The 11 th International Scientific Conference elearning and Software for Education Bucharest, April 23-24, 2015

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1 The 11 th International Scientific Conference elearning and Software for Education Bucharest, April 23-24, / X SIMULATION TECHNIQUES FOR TRAINING AND COACHING OF NAVY OFFICERS IN NAVAL KINEMATICS PROBLEMS AND FLEET FORMATIONS SCENARIOS Sergiu LUPU, Andrei POCORA, Cosmin KATONA, Romeo BOȘNEAGU Mircea cel Bătrân Naval Academy, no. 1, Fulgerului Street, Constanța, Romania Abstract: A fleet or naval fleet is a large formation of warships. Naval kinematics, as a part of navigation, is mainly used by military ships in solving problems concerning the ship movement for occupying, maintaining or changing of a position compared to a fixed or mobile point, considered as a landmark reference point, or to decide the route to take in different situations, from collision avoidance to searching hostile ships. By adapting the principles of naval kinematics to naval battles conditions the principles of tactical maneuver of a ship or of a group of ships were generated, aiming to ensure optimal conditions for the use of weapons and combat equipment onboard, by using mathematical methods for occupying, maintaining or changing of a position to the opponent. Naval tactics play a crucial role in modern battles and wars. Mircea cel Bătrân Naval Academy (MBNA), using the Maritime Simulator System Integrated simulator for driving of watercraft, does the training and coaching of navy officers in naval tactics. The training is done at initial operational level for undergraduate students to solve the classical naval kinematic problems. The coaching is done at the managerial level for active navy officers during periodical specialized training. Using Fleet Formation module, from the Integrated simulator for driving of watercraft, various naval formations can be created based on several parameters such as distance between the ships in the formation, speed and the tactical diameter for the turning circle of the formation. This paper aims is to present the rules and methods of the simulator instructors from MBNA in the process of training and coaching using the Fleet Formation module and simulated naval communications capabilities such as MF/VHF radio or International Code of Signals flags. Keywords: fleet formations; naval kinematics; naval tactics; maritime simulator; fleet formation module. I. INTRODUCTION Kinematics is the part of classical mechanics which describes the motion of points, bodies or systems of bodies without taking into consideration the forces that act upon them. Naval kinematics, as a part of navigation, is mainly used by military ships in solving problems concerning the ship movement for occupying, maintaining or changing of a position compared to a fixed or mobile point, considered as a landmark reference point, or to decide the route to take in different situations, from collision avoidance to searching hostile ships [1]. In the study of movement and of relative and absolute ship positions within naval kinematics, they are represented by dots and the representation is made in a relatively small area. In Mercator projection charts deformations produced by cartographic projection are not taken into consideration. 453

2 II. DESCRIBING NAVAL KINEMATICS PROBLEMS Naval kinematics movement requires the participation of ship (target) that shiftes its position relative to others. The main elements for defining the kinematic movement are: the kinematic maneuver, the participants at the naval movement and the reference systems where the naval movement takes place [2]. Generally, the maneuver represents the modification of the moving parameters, course and speed, previously calculated, with the aim of realising a kinematic evolution. The kinematic evolution is described by calculating the movement and maneuver parameters of the own ship, in order to achieve a determined position, in the chosen reference system. The kinematic maneuvre is classified by: Ship speed - object of maneuver. The number of participating ship at the maneuver. The variation of position and movement parameters. Depending on the ship s speed - object of maneuver, the kinematic maneuver can be defined as unilateral (when this is realised to a fixed object) or bilateral (when this is realised to a mobile object). Depending on the number of participant ships, the kinematic maneuver can be defined as bilateral (there are two ships participating in the maneuver) or multilateral (more than are two ships participating in the maneuver). Depending on the variation of position and movement parameters, the kinematic maneuver can be classified as: Constant maneuver, when the ship s moving parameters are constant. Variable maneuver, when the the moving parameters of the maneuvering ship are variable. Stable, when the changes of course and speed are not that frequent. Unstable, when the changes of course and speed are frequent. The main procedures for maneuver kinematics are: On straight courses (on constant courses), when the ship s course is not changing during the maneuver. At constant distance, when the ship s course is changing continuously in order to maintain the same distance to the ship-object of the maneuver. On a constant bow bearing, when the ship s course is changing continuously in order to maintain the same bearing to the ship-object of the maneuver. Combined (mixed), when the moving and maneuver parameters are changing depending on the tactical situation. Naval kinematics resolves problems of diagnosis, prognosis and naval kinematics maneuver. Diagnostic problems are the kinds of naval kinematics problems through which the target s moving parameters are determined, based on direct observations for bearing and distance. Prognosis problems or type I problems, are the kinds of naval kinematics problems through which the future relative and absolute positions of the ships are determined, based on the initial positions and motion parametersof own ship and the target ship. Maneuvering problems or type II problems, are the kinds of naval kinematics problems through which own ship motion parameters to achieve a future position are determined, considering the fact that the target ship motion parameters are constant. The naval formation represents a precise geometric arrangement of ships, one to another in bearings and distances. Joint maneuver of ships is executed as intented in the mission, respecting reglementations, taking into account the tactical situation created, technical and tactical characteristics of ships involved and the weather. Maneuver in formations is executed after naval kinematics rules and require experience, sense of observation, speed and flexibility in the managament of ships and the naval formation as a whole. Naval formations are organized in the following structures: simple formations (in a line), complex (multi-line), close or loose. Naval formations can be classified as follows: Column, when the ships are arranged on a straight line, one in the stern of the other. 454

