These two respiratory media (air & water) impose rather different constraints on oxygen uptake:

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "These two respiratory media (air & water) impose rather different constraints on oxygen uptake:"

Transcription

1 Topic 19: OXYGEN UPTAKE AND TRANSPORT (lectures 29-30) OBJECTIVES: 1. Be able to compare air vs. water as a respiratory medium with respect to oxygen content, diffusion coefficient, viscosity and water loss. 2. Be able to give some examples of organisms that use passive diffusion for gas exchange and where they might be found. 3. Have a general understanding of specialized gas exchange organs such as gills, insect tracheae and air capillary and alveolar lungs. 4. Be able to describe the concept of partial pressure. 5. Be able to describe the role of respiratory pigments like hemoglobin and how they work (i.e., reversible oxygen binding). 6. Describe the three ways in which CO 2 is transported in the blood. Virtually every animal must take up oxygen from its environment and release carbon dioxide; there a few exceptions, namely intestinal parasites, worms living in anaerobic muds etc. Terrestrial organisms obtain oxygen from the air while most aquatic organisms obtain oxygen form water (the exception, of course, being such air breathers as aquatic mammals, birds, reptiles). Water: Air: O 2 O 2 CO 2 CO 2 These two respiratory media (air & water) impose rather different constraints on oxygen uptake: 1. oxygen content- oxygen content of air is at least 30 times higher than water; oxygen content of water decreases with increasing temperature and salt content 2. diffusion coefficient (D)- recall the diffusion equation (J = (D x A x C)/d); the D value for oxygen in air is 10,000 times higher than in water; oxygen does not diffuse 1

2 very rapidly in water; this means that most large, active aquatic organisms must move the water (ventilate= convective movement of respiratory medium) across their gas exchange surface) 3. viscosity of the medium- viscosity is a measure of the resistance to flow of a medium; water is much more viscous than air. Ventilation of water across gas exchange surface requires greater expenditure of energy 4. water content- water vapor content of air may be very low so air breathers often lose large amount of water during respiration ( respiratory water loss) Gas Exchange Mechanisms I. Passive diffusion across the body surface 1. aquatic animals- because the D value for oxygen is so low, passive diffusion works only in small animals and/or in large, thin, sluggish species like sea anemones. 2. Terrestrial animals- characteristic of earthworms, land planarians, slugs; there also is a group of lungless salamanders who rely on gas exchange across their skin (cutaneous gas exchange); these animals are restricted to moist habitats II. Specialized gas exchange organs which may or may not be ventilated- (a) gillsfleshy, blood-filled structures bathed in water, (b) tracheal system- system of tubes in insects with direct connection to the exterior and (c) lungs- internal gas exchange structures in a few fish, terrestrial amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds. Gills: gills of more active, complex animals are internal to the extent that they are protected; by the operculum in the case of fish and the carapace in the case of crustaceans. Fig fish gills are complex and have a very high surface area (why?); each gill consists of a number of arches with each arch having many filaments and each filament containing many lamellae. Lamellae are very thin and contain a rich blood supply. The blood flows in the opposite direction of water passing over the gill (fig ); this creates a counter-current flow which optimizes the amount of oxygen that can be extracted from the medium. Ventilation is produced by pumping of the mouth cavity or simply by swimming with the mouth open which is called ram jet ventilation (as seen in tuna, sharks) Insect tracheal system (fig ): insects are unique in that they have a system of small tubes connecting to the surface by way of a valves called spiracles. These tubes called trachea break up into smaller tubes called tracheoles which actually travel all the way to the surface of cells ( one can find electron microscopy pictures of these tracheoles touching parts of cells where there is a cluster of mitochondria!). When spiracles are open, air flows passively into the system. Ventilation is generally not required for relatively sluggish insects due to the fact that the D value is so high in air. Flying insects do ventilate because their oxygen requirements are so much higher. 2

