1 Drift Characteristics of Paroscientific pressure sensors by Randolph Watts, Maureen Kennelly, Karen Tracey, and Kathleen Donohue (University of Rhode Island) PIES + current meter & CPIES arrays Paroscientific Digiquartz sensors 4 arrays, 7 settings leveling / dedrifting method Characterizing the observed drifts
2 Drift Characteristics of Paroscientific pressure sensors Aim to show (exponential+linear) curve is well suited to represent the drift Geostrophic leveling & drift detection is reliable to ~0.01 dbar new drift curves differ from previous method that used just P data, although both use (exp + lin) fit Averaging records from two or more same-site sensors produces an average drift, but not zero drift Pre-stressing reduces drift
3 CPIES: current and pressure recording inverted echo sounder Measures bottom current. (50 m off bottom) Emits 12kHz sound pulses. Measures round trip travel times of acoustic pulses to sea surface and back. Measures bottom pressure (and temperature). (includes acoustic release + relocation radio+strobe light)
4 CPIES array yields A CPIES array yields daily maps of upper and deep circulation. Look-up tables interpret acoustic travel times as geopotential height (0 referenced to 5000 dbar). 2-D arrays of CPIES estimate horizontal gradients of geopotential to calculate geostrophic velocities. Velocity profiles are referenced by measured nearbottom currents. Bottom pressures are leveled using near-bottom currents to map the geostrophic streamfunction.
5 Digiquartz sensor - Paroscientific website Digiquartz frequency increases with pressure-applied load: Accuracy 100 ppm; drift ~ 10 ppm; stability & resolution ~ <1-2 ppm PIES measures frequency with 4MHz temperature-compensated crystal freq. spec: 10 ppb accuracy to serve as a stable reference
6 URI PIES & CPIES deployment sites 4 recent arrays with current meters; 7 settings
7 URI PIES & CPIES deployment sites Gulf of Mexico Drake Passage Kuroshio Extension Kuroshio, East China Sea 4 recent arrays with current meters; 7 settings
8 arrays of PIES & CMs combined to level the pressure sensors geostrophically Drake Passage Gulf of Mexico Kuroshio Extension
9 detide Detide Tidal response analysis (Munk and Cartwright, 1977) determines the tidal constituents for each instrument. Tides are then removed from the pressure records.
10 Kuroshio Extension deep streamfunction maps LP filter (1-mo); July-Aug 2004 These are used to level and dedrift the P(t) records as follows.
11 Leveling (and drift) The streamfunction from CMs and the pressure from PIES measure the same geostrophic pressure field. The two fields should only differ by a sitedependent leveling constant.
12 drift-curve fit to P(t) - P cm (t) Examples from KESS sites 31-d lowpass filter p & p cm Difference (p-p cm ) is due to mapping-error and drift
13 drift-curve fit to P(t) - P cm (t) Examples from KESS sites 31-d lowpass filter p & p cm Difference (p-p cm ) is due to mapping-error and drift Fit exponential+linear to the difference Residual rms<0.01 dbar Resid slope<0.005dbar/yr
14 drift-curve fit to P(t) - P cm (t) Examples from KESS sites 31-d lowpass filter p & p cm Difference (p-p cm ) is due to mapping-error and drift Fit exponential+linear to the difference Residual rms<0.01 dbar Resid slope<0.005dbar/yr Old method fit (exp+lin) to hourly data (dotted line), w/o geostrophic leveling could differ by dbar
15 Digiquartz Pressure Drift (1) How well-suited is the (exponential + linear) curve-fit to the processes causing observed drifts? Test by comparing same-site differences of raw records against the sum of fitted drift curves Note same-site pairs could be 0.1 to 0.4 km apart
16 Consistency of method at same-site pairs in GoMex (rows 1, 2) sites with two PIES each, separately dedrifted (row 3) The difference between raw records (blue) agrees with difference between drift curves (red); rms < dbar (model 46K s)
17 Consistency of (exp+lin) at same-site pairs in Kuroshio (rows 1, 2) Two sites with two PIES each, separately dedrifted (row 3) The difference between raw records (blue) agrees with difference between drift curves (red); rms=0.004, dbar (model 410K s)
18 The (exp + lin) curve suits the drift process well Next simply characterize the drift of each of many records by its (exp + lin) curve
20 Digiquartz Pressure Drift (2) 6000 psi ~ 4000 dbar sensors, model 46K psi ~ 6800 dbar sensors, model 410K Do drifts scale with FS range? What sign and magnitude of drift?
21 Model 46K and 410K sensor drift 46K s - all pre-stressed 410K s - mixed pre-stressing
22 Model 46K (stretched) and 410K sensor drift 46K s, vertical scale X (10/6) -Slightly less drift, but the improvement may have arisen from pre-stressing 46K s - all pre-stressed 410K s - mixed pre-stressing
23 Typical drift ~ 0.4 dbar Upward and downward drifts would arise from two different processes Exponential and linear drifts would arise from different processes So there must be at least 3-4 substantial contributions to drift Yeow!
