8

9 Muscles involved in pulmonary ventilation - Inspiration Normal inspiration External intercostals & diaphragm (contraction) Deep inspiration External intercostals & diaphragm (contraction) Sternocleidomastoid & scalenus (Contraction elevates sternum & superior ribs)) 9

10 Muscles involved in pulmonary ventilation - expiration Normal expiration External intercostals & diaphragm (relaxation) Deep expiration External intercostals & diaphragm (relaxation) Internal intercostals & abdominal muscles (Contraction) 10

11 Clavicle 11

12 12

13 Events in normal inspiration 1. Contraction of the diaphragm (become flat, lowering the dome) Increase the vertical diameter of the thoracic cavity At the same time, External intercostals contract ( ribs pulled upward, sternum pushed forward)- Increase anterior-posterior diameter of the thoracic cavity 13

14 2. Increase in the thoracic cavity causes drop in intrapleural pressure from 756 to 754 mm Hg (far below the alveolar pressure) 3. The walls of the lung are sucked outward by the partial vacuum 4. Lung volume increases, alveolar pressure drop from 760 to 758 mm Hg 5. Air moves from atmosphere to lungs due to pressure gradient until pressure equals 14

15 15

16 Deep inspiration (active process) Contraction of sternocleidomastoid (elevates the sternum), contraction of scalenus ( elevates superior ribs) Further increase in volume of thoracic cavity, further decrease in alveolar pressure More air comes in from atmosphere to the lungs 16

17 Events in normal expiration 1. External intercostals relax, the ribs move downwards & sternum lowers(decrease anterior-posterior volume of the thoracic cavity) At the same time diaphragm relaxes (Decrease vertical diameter) Volume of thoracic cavity returns to resting stage 17

18 2. Intrapleural pressure increases to 758 mm Hg) 3. The walls of the lungs are not sucked out 4. Lung volume decrease 5. Alveolar pressure increases to 762 mm Hg 6. Air moves from the lungs to the atmosphere until pressure become equal 18

19 19

20 Deep expiration (active process) Contraction of internal intercostals (ribs move downward) Contraction of abdominal muscles (compress the abdominal organs, forcing the diaphragm upward) Further decrease in volume of thoracic cavity, further increase in alveolar pressure More air moves out from lungs to atmosphere 20

21 21

22 Factors that prevent collapse of alveoli following expiration 1. Intrapleural pressure is always lower than the alveolar pressure (keeps alveoli slightly inflated, otherwise, elastic alveoli may recoil inward and collapse at the end of expiration.) 2. Thin layer of Surfactant on alveolar walls reduce surface tension, prevent them from sticking together after the expiration (Phopholipid complexed with a protein produced by alveolar walls) 22

23 Pulmonary air volumes & capacities Respiratory rate of healthy adult respirations/min Tidal volume (500 ml) Minute volume of respiration tidal volume X normal breathing rate 500 ml X 12 /min = 6000ml/min 23

24 Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) 3100ml Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) 1200 ml Residual volume (RV) 1200 ml Inspiratory capacity =Tidal volume + IRV Functional residual capacity = ERV + RV Vital capacity (VC) IRV + tidal volume +ERV = 4800 ml Total lung capacity VC + residual volume = 6000 ml 24

25 25

26 Respiratory capacities depends on sex, age, health etc. Lung functioning assessed by measurement of respiratory volumes & capacities using spirometer 26

27 External respiration 1. During inspiration, atmospheric air enters alveoli po 2 = 105 mm Hg, pco 2 = 40 mm Hg 2. Deoxygenated blood is pumped from pulmonary arteries, to pulmonary capillaries overlying the alveoli po 2 = 40 mm Hg, pco 2 = 45 mm Hg 3. Diffusion of O 2 from alveoli to blood & CO 2 from blood to alveoli until they come to equilibrium, po 2 = 100 mm Hg, pco 2 = 40 mm Hg 27

28 CO 2 that diffuse into the alveoli is eliminated from the lungs through expiration 28

29 Effects of altitude on external respiration As a person goes up in altitude, the atmospheric p O 2 drops, alveolar p O 2 drops accordingly, & less O 2 diffuse into blood Sea level p O 2 = 160 mm Hg 20,000 feet = 73 mm Hg 50,000 feet = 18 mm Hg Low O 2 conc in blood, short breath, dizziness 29

30 Internal respiration 1. p O 2 & p CO 2 of oxygenated blood in tissue capillaries entering the tissues po 2 = 100 mm Hg, pco 2 = 40 mm Hg 2. p O 2 & p CO 2 within cells, po 2 = 40 mm Hg, pco 2 = 45 mm Hg 3. Diffusion of O 2 from blood to cells & CO 2 from cells to capillary blood through intercellular fluid until they come to equilibrium 30

31 Transport of respiratory gases in the blood 31

32 Oxygen transport Under normal resting conditions each 100 ml of oxygenated blood contains 20 ml of oxygen 3% dissolved in plasma 97% combination with hemoglobin (4 molecules of oxygen / Hb molecule, 4 Fe 2+ ) 32

