# Chapter 17 The Respiratory System: Gas Exchange and Regulation of Breathing

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1 Chapter 17 The Respiratory System: Gas Exchange and Regulation of Breathing Overview of Pulmonary Circulation o Diffusion of Gases o Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide o Transport of Gases in the Blood o Central Regulation of Ventilation o Control of Ventilation by Chemoreceptors o Local Regulation of Ventilation and Perfusion o Respiratory System in Acid-Base Homeostasis 17.1 Overview of the Pulmonary Circulation Arterial blood O2 and CO2 levels remain relatively constant o Oxygen moves from alveoli to blood at same rate it is consumed by cells o Carbon dioxide moves from blood to alveoli at same rate it is produced by cells 17.2 Diffusion of Gases The driving force of diffusion across the respiratory membrane is the concentration gradients Factors that affect gradients: o Partial pressures of gases o Solubility of gases in liquids Partial Pressure o Many gases are mixtures of different molecules. o Partial pressure of a gas = proportion of pressure of entire gas that is due to presence of the individual gas. o Partial pressure of a gas is determined by Fractional concentration Total pressure of the gas mixture Partial Pressure of Gases and Dalton s Law o Boyle s Law (Ideal gas law) Pressure (P) of gas depends on temperature (T), number of gas molecules (n), universal gas constant (R) and volume (V) PV = nrt P = nrt/ V; If T, R and V are constant, then P is directly proportional to n o Dalton s Law=Total Pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of the pressures of all gases present in the mixture. Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + Pn Total pressure of any individual one gas in a gas mixture is calculated by Pone gas = % one gas x P total o Gas composition of air: 1

2 79% nitrogen, 21% xxygen Trace amounts carbon dioxide, helium, argon, etc. Water can be a factor depending on humidity o Gas Pressure of Dry Air Pair = 760 mm Hg = PN2 + PO2 PN2 = 0.79 x 760 mm Hg = 600 mm Hg PO2 = 0.21 x 760 mm Hg = 160 mm Hg Air is only 0.03% carbon dioxide PCO2 = x 760 mm Hg = 0.23 mm Hg o Pressure of Air at 100% Humidity Pair = 760 mm Hg = PN2 + PO2+ PH2O PN2 = x 760 mm Hg = 563 mm Hg PO2 = x 760 mm Hg = 149 mm Hg PH2O = x 760 mm Hg = 47 mm Hg PCO2 = x 760 mm Hg = 0.21 mm Hg Solubility of Gases in Liquids o Gas molecules can exist in gas form or dissolved in liquid o Ability to dissolve depends on properties of gas and properties of liquid o Both vaporized and dissolved gases exert partial pressures o Henry s Law=c = kp,c = molar concentration of dissolved gas, k = Henry s Law constant, P = partial pressure of gas in atmospheres The partial pressure of a gas affects the amount of gas that goes into solution Partial pressures of vaporized and dissolved gases will be equal at equilibrium o Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Solubility At 100 mm Hg partial pressure in water [O2] in water = 0.15 mmoles/liter [CO2] in water = 3.0 mmoles/liter Carbon dioxide is more soluble than oxygen in water (and blood) 17.3 Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Gas exchange in the lungs Gas exchange in respiring tissue Determinants of alveolar PO2 and PCO2 Diffusion of Gases (Figure 17.4) o Gases diffuse down pressure gradients from high pressure low pressure o In gas mixtures, a particular gas diffuses down its own partial pressure gradient High partial pressure low partial pressure Presence of other gases irrelevant Gas Exchange in Lungs o Diffusion between alveoli and blood is rapid because of small diffusion barrier; large surface area 2