3 NOTE: The fossil record shows that flying insects attained rather large size in the past; these animals lived at a time when the oxygen content of air was ~28% as opposed to the present ~21%! Lungs: there are two types- (1) alveolar lungs (amphibians, reptiles and mammals) and (2) air capillary lungs (birds) Alveolar lungs (fig ); consist of a series of tubes which branch off into increasing smaller tubes that ultimate terminate in very tiny clusters of air sacs known as alveoli. Aveoli have the following characteristics: 1. membranes are very thin 2. they are covered by a dense mesh-work of capillaries where gas exchange takes place 3. the aveoli represent a very high surface area for gas exchange (a single human lung has 75 m 2 of alveolar surface area) lungs are ventilated; that is, they inflate during inspiration and deflate during expiration. This process is accomplished by alternating contractions and relaxation of the diaphragm, a muscle located at the base of the thoracic cavity- fig inspiration- diaphragm contracts; creates a negative pressure inside lungs; air is sucked in to inflate the lungs 2. expiration- diaphragm relaxes; creates a positive pressure in the lungs; pushing air out so that the lungs deflate Air capillary lungs (fig ); these lungs lack alveoli but instead have thousands of rigid tubes called air capillaries (or parabronchi) that run the length of the lung. The volume of the lungs never changes. Instead, the lungs are connected to a series of ventilatory structures known as air sacs. There are anterior and posterior sets of air sacs. These structures inflate during inspiration and deflate during expiration. What is unique about this system is that air passes through the parabronchi during both inspiration and expiration - the lung is continuously ventilated! This is a adaptation which permits high rates of gas exchange, this is essential for flight which is costly. Blood oxygen transport Gases flow from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration; we normally refer to gas concentration by the term partial pressure. Partial pressure- the fractional pressure of a gas in a gas mixture; air is 21% oxygen and the total pressure of air at sea level is around 760 mm Hg so the partial pressure of oxygen is 0.21 x 760 = 160 mm Hg. Using partial pressure to express gas levels we call follow the changes in gas partial pressure as blood passes through the pulmonary and 3

4 systemic circulations (fig ). Both oxygen and carbon dioxide flow from areas of high partial pressure to areas of low partial pressure (always in the opposite direction). Oxygen flows from the air in the alveolus into the blood in the capillaries; what determines the amount of oxygen that can move into the blood? If you look at the blood leaving the lungs of a mammal, you will find that only about 5% of the oxygen the blood is carrying is dissolved in direction solution in the plasma; the rest (95%) is present in the red blood cells. In vertebrates, oxygen binds to a red pigment protein called hemoglobin (abbreviated Hb). Hemoglobin is a protein that contains an atom of iron (Fe) in its center. Hb has the capacity to bind oxygen at high partial pressures and release it at low partial pressures. This is known as reversible oxygen binding and can be shown as follows: high oxygen levels oxygen + hemoglobin oxygen-hemoglobin (deoxyhb) (oxyhb) low oxygen levels Most vertebrate hemoglobins have four subunit proteins each capable of binding one O 2 molecule so that each hemoglobin has the capacity to bind 4 O 2 molecules. Each red blood cell may contain several million molecules of Hb. The more red blood cells in a volume of blood, the greater the potential for carrying oxygen. Recall fig , When the blood leaves the alveolus, the oxygen partial pressure is 104 mmhg; under these circumstances most of the molecules of Hb have oxygen bound to them. When the blood reaches the tissues its oxygen partial pressure falls to 40 mm Hg. The Hb can hold a much smaller amount of oxygen under conditions, much less than what was bound in the alveolus. Thus, oxygen is released by the Hb and it is taken up by the tissues. This is a manifestation of reversible oxygen binding. Hemoglobin is classified as a respiratory pigment because it has a color and it is involved in oxygen transport. There are a number of other respiratory pigments including the blue copper- containing pigment hemocyanin (molluscs, arthropods), the green pigment chlorocruorin (some marine worms) and the purple pigment hemerythrin ( some marine invertebrate groups). Carbon dioxide transport- fig ; roughly 7% carbon dioxide is transported as molecular CO 2 ; 23% of CO 2 is directly bound to Hb and the remaining 70% of CO 2 travels in the plasma as bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ). At the site of oxygen delivery (in the cells and tissues of the systemic circulation), a large fraction of CO 2 is goes through the following reaction as catalyzed by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase: CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 which spontaneously dissociates to H + + HCO 3-4

5 At the site of oxygen uptake in the alveoli, the above reaction is reversed and the bicarbonate converts back to CO 2. 5

Respiration. Chapter 33

Respiration. Chapter 33 Respiration Chapter 33 Learning Objectives: Understand the basis of gas exchange and factors that influence diffusion of gases in and out of tissues Compare and contrast different respiratory systems among

More information

alveoli Chapter 42. Gas Exchange elephant seals gills AP Biology

alveoli Chapter 42. Gas Exchange elephant seals gills AP Biology alveoli Chapter 42. Gas Exchange gills elephant seals Gas exchange O 2 & CO 2 exchange exchange between environment & cells provides O 2 for aerobic cellular respiration need moist membrane need high

More information

Pop Quiz. What produces mucus, HCl and pepsinogen in the stomach? List a water soluable vitamin What is a ruminant stomach?