33 Factors that determine how much O 2 combines with Hemoglobin Partial pressure of O 2 (p O 2 ) ph, p CO 2 Temperature Pollutants diphosphogycerate 33

34 Hb and Oxygen Fully saturated Hb = all Hb is in HbO 2 (oxyhemoglobin) Partially saturated Hb= Hb + HbO 2 When po 2 is high (pulmonary capillaries) Hb binds with large amounts of O 2 = almost fully saturated (98%) When po 2 is low (tissue capillaries) Hb does not hold as much as O 2 (partially saturated, 75%), O 2 is released for diffusion into cells 34

35 P O 2 mm Hg % Hb saturation (deoxy. blood when active) (deoxygenated blood at rest) (oxygenated blood)

36 O 2 / Hb dissociation curve 36

37 37

38 Effects of ph and p CO2 At low ph, O 2 splits more readily from Hb, when H + binds to Hb, they alter the structure of Hb, decrease its O 2 carrying capacity, more O 2 available to tissues Low blood ph may be due to lactic acid accumulation, high CO 2 levels in the blood When p CO 2 in the blood is high, affinity of Hb for O 2 becomes low, more O 2 available to tissues 38

39 39

40 Effects of temperature Within limits as temperature increases, amount of O 2 released from HbO 2 increases 40

41 41

42 Active cells need more O 2, active cells liberate more heat and acid, in turn, stimulate oxyhemoglobin to release its O 2 42

43 CO and Hb CO can combine with Hb more strongly, p CO 0.5 mm Hg (0.1%)will combine with half the Hb molecules The oxygen carrying capacity of blood is reduced Hypoxia, CO poisoning 43

44 NO 2- and Hb Reduce oxygen carrying capacity of blood Fe2+ Fe3+ hypoxia 44

45 Diphosphoglycerate Metabolite of glycolysis, found in RBCs Decrease affinity of O 2 for Hb, help to release O 2 from Hb. DPG higher in persons living in high altitudes 45

46 Transport of CO 2 in blood Under normal resting conditions, each 100 ml of deoxygenated blood contains 55 ml of CO 2 7 % dissolved in plasma 23% carbaminohemoglobin Hb + CO 2 Hb.CO 2 70% bicarbonate ions CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 H+ + HCO 3-46

47 Summary Pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, internal respiration Lung volumes and capacities Transport of O 2 & CO 2 in blood 47

Question 1: Define vital capacity. What is its significance? Vital capacity is the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inspiration. It is about 3.5 4.5 litres in the human body. It

More information

Chapter 13 The Respiratory System

Chapter 13 The Respiratory System Chapter 13 The Respiratory System by Dr. Jay M. Templin Brooks/Cole - Thomson Learning Atmosphere Tissue cell External respiration Alveoli of lungs 1 Ventilation or gas exchange between the atmosphere

More information

Physiology Unit 4 RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY

Physiology Unit 4 RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY Physiology Unit 4 RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY In Physiology Today Respiration External respiration ventilation gas exchange Internal respiration cellular respiration gas exchange Respiratory Cycle Inspiration

More information

Physiology of Respiration

Physiology of Respiration Physiology of Respiration External Respiration = pulmonary ventilation breathing involves 2 processes: inspiration expiration Inspiration an active process involves contraction of diaphragm innervated

More information

Respiratory System. Part 2

Respiratory System. Part 2 Respiratory System Part 2 Respiration Exchange of gases between air and body cells Three steps 1. Ventilation 2. External respiration 3. Internal respiration Ventilation Pulmonary ventilation consists

More information

Introduction. Respiration. Chapter 10. Objectives. Objectives. The Respiratory System

Introduction. Respiration. Chapter 10. Objectives. Objectives. The Respiratory System Introduction Respiration Chapter 10 The Respiratory System Provides a means of gas exchange between the environment and the body Plays a role in the regulation of acidbase balance during exercise Objectives

More information

Chapter 17 The Respiratory System: Gas Exchange and Regulation of Breathing

Chapter 17 The Respiratory System: Gas Exchange and Regulation of Breathing Chapter 17 The Respiratory System: Gas Exchange and Regulation of Breathing Overview of Pulmonary Circulation o Diffusion of Gases o Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide o Transport of Gases in the Blood

More information

Chapter 13 The Respiratory System

Chapter 13 The Respiratory System VI edit Pag 451-499 Chapter 13 The Respiratory System V edit. Pag 459-509 Tissue cell Alveoli of lungs Atmosphere 1 External respiration Ventilation or gas exchange between the atmosphere and air sacs

More information

Oxygen and Carbon dioxide Transport. Dr. Laila Al-Dokhi

Oxygen and Carbon dioxide Transport. Dr. Laila Al-Dokhi Oxygen and Carbon dioxide Transport Dr. Laila Al-Dokhi Objectives 1. Understand the forms of oxygen transport in the blood, the importance of each. 2. Differentiate between O2 capacity, O2 content and