3 Line, when the formation s line is perpendicular on the course of the formation. Bearing, when the bearing of the formation (U F) is different than zero (U F 0 o ) at port or starboard. Staggered, when U F = 135 o and the alignment angle is = 45 o (port or starboard). Complex naval formations can be classified as follows: In angle, when the commander ship is on the top of a triangle and the other ships of the formation are arranged on the sides of the triangle. Double, triple, multiple column, when the ships are arranged on 2-3 or more columns. Double, triple, multiple line, when the ships are arranged on 2-3 or more lines. Screen, when the ships are arranged in a certain position to the ensured object. The naval formation is close when the distance between ships is reduced to a minimum required for safety maneuvering; it is loose when the distance between the ships increases to a maximum value established according to the mission, the type of ships and the visibility distance. Evolution is the type of maneuver which sets out in detail and accurately the movement of ships during navigation together with the aim to change the formation s course or to change the type of formation at a certain time. The evolution of ships (ships maneuver in formation) consists of: Occupying the place in the formation. Maintaining the place in the formation due to the change of course. Changing the place in the formation. III. THE SIMULATOR FACILITIES Mircea cel Bătrân Naval Academy (MBNA) uses a top notch Integrated simulator for driving of watercraft that meets the Standard Certification No for Maritime Simulator Systems, adopted in January 2011 does the training and coaching of navy officers in naval tactics. Integrated simulator for driving of watercraft type Navi-Trainer Professional 5000 manufactured by TRANSAS Limited Co and certified by DetNorskeVeritas (DNV) as A class (full mission) for bridge and machinery is capable of simulating a total shipboard bridge operation situation, including the capability for advanced maneuvering in restricted waterways [3]. This simulator includes two subsystems: the Bridge Subsystem and Engine Room Subsystem subsequently referred to as NTPRO & ERS. Bridge subsystem arrangement: 1 x main bridge with horizontal field of view (HFOV) 240º as per IACS class A requirements. 1 x intermediary bridge with HFOV 120º. 3 x secondary bridges with HFOV 90º. 6 x virtual bridges class. Training, analysis and debriefing room. Global Maritime Distress & Safety System (GMDSS). Communication workplaces (on all bridges). 455

4 Figure 1. The arrangement of the Integrated simulator for driving of watercraft The training is done at initial operational level for undergraduate students to solve the classical naval kinematic problems. The coaching is done at the managerial level for active navy officers during periodical specialized training. Using the Fleet Formation module, the istructor can create the following formation type from the list [4], [5]: Column in normal order. Column in reverse order. Line abreast to starboard. Line abreast to port. Line of bearing. Column open order. Diamond. Figure 2. The Fleet Formation module From the Maneuvering parameters button can by set the following parameters: 456