Pop Quiz. What produces mucus, HCl and pepsinogen in the stomach? List a water soluable vitamin What is a ruminant stomach? Pop Quiz What produces mucus, HCl and pepsinogen in the stomach? List a water soluable vitamin What is a ruminant stomach? Respiratory System Review Cellular respiration: obtain glucose and oxygen, get

More information

Circulation and Gas Exchange Chapter 42

Circulation and Gas Exchange Chapter 42 Circulation and Gas Exchange Chapter 42 Circulatory systems link exchange surfaces with cells throughout the body Diffusion is only efficient over small distances In small and/or thin animals, cells can

More information

Respiratory System 1

Respiratory System 1 Respiratory System 1 Outline Respiratory structures Gills Air-Breathing Animals Amphibians and Reptiles Mammals Birds Structures and Mechanisms of Breathing 2 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

More information

GASEOUS EXCHANGE 17 JULY 2013

GASEOUS EXCHANGE 17 JULY 2013 GASEOUS EXCHANGE 17 JULY 2013 Lesson Description In this lesson we: Discuss what is gaseous exchange? Consider requirements of an efficient gaseous exchange surface. Look at diversity in gas exchange systems.

More information

UNIFYING CONCEPTS OF ANIMAL CIRCULATION

UNIFYING CONCEPTS OF ANIMAL CIRCULATION UNIFYING CONCEPTS OF ANIMAL CIRCULATION Every organism must exchange materials with its environment, relying upon diffusion, the spontaneous movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to

More information

Respiratory Systems: Ventilation & Gas Exchange

Respiratory Systems: Ventilation & Gas Exchange Respiratory Systems: Ventilation & Gas Exchange Ventilation of Respiratory Surfaces Non-directional ventilation: Medium flows past gas exchange surface in an unpredictable pattern. Tidal Ventilation External

More information

It is of vital importance that a source of clean, oxygen-rich air is available 24 hours a day. Like Robert gets when he sleeps at night..

It is of vital importance that a source of clean, oxygen-rich air is available 24 hours a day. Like Robert gets when he sleeps at night.. Gas Exchange is critical to all organisms It is of vital importance that a source of clean, oxygen-rich air is available 24 hours a day. Like Robert gets when he sleeps at night.. Avoid breathing contaminated

More information

GASEOUS EXCHANGE IN PLANTS & ANIMALS 30 JULY 2014

GASEOUS EXCHANGE IN PLANTS & ANIMALS 30 JULY 2014 GASEOUS EXCHANGE IN PLANTS & ANIMALS 30 JULY 2014 In this lesson, we: Lesson Description Define gaseous exchange o o Look at the requirements for efficient gaseous exchange Study gaseous exchange in various

More information

Respiration - Human 1

Respiration - Human 1 Respiration - Human 1 At the end of the lectures on respiration you should be able to, 1. Describe events in the respiratory processes 2. Discuss the mechanism of lung ventilation in human 3. Discuss the

More information

Gases and Respiration. Respiration Overview I

Gases and Respiration. Respiration Overview I Respiration Overview I Respiration Overview II Gas Laws Equation of State: PV = nrt Same volumes of different gases have same # of molecules BTPS: body temp, atmospheric pressure, saturated ATPS: ambient

More information

Gas Exchange & Circulation

Gas Exchange & Circulation Why is gas exchange important? Gas Exchange & Circulation Read Ch. 42 start with 42.5: Gas Exchange in Animals Respiration: C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2! Energy + CO 2 + H 2 O Photosynthesis: Energy + CO 2 + H 2

More information

Gases and Respiration. Respiration Overview I

Gases and Respiration. Respiration Overview I Respiration Overview I Respiration Overview II Gas Laws Equation of State: PV = nrt Same volumes of different gases have same # of molecules BTPS: body temp, atmospheric pressure, saturated ATPS: ambient

More information

GAS EXCHANGE & CIRCULATION CHAPTER 42 ( )

GAS EXCHANGE & CIRCULATION CHAPTER 42 ( ) Winter 08 1 of 10 GAS EXCHANGE & CIRCULATION CHAPTER 42 (867 891) MOVEMENT OF GASES Both O 2 and CO 2 move by The movement down a If a gas produced in one location, it diffuses away But diffusion is usually

More information

Question 1: Define vital capacity. What is its significance? Vital capacity is the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inspiration. It is about 3.5 4.5 litres in the human body. It

More information

1 CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES https://biologyaipmt.com/

1 CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES https://biologyaipmt.com/ 1 CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES https://biologyaipmt.com/ CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES Oxygen (O2) is utilised by the organisms to indirectly break down nutrient molecules like

More information

What do animals do to survive?