More information

CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES

CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES 268 BIOLOGY CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES 17.1 Respiratory Organs 17.2 Mechanism of Breathing 17.3 Exchange of Gases 17.4 Transport of Gases 17.5 Regulation of Respiration 17.6 Disorders of

More information

Lung Volumes and Capacities. To review first

Lung Volumes and Capacities. To review first Lung Volumes and Capacities To review first Age-old story: Age-related respiratory changes Structural changes Nose enlargement (from continued cartilage growth) General atrophy of the tonsils Tracheal

More information

NOTES: CH 42, part 2 - Gas Exchange in Animals

NOTES: CH 42, part 2 - Gas Exchange in Animals NOTES: CH 42, part 2 - Gas Exchange in Animals Functions of the Respiratory System: 1) Air distribution / gaseous exchange; 2) Filter, warm & humidify air we breathe; 3) Influence speech; 4) Help maintain

More information

GAS EXCHANGE & PHYSIOLOGY

GAS EXCHANGE & PHYSIOLOGY GAS EXCHANGE & PHYSIOLOGY Atmospheric Pressure Intra-Alveolar Pressure Inspiration 760 mm HG at Sea Level (= 1 atm) Pressure due to gases (N2, O2, CO2, Misc.) Pressure inside the alveolus (air sac) Phrenic

More information

Chapter 22 The Respiratory System

Chapter 22 The Respiratory System Chapter 22 The Respiratory System 1 Respiration Pulmonary ventilation (breathing): movement of air into and out of the lungs External respiration: O 2 and CO 2 exchange between the lungs and the blood

More information

Circulatory And Respiration

Circulatory And Respiration Circulatory And Respiration Composition Of Blood Blood Heart 200mmHg 120mmHg Aorta Artery Arteriole 50mmHg Capillary Bed Venule Vein Vena Cava Heart Differences Between Arteries and Veins Veins transport

More information

1 CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES https://biologyaipmt.com/

1 CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES https://biologyaipmt.com/ 1 CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES https://biologyaipmt.com/ CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES Oxygen (O2) is utilised by the organisms to indirectly break down nutrient molecules like

More information

Respiratory System Study Guide, Chapter 16

Respiratory System Study Guide, Chapter 16 Part I. Clinical Applications Name: Respiratory System Study Guide, Chapter 16 Lab Day/Time: 1. A person with ketoacidosis may hyperventilate. Explain why this occurs, and explain why this hyperventilation

More information

LAB 7 HUMAN RESPIRATORY LAB. Complete the charts on pgs. 67 and 68 and read directions for using BIOPAC

LAB 7 HUMAN RESPIRATORY LAB. Complete the charts on pgs. 67 and 68 and read directions for using BIOPAC 66 LAB 7 HUMAN RESPIRATORY LAB Assignments: Due before lab: Quiz: Three Respiratory Interactive Physiology Animations pages 69 73. Complete the charts on pgs. 67 and 68 and read directions for using BIOPAC

More information

Respiratory Pulmonary Ventilation

Respiratory Pulmonary Ventilation Respiratory Pulmonary Ventilation Pulmonary Ventilation Pulmonary ventilation is the act of breathing and the first step in the respiratory process. Pulmonary ventilation brings in air with a new supply

More information

Gases and Respiration. Respiration Overview I

Gases and Respiration. Respiration Overview I Respiration Overview I Respiration Overview II Gas Laws Equation of State: PV = nrt Same volumes of different gases have same # of molecules BTPS: body temp, atmospheric pressure, saturated ATPS: ambient

More information

Respiratory Physiology Gaseous Exchange

Respiratory Physiology Gaseous Exchange Respiratory Physiology Gaseous Exchange Session Objectives. What you will cover Basic anatomy of the lung including airways Breathing movements Lung volumes and capacities Compliance and Resistance in

More information

Gases and Respiration. Respiration Overview I

Gases and Respiration. Respiration Overview I Respiration Overview I Respiration Overview II Gas Laws Equation of State: PV = nrt Same volumes of different gases have same # of molecules BTPS: body temp, atmospheric pressure, saturated ATPS: ambient

More information

GASEOUS EXCHANGE 17 JULY 2013

GASEOUS EXCHANGE 17 JULY 2013 GASEOUS EXCHANGE 17 JULY 2013 Lesson Description In this lesson we: Discuss what is gaseous exchange? Consider requirements of an efficient gaseous exchange surface. Look at diversity in gas exchange systems.

More information

(A) The partial pressure in the lungs is higher than in the blood, and oxygen diffuses out of the lungs passively.