3 Gases diffuse down partial pressure gradients in respiring tissue Determinants of Alveolar PO2 and PCO2 o Factors affecting alveolar partial pressures PO2 and PCO2 of inspired air Minute alveolar ventilation Rates at which respiring tissue use O2 and produce CO2 o Most critical is rate of alveolar ventilation relative to rate of oxygen use and carbon dioxide production o Table 17.2 Some Terms Used in Respiratory Physiology 17.4 Transport of Gases in Blood Oxygen Transport in the Blood o Oxygen is not very soluble in plasma. Thus only 3.0 ml/200 ml arterial blood oxygen dissolved in plasma (1.5%) % arterial blood oxygen is transported by hemoglobin Hb + O2 Hb O2 Hb = deoxyhemoglobin Hb O2 = oxyhemoglobin o Saturation of hemoglobin is a measure of how much oxygen is bound to hemoglobin (Figure 17.7) Binding of oxygen to hemoglobin follows law of mass action More oxygen more binds to hemoglobin Non-linear relationship: Positive cooperativity o Oxygen-Carrying Capacity of Blood When 100% saturated, 1 gram hemoglobin carries 1.34 ml oxygen Normal blood hemoglobin levels = gm/dl Oxygen-carrying capacity of hemoglobin in blood = 200 ml oxygen per liter blood Oxygen Dissociation Curve (Figure 17.8) Other factors Affect O2 Affinity Changes (Figure 17.9) o affinity = Less oxygen unloaded o Temperature Effects: O2 Saturation (Figure a): Higher temperature indicates the more active tissue which shifts the curve to the right, more O2 unloading in tissues o ph Effects: O2 Saturation (Figure 17.b). Bohr effect: Lower ph increases O2 unloading. Active tissues produce more acid ph decreases in tissues o Effects of CO2 Carbamino Effect Carbon dioxide reacts with hemoglobin to form carbaminohemoglobin Hb + CO2 HbCO2 Carbon dioxide binds amino acids in a hemogobin HbCO2 has lower affinity for oxygen than Hb 3

5 Two types of neurons: inspiratory (Figure 17.16) and expiratory Inspiratory neurons: Depolarize during inspiration followed by a termination of at the end of inspiration Expiratory neurons: Depolarize during expiration Mixed neurons: Have properties of both inspiratory and expiratory neurons Pontine respiratory group (PGR) in the pons may play a role in transition between inspiration and expiration Central Pattern Generator (CPG) is a network of neurons that generates the respiratory rhythm or cycle Location and mechanism of action unknown (most likely in medulla). Model of respiratory control during quiet breathing (Figure 17.17) 17.6 Control of Ventilation by Chemoreceptors Chemoreceptors detect blood levels of O2 and CO2 (Figure 17.19) o Peripheral chemoreceptors (Figure 17.8) are Located in carotid bodies near carotid sinus. They contact with arterial blood Respond mainly to changes in arterial PCO2 or ph Little effect before PO2 dropping less than 60 mmhg Low PO2 the sensitivity of the peripheral chemoreceptors to carbon dioxide Ventilation Effects of PCO2 (Figure 17.9) PCO2 has large effects on minute ventilation When PC02 >90 mmhg may lead to coma and death o Central Chemoreceptors (Figure 17.20) are located ventral surface of medulla Respond to changes in ph of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Responds indirectly to CO2 via ph Not responsive to changes in [O2] Chemoreceptor Reflexes (Figure 17.21) o The effects of hypoventilation and hyperventilation on minute ventilation (Figure 17.22) 17.7 Local Regulation of Ventilation and Perfusion Ventilation-perfusion ratios (Figure 17.23) o Ventilation = rate of air flow o Perfusion = rate of blood flow Local control of ventilation and perfusion (Figure 17.24) o Local ventilation and perfusion are regulated to match o Ventilation-perfusion ratio= VA/Q = 1 (normal lung) o If ventilation to certain alveoli decreases Increased PCO2 and decreased PO2 in blood and air Increased PCO2 in bronchioles bronchodilation Decreased PO2 in P. Arterioles vasoconstriction o If perfusion to certain alveoli decreases 5

6 Increased PO2 and decreased PCO2 in blood and air Increased PO2 in P. Arterioles vasodilation Decreased PCO2 in bronchioles bronchoconstriction 17.8 The Respiratory System in Acid-Base Homeostasis Normal blood ph = 7.4 (range ) Acid-Base Disturbances in Blood o Acidosis: arterial blood ph <7.35 o Alkalosis: arterial blood ph >7.42 Respiratory and renal systems regulate blood ph o Hemoglobin functions as a buffer Deoxyhemoglobin has greater affinity for H + Hb + H + HbH o Bicarbonate ions as a buffer HCO3 - + H + H2CO3 CO2 + H2O o Respiratory system can regulate ph by regulating CO2 levels 6

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