1 Selection, Care and Use of Chemical Protective Clothing Jason Cole Director of R&D Kappler, Inc.
2 Introduction OSHA Low Hanging Fruit Top Violations of OSHA Regulations # 1 - Failure to Perform Hazard Assessment for Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) # 2 Failure to Document Hazard Assessment #15 Failure to Train Employees in Use of PPE 50% of companies did not perform assessment Of the 50% that did, 70% did not document
3 Introduction How do we select chemical protective clothing? Review rules, regulations & standards OSHA EPA Levels of Protection NFPA, ANSI, ISEA Test and evaluate performance characteristics Chemical Barrier Physical Properties Perform Hazard Assessment Select Chemical Protective Clothing
4 Introduction As the responder, we have to: Perform a hazard assessment for PPE Specific to chemical hazards Document the assessment Specify chemical protective clothing for appropriate protection Train in care and use of the chemical protective clothing
5 Rules and Regulations& s OSHA 29 CFR PPE Personal Protective Equipment for General Industry OSHA 29 CFR HAZWOPER - Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response OSHA 29 CFR Blood-Borne Pathogens
6 Rules and Regulations Hazwoper Scope Cleanup operations required by a governmental body involving hazardous substances at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites Cleanup operations at RCRA sites Operations involving hazardous waste at TSD sites Emergency response operations Large scale storage facilities
7 Rules and Regulations PPE Program A WRITTEN PROGRAM PPE selection based on site hazards PPE use and limitations of equipment Work mission duration PPE maintenance and storage PPE decontamination and disposal PPE training and proper fitting PPE donning and doffing procedures PPE inspection procedures prior to, during and after use Evaluation of effectiveness of PPE program Limitations during temperature extremes, heat stress, and other appropriate medical considerations
8 Rules & Regulations EPA Levels of Protection Originally applied to personnel at EPA Superfund Sites Adopted and specified in HAZWOPER First guidance that addressed garment design Recognized the different types of hazards in the workplace
9 Rules & Regulations EPA Level A Highest level of respiratory, skin and eye protection available Recommends: Supplied breathing air Fully encapsulated chemical suit Inner chemical resistant gloves Chemical resistant boots Two way radio Should be worn when: potential for high concentrations of vapors, gases, or liquids high potential for splash, immersion or exposure to unexpected chemicals that are harmful to the skin or capable of being absorbed through the skin
10 Rules & Regulations EPA Level B Same level of respiratory protection as Level A, but less skin protection Recommends: Supplied breathing air Chemical resistant clothing providing total skin protection Inner and outer chemical gloves Hard hat Two way radio Should be worn when: Type and concentration of substances have been identified and are not suspected of containing high concentrations of chemicals harmful to the skin or can be absorbed through skin contact.
11 Rules & Regulations EPA Level C Same level of skin protection as Level B but a lower level of respiratory protection Recommends: Air purifying respirator Chemical resistant clothing Inner and outer chemical gloves Hard hat and communication Should be worn when: Contact with chemical contaminants will not adversely affect any exposed skin The atmospheric concentration of chemicals must not exceed IDLH levels
12 Rules & Regulations EPA Level D No respiratory protection, minimal skin protection Recommends: Coveralls Safety Boots Safety glasses or goggles Hard Hat Should be worn when: Atmosphere contains no known hazards Work functions have no splashes, immersion or the potential for contact with hazardous levels of any chemicals
13 Rules & Regulations National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Technical Committee for Hazardous Materials Protective Clothing & Equipment Primary Standards: NFPA 1991 Vapor-Protective Ensembles NFPA 1992 Splash-Protective Ensembles NFPA 1994 First Responders to CBRN Incidents Class 2 Class 3 Class 4
14 Test & Evaluate American Society for Testing and Materials F 23 Committee on Protective Clothing ASTM F 739 Chemical Permeation ASTM F 903 Chemical Penetration ASTM F 1052 Positive Pressure ASTM F 1001 Chemical List ASTM D 751 Physical Properties
15 Test & Evaluate Chemical Resistance of Garment Materials Permeation Transmission of vapor through material Penetration Transmission of liquid through material Degradation Physical change in material from chemical contact
16 Test & Evaluate Permeation - Chemical Barrier Material Solution Diffusion Evaporation
17 Test & Evaluate ASTM F 739 Liquid/Vapor Permeation Testing Material is clamped between two chambers. One is filled with chemical. Once the chemical is detected, the rate of permeation through the fabric is measured over time. Fill Level Chemical Fabric To Analyzer
18 Test & Evaluate
19 Test & Evaluate ASTM F 903 Liquid Penetration Testing The physical movement of a chemical from one side of the material to the other through holes and micropores etc. Test determines if a material is porous to a potentially hazardous liquid Can be applied to seams, closures and interfaces Test is typically run for one hour with a one minute long 2 psi pressure pulse after five minutes Visual observation of pass/fail
20 Test & Evaluate ASTM D 751 Physical Properties Tensile Strength Tear Resistance Bursting Strength
21 Test & Evaluate ASTM F 1358 Flammability Resistance Sample is suspended in the flame for 3 seconds Sample must not ignite Sample re-enters flame for an additional 12 seconds Sample can ignite but must self extinguish in 4 seconds Char length must be less than 10 inches
22 Pyroman an_6sec_test
23 Selection Overview of Hazard Assessment What is the substance? What is the physical state of the substance? How is the substance a hazard? What is the result of contact to the skin? What is the potential exposure? What task or operation is being performed?