(A) The partial pressure in the lungs is higher than in the blood, and oxygen diffuses out of the lungs passively. DAT Biology - Problem Drill 12: The Respiratory System Question No. 1 of 10 1. Which statement about the partial pressure of oxygen inside the lungs is correct? Question #01 (A) The partial pressure in

More information

GASEOUS EXCHANGE IN HUMANS 06 AUGUST 2014

GASEOUS EXCHANGE IN HUMANS 06 AUGUST 2014 GASEOUS EXCHANGE IN HUMANS 06 AUGUST 2014 In this lesson we: Lesson Description Look at gaseous exchange in humans in terms of o Ventilation o Inspiration o Expiration o Transport of gases o Homeostatic

More information

HCO - 3 H 2 CO 3 CO 2 + H H H + Breathing rate is regulated by blood ph and C02. CO2 and Bicarbonate act as a ph Buffer in the blood

HCO - 3 H 2 CO 3 CO 2 + H H H + Breathing rate is regulated by blood ph and C02. CO2 and Bicarbonate act as a ph Buffer in the blood Breathing rate is regulated by blood ph and C02 breathing reduces plasma [CO2]; plasma [CO2] increases breathing. When C02 levels are high, breating rate increases to blow off C02 In low C02 conditions,

More information

Recitation question # 05

Recitation question # 05 Recitation and Lab # 05 The goal of this recitations / labs is to review material related to the CV and respiratory lectures for the second test of this course. Info required to answer this recitation

More information

Respiratory physiology II.

Respiratory physiology II. Respiratory physiology II. Learning objectives: 29. Pulmonary gas exchange. 30. Oxygen transport in the blood. 31. Carbon-dioxide transport in the blood. 1 Pulmonary gas exchange The transport mechanism

More information

BIOLOGY 12 - RESPIRATION - CHAPTER NOTES

BIOLOGY 12 - RESPIRATION - CHAPTER NOTES BIOLOGY 12 - RESPIRATION - CHAPTER NOTES We often think of respiration as just breathing. In fact, breathing is just one part of this physiological process. As biologists, we divide respiration up into

More information

These two respiratory media (air & water) impose rather different constraints on oxygen uptake:

These two respiratory media (air & water) impose rather different constraints on oxygen uptake: Topic 19: OXYGEN UPTAKE AND TRANSPORT (lectures 29-30) OBJECTIVES: 1. Be able to compare air vs. water as a respiratory medium with respect to oxygen content, diffusion coefficient, viscosity and water

More information

(Slide 1) Lecture Notes: Respiratory System

(Slide 1) Lecture Notes: Respiratory System (Slide 1) Lecture Notes: Respiratory System I. (Slide 2) The Respiratory Tract A) Major structures and regions of the respiratory Tract/Route INTO body 1) nose 2) nasal cavity 3) pharynx 4) glottis 5)

More information

Chapter 23: Respiratory System

Chapter 23: Respiratory System Chapter 23: Respiratory System I. Functions of the Respiratory System A. List and describe the five major functions of the respiratory system: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. II. Anatomy and Histology of the Respiratory

More information

The Respiratory System. Chapter 13 Bania NHS - SCIENCE

The Respiratory System. Chapter 13 Bania NHS - SCIENCE The Respiratory System Chapter 13 Bania NHS - SCIENCE I. Functions of the Respiratory System A. Distribution of air/diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide 1. Between air and blood external respiration

More information

Lung Volumes and Capacities

Lung Volumes and Capacities Lung Volumes and Capacities Normally the volume of air entering the lungs during a single inspiration is approximately equal to the volume leaving on the subsequent expiration and is called the tidal volume.

More information

Most organisms on Earth are aerobic. Meaning, they require oxygen to survive.

Most organisms on Earth are aerobic. Meaning, they require oxygen to survive. Most organisms on Earth are aerobic. Meaning, they require oxygen to survive. The basic function of the respiratory system is to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide A system that provides a large

More information

Alveolus and Respiratory Membrane

Alveolus and Respiratory Membrane Alveolus and Respiratory Membrane thin membrane where gas exchange occurs in the lungs, simple squamous epithelium (Squamous cells have the appearance of thin, flat plates. They fit closely together in

More information

Chapter 23. Gas Exchange and Transportation

Chapter 23. Gas Exchange and Transportation Chapter 23 Gas Exchange and Transportation What is air? Mixture of gasses 78.6 % nitrogen 20.9% oxygen 0.04% carbon dioxide 0 4% water vapor depending on temperature and humidity and minor gases argon,

More information

Lab 17. The Respiratory System. Laboratory Objectives

Lab 17. The Respiratory System. Laboratory Objectives Lab 17 The Respiratory System Laboratory Objectives Identify and describe the anatomical structures of the respiratory system. Describe the relationship between volume and pressure. Describe changes in

More information

Respiratory System. 1. muscular tube lined by mucous membrane 2. throat 3. nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx

Respiratory System. 1. muscular tube lined by mucous membrane 2. throat 3. nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx I. Functions of the Respiratory System A. gas exchange B. prevent dehydration C. sound D. olfaction E. ph regulation II. Anatomy of the Respiratory System A. Nose 1. external nares vestibule nasal cavity