5 Distance units - units of measurement for the range between the ships in the formation: yards or cables. Standard distance - distance between the ships in the formation. Tactical diameter - tactical diameter for the turning circle of the formation: standard, reduced. Position keeping alarm - accuracy of keeping the ship position. Figure 3. The maneuvering parameters To appoint a ship as that of the Officer in Tactical Command (OTC), press the Set as OTC s ship button. On the tactical plot board, the ship which commands are given from is shown in red. After starting the exercise, the Instructor can control the ship formations from the dedicated Fleet management panel. Figure 4. The Fleet management panel The table contains the following data: Unit - ship number in the formation. OTC s - the ship which commands are given from. Name - ship name. Course - ship course. Speed - ship speed. Status - ship status. Order execution - status of flag signals (No signal, Close up, At the dip). 457

6 IV. TECHNIQUES FOR TRAINING AND COACHING OF NAVY OFFICERS IN NAVAL KINEMATICS PROBLEMS AND FLEET FORMATIONS SCENARIOS At the operational level, the training for undergraduate students is done by the creation, by the instructor, of gradual difficulty exercises with the aim to solve the classical naval kinematic problems. To do this, the instructor has the possibility of using 11 bridges that represent 11 ships. On each bridge exercises can be loaded in order to resolve type I and II naval kinematics problems. By using navigation bridges the instructor organizes undergraduate students in watch-keeping teams with the role of simultaneously solving naval kinematics problems, maintaining the safety of navigation in given conditions, analyzing information from navigation equipment and naval communications from GMDSS console. Taking into consideration the multitude of naval kinematics problems, the instructor can realize exercises for each type of problem with gradual difficulty by arranging them in areas with high traffic and in difficult hydro-meteorological from the navigation point of view. After achieving the training skills for the undergraduate students at the lower level, the instructor can utilize the simulator capabilities to create the common exercises with all entire 11 bridges and with/without ship targets. Thus, the instructor can track ship-to-ship communication skills training and solving of naval kinematics problems in real time. After completing the simulator exercises, the students can replay the entire action and have the possibility to emphasis the mistakes or the correct actions taken, so they will have a superior feed-back action after completing the course. At the managerial level, the training and coaching of navy officers of the Romanian Naval Forces in naval tactics is done to maintain their specific skills and abilities in the field of practice through regular training. The instructor can realize the common exercises with al 11 navigation bridges addressing occupying, maintaining and switching the place in the formation problems, using all forms of naval communications (GMDSS, flags). The main role of the instructor in training and coaching of the navy officers is to realize coordination of watch-keeping teams as OTC. The role of the OTC can be played by a designated officer that can be part of a watch-keeping team or not. Figure 5. The diamond formation 458

7 V. CONCLUSIONS Naval tactics play a crucial role in modern battles and wars. A good method of learning is represented by practice. Maritime simulators integrates modern equipment that manage to provide virtual training in terms of gaining onboard the necessary skills starting with the undergraduate students and continuing in the process of long life learning with the navy officers of the Romanian Naval Forces. There is a great importance for the simulator instructor to a have thorough background or experience in teaching or instructional techniques. The instructor plays a crucial role in the training and coaching process of this personnel by creating gradual difficulty exercises. In order to achieve his role the instructor uses facilities like: Fleet formation, GMDSS communication console, Flags panel and naval equipments from the Integrated simulator for driving of watercraft. Also, another important role is occupied by the briefing and debriefing of the exercises through which the instructor manages to reach the objectives of training and coaching. Reference Text and Citations [1] Radar navigation and maneuvering board manual, pub. 1310, Seventh edition, 2001, Bethesda, Maryland. [2] Boșneagu, Romeo, Cinematică navală şi navigaţie radar, Ed. Academiei Navale Mircea cel Bătrân, Constanţa, [3] *** Standard Certification, No. 2.14, for Maritime Simulator Systems, [4] Transas Ltd, August 2009, NAVI-TRAINER 5000, Navigation Bridge, (version 5.00). [5] Transas Ltd, August 2009, NAVI-TRAINER 5000, Instructor manual, (version 5.00). 459

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