What do animals do to survive? What do animals do to survive? Section 26-1 All Animals have are carry out Eukaryotic cells with Heterotrophs Essential functions such as No cell walls Feeding Respiration Circulation Excretion Response

More information

CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES

CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES 268 BIOLOGY CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES 17.1 Respiratory Organs 17.2 Mechanism of Breathing 17.3 Exchange of Gases 17.4 Transport of Gases 17.5 Regulation of Respiration 17.6 Disorders of

More information

Chapter 11: Respiratory System Review Assignment

Chapter 11: Respiratory System Review Assignment Name: Date: Mark: / 45 Chapter 11: Respiratory System Review Assignment Multiple Choice = 45 Marks Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following

More information

How Animals Survive (Circulation and Gas Exchange)

How Animals Survive (Circulation and Gas Exchange) How Animals Survive (Circulation and Gas Exchange) by Flourence Octaviano on February 16, 2018 lesson duration of 30 minutes under Earth and Life Science generated on February 16, 2018 at 12:45 am Tags:

More information

HCO - 3 H 2 CO 3 CO 2 + H H H + Breathing rate is regulated by blood ph and C02. CO2 and Bicarbonate act as a ph Buffer in the blood

HCO - 3 H 2 CO 3 CO 2 + H H H + Breathing rate is regulated by blood ph and C02. CO2 and Bicarbonate act as a ph Buffer in the blood Breathing rate is regulated by blood ph and C02 breathing reduces plasma [CO2]; plasma [CO2] increases breathing. When C02 levels are high, breating rate increases to blow off C02 In low C02 conditions,

More information

Mammalian systems. Chapter 3 Pages

Mammalian systems. Chapter 3 Pages Mammalian systems Chapter 3 Pages 75-103 Learning intentions To know that multicellular organisms exist from specialized cells To know how the respiratory system is specialized and organized and how a

More information

Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide Respiration Gas Transport Chapter 21-23

Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide Respiration Gas Transport Chapter 21-23 nd Lecture Fri 06 Mar 009 Vertebrate Physiology ECOL 437 (MCB/VetSci 437) Univ. of Arizona, spring 009 Kevin Bonine & Kevin Oh Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide Respiration Gas Transport Chapter 1-3 1 Housekeeping,

More information

Animal Kingdom: Comparative Anatomy

Animal Kingdom: Comparative Anatomy Invertebrate feeding and digestion Animal Kingdom: Comparative Anatomy Invertebrates can either have or digestion: meaning that food is digested each individual of the organism. Animals a digestive tract.

More information

Physical Chemistry of Gases: Gas Exchange Linda Costanzo, Ph.D.

Physical Chemistry of Gases: Gas Exchange Linda Costanzo, Ph.D. Physical Chemistry of Gases: Gas Exchange Linda Costanzo, Ph.D. OBJECTIVES: After studying this lecture, the student should understand: 1. Application of the gas laws to pulmonary physiology. 2. How to

More information

Respiratory System Physiology. Dr. Vedat Evren

Respiratory System Physiology. Dr. Vedat Evren Respiratory System Physiology Dr. Vedat Evren Respiration Processes involved in oxygen transport from the atmosphere to the body tissues and the release and transportation of carbon dioxide produced in

More information

(a) (i) Describe how a large difference in oxygen concentration is maintained between a fish gill and the surrounding water.

(a) (i) Describe how a large difference in oxygen concentration is maintained between a fish gill and the surrounding water. 1. Answers should be written in continuous prose. Credit will be given for biological accuracy, the organisation and presentation of information and the way in which an answer is expressed. Fick s law

More information

SCIENCE 8 RESPIRATION

SCIENCE 8 RESPIRATION SCIENCE 8 RESPIRATION WHEN WE BREATHE, WHAT DO WE BREATHE IN? O2, N2, CO2, O3, NO2 (gas fumes), CO, pollutant, fragrants, toxins, etc. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF BREATHING IN? WHAT DOES OUR BODY WANT? O2 WHY?

More information

82 Respiratory Tract NOTES

82 Respiratory Tract NOTES 82 Respiratory Tract NOTES RESPIRATORY TRACT The respiratory tract conducts air to the lungs where gaseous exchange occurs. It is separated into air-conducting and respiratory (where gas exchange occurs)

More information

Respiratory System. Part 2

Respiratory System. Part 2 Respiratory System Part 2 Respiration Exchange of gases between air and body cells Three steps 1. Ventilation 2. External respiration 3. Internal respiration Ventilation Pulmonary ventilation consists

More information

Respiratory Pulmonary Ventilation

Respiratory Pulmonary Ventilation Respiratory Pulmonary Ventilation Pulmonary Ventilation Pulmonary ventilation is the act of breathing and the first step in the respiratory process. Pulmonary ventilation brings in air with a new supply

More information

(Slide 1) Lecture Notes: Respiratory System

(Slide 1) Lecture Notes: Respiratory System (Slide 1) Lecture Notes: Respiratory System I. (Slide 2) The Respiratory Tract A) Major structures and regions of the respiratory Tract/Route INTO body 1) nose 2) nasal cavity 3) pharynx 4) glottis 5)

More information

Alveolus and Respiratory Membrane

Alveolus and Respiratory Membrane Alveolus and Respiratory Membrane thin membrane where gas exchange occurs in the lungs, simple squamous epithelium (Squamous cells have the appearance of thin, flat plates. They fit closely together in