More information

Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide Respiration Gas Transport Chapter 21-23

Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide Respiration Gas Transport Chapter 21-23 nd Lecture Fri 06 Mar 009 Vertebrate Physiology ECOL 437 (MCB/VetSci 437) Univ. of Arizona, spring 009 Kevin Bonine & Kevin Oh Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide Respiration Gas Transport Chapter 1-3 1 Housekeeping,

More information

I Physical Principles of Gas Exchange

I Physical Principles of Gas Exchange Respiratory Gases Exchange Dr Badri Paudel, M.D. 2 I Physical Principles of Gas Exchange 3 Partial pressure The pressure exerted by each type of gas in a mixture Diffusion of gases through liquids Concentration

More information

Human gas exchange. Question Paper. Save My Exams! The Home of Revision. Cambridge International Examinations. 56 minutes. Time Allowed: Score: /46

Human gas exchange. Question Paper. Save My Exams! The Home of Revision. Cambridge International Examinations. 56 minutes. Time Allowed: Score: /46 Human gas exchange Question Paper Level Subject Exam oard Topic Sub Topic ooklet O Level iology ambridge International Examinations Respiration Human gas exchange Question Paper Time llowed: 56 minutes

More information

Chapter 16 Respiration. Respiration. Steps in Respiration. Functions of the respiratory system

Chapter 16 Respiration. Respiration. Steps in Respiration. Functions of the respiratory system Chapter 16 Respiration Functions of the respiratory system Respiration The term respiration includes 3 separate functions: Ventilation: Breathing. Gas exchange: Occurs between air and blood in the lungs.

More information

Chapter 23. Gas Exchange and Transportation

Chapter 23. Gas Exchange and Transportation Chapter 23 Gas Exchange and Transportation What is air? Mixture of gasses 78.6 % nitrogen 20.9% oxygen 0.04% carbon dioxide 0 4% water vapor depending on temperature and humidity other minor gases argon,

More information

Section 01: The Pulmonary System

Section 01: The Pulmonary System Section 01: The Pulmonary System Chapter 12 Pulmonary Structure and Function Chapter 13 Gas Exchange and Transport Chapter 14 Dynamics of Pulmonary Ventilation HPHE 6710 Exercise Physiology II Dr. Cheatham

More information

Respiratory Physiology

Respiratory Physiology chapter 4 Respiratory Physiology I. LUNG VOLUMES AND CAPACITIES A. Lung volumes (Figure 4-1) 1. Tidal volume (TV) is the volume inspired or expired with each normal breath. 2. Inspiratory reserve volume

More information

PROBLEM SET 9. SOLUTIONS April 23, 2004

PROBLEM SET 9. SOLUTIONS April 23, 2004 Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology HST.542J: Quantitative Physiology: Organ Transport Systems Instructors: Roger Mark and Jose Venegas MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Departments

More information

inquiry question How does the respiratory system contribute to energy production for movement? UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS

inquiry question How does the respiratory system contribute to energy production for movement? UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS inquiry question How does the respiratory system contribute to energy production for movement? chapter 7 Structure and functions of the respiratory system The respiratory system is the starting point for

More information

Pulmonary Ventilation

Pulmonary Ventilation Pulmonary Ventilation - Goals of respiration: o Provided O 2 to the tissues/remove CO 2 - To achieve these goals, resp. is divided into 4 events: 1. Pulm. Ventilation = exchange of resp. gases between

More information

alveoli Chapter 42. Gas Exchange elephant seals gills AP Biology

alveoli Chapter 42. Gas Exchange elephant seals gills AP Biology alveoli Chapter 42. Gas Exchange gills elephant seals Gas exchange O 2 & CO 2 exchange exchange between environment & cells provides O 2 for aerobic cellular respiration need moist membrane need high

More information

Respiratory System 1

Respiratory System 1 Respiratory System 1 Outline Respiratory structures Gills Air-Breathing Animals Amphibians and Reptiles Mammals Birds Structures and Mechanisms of Breathing 2 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

More information

2) During exhalation Air is cooled due to condensation and loses its moisture, depositing it on lining in trachea and nose

2) During exhalation Air is cooled due to condensation and loses its moisture, depositing it on lining in trachea and nose Section 10: The Respiratory System A. Functions of the respiratory system: The organs of the respiratory system make sure oxygen enters the body and carbon dioxide leaves the body. 2 stages: Inhalation

More information

Exam Key. NROSCI/BIOSC 1070 and MSNBIO 2070 Exam # 2 October 28, 2016 Total POINTS: % of grade in class

Exam Key. NROSCI/BIOSC 1070 and MSNBIO 2070 Exam # 2 October 28, 2016 Total POINTS: % of grade in class NROSCI/BIOSC 1070 and MSNBIO 2070 Exam # 2 October 28, 2016 Total POINTS: 100 20% of grade in class 1) An arterial blood sample for a patient at sea level is obtained, and the following physiological values

