# THE USE OF Z FACTORS IN GRAVIMETRIC VOLUME MEASUREMENTS

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "THE USE OF Z FACTORS IN GRAVIMETRIC VOLUME MEASUREMENTS"

## Transcription

1 THE USE OF Z FACTORS IN GRAVIMETRIC VOLUME MEASUREMENTS Author: T. Mautjana NMISA Private Bag X 34 Lynwood Ridge; Phone: ; Fax: Abstract Using gravimetric method to determine volume is based on the determination of mass with a balance of water delivered or contained. This method requires monitoring of the environmental conditions. There is a need to convert mass of the liquid to volume which must take into account the density of the liquid and evaporation during the cycle time. The Z factor must take into account the air density and density of the mass pieces used to calibrate the balance and the density of water adjusted to local temperature and pressure. This paper discusses the equation for calculating volume conversion factors (Z) and gives typical examples for different liquids. 1. Introduction Volume measurements are important in industrial and analytical measurements operations. The instruments are common in field like chemistry, pharmacy, biology (biochemistry, microbiology), etc. It is important that these instruments give reliable and accurate results during operation to give the end user confidence in measurement results. The instrument would normally get calibrated using gravimetric method which links them directly with the SI unit of mass [1]. It is therefore vital that possible errors be eliminated through the use of correct method and it is important to understand formulae (their conditions) and any applicable correction factors which might be necessary to give accurate results. 2. Gravimetric method The standard method used by NMI s and accredited laboratory to determine volume of high accurate instrument is to weigh the liquid. The method requires the weighing of empty and full volumetric measure or the content of the measure/instrument can be emptied into a weighing vessel following a specified procedure [1]. This method should be carried out in a laboratory with stable environmental conditions. Temperature control is recommended as temperatures of liquid and the measure/instrument must be stabilized, and monitored.

2 The method requires liquid of high purity to be used as density has a large influence on the calibration result. Thus high accuracy of temperature measurement is also important [2]. Volume measurements using gravimetric method require weighing the contents of a liquid of known temperature and density. The liquid mass measurements need to be converted into volume from the knowledge or determination of densities of the liquid. The conversion from mass to volume must take into account the density of the liquid, air buoyancy as well as the evaporation during the weighing cycle [4]. Volume at the measured temperature can be calculated from V i = (M i + e)z (1) Where M i e Z is the mass as read on the balance or differences in balance indication average evaporation loss during the weighing cycle is a conversion factor incorporating density of water, air density at test temperature and barometric pressure Evaporation that occurs during the measurements depends on temperature, humidity and cycle time. It has noticeable effect on small volume measurements less than 50 µl [5]. Volume measurements require that reference temperature (generally 20 o C) be reported as volume depends on the temperature. Reference temperature is normally the temperature at which volume measure is intended to contain or deliver its nominal volume. Thus volume at measured temperature would generally require to be converted to reference temperature such as at 20 o C, therefore equation 1 would become 2.1 Estimation of the Z factor V 20 = (M i + e)z[1 γ(t 20)] (2) The Z factor is not just equal to the density of liquid adjusted to the local temperature and pressure. It also takes into account the air density and density of weights used to calibrate the balance. Z factor is calculated as Where 1 Z = [( )(1 ρ A )] (3) ρ L ρ A ρ B ρ A - density of air ρ L - density of the liquid ρ B - density of the weights used for balance calibration

3 The air density (ρ A ) to be considered is (in principle) the density of the air inside the volumetric instrument and displaced when the instrument is filled with liquid. It is generally assumed that the ambient air density does not change significantly between and during weighing. This ensures that buoyancy effect exerted on the instrument is constant. If the ambient air changes, the true mass of the instrument must be determined for each weighing [3]. The environmental or ambient conditions influence the air density determination. Density of the liquid can be determined or obtained from formulae given in literature. Batista and Paton [1] detailed differences in volume as a result of using different density formulae which are common in practice. Density of the weights/mass pieces is presented in the calibration certificate of the weights or alternatively according to OIML R111-1, it can be deduced from the weight class used for balance calibration [7]. 3. Typical Examples of Z factor Calculation Values of the conversion factor Z (µl/mg) as a function of temperature and pressure as given in literature is mainly for distilled water. When other liquids other than distilled water are used or measured, correction factors (Z factors) for the specific liquid would have to be determined. The conversion factors presented in tables 1 to 4 below present typical examples of corrections to be applied for different liquids at specific temperatures and atmospheric pressure. Table 1: Values for Z factor as a function of temperature and pressure for distilled water Distilled water ρ w ( to )kg/m Table 2: Values for Z factor as a function of temperature and pressure for sea water Sea water ρ w ( to )kg/m ρ w sourced from [6]