More information

Chapter 17 The Respiratory System: Gas Exchange and Regulation of Breathing

Chapter 17 The Respiratory System: Gas Exchange and Regulation of Breathing Chapter 17 The Respiratory System: Gas Exchange and Regulation of Breathing Overview of Pulmonary Circulation o Diffusion of Gases o Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide o Transport of Gases in the Blood

More information

Human gas exchange. Question Paper. Save My Exams! The Home of Revision. Cambridge International Examinations. 56 minutes. Time Allowed: Score: /46

Human gas exchange. Question Paper. Save My Exams! The Home of Revision. Cambridge International Examinations. 56 minutes. Time Allowed: Score: /46 Human gas exchange Question Paper Level Subject Exam oard Topic Sub Topic ooklet O Level iology ambridge International Examinations Respiration Human gas exchange Question Paper Time llowed: 56 minutes

More information

Respiratory System Review

Respiratory System Review KEY THIS TEST WILL BE COMPLETED IN ONE CLASS PERIOD MONDAY, MARCH 10. 2014 Respiratory System Review Name A. Directions: Fill in the blank with the appropriate vocabulary word or words (several examples

More information

Physiology Unit 4 RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY

Physiology Unit 4 RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY Physiology Unit 4 RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY In Physiology Today Respiration External respiration ventilation gas exchange Internal respiration cellular respiration gas exchange Respiratory Cycle Inspiration

More information

PARTS AND STRUCTURE OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

PARTS AND STRUCTURE OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM PARTS AND STRUCTURE OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Parts of the Respiratory System The RS can be divided into two parts: 1. Respiratory Tract, (path that air follows). Nasal passage Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchi,

More information

Animal Systems: The Respiratory System

Animal Systems: The Respiratory System Animal Systems: The Respiratory System Tissues, Organs, and Systems of Living Things Cells, Cell Division, and Animal Systems and Plant Systems Cell Specialization Human Systems The Digestive The Circulatory

More information

3. (a) countercurrent mechanism; helps maintain diffusion gradient; 2

3. (a) countercurrent mechanism; helps maintain diffusion gradient; 2 1. (a) (i) Fish has ventilation system which replaces water; highly oxygenated water (circulatory system brings in) blood with low concentration of oxygen/blood removes oxygen; counter current system/description;

More information

Explain how the structure of the gas exchange system of an insect ensures that there is a large surface area for gas exchange.

Explain how the structure of the gas exchange system of an insect ensures that there is a large surface area for gas exchange. 1 Gas exchange takes place by diffusion. surfacearea differenceinconcentration diffusion lengthof diffusionpath a The diagram shows part of an insect tracheal system. i Explain how the structure of the

More information

Vertebrate Respiration

Vertebrate Respiration Vertebrate Respiration Functions Gas Exchange we animals require oxygen and get rid of Carbon dioxide when too much of it makes the blood acidic, when lowering the ph of the blood it will interfere with

More information

Biology. Slide 1 of 53. End Show. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Biology. Slide 1 of 53. End Show. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology 1 of 53 Chapter 33 Comparing Chordates 2 of 53 This chapter is a good revision of the material we saw during Unit III. 3 of 53 4 of 53 Controlling Body Temperature The control of body temperature

More information

Chapter 13 The Respiratory System

Chapter 13 The Respiratory System Chapter 13 The Respiratory System by Dr. Jay M. Templin Brooks/Cole - Thomson Learning Atmosphere Tissue cell External respiration Alveoli of lungs 1 Ventilation or gas exchange between the atmosphere

More information

I Physical Principles of Gas Exchange

I Physical Principles of Gas Exchange Respiratory Gases Exchange Dr Badri Paudel, M.D. 2 I Physical Principles of Gas Exchange 3 Partial pressure The pressure exerted by each type of gas in a mixture Diffusion of gases through liquids Concentration

More information

Few processes are as vital for life as respiration. Acquisition of oxygen from the atmosphere is the primary purpose of respiration.

Few processes are as vital for life as respiration. Acquisition of oxygen from the atmosphere is the primary purpose of respiration. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Few processes are as vital for life as respiration. Acquisition of oxygen from the atmosphere is the primary purpose of respiration. Oxygen is the most important molecule contracted

More information

NOTES: CH 42, part 2 - Gas Exchange in Animals

NOTES: CH 42, part 2 - Gas Exchange in Animals NOTES: CH 42, part 2 - Gas Exchange in Animals Functions of the Respiratory System: 1) Air distribution / gaseous exchange; 2) Filter, warm & humidify air we breathe; 3) Influence speech; 4) Help maintain

More information

Physiology of Respiration

Physiology of Respiration Physiology of Respiration External Respiration = pulmonary ventilation breathing involves 2 processes: inspiration expiration Inspiration an active process involves contraction of diaphragm innervated