More information

CHAPTER 6. Oxygen Transport. Copyright 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning

CHAPTER 6. Oxygen Transport. Copyright 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning CHAPTER 6 Oxygen Transport Normal Blood Gas Value Ranges Table 6-1 OXYGEN TRANSPORT Oxygen Dissolved in the Blood Plasma Dissolve means that the gas maintains its precise molecular structure About.003

More information

Respiratory Physiology. Adeyomoye O.I

Respiratory Physiology. Adeyomoye O.I Respiratory Physiology By Adeyomoye O.I Outline Introduction Hypoxia Dyspnea Control of breathing Ventilation/perfusion ratios Respiratory/barometric changes in exercise Intra-pulmonary & intra-pleural

More information

PICU Resident Self-Study Tutorial The Basic Physics of Oxygen Transport. I was told that there would be no math!

PICU Resident Self-Study Tutorial The Basic Physics of Oxygen Transport. I was told that there would be no math! Physiology of Oxygen Transport PICU Resident Self-Study Tutorial I was told that there would be no math! INTRODUCTION Christopher Carroll, MD Although cells rely on oxygen for aerobic metabolism and viability,

More information

Pop Quiz. What produces mucus, HCl and pepsinogen in the stomach? List a water soluable vitamin What is a ruminant stomach?

Pop Quiz. What produces mucus, HCl and pepsinogen in the stomach? List a water soluable vitamin What is a ruminant stomach? Pop Quiz What produces mucus, HCl and pepsinogen in the stomach? List a water soluable vitamin What is a ruminant stomach? Respiratory System Review Cellular respiration: obtain glucose and oxygen, get

More information

Table of Contents. By Adam Hollingworth

Table of Contents. By Adam Hollingworth By Adam Hollingworth Table of Contents Oxygen Cascade... 2 Diffusion... 2 Laws of Diffusion... 2 Diffusion & Perfusion Limitations... 3 Oxygen Uptake Along Pulmon Capillary... 4 Measurement of Diffusing

More information

660 mm Hg (normal, 100 mm Hg, room air) Paco, (arterial Pc02) 36 mm Hg (normal, 40 mm Hg) % saturation 50% (normal, 95%-100%)

660 mm Hg (normal, 100 mm Hg, room air) Paco, (arterial Pc02) 36 mm Hg (normal, 40 mm Hg) % saturation 50% (normal, 95%-100%) 148 PHYSIOLOGY CASES AND PROBLEMS Case 26 Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Herman Neiswander is a 65-year-old retired landscape architect in northern Wisconsin. One cold January morning, he decided to warm his

More information

Respiratory System -Training Handout

Respiratory System -Training Handout Respiratory System -Training Handout Karen L. Lancour National Rules Committee Chairman Life Science FUNCTIONS: Provides oxygen to the blood stream and removes carbon dioxide Enables sound production or

More information

RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY. Anaesthesiology Block 18 (GNK 586) Prof Pierre Fourie

RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY. Anaesthesiology Block 18 (GNK 586) Prof Pierre Fourie RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY Anaesthesiology Block 18 (GNK 586) Prof Pierre Fourie Outline Ventilation Diffusion Perfusion Ventilation-Perfusion relationship Work of breathing Control of Ventilation 2 This image

More information

SCIENCE 8 RESPIRATION

SCIENCE 8 RESPIRATION SCIENCE 8 RESPIRATION WHEN WE BREATHE, WHAT DO WE BREATHE IN? O2, N2, CO2, O3, NO2 (gas fumes), CO, pollutant, fragrants, toxins, etc. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF BREATHING IN? WHAT DOES OUR BODY WANT? O2 WHY?

More information

7 Gas exchange in humans

7 Gas exchange in humans Class: Name: ( ) Date: 7 Gas exchange in humans 7.1 The human breathing system (Book 1B, p. 7-3) Cells carry out (1) to release energy for cellular activities. To ensure the supply of (2) to cells and

More information

Lecture 8: Heme/Non Heme Iron Proteins and O 2 Management II. Plus a bit of catalysis in Oxygen processes

Lecture 8: Heme/Non Heme Iron Proteins and O 2 Management II. Plus a bit of catalysis in Oxygen processes Lecture 8: Heme/Non Heme Iron Proteins and O 2 Management II Plus a bit of catalysis in Oxygen processes Hemoglobin Key Properties Ubiquitous O2 transport protein A globular soluble protein, 2X2 chains

More information

Ch. 12: Respiratory Physiology

Ch. 12: Respiratory Physiology Ch. 12: Respiratory Physiology Objectives: 1. Review respiratory anatomy. 2. Understand mechanics of breathing. 3. Learn lung volumes & respiratory vocabulary 4. Learn gas exchange at lungs & at body tissues

More information

Using the figure above, match the following: 4. Tidal volume. 5. Inspiratory reserve volume. 6. Residual volume. 7. Expiratory reserve volume.