4 Table 3: Values for Z factor as a function of temperature and pressure for Toluene Toluene ρ w (869 to 862.3)kg/m Table 4: Values for Z factor as a function of temperature and pressure for Benzene Benzene ρ w (884 to 873.8)kg/m Effect of Z factor on the volume measurement indicated as the difference from nominal; where positive indicate an increase in volume while negative sign indicate a decrease in volume. Table 5 below provides various volume measures at a temperature of 20 o C and atmospheric pressure of 864 hpa corrected with respective Z factors. Table 5: Effect of Z factors on volume Measurement Z (Distilled Z (Sea H 2 0) Z (Toluene) Z (Benzene) H 2 0) (M i + e) V (ml) V (ml) V (ml) V (ml) Conclusions It could be seen in table 5 above that incorrect use of correction factor can have a significant influence in volume determination. Table 5 also showed that the effect increases with an increase in nominal volume. It is therefore critical for one to ensure that the volume correction factors applied are correct for the intended liquid.

5 5. References: 1. Batista E and Paton R (2007). The selection of water property formulae for volume and flow calibration. BIPM and IOP Publishing Ltd, Metrologia 44 (2007) B F van der Merwe, Calibration of volume standards, November 2008, NML EURAMET cg-19. Calibration guide: Guidelines on the determination of uncertainty in gravimetric volume calibration, version 2.1 (03/2012), ISBN Gilson guide to pipetting, Second Edition. 5. ISO :2002(E), International Standard, Piston-operated volumetric apparatus, Part 6: Gravimetric methods for the determination of measurement error 6. ITTC- Recommended Procedures: Fresh water and Seawater properties.(2011) Revision OIML R Edition 2004 (E). International Recommendation. Weights of class E 1, E 2, F 1, F 2, M 1, M 1-2, M 2-3, and M 3. Part 1: Metrological and technical requirements

### Chapter Pipette service & maintenance. Pipette specifications according to ISO Repair in the lab or return for service?

Pipette specifications according to ISO 8655 Chapter 5 5.1 The ISO 8655 standard gives the accuracy and precision limits as both absolute and relative values. Specifications will depend on the technique

More information

### Buoyancy Does it Matter?

Buoyancy Does it Matter? Speaker / Author: N.J. Tayler SANAS Private Bag X23, Sunnyside, 0132, South Africa e-mail : nevillet@sanas.co.za Phone: 012 394 3782 Fax: 012 394 4782 Abstract There is often the

More information

### Traceable calibration of automatic weighing instruments in dynamic operation

Traceable calibration of automatic weighing instruments in dynamic operation Matej Grum* Metrology Institute of the Republic of Slovenia, Grudnovo nabrežje 17, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia Abstract. The article

More information

### Calibrating Piston Pipettes

MSL Technical Guide 3 Calibrating Piston Pipettes Introduction Piston pipettes are used extensively in a variety of applications for transferring known volumes of liquid for example; for drug testing in

More information

### MSL Technical Guide 30. Calibrating Piston Pipettes. Introduction. Piston Pipettes. Calibrating Piston Pipettes overview

MSL Technical Guide 30 Calibrating Piston Pipettes Introduction Piston pipettes are used extensively in a variety of applications for transferring known volumes of liquid for example; for drug testing

More information

### Predicted Dispense Volume vs. Gravimetric Measurement for the MICROLAB 600. November 2010

Predicted Dispense Volume vs. Gravimetric Measurement for the MICROLAB 600 November 2010 Table of Contents ``Abstract...3 ``Introduction...4 ``Methods & Results...6 ``Data Analysis...9 ``Conclusion...12

More information

### Improve pipetting results in pharmaceutical formulation by using MICROMAN E

Improve pipetting results in pharmaceutical formulation by using MICROMAN E Application Note LT805005 Nadège Belhadj, Gilson, France nbelhadj@gilson.com In pharmaceutical formulation, properties of used

More information

### Transferpette. Testing Instructions (SOP) 1. Introduction. May 2009

Transferpette Testing Instructions (SOP) May 2009 1. Introduction The standards DIN EN ISO 8655 describe both the design and the testing of the piston operated pipette Transferpette. The following Testing