More information

Respiratory Physiology Gaseous Exchange

Respiratory Physiology Gaseous Exchange Respiratory Physiology Gaseous Exchange Session Objectives. What you will cover Basic anatomy of the lung including airways Breathing movements Lung volumes and capacities Compliance and Resistance in

More information

GASEOUS EXCHANGE IN HUMANS 06 AUGUST 2014

GASEOUS EXCHANGE IN HUMANS 06 AUGUST 2014 GASEOUS EXCHANGE IN HUMANS 06 AUGUST 2014 In this lesson we: Lesson Description Look at gaseous exchange in humans in terms of o Ventilation o Inspiration o Expiration o Transport of gases o Homeostatic

More information

Model Answer M.Sc. (III Semester) Zoology, Paper : LZT-304A (Fish Anatomy and Physiology) SECTION-A (Multiple choice questions)

Model Answer M.Sc. (III Semester) Zoology, Paper : LZT-304A (Fish Anatomy and Physiology) SECTION-A (Multiple choice questions) SECTION-A (Multiple choice questions) Q. 1-Answer (i) d (ii) c (iii) c (iv) d (v) a (vi) b (vii) b (viii) c (ix) b (x) c SECTION B (Descriptive type questions) Q. 2- Answer Transport of CO 2 and O 2 Oxygen

More information

Chapter 13 The Respiratory System

Chapter 13 The Respiratory System VI edit Pag 451-499 Chapter 13 The Respiratory System V edit. Pag 459-509 Tissue cell Alveoli of lungs Atmosphere 1 External respiration Ventilation or gas exchange between the atmosphere and air sacs

More information

Circulatory And Respiration

Circulatory And Respiration Circulatory And Respiration Composition Of Blood Blood Heart 200mmHg 120mmHg Aorta Artery Arteriole 50mmHg Capillary Bed Venule Vein Vena Cava Heart Differences Between Arteries and Veins Veins transport

More information

Collin County Community College. Lung Physiology

Collin County Community College. Lung Physiology Collin County Community College BIOL. 2402 Anatomy & Physiology WEEK 9 Respiratory System 1 Lung Physiology Factors affecting Ventillation 1. Airway resistance Flow = Δ P / R Most resistance is encountered

More information

GAS EXCHANGE & PHYSIOLOGY

GAS EXCHANGE & PHYSIOLOGY GAS EXCHANGE & PHYSIOLOGY Atmospheric Pressure Intra-Alveolar Pressure Inspiration 760 mm HG at Sea Level (= 1 atm) Pressure due to gases (N2, O2, CO2, Misc.) Pressure inside the alveolus (air sac) Phrenic

More information

Lung Volumes and Capacities

Lung Volumes and Capacities Lung Volumes and Capacities Normally the volume of air entering the lungs during a single inspiration is approximately equal to the volume leaving on the subsequent expiration and is called the tidal volume.

More information

PICU Resident Self-Study Tutorial The Basic Physics of Oxygen Transport. I was told that there would be no math!

PICU Resident Self-Study Tutorial The Basic Physics of Oxygen Transport. I was told that there would be no math! Physiology of Oxygen Transport PICU Resident Self-Study Tutorial I was told that there would be no math! INTRODUCTION Christopher Carroll, MD Although cells rely on oxygen for aerobic metabolism and viability,

More information

Oxygen and Carbon dioxide Transport. Dr. Laila Al-Dokhi

Oxygen and Carbon dioxide Transport. Dr. Laila Al-Dokhi Oxygen and Carbon dioxide Transport Dr. Laila Al-Dokhi Objectives 1. Understand the forms of oxygen transport in the blood, the importance of each. 2. Differentiate between O2 capacity, O2 content and

More information

(A) The partial pressure in the lungs is higher than in the blood, and oxygen diffuses out of the lungs passively.

(A) The partial pressure in the lungs is higher than in the blood, and oxygen diffuses out of the lungs passively. DAT Biology - Problem Drill 12: The Respiratory System Question No. 1 of 10 1. Which statement about the partial pressure of oxygen inside the lungs is correct? Question #01 (A) The partial pressure in

More information

Respiratory Lecture Test Questions Set 1

Respiratory Lecture Test Questions Set 1 Respiratory Lecture Test Questions Set 1 1. The term "respiration" in its most complete meaning is: a. breathing b. oxygen transport c. carbon dioxide transport d. cellular energy production e. all of

More information

Recitation question # 05

Recitation question # 05 Recitation and Lab # 05 The goal of this recitations / labs is to review material related to the CV and respiratory lectures for the second test of this course. Info required to answer this recitation

More information

Respiratory System Study Guide, Chapter 16

Respiratory System Study Guide, Chapter 16 Part I. Clinical Applications Name: Respiratory System Study Guide, Chapter 16 Lab Day/Time: 1. A person with ketoacidosis may hyperventilate. Explain why this occurs, and explain why this hyperventilation