24 Solids as Hazards Selection Inhalation, ingestion and skin contact Liquids as Hazards Primarily skin contact Nuisance, irritant, burn and skin absorption Some liquids produce vapors Vapors as Hazards Inhalation and skin contact
25 Selection Carcinogens Many compounds are known or suspected to cause cancer from exposure In many cases, cancer results from repeated long term exposure Hygienists typically treat carcinogens in the same way as toxic skin absorbers Avoid all contact
26 Selection The Exposure Scenario The most critical aspect of the hazard assessment Exposure is defined by three things: Potential for contact with the substance If contact is expected, what is the level of contact If contact is expected, what is the length of contact Determine the task or operation being performed
27 Selection Fabrics, Seams and Styles Types of Fabrics Impermeable film based fabrics Semi-Permeable (micro-porous) fabrics Absorptive fabrics Reactive Fabrics Types of Seams Serged Bound Ultrasonic Welded Heat Sealed/Taped Garment Styles
28 Fabrics Selection Impermeable film based barrier fabrics Food Packaging High O 2 barrier Flexible Long shelf life
29 Seams Selection Heat Sealed/Taped Bound Ultrasonic Sewn Seam Seam Seam - A - A clean-finished - A seam - sealed A very seam strong binding tight seam produced which totally by when covering when encloses fabrics three a the sewn are raw lapped, seam edges with of a strip of two then material threads pieces thermally compatible are of fabric. interlocked welded. The with There binding the garment, are is either by then no hot around fillers, sewn air. sealants, the through raw edges thread all layers of or two with a chain bindings. pieces stitch. of fabric.
30 Styles Coveralls Hood, booties Selection Totally Encapsulated Front or Rear Entry Multi-piece ensembles Mix and match
31 Care & Use Train the user in care and use Limitations of use Cautions and warnings Additional equipment required Performing garment inspections Donning and doffing Proper storage and handling Retirement and disposal procedures
32 Care & Use Limitations of Use There are uses, environments and chemicals for which these garments and/or fabrics are unsuitable. It is the responsibility of the user to review available data and verify that the garment and/or fabric is appropriate for the intended use and meets all specified government and/or industry standards.
33 Care & Use As a responder, we have to: Perform a hazard assessment for PPE Specific to chemical hazards Document the assessment Specify chemical protective clothing for appropriate protection Train the employee in care and use of the chemical protective clothing If the situation changes Do a new hazard assessment!
34 Care & Use Cautions and Warnings In a totally encapsulated garment, you cannot wear a cartridge respirator Wearers of these garments must be physically fit Precautions are in place for managing and preventing heat stress
35 Care & Use Additional Equipment Required Respiratory Protection Gloves/Hand Protection Hearing Protection Communications Footwear Decontamination Equipment/Facilities
36 Care & Use Performing Garment Inspections Level A (Gas Tight) require pressure testing Recommended annually or between uses Visual inspection should consider: Inspect seam, closures and interfaces Inspect for visible holes, abrasion, rips, tears, discoloration
37 Care & Use Donning and Doffing the Garment Should be performed with assistant/buddy Perform brief inspection Ensure proper sizing Do not wear shoes/boots inside bootie feet Special precautions if contaminated during doffing process
38 Care & Use Proper Storage and Handling It is preferable to store chemical protective garments in a cool, dry location, away from direct sunlight and extreme hot/cold Studies show the garments can withstand these conditions temperature service range from -85 F to 200 F. Not to be confused with temperature storage range
39 Care & Use Retirement and Disposal Procedures Field decontamination for safe doffing Decontamination for reuse Garments are designed for multiple use, single exposure (MUSE) Decontamination procedures should be established by safety professional Safely disposed, severe contamination may require special handling
40 Care and Use The Shelf Life of Kappler garments is determined by the user Under proper storage conditions, there is no evidence to indicate that film composite fabrics lose their protective characteristics or physical properties over time. This conclusion is based on testing aged fabric Certain suit components such as gloves or exhaust valves may show degradation over time Proper inspection and testing ensures integrity
41 Hazmatch Interactive software for performing and documenting hazard assessment for chemical protective clothing Available online at kappler.com, from the App Store for the ipad and iphone, and Google Play for Android devices.
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