More information

### MET-101 Introduction to Metrology

Pasig city Tel: 654-13-42 MET-101 Introduction to Metrology This 2-day course offers a basic introduction into Metrology, meant for people who are working in calibration and testing labs, maintenance services

More information

### Gas flow calibrations performed at the National Metrology Institute of South Africa (NMISA)

Int. J. Metrol. Qual. Eng. 5, 303 (2014) c EDP Sciences 2014 DOI: 10.1051/ijmqe/2014012 Gas flow calibrations performed at the National Metrology Institute of South Africa (NMISA) D. Jonker and E.P. Tarnow

More information

### KENYA ACCREDITATION SERVICE

KENAS-GUD-016 01 16/03/2013 16 / 04/2013 GUD Page 1 of 18 Approval and Authorisation Completion of the following signature blocks signifies the review and approval of this Document. Name Job Title / Role

More information

### MULTICHANNEL. Labnet International, Inc.

Labnet International, Inc. A B A1 A2 C F D H E 4A 4B 4C 4D G CONTENTS 1 - INTRODUCTION 2 - VOLUME SETTING 3 - METHOD OF PIPETTING 4 - RECOMMENDATIONS - RECALIBRATION 6 - CLEANING AND STERYLIZATION 7 -

More information

### Organisation Internationale de Métrologie Légale. Direct mass flow measuring systems for quantities of liquids Annex C: Test report format

Organisation Internationale de Métrologie Légale OIML INTERNATIONAL RECOMMENDATION Direct mass flow measuring systems for quantities of liquids Annex C: Test report format Ensembles de mesurage massiques

More information

### CH2250: Techniques in Laboratory Chemistry. Outline Measuring Mass Measuring Volume Significant figures. Mass Measurement

CH2250: Techniques in Laboratory Chemistry Outline Measuring Mass Measuring Volume Significant figures Mass Measurement Mass Measurement Measure mass not weight Mass is measured with a balance (a scale

More information

### Inquiry Module 1: Checking the calibration of a micropipette

Inquiry Module 1: Checking the calibration of a micropipette 1. Introduction Larger volumes (1mL and more) are usually measured using pipets or measuring cylinders. Such cylinders and pipets are labelled

More information

### INTERNATIONAL OIML R 32 RECOMMENDATION. Rotary piston gas meters and turbine gas meters ORGANISATION INTERNATIONALE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION

INTERNATIONAL OIML R 32 RECOMMENDATION Edition 1989 (E) Rotary piston gas meters and turbine gas meters Compteurs de volume de gaz à pistons rotatifs et compteurs de volume de gaz à turbine OIML R 32 Edition

More information

### Fisherbrand. Finnpipette INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE PARK LANE Pittsburgh PA

Fisherbrand Finnpipette INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE 1 0. 0 1 0. 0 0 2000 PARK LANE Pittsburgh PA 15275 800-766-7000 1 CONTENTS PRODUCT DESCRIPTION 3 PIPETTE OPERATION 4 PIPETTING TECHNIQUES 4, 5 CALIBRATION 6,

More information

### Register your instrument! Eppendorf Xplorer / Eppendorf Xplorer plus. Adjustment

lorer /Eppendorf N) t Xplorer plus Register your instrument! www.eppendorf.com/myeppendorf Eppendorf Xplorer / Eppendorf Xplorer plus Adjustment Copyright 2015 Eppendorf AG, Germany. All rights reserved,

More information

### Organisation Internationale de Métrologie Légale

Organisation Internationale de Métrologie Légale OIML INTERNATIONAL RECOMMENDATION Pressure balances Manomètres à piston OIML R 110 Edition 1994 (E) CONTENTS Foreword... 3 1 Scope... 4 2 Terminology...

More information

### INTERNATIONAL STANDARD

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 8655-4 First edition 2002-09-15 Piston-operated volumetric apparatus Part 4: Dilutors Appareils volumétriques à piston Partie 4: Diluteurs Reference number ISO 8655-4:2002(E)

More information

### Transferpette. Lightweight precise rugged reliable!

Lightweight precise rugged reliable! Transferpette Solutions for S cience F I R S T C L A S S B R A N D The Transferpette S microliter pipettes provide all features required for pipetting in Life Science

More information

### Chapter 13 Fluids. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13 Fluids Phases of Matter Density and Specific Gravity Pressure in Fluids Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure Pascal s Principle Units of Chapter 13 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the

More information

### ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY APPROVAL PROGRAM CERTIFICATION MANUAL

1 of 7 The quality assurance plan as presented in the Quality Manual should assure that constant and consistent test conditions are met and verified and should be tailored to the laboratory s activities.