More information

Introduction. Respiration. Chapter 10. Objectives. Objectives. The Respiratory System

Introduction. Respiration. Chapter 10. Objectives. Objectives. The Respiratory System Introduction Respiration Chapter 10 The Respiratory System Provides a means of gas exchange between the environment and the body Plays a role in the regulation of acidbase balance during exercise Objectives

More information

GAS EXCHANGE (Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide exchange with the environment)

GAS EXCHANGE (Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide exchange with the environment) Gas Exchange Lecture - 1 GAS EXCHANGE (Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide exchange with the environment) I. LIMITS TO AEROBIC METABOLISM (Factorial Scope 10 X) - Possible Causes? 1) Ventilation limit to how fast

More information

Cell Processes: Diffusion Part 2: Fick s Second Law

Cell Processes: Diffusion Part 2: Fick s Second Law MathBench- Australia Diffusion Part 2 December 2015 page 1 Cell Processes: Diffusion Part 2: Fick s Second Law URL: http://mathbench.org.au/cellular-processes/time-to-diffuse/ Fick s Second Law Learning

More information

Experiment B-3 Respiration

Experiment B-3 Respiration 1 Experiment B-3 Respiration Objectives To study the diffusion process of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli and pulmonary capillaries. To determine the percentage of oxygen in exhaled air while

More information

Lung Volumes and Capacities. To review first

Lung Volumes and Capacities. To review first Lung Volumes and Capacities To review first Age-old story: Age-related respiratory changes Structural changes Nose enlargement (from continued cartilage growth) General atrophy of the tonsils Tracheal

More information

The Respiratory System

The Respiratory System The Respiratory System (pages 112 120) Respiratory System Functions (pages 113 114) Key Concept: The respiratory system moves oxygen from the outside environment into the body. It also removes carbon dioxide

More information

Respiratory physiology II.

Respiratory physiology II. Respiratory physiology II. Learning objectives: 29. Pulmonary gas exchange. 30. Oxygen transport in the blood. 31. Carbon-dioxide transport in the blood. 1 Pulmonary gas exchange The transport mechanism

More information

Comparative Physiology 2007 First Midterm Exam. 1) 16 pts. 2) 12 pts. 3) 40 pts. 4) 10 pts. 5) 17 pts. 6) 5 pts. Total

Comparative Physiology 2007 First Midterm Exam. 1) 16 pts. 2) 12 pts. 3) 40 pts. 4) 10 pts. 5) 17 pts. 6) 5 pts. Total Name Comparative Physiology 2007 First Midterm Exam 1) 16 pts 2) 12 pts 3) 40 pts 4) 10 pts 5) 17 pts 6) 5 pts Total 1. All vertebrates yawn, yet we don t know why. A) Propose a possible functional explanation

More information

2803/01 Transport January 2004 Mark Scheme ADVICE TO EXAMINERS ON THE ANNOTATION OF SCRIPTS 1. Please ensure that you use the final version of the Mark Scheme. You are advised to destroy all draft versions.

More information

BIOLOGY 12 - RESPIRATION - CHAPTER NOTES

BIOLOGY 12 - RESPIRATION - CHAPTER NOTES BIOLOGY 12 - RESPIRATION - CHAPTER NOTES We often think of respiration as just breathing. In fact, breathing is just one part of this physiological process. As biologists, we divide respiration up into

More information

CHAPTER 6. Oxygen Transport. Copyright 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning

CHAPTER 6. Oxygen Transport. Copyright 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning CHAPTER 6 Oxygen Transport Normal Blood Gas Value Ranges Table 6-1 OXYGEN TRANSPORT Oxygen Dissolved in the Blood Plasma Dissolve means that the gas maintains its precise molecular structure About.003

More information

Chapter 22 The Respiratory System

Chapter 22 The Respiratory System Chapter 22 The Respiratory System 1 Respiration Pulmonary ventilation (breathing): movement of air into and out of the lungs External respiration: O 2 and CO 2 exchange between the lungs and the blood

More information

The Human Body. Everyone Needs Healthy Systems. Blood Vessels

The Human Body. Everyone Needs Healthy Systems. Blood Vessels The Human Body Everyone Needs Healthy Systems There are several systems that make up the human body. Although their functions differ, they all work together to keep your body running smoothly. Some of

More information

Section 01: The Pulmonary System

Section 01: The Pulmonary System Section 01: The Pulmonary System Chapter 12 Pulmonary Structure and Function Chapter 13 Gas Exchange and Transport Chapter 14 Dynamics of Pulmonary Ventilation HPHE 6710 Exercise Physiology II Dr. Cheatham

More information

Perch Circulatory System. By: Maddy Kelley

Perch Circulatory System. By: Maddy Kelley Perch Circulatory System By: Maddy Kelley Organs involved in the circulatory system Two chambered heart: the simplest type of a true heart. Is a two chambered organ composed of one ventricle and one atrium.