Using the figure above, match the following: 4. Tidal volume. 5. Inspiratory reserve volume. 6. Residual volume. 7. Expiratory reserve volume. Respiratory Physiology Practice Test BIOL 4350: Hamilton Using the figure above, match the following: 1. Primary bronchus 2. Larynx 3. Trachea Using the figure above, match the following: 4. Tidal volume.

More information

Chapter 23 Respiratory System

Chapter 23 Respiratory System Chapter 23 Respiratory System I. Functions of the Respiratory System: 1. Gas Exchange 2. Regulatory (blood ph) 3. Voice Production 4. Olfaction 5. Protection II. Anatomy & Histology of the Respiratory

More information

Boards and Beyond: Pulmonary

Boards and Beyond: Pulmonary Boards and Beyond: Pulmonary A Companion Book to the Boards and Beyond Website Jason Ryan, MD, MPH i ii Table of Contents Pulmonary Anatomy 1 Treatment of COPD/Asthma 45 Pulmonary Physiology 4 Pneumonia

More information

Physical Chemistry of Gases: Gas Exchange Linda Costanzo, Ph.D.

Physical Chemistry of Gases: Gas Exchange Linda Costanzo, Ph.D. Physical Chemistry of Gases: Gas Exchange Linda Costanzo, Ph.D. OBJECTIVES: After studying this lecture, the student should understand: 1. Application of the gas laws to pulmonary physiology. 2. How to

More information

Ch. 12: Respiratory Physiology

Ch. 12: Respiratory Physiology Ch. 12: Respiratory Physiology Objectives: 1. Review respiratory anatomy. 2. Understand mechanics of breathing, gas pressure vocabulary, and the principles of surface tension, compliance, and recoil. 3.

More information

Circulation and Gas Exchange Chapter 42

Circulation and Gas Exchange Chapter 42 Circulation and Gas Exchange Chapter 42 Circulatory systems link exchange surfaces with cells throughout the body Diffusion is only efficient over small distances In small and/or thin animals, cells can

More information

Blood gas adventures at various altitudes. Friedrich Luft Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin-Buch

Blood gas adventures at various altitudes. Friedrich Luft Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin-Buch Blood gas adventures at various altitudes Friedrich Luft Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin-Buch Mount Everest 8848 M Any point in bird watching here? Respiration is gas exchange: the process

More information

Respiration. Chapter 33

Respiration. Chapter 33 Respiration Chapter 33 Learning Objectives: Understand the basis of gas exchange and factors that influence diffusion of gases in and out of tissues Compare and contrast different respiratory systems among

More information

Animal Systems: The Respiratory System

Animal Systems: The Respiratory System Animal Systems: The Respiratory System Tissues, Organs, and Systems of Living Things Cells, Cell Division, and Animal Systems and Plant Systems Cell Specialization Human Systems The Digestive The Circulatory

More information

VENTILATION AND PERFUSION IN HEALTH AND DISEASE. Dr.HARIPRASAD VS

VENTILATION AND PERFUSION IN HEALTH AND DISEASE. Dr.HARIPRASAD VS VENTILATION AND PERFUSION IN HEALTH AND DISEASE Dr.HARIPRASAD VS Ventilation Total ventilation - total rate of air flow in and out of the lung during normal tidal breathing. Alveolar ventilation -represents

More information

Control of Respiration. Central Control of Ventilation

Control of Respiration. Central Control of Ventilation Central Control of Goal: maintain sufficient ventilation with minimal energy Process steps: mechanics + aerodynamics Points of Regulation Breathing rate and depth, coughing, swallowing, breath holding

More information

Pulmonary Circulation Linda Costanzo Ph.D.

Pulmonary Circulation Linda Costanzo Ph.D. Pulmonary Circulation Linda Costanzo Ph.D. OBJECTIVES: After studying this lecture, the student should understand: 1. The differences between pressures in the pulmonary and systemic circulations. 2. How

More information

Capnography in the Veterinary Technician Toolbox. Katie Pinner BS, LVT Bush Advanced Veterinary Imaging Richmond, VA

Capnography in the Veterinary Technician Toolbox. Katie Pinner BS, LVT Bush Advanced Veterinary Imaging Richmond, VA Capnography in the Veterinary Technician Toolbox Katie Pinner BS, LVT Bush Advanced Veterinary Imaging Richmond, VA What are Respiration and Ventilation? Respiration includes all those chemical and physical

More information

Gas Exchange & Circulation

Gas Exchange & Circulation Why is gas exchange important? Gas Exchange & Circulation Read Ch. 42 start with 42.5: Gas Exchange in Animals Respiration: C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2! Energy + CO 2 + H 2 O Photosynthesis: Energy + CO 2 + H 2

More information

Cardiovascular and respiratory adjustments to exercise

Cardiovascular and respiratory adjustments to exercise Cardiovascular and respiratory adjustments to exercise Additional notes on breathing and use of respiratory belt and pulse transducers Notes on breathing The metabolic activities of tissues use up oxygen

More information

It is of vital importance that a source of clean, oxygen-rich air is available 24 hours a day. Like Robert gets when he sleeps at night..