More information

### Calibration of Volumetric Glassware

Calibration of Volumetric Glassware Introduction This set of laboratory experiments is designed to introduce you to some of the apparatus and operations you will be using during the remainder of this course,

More information

### Maximum precision for quantifiable success.

Accredited calibration gas mixtures Maximum precision for quantifiable success. Reference materials and other accredited calibration gas mixtures. 02 Accredited calibration gas mixtures It s now official:

More information

### Sartorius CCL kg Prototype Mass Comparator

Sartorius CCL1007 1 kg Prototype Mass Comparator For Dissemination of the Mass Scale and Calibration of Weights Sartorius has developed a unique mass comparator with the Bureau International des Poids

More information

### CHM 100 / Introductory Laboratory Experiment (r10) 1/11

CHM 100 / 110 - Introductory Laboratory Experiment (r10) 1/11 Purpose This introductory exercise will familiarize you with a few of the measurements we make in the chemistry laboratory and the level of

More information

### A N B P F G J I C D D L A B C D E F

A1 A2 B P C E A N F G J I C L A B C E F 4 5 6 4A 4B 4C 4 5A 6A 2-1000 µl P 5B P 6B 5000 µl, 10000 µl 6C 5000 µl, 10000 µl 7 CONTENTS 1 - INTROUCTlON 2 - SETTING THE VOLUME 3 - ASPIRATING AN ISPENSING LIQUIS

More information

### Quantos Automated Dosing Solution Preparation Precise concentrations Process compliance Minimize out-of-specs

Quantos Automated Dosing Solution Preparation Precise concentrations Process compliance Minimize out-of-specs Gravimetric Sample Preparation The Alternative to Volumetric Flasks From Volumetric to Gravimetric

More information

### Hands-On Experiment Density and Measurement

Hands-On Experiment Density and Measurement GOALS: 1. To measure liquid volume as accurately as possible with graduated cylinders. 2. To measure the volume of irregular shaped solid objects by liquid volume

More information

### AD-1653 DENSITY DETERMINATION KIT. Applicable analytical balance models BM series GH series HR-i series GR series HR series HA series 1WMPD B

This document hosted by: www.oldwillknottscales.com AD-1653 DENSITY DETERMINATION KIT Applicable analytical balance models BM series GH series HR-i series GR series HR series HA series 1WMPD4000728B 2012

More information

### Determination of the Gas-Law Constant (R) using CO2

Determination of the Gas-Law Constant (R) using CO2 EXPERIMENT 11 Prepared by Edward L. Brown and Miranda Raines, Lee University The student will become familiar with ideal gases and how their properties

More information

### Chem 110 General Principles of Chemistry

CHEM110 Worksheet - Gases Chem 110 General Principles of Chemistry Chapter 9 Gases (pages 337-373) In this chapter we - first contrast gases with liquids and solids and then discuss gas pressure. - review

More information

### AP Lab 11.3 Archimedes Principle

ame School Date AP Lab 11.3 Archimedes Principle Explore the Apparatus We ll use the Buoyancy Apparatus in this lab activity. Before starting this activity check to see if there is an introductory video

More information

### INTERNATIONAL STANDARD

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 8655-1 First edition 2002-09-15 Piston-operated volumetric apparatus Part 1: Terminology, general requirements and user recommendations Appareils volumétriques à piston Partie

More information

### Density Determination Kit Instruction Manual

Visit www.balances.com to see the full line of Ohaus Balances Instruction Manual This Kit is compatible with OHAUS Adventurer, Adventurer Pro (except AV5x), Adventurer SL (except AS15x), Pioneer, Explorer

More information

### 25/04/56. LTC Carmen A. Bell Chief, Laboratory Operations USAMC-AFRIMS

Pipette Theory and Maintenance LTC Carmen A. Bell Chief, Laboratory Operations USAMC-AFRIMS carmen.bell@afrims.org +6602-696-2725 1 References Pharma Express: http://pharma.financialexpress.com/2008063

More information

### THERMODYNAMICS OF A GAS PHASE REACTION: DISSOCIATION OF N 2 O 4

THERMODYNAMICS OF A GAS PHASE REACTION: DISSOCIATION OF N 2 O 4 OBJECTIVES 1. To measure the equilibrium constant, enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy change of the reaction N2O4(g) = 2 NO2(g). 2.