More information

The Respiratory System

The Respiratory System Name Date Class The Respiratory System (pages 564-572) Respiratory System Functions (pages 565-566) Key Concept: The respiratory system moves oxygen from the outside environment into the body. It also

More information

Unit 8 B: Respiration

Unit 8 B: Respiration Unit 8 B: Respiration Respiration: Respiration is a chemical reaction that happens in all living cells. It is the way that energy is released from glucose, for our cells to use to keep us functioning.

More information

Fishes and Amphibians Objectives

Fishes and Amphibians Objectives Fishes and Amphibians Objectives List the four common body parts of chordates. Describe the two main characteristics of vertebrates. Explain the difference between an ectotherm and an endotherm. Describe

More information

Table of Contents. By Adam Hollingworth

Table of Contents. By Adam Hollingworth By Adam Hollingworth Table of Contents Oxygen Cascade... 2 Diffusion... 2 Laws of Diffusion... 2 Diffusion & Perfusion Limitations... 3 Oxygen Uptake Along Pulmon Capillary... 4 Measurement of Diffusing

More information

Lab 17. The Respiratory System. Laboratory Objectives

Lab 17. The Respiratory System. Laboratory Objectives Lab 17 The Respiratory System Laboratory Objectives Identify and describe the anatomical structures of the respiratory system. Describe the relationship between volume and pressure. Describe changes in

More information

Yanal. Jumana Jihad. Jamil Nazzal. 0 P a g e

Yanal. Jumana Jihad. Jamil Nazzal. 0 P a g e 2 Yanal Jumana Jihad Jamil Nazzal 0 P a g e note: this sheet was written and corrected according to the records from section 2 so you may find differences in the arrangement of topics from the records

More information

What does the % represent on the beakers?

What does the % represent on the beakers? DISSOLVED OXYGEN VIDEO FAQs What does the % represent on the beakers? What are the glass tubes to beakers for? How is the temperature being kept the same (at 5 o then 35 o )? What is salinity in parts

More information

UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION MUST, AT ALL TIMES, ACCEPT THE ENTIRE CARDIAC OUTPUT

UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION MUST, AT ALL TIMES, ACCEPT THE ENTIRE CARDIAC OUTPUT UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION MUST, AT ALL TIMES, ACCEPT THE ENTIRE CARDIAC OUTPUT UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION

More information

Capnography in the Veterinary Technician Toolbox. Katie Pinner BS, LVT Bush Advanced Veterinary Imaging Richmond, VA

Capnography in the Veterinary Technician Toolbox. Katie Pinner BS, LVT Bush Advanced Veterinary Imaging Richmond, VA Capnography in the Veterinary Technician Toolbox Katie Pinner BS, LVT Bush Advanced Veterinary Imaging Richmond, VA What are Respiration and Ventilation? Respiration includes all those chemical and physical

More information

Animal Diversity. Kingdom Animalia

Animal Diversity. Kingdom Animalia 7ch11 Animal Diversity Kingdom Animalia Animal Characteristics 1. animals are eukaryotes and are multicellular 2. cells are specialized for different functions (vision,digestion,reproduction) 3. protein,

More information

Fishes are vertebrates that have characteristics allowing them to live and reproduce in water.

Fishes are vertebrates that have characteristics allowing them to live and reproduce in water. Section 1: are vertebrates that have characteristics allowing them to live and reproduce in water. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What I Learned Essential Questions What are the features of

More information

Chapter 23. Gas Exchange and Transportation

Chapter 23. Gas Exchange and Transportation Chapter 23 Gas Exchange and Transportation What is air? Mixture of gasses 78.6 % nitrogen 20.9% oxygen 0.04% carbon dioxide 0 4% water vapor depending on temperature and humidity and minor gases argon,

More information

Pulmonary Circulation Linda Costanzo Ph.D.

Pulmonary Circulation Linda Costanzo Ph.D. Pulmonary Circulation Linda Costanzo Ph.D. OBJECTIVES: After studying this lecture, the student should understand: 1. The differences between pressures in the pulmonary and systemic circulations. 2. How

More information

Lecture 8: Heme/Non Heme Iron Proteins and O 2 Management II. Plus a bit of catalysis in Oxygen processes

Lecture 8: Heme/Non Heme Iron Proteins and O 2 Management II. Plus a bit of catalysis in Oxygen processes Lecture 8: Heme/Non Heme Iron Proteins and O 2 Management II Plus a bit of catalysis in Oxygen processes Hemoglobin Key Properties Ubiquitous O2 transport protein A globular soluble protein, 2X2 chains

More information