24 Digiquartz Pressure Drift (3) Since the largest part of the drift decays exponentially with time, can pre-stressing the sensors decrease subsequent drift? We usually pre-stress for many weeks or months 4000 psi for 6000 psi FS (~2800 dbar for ~4000 dbar FS) 6000 psi for psi FS (~4100 dbar for ~6800 dbar FS) How much might it help to pre-stress at nearly the same pressure as the subsequent deployment? Does sensor improve with age?
25 How effective is pre-stressing? (410K s) Without pre-stressing, all six drifts ~ -.4 dbar in a year With pre-stressing many drifts <0.1 dbar (+/-) in a year, but many others drifted up or down ~0.4 dbar in 1-2 yrs pre-stressing seems highly advisable, but does not guarantee small drift
26 How effective is pre-stressing? (410K s) Without pre-stressing, all six drifts ~ -.4 dbar in a year With pre-stressing many drifts <0.1 dbar (+/-) in a year, but many others drifted up or down ~0.4 dbar in 1-2 yrs pre-stressing seems highly advisable, but does not guarantee small drift Next represent drift as (end-start)
27 Does it help to pre-stress at ~ deployment P? Answer maybe excepting outliers
28 Does drift depend on prior deployment depth? difference (P new - P prior ) Answer is similarly murky Slightly less drift with `same new and old deployment depths.
29 Does age of sensor reduce drift rate? (1-year) total drift vs. age
30 Digiquartz Pressure Drift (4) Does a given sensor drift predictably from one deployment to the next?
31 Digiquartz Pressure Drift (4) Does a given sensor drift predictably from one deployment to the next? Answer the drift is not necessarily replicated in magnitude or direction! But we had many variables, and have not yet sorted out all effects. A few sensors DID replicate drift.
33 Digiquartz Pressure Drift (5) If you average two same-site pressure records, how well can this approximate a drift-free record? Test by comparing near-neighbor averages of raw records against the accurately dedrifted curves Near-neighbors could be 0.1 to 0.4km apart
34 These 46K sites average very well because they had small drifts that fortuitously opposed each other.
35 These 410K site-pairs did not average to small drift.
36 Drift Characteristics of Paroscientific pressure sensors Summary (exponential+linear) fitted curve is well suited to represent the drift, to which 3 or more processes contribute Geostrophic leveling & drift detection is reliable to ~0.01 dbar New drift curves differ from previous method of fitting data, although both use (exp + lin) fit Averaging records from two or more same-site sensors produces an average drift, but not zero drift Pre-stressing reduces drift (usually) < 0.10 dbar / yr Small net drift helps reduce uncertainty in fitted drift curve Aged sensors improve like good wine Drift of a given sensor is not predictable from one deployment to the next Choose a low range sensor (when possible) to achieve smaller drift
41 CPIES array yields A CPIES array yields daily maps of upper and deep circulation. Look-up tables interpret acoustic travel times as geopotential height (0 referenced to 5000 dbar). 2-D arrays of CPIES estimate horizontal gradients of geopotential to calculate geostrophic velocities. Velocity profiles are referenced by measured nearbottom currents. Bottom pressures are leveled using near-bottom currents to map the geostrophic streamfunction.
42 LEVELING PRESSURE GAUGE WITH DEEP CURRENT METERS Pre-stress pressure gauges Leveling flowchart Detide pressure Current at CMs Dedrift pressure Mean pressure Mean current Leveled pressure constants
43 Pre-stress gauges Pre-stress gauges Experience has shown that pressure drift is greatly reduced by preconditioning. Sensors are subjected to pressures of 3000 dbar for 1-2 months in the lab.
44 Mapping flowchart Leveled p Current at CM sites Mean p and current maps Mean p at PIES sites Mean current at CM sites p anomaly Current anomaly p and current anomaly maps Daily p and current maps
45 Leveling (and drift) The streamfunction from CMs and the pressure from PIES measure the same geostrophic pressure field. The two fields should only differ by a site-dependent leveling constant. Other differences arise from error in OI mapped streamfunction and drift in the pressure sensor. The sensor drift is detected by the difference from the temporal record of geostrophic pressures The drift is represented by a decaying exponential plus linear curve, least-squares fitted to this difference
46 Consistency of (exp+lin) at same-site pair in Kuroshio(2) (rows 1, 2) Another site with two PIES, separately dedrifted (row 3) The difference between raw records (blue) agrees with difference between drift curves (red); rms <0.005 dbar (model 410K)
47 Is drift smaller in 2nd/3rd deployment? 46K s 410K s 1st 2nd 3rd
48 Subsequent depth shallower/ same/ deeper shallower same depth +/- 500m -0.1 dbar/yr 410K s drifts are mixed Shallower 46K s drift to higher P or flat Deeper 46K s drift to lower P or nearly flat Same-depth 46K s - slightly better? deeper
50 Does drift depend on prior deployment depth? difference (P new - P prior ) Slightly less drift with `same new and old deployment depths.
51 Repeatable drifts? 46K Twelve representative repeats of 46K s having same Bliley and smallest depth differences between deployments. The repeatability of 46K s looks promising. However next look at 410K s - not as reproducible
52 Repeatable drifts? 410K These are 2nd deployments of 410K s. Not as reproducible as for the previous set. Other factors changed Deployment depth Time interval between
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