More information

### Hydrostatics Physics Lab XI

Hydrostatics Physics Lab XI Objective Students will discover the basic principles of buoyancy in a fluid. Students will also quantitatively demonstrate the variance of pressure with immersion depth in

More information

### Varipette Operating manual

Operating manual Copyright 2013 Eppendorf AG, Hamburg. No part of this publication may be reproduced without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Eppendorf and the Eppendorf logo are registered

More information

### LAB 14 EDITION 5 July 2015

LAB 14 EDITION 5 July 2015 In-house Calibration and Use of Weighing Machines CONTENTS SECTION PAGE 1 Introduction 2 2 Calibration of weights 2 3 Considerations in the use of weighing machines 5 4 In-house

More information

### The Ideal Gas Constant

Chem 2115 Experiment # 8 The Ideal Gas Constant OBJECTIVE: This experiment is designed to provide experience in gas handling methods and experimental insight into the relationships between pressure, volume,

More information

### 2. Pressure Conversions (Add to your Conversion Sheet

The Gas Law Reference Sheet 1. The Kelvin Temperature Scale Degrees Kelvin = C + 273 Convert to K 1) 27 C 2) 0. C 3) 48 C 4) 16 C 5) 106 C 2. Pressure Conversions (Add to your Conversion Sheet 1 mm Hg

More information

### MICROMAN ENGLISH. Other languages can be consulted and downloaded on our website,

MICROMAN ENGLISH Other languages can be consulted and downloaded on our website, www.gilson.com. MICROMAN CONTENTS page 1 - INTRODUCTION 2 2 - Parts Check List 3 3 - DESCRIPTION 4 4 - OPERATING Ranges

More information

### Density Determination Kit 1WMPD A

GXA-13 Density Determination Kit 1WMPD4003565A 2017 A&D Company, Limited. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, or translated into any language in

More information

### ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE AND THE COMPUTATION OF BUOYANT FORCES. Alexis Rodriguez-Carlson

ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE AND THE COMPUTATION OF BUOYANT FORCES Alexis Rodriguez-Carlson September 20, 2006 Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to show that the buoyant force acting on an object submerged

More information

### OXFORD CALIBRATION WEIGHTS CLASS E1, E2, F1

OXFORD CALIBRATION WEIGHTS CLASS E1,, and TECHNICAL INFORMATION EuroCal Calibration Services - Balance service and calibration - Weight calibration - Pipette service and calibration GENERAL SPECIFICATION

More information

### Unique mounting features for Thermal Mass Flow Meters. By Martin Raab in cooperation with CaTeC b.v.

Unique mounting features for Thermal Mass Flow Meters By Martin Raab in cooperation with CaTeC b.v. Development and production of sensors and transmitters for: humidity dew point CO2 O2 air velocity mass

More information

### GMC-I Service GmbH Calibration Center

2016 GMC-I Service GmbH Calibration Center DAkkS, ISO & Factorycalibration www.gmci-service.com From spare parts, reparation, rental service, maintenance of industrial health and safety standards, calibration

More information

### PHY131H1S - Class 23. Today: Fluids Pressure Pascal s Law Gauge Pressure Buoyancy, Archimedes Principle. A little pre-class reading quiz

PHY131H1S - Class 23 Today: Fluids Pressure Pascal s Law Gauge Pressure Buoyancy, Archimedes Principle Archimedes (287-212 BC) was asked to check the amount of silver alloy in the king s crown. The answer

More information

### Lab 3 Introduction to Quantitative Analysis: Pumps and Measurements of Flow

Georgia Institute of Technology School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences EAS 4641, Spring 2008 Lab 3 Introduction to Quantitative Analysis: Pumps and Measurements of Flow Purpose of Lab 3: 1) To gain a

More information

### JOS 15 JOS 25 JOS 40. Manual and semiautomatic test benches from DN 25 to DN 40. Characteristics. Basic characteristics. Test bench using balances

TEST BENCHES JOS 15 JOS 25 JOS 40 Manual and semiautomatic test benches from DN 25 to DN 40 02 Characteristics Compact test benches - all in one room Designation - for residential and apartment meters

More information

### More About Solids, Liquids and Gases ASSIGNMENT

More About Solids, Liquids and Gases ASSIGNMENT 1. Fill in the blank spaces by choosing the correct words from the list given below: List : water, density, altitudes, lateral, intermolecular, force, cohesion,

More information

### EN ISO/IEC Technical Requirements

EN ISO/IEC 17025 - Technical Requirements Wolfgang Garche Environmental Protection Agency Department Air Quality Monitoring, Information, Assessment 1 What means accreditation in accordance to EN ISO/IEC