It is of vital importance that a source of clean, oxygen-rich air is available 24 hours a day. Like Robert gets when he sleeps at night.. Gas Exchange is critical to all organisms It is of vital importance that a source of clean, oxygen-rich air is available 24 hours a day. Like Robert gets when he sleeps at night.. Avoid breathing contaminated

More information

Circulation and Respiration: Vital Signs Student Version

Circulation and Respiration: Vital Signs Student Version Circulation and Respiration: Vital Signs Student Version In this lab, you will learn about the circulatory and respiratory systems. You will test the capacity of your lungs, measure your blood pressure

More information

TERMINOLOGY AND SYMBOLS USED LN RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY. Assistant, Medical Unit, Middlesex Hospital, London, W.i

TERMINOLOGY AND SYMBOLS USED LN RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY. Assistant, Medical Unit, Middlesex Hospital, London, W.i Brit. J. Anaesth. (1957), 29, 534 TERMINOLOGY AND SYMBOLS USED LN RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY BY E. J. MORAN CAMPBELL Assistant, Medical Unit, Middlesex Hospital, London, W.i INTRODUCTION MANY anaesthetists

More information

Respiratory Systems: Ventilation & Gas Exchange

Respiratory Systems: Ventilation & Gas Exchange Respiratory Systems: Ventilation & Gas Exchange Ventilation of Respiratory Surfaces Non-directional ventilation: Medium flows past gas exchange surface in an unpredictable pattern. Tidal Ventilation External

More information

Lung Volumes and Capacities

Lung Volumes and Capacities Lung Volumes and Capacities Experiment 19 Measurement of lung volumes provides a tool for understanding normal function of the lungs as well as disease states. The breathing cycle is initiated by expansion

More information

A Liter a Lung Measuring Lung Capacity

A Liter a Lung Measuring Lung Capacity A Liter a Lung Measuring Lung Capacity OBJECTIVE In this investigation, students will compare the actual and expected vital capacities of their classmates. LEVEL Middle Grades Life Science CONNECTIONS

More information

INTERNATIONAL TURKISH HOPE SCHOOL

INTERNATIONAL TURKISH HOPE SCHOOL INTERNATIONAL TURKISH HOPE SCHOOL 2014 2015 ACADEMIC YEAR CHITTAGONG SENIOR SECTION RESPIRATION and GAS EXCHANGE CLASS IX and X Name :... Date :... SYLLABUS CONTENT Section 2: Structures and functions

More information

Module 17 Respiratory System

Module 17 Respiratory System Module 17 Respiratory System Objective 1. List the functions of the respiratory system. Name the four respiratory processes. Assignment: Tortora, p. 874 or Wiley Plus 23 Chapter Opener Functions: 1. Provides

More information

Office. Hypoxia. Or this. Or even this. Hypoxia E-1. COL Brian W. Smalley DO, MSPH, CPE

Office. Hypoxia. Or this. Or even this. Hypoxia E-1. COL Brian W. Smalley DO, MSPH, CPE Hypoxia Office COL Brian W. Smalley DO, MSPH, CPE Or this Or even this Hypoxia State of oxygen deficiency in the blood cells and tissues sufficient to cause impairment of function 4 Types Hypoxic Hypemic

More information

Experiment B-3 Respiration

Experiment B-3 Respiration 1 Experiment B-3 Respiration Objectives To study the diffusion process of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli and pulmonary capillaries. To determine the percentage of oxygen in exhaled air while

More information

Explain how the structure of the gas exchange system of an insect ensures that there is a large surface area for gas exchange.

Explain how the structure of the gas exchange system of an insect ensures that there is a large surface area for gas exchange. 1 Gas exchange takes place by diffusion. surfacearea differenceinconcentration diffusion lengthof diffusionpath a The diagram shows part of an insect tracheal system. i Explain how the structure of the

More information

GAS EXCHANGE & CIRCULATION CHAPTER 42 ( )

GAS EXCHANGE & CIRCULATION CHAPTER 42 ( ) Winter 08 1 of 10 GAS EXCHANGE & CIRCULATION CHAPTER 42 (867 891) MOVEMENT OF GASES Both O 2 and CO 2 move by The movement down a If a gas produced in one location, it diffuses away But diffusion is usually

More information

Initiation and Management of Airway Pressure Release Ventilation (APRV)

Initiation and Management of Airway Pressure Release Ventilation (APRV) Initiation and Management of Airway Pressure Release Ventilation (APRV) Eric Kriner RRT Pulmonary Critical Care Clinical Specialist Pulmonary Services Department Medstar Washington Hospital Center Disclosures

More information