More information

### Experiment 8 GAS LAWS

Experiment 8 GAS LAWS FV 6/25/2017 MATERIALS: Amontons Law apparatus, Boyle s Law apparatus, Avogadro s Corollary apparatus, four beakers (2 L), warm-water bath, ice, barometer, digital thermometer, air

More information

### Determination of R: The Gas-Law Constant

Determination of R: The Gas-Law Constant PURPOSE: EXPERIMENT 9 To gain a feeling for how well real gases obey the ideal-gas law and to determine the ideal-gas-law constant R. APPARATUS AND CHEMICALS: KClO

More information

### Density and Buoyancy Notes

Density and Buoyancy Notes Measuring Mass and Volume 3.1 Density A balance can be used to measure the mass of an object. If the object is a liquid, pour it into a graduated cylinder to measure the volume.

More information

### Adjust the Volume Display

PIPETTING TECHNIquES Chapter 2 PIPETTING TECHNIquES Adjust the Volume Display The volume is shown on the volumeter Reading and Adjusting the Volume Hold the body of the micropipette in one hand and use

More information

### Multiple Representations of Buoyancy. Meredith Weglarz, Jessica Oliveira, James Vesenka University of New England, Department of Chemistry and Physics

Multiple Representations of Buoyancy Meredith Weglarz, Jessica Oliveira, James Vesenka University of New England, Department of Chemistry and Physics Abstract: A modeling lab exercise, based on multiple,

More information

### TITLE OF THE CD (English): Revision OIML R 71 Fixed Storage Tanks - General Requirements

COMMITTEE DRAFT OIML CD2 Date: 13 December 2005 Reference number: Supersedes document: OIML R 71 CD1 OIML TC8 / SC1 / WG2 Circulated to P- and O-members and liaison international bodies and external organisations

More information

### Research and Development. Money in the Pipeline

On-line gas chromatography Gerard Nieuwenkamp Research and Development Money in the Pipeline Delft, 2 November 2010 Natural gas metering 2" 2" 65 m3/h usm 6" 400 m3/h M etering runs 2500 m3/h Gas Oil Piston

More information

### Stability and traceability of calibration gases for EN 14181

Stability and traceability of calibration gases for EN 14181 Stephen Mellor Especialista de Produto Product Specialist Analytical, Air Products Plc, United Kingdom DOSSIER EMISSÕES E MONITORIZAÇÃO ESTABILIDADE

More information

### Fluids, Pressure and buoyancy

Fluids, Pressure and buoyancy Announcements: CAPA due Friday at 10pm. Comment on the hint in Problem 5. CAPA solutions from previous sets can be found by logging onto CAPA and selecting View Previous Set

More information

### The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points:

Exercise 5-3 Wet Reference Leg EXERCISE OBJECTIVE Learn to measure the level in a vessel using a wet reference leg. DISCUSSION OUTLINE The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: Measuring

More information

### 2014 Programme of Training Courses in Measurement & Calibration

2014 Programme of Training Courses in Measurement & Calibration NSAI National Metrology Laboratory offers public courses to help individuals gain the skills that they require in the field of Measurement

More information

### Chapter 2. Pipetting techniques. Guide to Pipetting

Chapter 2 Pipetting techniques 16 Guide to Pipetting 2.1 Adjust the volume display CHAPTER 2 Reading and adjusting the volume The volume is shown on the volumeter Hold the body of the micropipette in one

More information

### A N B P G J I C D L D E

A1 A2 B P A N F C D E G J I C D L CONTENTS 1 - INTRODUCTION 2 - SETTING THE VOLUME 3 - OPERATION 4 - PRE-RINSING 5 - DENSE AND VISCOUS LIQUIDS 6 - DENVILLE PIPETTE TIPS 7 - RECOMMENDATIONS 8 - RECALIBRATION

More information

### OIML R 71 RECOMMENDATION. Edition 2008 (E) ORGANISATION INTERNATIONALE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION. Fixed storage tanks. General requirements

INTERNATIONAL RECOMMENDATION OIML R 71 Edition 2008 (E) Fixed storage tanks. General requirements Réservoirs de stockage fixes. Prescriptions générales OIML R 71 Edition 2008 (E) ORGANISATION INTERNATIONALE

More information

### Chapter 13 Fluids. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13 Fluids Phases of Matter Density and Specific Gravity Pressure in Fluids Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure Pascal s Principle Units of Chapter 13 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the

More information

### Physics 1021 Experiment 4. Buoyancy

1 Physics 1021 Buoyancy 2 Buoyancy Apparatus and Setup Materials Force probe 1000 ml beaker Vernier Calipers Plastic cylinder String or paper clips Assorted bars and clamps Water Attach the force probe

More information

### Volume Determination for 2 kg~20 kg in NIM

Volume Determination for 2 kg~20 kg in NIM Yao Hong 1 Wang Jian 1 Ding Jing an 1 Guo Lixiong 2 Zhong Ruilin 1 1 Mass Standard Lab, Mechanical and Acoustic Metrology Division, NIM, China 2 SMERI, Shanghai,

More information

### CALIBRATION CERTIFICATE # 500

CALIBRATION CERTIFICATE # 5 Calibration date : -- Certificate issued : --8 Company name Company address City, Province, Canada CLAS 9- Calibration of Mass flow meter Brooks SLA585S S/N : ABCD QUALITY PROGRAM

More information

### mass of container full of air = g mass of container with extra air = g volume of air released = cm 3

1992 Q32 The air pressure inside the passenger cabin of an airliner is 9 x 10 4 Pa when the airliner is at its cruising height. The pressure of the outside atmosphere at this height is 4 x 10 4 Pa. Calculate

More information

### SIM MWG7 Mass and Related Quantities. Report to CCM

SIM MWG7 Mass and Related Quantities Report to CCM SIM Sistema Interamericano de Metrología A very extended RMO Distance NRC (Ottawa) LATU (Montevideo) > 9100 km Some conparisons have to be organized by

More information

### Truck-mounted Mass Flow Metering for LPG Delivery

Truck-mounted Mass Flow Metering for LPG Delivery Itron, Inc. 1310 Emerald Rd. Greenwood, SC 29646 Introduction The mathematician Gustave De Coriolis first described the Coriolis Effect, which is an inertial

More information

### STANDARDS FOR COMPRESSED GAS TESTING

STANDARDS FOR COMPRESSED GAS TESTING APPLICATION NOTE HPD-002 (US) Introduction This publication provides excerpts from some of the many guidelines and standards that pertain to compressed gases in cleanrooms.

More information

### Objective To identify a pure liquid substance using the physical properties of solubility, density, and boiling point.

Chemistry 1020 Identification of an Unknown Liquid Objective To identify a pure liquid substance using the physical properties of solubility, density, and boiling point. Text reference solubility, density,

More information

### THE NEW SARTORIUS 1KG-PROTOTYPE BALANCE FOR HIGH PRECISION MASS DETERMINATION

THE NEW SARTORIUS 1KG-PROTOTYPE BALANCE FOR HIGH PRECISION MASS DETERMINATION Thomas Fehling 1, Thomas Fröhlich 1, Detlef Heydenbluth 2 1 Sartorius AG Göttingen, Germany 2 Technical University of Ilmenau,

More information

### Precision level sensing with low-pressure module MS

The task on hand Level sensing as it is understood in modern process automation is much more than simply "tank half full" or "tank a quarter full". Using suitable sensors, levels, inlets and outlets can

More information

### Phys101 Lectures Fluids I. Key points: Pressure and Pascal s Principle Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle. Ref: 10-1,2,3,4,5,6,7.

Phys101 Lectures 24-25 luids I Key points: Pressure and Pascal s Principle Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle Ref: 10-1,2,3,4,5,6,7. Page 1 10-1 Phases of Matter The three common phases of matter are solid,

More information

### METROLOGICAL ASSURENCE OF O3, CO2, CH4 AND CO CONTROL IN ATMOSPHERE

METROLOGICAL ASSURENCE OF O3, CO2, CH4 AND CO CONTROL IN ATMOSPHERE Leonid A. Konopelko Yuri A. Kustikov Vitaly V. Beloborodov Dmitry N. Selukov D.I.Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology (VNIIM), 19 Moskovsky

More information

### CHEM 355 EXPERIMENT 7. Viscosity of gases: Estimation of molecular diameter

CHEM 355 EXPERIMENT 7 Viscosity of gases: Estimation of molecular diameter Expressed most simply, the viscosity of a fluid (liquid or gas) relates to its resistance to flow. The viscosity of a gas is determined

More information

### Additional Information

Buoyancy Additional Information Any object, fully or partially immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. Archimedes of Syracuse Archimedes principle

More information

### Chapter 13 Gases, Vapors, Liquids, and Solids

Chapter 13 Gases, Vapors, Liquids, and Solids Property is meaning any measurable characteristic of a substance, such as pressure, volume, or temperature, or a characteristic that can be calculated or deduced,

More information

### LEAP CO 2 Laboratory CO 2 mixtures test facility

LEAP CO 2 Laboratory CO 2 mixtures test facility THE PROJECT AIM CO 2 flows made available by several capture techniques are contaminated with impurities and this affects the design and operations of the

More information

### Technical Note. Determining the surface tension of liquids by measurements on pendant drops

Technical Note Pendant Drop Measurements Technical note: TN316e Industry section: all Author: FT, TW Date: 12/2010 Method: Drop Shape Analyzer DSA100 Keywords: Methods, surface tension, interfacial tension,

More information

### Another convenient term is gauge pressure, which is a pressure measured above barometric pressure.

VACUUM Theory and Applications Vacuum may be defined as the complete emptiness of a given volume. It is impossible to obtain a perfect vacuum, but it is possible to obtain a level of vacuum, defined as

More information

### Online data sheet FLOWSIC500 GAS FLOW METERS

Online data sheet FLOWSI500 FLOWSI500 A F H I J K L M N O P Q R S T US Ordering information Type FLOWSI500 Part no. On request The exact device specifications and performance data of the product may deviate

More information

### 10.4 Buoyancy is a force

Chapter 10.4 Learning Goals Define buoyancy. Explain the relationship between density and buoyancy. Discuss applications of Archimedes principle. 10.4 Buoyancy is a force Buoyancy is a measure of the upward

More information

### Fluid Mechanics - Hydrostatics. AP Physics B

luid Mechanics - Hydrostatics AP Physics B States of Matter Before we begin to understand the nature of a luid we must understand the nature of all the states of matter: The 3 primary states of matter

More information

### Page 1

Contents: 1. Thrust and Pressure 2. Pressure in Fluids 3. Buoyancy 4. Why objects sink or Float when placed on surface of water? 5. Archimedes Principle 6. Relative Density Learning Objectives: The students

More information

### Products Solutions Services. Gas Flow Measurement

Products Solutions Services Gas Flow Measurement Slide 1 What will you experience with gas rig? Response time Low flow limitation Impact of energy and pressure loss Impact on flowmeters installation Impact

More information

### Moisture levels in compressed breathing air. Prepared by QinetiQ Limited for the Health and Safety Executive 2006 RESEARCH REPORT 427

Moisture levels in compressed breathing air Prepared by QinetiQ Limited for the Health and Safety Executive 2006 RESEARCH REPORT 427 Moisture levels in compressed breathing air T G Anthony & P R Clarke

More information

### Recording Significant Figures

Recording Significant Figures Having the correct significant figures in your lab reports begins with recording the correct significant figures from the data you obtain in lab. This packet will demonstrate

More information

### BUOYANCY, FLOATATION AND STABILITY

BUOYANCY, FLOATATION AND STABILITY Archimedes Principle When a stationary body is completely submerged in a fluid, or floating so that it is only partially submerged, the resultant fluid force acting on

More information

### AGILENT TURBOMOLECULAR PUMPS MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGY

AGILENT TURBOMOLECULAR PUMPS MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGY Agilent Vacuum Products: Our Committment to Quality Agilent s commitment to quality and Measurement s philosophy Reference Standards (PNEUROP, ISO)

More information

### Figure Vapor-liquid equilibrium for a binary mixture. The dashed lines show the equilibrium compositions.

Another way to view this problem is to say that the final volume contains V m 3 of alcohol at 5.93 kpa and 20 C V m 3 of air at 94.07 kpa and 20 C V m 3 of air plus alcohol at 100 kpa and 20 C Thus, the

More information

### The Decomposition of Potassium Chlorate

The Decomposition of Potassium Chlorate Small quantities of molecular oxygen (O 2 ) can be obtained from the thermal decomposition of certain oxides, peroxides, and salts of oxoacids. Some examples of

More information

### Guide for the uncertainty analysis in pressure when using P3000 Series Deadweight Testers

Guide for the uncertainty analysis in pressure when using P3000 Series Deadweight Testers Technical Note 2170TN13 The pressure balance is a fundamental instrument designed to precisely regulate and measure

More information

### Air Quality 2b - PFGC/FID Analysis of Benzene and Toluene in Automobile Emissions

Air Quality 2b - PFGC/FID Analysis of Benzene and Toluene in Automobile Emissions Introduction: There is a bit of explanation of the health effects of benzene in the Introduction section of the first part

More information